Midterm Sample 2014

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Midterm Sample 2014

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 14

Circle T or F (True or False) for the following statements (1 mark each = 15)

the material system, thus is preferred over perfect crystal.

of constituting atoms.

T F One can determine both crystal structure and interplanar spacing solely by

x-ray diffraction

T F The fatigue lifetime of a metal can be increased by increasing its mass density.

indent in localized plastic deformation.

T F A guitar string (diameter = 1.0 mm; yield strength = 1800 MPa) can

accommodate a maximum force, before yielding, of 1400 N.

T F Upon fracture in a tensile test the specimen shortens slightly due to release of

stored plastic strain energy in the atomic bonds.

applications.

3/16

2. 10 Points

Match the terms in Column B with Column A (1 mark each = 12)

NOT ALL of COLUMN B IS MATCHED with COLUMN A

NUMBER

a. {100} 1. Family of directions

b. Cu on Ni lattice site 2. Family of planes

c. Stacking sequence of FCC 3. Energy required for

fracture

d. Electron sharing 4. ABCABCABC

e. Carbon in iron 5. Covalent bonding

f. Microscope with atomic resolution 6. Above 0.4Tm

g. Interfacial defect 7. Interstitial impurity

h. 3D Collection of point defects 8. Substitutional impurity

i. Creep damage 9. A plane

j. Toughness 10. A direction

11. TEM

12. SEM

13. Screw dislocation

14. Grain boundary

15. Void

16. Ionic bonding

17. ABABAB

18. Variable stresses

4/16

3. Write the equality or inequality(<, >, or = ) to make the following true (under equivalent

conditions) (1 mark each = 10). Example:

# <, >, =

1 LPF of [111] in Cs LPF of [110] in Ir

2 Bond energy in Gd Bond energy in Ga

3 Vacancy density of Mo at 25°C Vacancy density of Cs at 25°C

4 Coordination # in Co Coordination # in Au

5 S0 of crystalline Si S0 of amorphous Si

6 Secondary bonding strength Secondary bonding strength

btw HF molecules btw HCl molecules

7 Average bond length of Si-O in glass Average bond length of Si-O in quartz

8 Distance between (100) planes Distance between (200) planes

9 Size of interstitial impurity Size of substitutional impurity

alloying elements alloying elements

10 The stress concentration caused by a The stress concentration caused by a

circular hole in a specimen sharp crack in a specimen

5/16

4. a) Sketch the energy vs. distance curve, U(r) for a covalent bond. Directly beneath the

potential energy curve, sketch the corresponding force (F) vs. distance curve. (2)

i. the axes (1)

ii. the equilibrium separation distance, ro (1)

iii. the bond stiffness, So (1)

c) Imagine you have two materials, A and B, with the following property relationships.

A has a higher binding energy than B

A has a higher mass density than B

A has a lower thermal expansion coefficient than B

A and B have the same crystal structure and similar molar mass

On one graph, draw representative bond energy curves for materials A and B (3).

d) Which material (A or B) would you use for a stiff and lightweight structure? (1) Why? (1)

6/16

5. The photo depicts the fracture surface of a notched beam fractured under rapid loading. The

dashed line indicates the location of the root of the notch.

a) Circle and label the area(s)/zone(s) on the photo which correspond to:

i. Fracture with little plasticity during crack growth (2).

ii. Fracture with moderate plasticity during crack growth (2).

b) Which failure mechanism was responsible for the failure of the specimen, and why? (3)

c) Propose one design change, and briefly explain how it would alleviate future failures in this

component. (3)

7/16

6. Perform the following calculations for Iridium (Ir). Show all steps.

a) Calculate the atomic radius (in nm) of Iridium (Ir) based on its lattice parameter.

b) Calculate the linear atomic packing factor along [1 1 1] in Ir .

c) Calculate the planar atomic packing factor on ( 1 11) in Ir.

d) Calculate the theoretical density of Ir [g/cm3].

e) Will Ir creep at room temperature (RT= 25°C)? (1) Why or Why not? (1)

8/16

7. Consider a hypothetical crystalline metal.

As the temperature is raised from 800 to 1000K,

- the lattice parameter increases 0.05% due to thermal expansion and

- the density decreases by 0.16%.

- This density decrease is due to the combination of thermal expansion and vacancy creation

a) What is the expected percentage decrease in density due to normal thermal expansion alone?

(Hint: For simplicity in calculation, the expansion of unit cell is relatively small in this case,

thus you can calculate volume per unit cell increase by 3 times the lattice parameter increase) (2)

b) Evaluate the net density decrease due to vacancy production alone. (2)

c) If the vacancy concentration at 800K is 10-6, estimate the activation energy for

vacancy production. (2)

9/16

8. Determine the Miller Indices for the following planes

(Label the origin you use as O’)

z z

y y

x x

(Label the origin you use as O’)

z z

y y

x x

10/16

10. Rank the materials (shown in the box at right, with E given for reference):

b) in terms of their expected bond stiffness (3): B. Lead (Pb) 16

D. Aluminum (Al) 70

11. The graphs below represent mechanical behavior of one material under different service (or

testing) conditions.

11/16

a) Label the axes of the above graphs, including units (6).

b) Indicate by sketching or labeling, on the appropriate graph(s), the following (8):

i. Yield strength ( y)

ii. Fatigue limit

iii. Tensile strength (UTS)

iv. Young’s Modulus (E)

v. Ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT)

viii. Resilience

c) With respect to the curves drawn above, sketch on the appropriate graph(s) (4):

i. A curve for a lower creep temperature, or applied stress

ii. A material with a higher DBTT and higher upper shelf energy

iii. A material with lower Young’s modulus, lower yield stress, and lower

toughness

iv. A lower mean stress and no fatigue limit

12/16

12. A Cu-Ni alloy rod with diameter of 1.00cm and initial length of 100.00cm was used to suspend a

mass in tension at 650°C. The combined creep strain due to instantaneous and primary creep

was 2.00cm. After 3300 hours in steady state creep, the total length of the rod was 105.23 cm.

650°C

Determine the mass (to two decimals in kg) that was suspended (10).

13/16

13. A cylindrical steel bar is subjected to stress cycling along its axis. Assuming a safety factor of 4

and if the load amplitude is 0.1 MN, calculate the minimum allowable bar diameter to ensure that

fatigue failure will not occur. (5)

14/16

Appendix

(g/mol)

15/16

F l lf lo Qc

E K2 n

e RT

Ao lo lo

perpendicular

max a

parallel

Kt 3 KC Y f ac

0 t

E lf l0

G % El x100

2(1 ) lo

Ao Af

Fs % R. A. X 100%

G Ao

Ao

m 2 a 2 design

Safety Factor

n n

2

H=F/A xi xi x

x i 1

s 1 1

n n 1

4 3 Qv

Vsphere = r Nv N exp

3 RT

nM r ro 1

th

VN A ro T To

A B APF = volume of atoms/volume of unit cell

U r

rm rn

LPF = length direction vector covered by atoms centered on direction vector/vector length

PPF = area of atoms centered on a plane / area of plane

R = 8.314 [J/mol K] k=1.38 x 10-23 [J/atomK]

R = 8.62 x 10-5 [eV/atom K] NA = 6.023 x 1023 [atoms/mol]

N 3

N 1 m = 102 cm = 10 mm

1 Pa = ; 1MPa =

m

2

mm 2 1Å = 10-10 m = 0.1 nm

1GPa= 103 MPa= 109 Pa g = 9.81 m/s2

16/16

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