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4 views7 pagesComposite Beam design aids

Feb 09, 2018

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Composite Beam design aids

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Composite Beam design aids

© All Rights Reserved

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Flexure

© 2006, 2007, 2008 T. Bartlett Quimby

Introduction

Section 10.4

Mechanics of

Composite Flexural Strength

Behavior

Last Revised: 11/04/2014

Shear Strength The flexural strength requirement is found in SCM I3.2a. Flexural strength is

typically computed by either strength or elastic methods. In this course, we will

Flexural Strength consider the strength methods since they can be applied to all sections in the

inventory when Fy < 50 ksi.

Design of Shear [2010 Spec note: The 2010 Specification includes a new Table I1.1B which is a

Connectors useful summary of local buckling criteria to use with steel member in a composite

situation.]

Deflection

Calculations The Limit State

The basic limit state follows the standard form. The statement of the limit states

and the associated reduction factor and factor of safety are given here:

Design Process

LRFD ASD

Example Mu < fMn Ma < Mn/W

Problems

Req'd Mn = Mu/f < Mn Req'd Mn = Ma W < Mn

Homework Mu / (fMn) < 1.00 Ma / (Mn/W) < 1.00

Problems

f = 0.90 W = 1.67

References

The values of Mu and Ma are the LRFD and ASD factored loads, respectively,

Report Errors or applied to the beam.

Make Suggestions

Nominal Moment Capacity, Mn, by Strength Analysis

Purchase Hard

Copy

The nominal moment capacity, Mn, equals the internal couple formed by the

Make Donation tension and compression forces acting on the section below and above the plastic

neutral axis.

The plastic neutral axis (PNA) is different than the elastic neutral axis in that it not

necessarily located at the center of area of the section. The PNA is found by

writing the equilibrium equation for forces in the axial direction in terms of the

location of the PNA, then solving for the location of the PNA.

The trick is in writing the expressions for the forces. The force calculations are

generally in the form of a stress times an area. For the steel contribution to the

http://www.bgstructuralengineering.com/BGSCM13/BGSCM010/BGSCM01004.htm 1/7

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forces at strength levels, the whole cross section is assumed to have yielded so the

stress in the steel equals Fy. The forces in the steel are equal to:

location. The location of these forces is at the center of their respective areas

since the stress is uniform.

Tests have shown that, at ultimate conditions, the concrete stress is non-linear and

non-uniform. Indeed, it is more parabolic than anything else. The stress

distribution can be integrated over the area of concrete in compression to get the

resultant compressive force. As a result of the non-uniform stress distribution the

center of compressive force does not coincide with the center of the concrete area

in compression. To avoid an involved integration of s*dA, an approximation

(known as Whitney's Stress Block) is used.

equals the

force which would result from integration of the actual stress distribution over

the compression area and

2. locate the resultant force approximately

where the center of force is for the

non-uniform stress distribution.

area that is centered on the approximate resultant force centroid for the non-

uniform stress distribution is needed.

ASTM standard 6" diameter, 12" long cylinder made from the concrete used

on the job but cured under laboratory conditions. This value correlates well

with test results.

An area or concrete, Ac, that is located above a line that is parallel to the PNA

and is located a distance of b1*yPNA from the top of the slab.

Figure 10.4.1 shows the relationships between strain, true stress, and Whitney's

stress on a concrete section of arbitrary shape that is subjected to bending. Note

that the distance "c" in Figure 10.4.1 is the distance yPNA, or the distance from the

PNA to the furthest point in compression on the section.

Figure 10.4.1

Strain & Stress on a Concrete Section

Click on image for larger view

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b1 is a factor that depends on the strength, f'c, of the concrete. The requirement

for this is found in the ACI 318 specification:

for 4 ksi < f'c < 8 ksi , b1 = 0.85-.05*(f'c-4), where f'c has

units of ksi

for 8 ksi < f'c , b1 = 0.65

effective width of concrete slab contributing to the composite action (referred to as

bE) and the minimum of the vertical distance b1*yPNA from the top of the slab or

the actual slab thickness, ts. Figures 10.4.2 through 10.4.4 illustrate this

compressive area for a slab of uniform thickness.

The effective width, bE, is determined using the requirements of SCM I3.1a. Take

a look at this section. The three dimensions discussed in SCM I3.1a are illustrated

in Figures 10.1.1 and 10.1.2. Note that this section states the bE is the SUM of the

bE values computed for each side of a beam center line.

It is not possible to write one continuous function for the location of the PNA since

the PNA may fall in either the slab, the beam flange or beam web. Each case

requires different expressions for the steel and concrete areas.

When solving for the PNA by hand, the general location of the PNA is assumed to

be in one of the three regions, the expressions are written as functions of yPNA,

then the equilibrium equation is solved for yPNA. If the PNA falls in the anticipated

zone, then the PNA is located. If it does not fall in the anticipated zone, a new

zone is picked and a new equation of equilibrium is written and solved for yPNA.

http://www.bgstructuralengineering.com/BGSCM13/BGSCM010/BGSCM01004.htm 3/7

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Figure 10.4.2

yPNA is in the Concrete

Click on image for larger view

Figure 10.4.3

yPNA is in the Beam Flange

Click on image for larger view

Figure 10.4.4

yPNA is in the Beam Web

Click on image for larger view

compute the forces for a given yPNA location. Then a solver (such as "goal seek" in

Excel) can be used to find the yPNA that satisfies the equilibrium equation.

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The nominal moment capacity, Mn, is then found by finding the moment that these

forces create about the PNA.

Mn = Cc*(Cc dist from PNA) + Cs*(Cs dist from PNA) +Ts*(Ts dist from PNA)

If the PNA is in the slab then Mn is the value of the couple formed by Cc and Ts

since Cs is zero:

It is common practice to use steel decking to support the concrete slab. The steel

decking has ribs that give it sufficient flexural strength to support the plastic

concrete until it sets. This decking may be oriented such that the ribs are either

perpendicular or parallel to the beam axis, as shown in Figure 10.4.5.

Figure 10.4.5

Decking Orientation

Click on hotlinks in the image for larger views

The area of concrete (Ac) that falls between bE and above a line parallel to the

neutral axis a distance of b1ypna is the area used to compute the compressive force

in the concrete. Writing an expression for Ac as a function of ypna can become a

bit involved but it must be done when trying to locate the neutral axis.

http://www.bgstructuralengineering.com/BGSCM13/BGSCM010/BGSCM01004.htm 5/7

2/6/2018 Comp. Flexure

One basic principle, however, is that you cannot use (in your equation) more

concrete than is actually there!

Also, the resulting compressive force is located at the center of Ac. For geometries

that are not rectangular, this will most likely require the computation of the center

of area using principles of statics.

More information on steel decking and the various available shapes can be found

on the Steel Deck Institute Website: http://www.sdi.org/.

In most cases, the steel beam is required to safely support, without composite

action, the form work, decking, construction live loads and weight of the slab. This

load case if often the one used to size the steel beam. Consideration in the

strength calculation must be made for potential lack of lateral support.

If the total load is not much greater than the dead + construction loads, then the

benefit of designing for composite action may be small. In such cases, to take

better advantage of composite action, the beam may be "shored" (i.e. temporary

supports provided to the beam) during construction until the concrete sets.

Shoring temporarily shortens the beam span (and makes it a continuous beam),

thus substantially reducing the moment demand on the beam during construction

and before the slab gains sufficient strength to support the design loads. As a

result, a smaller steel beam can be chosen and more advantage can be taken of

the composite behavior.

The shoring supports the slab until concrete gains sufficient strength to participate

in resisting flexure. Similar shoring for composite beams would be placed under

the beam as well as the deck.

Figure 10.4.6

Shoring in a Concrete Structure

Image by Emily Eidam, 2007

The beam is sized to support the dead + construction loads with the shoring in

place as additional supports. Figure 10.4.7 contrasts the moment envelopes for

the shored vs. unshored cases for beam that is shored at third points. There is a

http://www.bgstructuralengineering.com/BGSCM13/BGSCM010/BGSCM01004.htm 6/7

2/6/2018 Comp. Flexure

dramatic reduction in moment when the shoring is added, resulting is smaller steel

beam. Once the shoring is removed, the composite beam must have sufficient

strength to meet the demand of the unshored moment diagram under all relevant

loading combinations.

Figure 10.4.7

Moment Demand Comparison, Shored vs. Unshored

http://www.bgstructuralengineering.com/BGSCM13/BGSCM010/BGSCM01004.htm 7/7

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