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1.

Circle T or F (True or False) for the following statements (1 mark each = 15)

Example: T F Today is Thursday

T F Glasses possess long-range order whereas short-range order is missing

T F A dislocation is an example of a line defect.

T F Existence of a certain amount of vacancies can reduce the free energy of


the material system, thus is preferred over perfect crystal.

T F Ratio between ionic and covalent bonding is quantified by the electronegativity


of constituting atoms.

T F Bond energy is the energy released when a chemical bond breaks.

T F ( 1 1 1 ) plane and [ 1 1 1 ] direction are perpendicular to each other

T F One can determine both crystal structure and interplanar spacing solely by
x-ray diffraction

T F The resilience modulus describes only the stiffness before yielding.

T F A metal becomes weaker as it is plastically deformed up to point of necking.

T F The fatigue lifetime of a metal can be increased by increasing its mass density.

T F Hardness, yield strength, and ductility of steel is proportional to the size of an


indent in localized plastic deformation.

T F A guitar string (diameter = 1.0 mm; yield strength = 1800 MPa) can
accommodate a maximum force, before yielding, of 1400 N.

T F Upon fracture in a tensile test the specimen shortens slightly due to release of
stored plastic strain energy in the atomic bonds.

T F A high ductile-to-brittle-transition temperature is desirable in low temperature


applications.

T F Poisson’s ratio applies only to elastic strains.

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2. 10 Points
Match the terms in Column B with Column A (1 mark each = 12)
NOT ALL of COLUMN B IS MATCHED with COLUMN A

MATCHING COLUMN A COLUMN B


NUMBER
a. {100} 1. Family of directions
b. Cu on Ni lattice site 2. Family of planes
c. Stacking sequence of FCC 3. Energy required for
fracture
d. Electron sharing 4. ABCABCABC
e. Carbon in iron 5. Covalent bonding
f. Microscope with atomic resolution 6. Above 0.4Tm
g. Interfacial defect 7. Interstitial impurity
h. 3D Collection of point defects 8. Substitutional impurity
i. Creep damage 9. A plane
j. Toughness 10. A direction
11. TEM
12. SEM
13. Screw dislocation
14. Grain boundary
15. Void
16. Ionic bonding
17. ABABAB
18. Variable stresses

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3. Write the equality or inequality(<, >, or = ) to make the following true (under equivalent
conditions) (1 mark each = 10). Example:

e.g. length of midterm < length of final

# <, >, =
1 LPF of [111] in Cs LPF of [110] in Ir
2 Bond energy in Gd Bond energy in Ga
3 Vacancy density of Mo at 25°C Vacancy density of Cs at 25°C
4 Coordination # in Co Coordination # in Au
5 S0 of crystalline Si S0 of amorphous Si
6 Secondary bonding strength Secondary bonding strength
btw HF molecules btw HCl molecules
7 Average bond length of Si-O in glass Average bond length of Si-O in quartz
8 Distance between (100) planes Distance between (200) planes
9 Size of interstitial impurity Size of substitutional impurity
alloying elements alloying elements
10 The stress concentration caused by a The stress concentration caused by a
circular hole in a specimen sharp crack in a specimen

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4. a) Sketch the energy vs. distance curve, U(r) for a covalent bond. Directly beneath the
potential energy curve, sketch the corresponding force (F) vs. distance curve. (2)

b) Label on EACH graph:


i. the axes (1)
ii. the equilibrium separation distance, ro (1)
iii. the bond stiffness, So (1)

c) Imagine you have two materials, A and B, with the following property relationships.
A has a higher binding energy than B
A has a higher mass density than B
A has a lower thermal expansion coefficient than B
A and B have the same crystal structure and similar molar mass

On one graph, draw representative bond energy curves for materials A and B (3).

d) Which material (A or B) would you use for a stiff and lightweight structure? (1) Why? (1)

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5. The photo depicts the fracture surface of a notched beam fractured under rapid loading. The
dashed line indicates the location of the root of the notch.

a) Circle and label the area(s)/zone(s) on the photo which correspond to:
i. Fracture with little plasticity during crack growth (2).
ii. Fracture with moderate plasticity during crack growth (2).

b) Which failure mechanism was responsible for the failure of the specimen, and why? (3)

c) Propose one design change, and briefly explain how it would alleviate future failures in this
component. (3)

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6. Perform the following calculations for Iridium (Ir). Show all steps.
a) Calculate the atomic radius (in nm) of Iridium (Ir) based on its lattice parameter.

Radius = _____ (2)


b) Calculate the linear atomic packing factor along [1 1 1] in Ir .

LPF = _____ (2)


c) Calculate the planar atomic packing factor on ( 1 11) in Ir.

PPF = _____ (2)


d) Calculate the theoretical density of Ir [g/cm3].

density = _____ (2)


e) Will Ir creep at room temperature (RT= 25°C)? (1) Why or Why not? (1)

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7. Consider a hypothetical crystalline metal.
As the temperature is raised from 800 to 1000K,
- the lattice parameter increases 0.05% due to thermal expansion and
- the density decreases by 0.16%.
- This density decrease is due to the combination of thermal expansion and vacancy creation
a) What is the expected percentage decrease in density due to normal thermal expansion alone?
(Hint: For simplicity in calculation, the expansion of unit cell is relatively small in this case,
thus you can calculate volume per unit cell increase by 3 times the lattice parameter increase) (2)

b) Evaluate the net density decrease due to vacancy production alone. (2)

c) If the vacancy concentration at 800K is 10-6, estimate the activation energy for
vacancy production. (2)

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8. Determine the Miller Indices for the following planes
(Label the origin you use as O’)

z z

y y

x x

Miller Index = _________ (2) Miller Index = _________ (2)

9 . Determine the direction indices for the following vectors:


(Label the origin you use as O’)

z z

y y

x x

Directional Index = _________ (2) Directional Index = _________ (2)

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10. Rank the materials (shown in the box at right, with E given for reference):

a) in terms of their relative coefficients of thermal expansion (3):

> > > E [Gpa]

A. Copper (Cu) 117


b) in terms of their expected bond stiffness (3): B. Lead (Pb) 16

> > > C. Nickel (Ni) 207

D. Aluminum (Al) 70

c) name one critical assumption necessary for parts a and b? (2)

11. The graphs below represent mechanical behavior of one material under different service (or
testing) conditions.

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a) Label the axes of the above graphs, including units (6).
b) Indicate by sketching or labeling, on the appropriate graph(s), the following (8):

i. Yield strength ( y)
ii. Fatigue limit
iii. Tensile strength (UTS)
iv. Young’s Modulus (E)
v. Ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT)

vi. Steady state creep rate ( m in )

vii. % Elongation (% El)


viii. Resilience
c) With respect to the curves drawn above, sketch on the appropriate graph(s) (4):
i. A curve for a lower creep temperature, or applied stress
ii. A material with a higher DBTT and higher upper shelf energy
iii. A material with lower Young’s modulus, lower yield stress, and lower
toughness
iv. A lower mean stress and no fatigue limit

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12. A Cu-Ni alloy rod with diameter of 1.00cm and initial length of 100.00cm was used to suspend a
mass in tension at 650°C. The combined creep strain due to instantaneous and primary creep
was 2.00cm. After 3300 hours in steady state creep, the total length of the rod was 105.23 cm.

650°C

Determine the mass (to two decimals in kg) that was suspended (10).

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13. A cylindrical steel bar is subjected to stress cycling along its axis. Assuming a safety factor of 4
and if the load amplitude is 0.1 MN, calculate the minimum allowable bar diameter to ensure that
fatigue failure will not occur. (5)

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Appendix

(g/mol)

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F l lf lo Qc
E K2 n
e RT
Ao lo lo

perpendicular

max a
parallel
Kt 3 KC Y f ac
0 t

E lf l0
G % El x100
2(1 ) lo
Ao Af
Fs % R. A. X 100%
G Ao
Ao

max min max min


m 2 a 2 design
Safety Factor
n n
2
H=F/A xi xi x
x i 1
s 1 1
n n 1
4 3 Qv
Vsphere = r Nv N exp
3 RT
nM r ro 1
th
VN A ro T To
A B APF = volume of atoms/volume of unit cell
U r
rm rn
LPF = length direction vector covered by atoms centered on direction vector/vector length
PPF = area of atoms centered on a plane / area of plane
R = 8.314 [J/mol K] k=1.38 x 10-23 [J/atomK]
R = 8.62 x 10-5 [eV/atom K] NA = 6.023 x 1023 [atoms/mol]

N 3
N 1 m = 102 cm = 10 mm
1 Pa = ; 1MPa =
m
2
mm 2 1Å = 10-10 m = 0.1 nm
1GPa= 103 MPa= 109 Pa g = 9.81 m/s2

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