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 The Reynolds Transport Theorem

Ú Correlation between System (Lagrangian) concept

↔ Control-volume (Eulerian) concept
for comprehensive understanding of fluid motion?

B = mb where B: Fluid property which is proportional to

amount of mass (Extensive property)
b: B per unit mass (Independent to the mass)
(Intensive property)
r r
e.g. a) If B = mV (Linear momentum): Extensive property
r r
then, b = V (Velocity): Intensive property

1
b) If B = mV 2 (Kinetic energy): Extensive property
2
1
then, b = V 2 : Intensive property
2
i. B of a system Bsys at a given instant,

Bsys = lim
δV → 0 i
∑ bi ( ρiδVi ) = ∫sys ρbdV
δmi for ith fluid particle in the system

where δVi : Volume of ith fluid particle

And Time rate of change of Bsys,

dBsys
=
(
d ∫ sys ρbdV )
dt dt

Bcv = lim ∑ bi ( ρiδVi ) = ∫cv ρbdV

δV → 0 i
and Only difference from
dBcv d (∫cv ρbdV ) B of a system
=
dt dt

dBsys dBcv
Ú Relationship between and : Reynolds Transport Theorem
dt dt
 Derivation of the Reynolds Transport Theorem

Fixed control surface at t (coincide with a system boundary)

System boundary at t + δt

) Fluid particles at section (1): Move a distance dl1 = V1δt

) Fluid particles at section (2): Move a distance dl2 = V2δt
) I : Volume of Inflow (entering CV)
) II : Volume of Outflow (leaving CV)

That is, SYS (at time t) = CV

SYS (at time t + δt ) = CV – I + II

Bsys(t) = Bcv(t) (at time t)

Bsys (t + δt ) = Bcv (t + δt ) − BI (t + δt ) + BII (t + δt ) (at time t + δt )
Then, Time rate of change in B can be;

δBsys Bsys (t + δt ) − Bsys (t ) = Bcv(t), at time t

=
δt δt
Bcv (t + δt ) − BI (t + δt ) + BII (t + δt ) − Bsys (t )
=
δt
B (t + δt ) − Bcv (t ) BI (t + δt ) BII (t + δt )
= cv − +
δt δt δt

In the limit δt → 0 ,

δBsys DBsys
Left-side: = (according to Lagrangian Concept)
δt Dt
⎛ ⎞
∂⎜ ∫ ρbdV ⎟
B (t + δt ) − B (t ) ∂B ⎝ ⎠
1st term on Right-side: lim cv cv
= cv = cv
δt → 0 δt ∂t ∂t

B (t + δt )
2nd term on Right-side: B&in = lim I = ρ1 A1V1b1 (4.13)
δt → 0 δt

where A1 : Area at section (1)

V1 : Velocity at section (1)

B (t + δt )
3rd term on Right-side: B& out = lim II = ρ 2 A2V2b2 (4.12)
δt → 0 δt

because BII (t + δt ) = ( ρ 2δV2 )b2 = ρ 2 A2V2b2δt

Relationship between the time rate of change of Bsys and Bcv

DBsys ∂Bcv & ∂B

∴ = + Bout − B&in = cv + ρ 2 A2V2b2 − ρ1 A1V1b1
Dt ∂t ∂t

: Special version of Reynolds transport theorem

- Fixed CV with one inlet and one outlet
- Velocity normal to Sec. (1) and (2)

Consider a general flow shown

At time t, CV & SYS: Coincide
At time t + δt , CV: Fixed & SYS: Move slightly

DBsys ∂Bcv &

= + Bout − B&in
Dt ∂t
) Still valid,
but B& out & B&in : Different

Ú What are B& out & B&in ?

1) B& out : Net flowrate of B leaving CV (Outflow)
across the control surface between II and CV ( CS out )

ρbδV ( ρbV cos θδt )δA

δB& out = lim = lim = ρbV cos θδA
δt → 0 δt δt → 0 δt

By integrating over the entire CS out ,

r
B& out = ∫CS dB& out = ∫CS ρbV cos θ dA = ∫CS ρbV ⋅ nˆ dA
out out out
2) B& out : Net flowrate of B entering CV (Inflow)
across the control surface between I and CV ( CSin )

By the similar manner,

r
B&in = − ∫CS ρbV cos θ dA = − ∫CS ρbV ⋅ nˆ dA
in in
π 3π
(because <θ < )
2 2

Finally, Net flowrate of B across the entire CS ( = CSin + CS out )

r r
B& out − B&in = ∫CS ρbV ⋅ nˆdA − (− ∫CS ρbV ⋅ nˆ dA)
out in
r
= ∫CS ρbV ⋅ nˆ dA

DBsys ∂Bcv r ∂ r
= + ∫CS ρbV ⋅ nˆ dA = ∫cv ρbdV + ∫CS ρbV ⋅ nˆ dA
Dt ∂t ∂t

: General expression of Reynolds Transport Theorem

 PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION

DBsys
y : Time rate of change of an extensive B of a system
Dt
) Lagrangian concept

y ∫ ρbdV : Time rate of change of B within a control volume
∂t cv
) Eulerian concept
r
y ∫CS ρbV ⋅ nˆ dA : Net flowrate of B across the entire control surface
) Correlation term – Motion of a fluid

c.f. Comparison with the definition of Material Derivative

D( ) ∂( ) ∂( ) ∂( ) ∂( ) ∂( ) r
= +u +v +w = + (V ⋅ ∇)( )
Dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t

D( )
y : Time rate of change of a property of fluid particle
Dt
) Lagrangian concept
∂( )
y : Time rate of change of a property at a local space
∂t
r
y (V ⋅ ∇) : Change of a property due to the fluid motion
) Correlation term – Convective effect

Ú Reynolds Transport Theorem

) Transfer from Lagrangian viewpoint to Eulerian one (Finite size)
Ú Special cases

DBsys ∂ r
1. Steady Effects. = ∫ ρ bd V + ∫ ρbV ⋅ nˆ dA
Dt ∂t cv CS

) Any change in property B of a system

= Net difference in flowrates B& entering CV and leaving CV

2. Unsteady Effects. ∫ ρbdV ≠ 0
∂t CV
) Any change in property B of a system
= Change in B within CV
+ Net difference in flowrates B& entering and leaving CV

e.g. For 1-D flow

r
V = V0 (t )iˆ
ρ = Constant

r r r r r
Choose B = mV (Momentum), and thus b = B / m = V = V0 (t )iˆ
r r
∫CS ρbV ⋅ nˆdA = ∫CS ρ (V0iˆ)V ⋅ nˆdA
= ∫(1) ρ (V0iˆ )(−V0 )dA + ∫( 2) ρ (V0iˆ )(V0 )dA + ∫side ρ (V0iˆ )(V0 cos 90o )dA

= − ρV0 2 Aiˆ + ρV0 2 Aiˆ = 0 (Inflow of B = Outflow of B)

DBsys ∂

Dt
= ∫ ρbdV
∂t CV
: No convective effect
 Reynolds Transport Theorem for a moving control volume

DBsys ∂ r
= ∫ ρbd V + ∫ ρbV ⋅ nˆ dA : Valid for a stationary CV
Dt ∂t cv CS

In case of moving control volume as shown,

r
Consider a constant velocity of CV = Vcv

Ú Reynolds transport theorem

: Relation between a system and CV, (Neglect the surrounding)

) Velocity of a system: Defined w.r.t. the motion of CV

r r r
) Relative velocity of a system: W = V − VCV
r
where V : Absolute velocity of a system

DBsys ∂ r
Finally, = ∫cv ρbdV + ∫CS ρbW ⋅ nˆ dA
Dt ∂t
r
: Valid for a stationary or moving CV with constant Vcv