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Introduction:

Pineapple is the common name of Ananas comosus. The pineapple plant is a


monocot, or grass-like plant, that belongs to the bromeliad family. It is one of the most
important commercial fruit crops found in the world. Pineapples were discovered by
Europeans in 1493 on the Caribbean island of Guadalupe. In the 1950’s, pineapple
became the United States second most important fruit and Hawaii led the world in both
quantity and quality of pineapples. Other countries that commercially grow pineapples
include Thailand, the Philippines, China, Brazil and Mexico. It is known as the queen of
fruits due to its excellent flavour and taste. Pineapple is the third most important tropical
fruit in the world after Banana and Citrus. Pineapples are consumed or served fresh,
cooked, juiced and can be preserved. Pineapple fruit contains 14% of sugar; a protein
digesting enzyme, bromelain, and good amount of citric acid, malic acid, vitamin A and
B. Pineapple is also recommended as medical diet for certain are true proteins. It is used
as a medical plant in several native cultures. These medical qualities of pineapple are
attributed to bromelain which is a natural extract from pineapple that contains, through
the compounds, various closely related to proteinases, anti- inflammatory, antithrombotic
activities. Bromelain is a proteolytic enzyme (an enzyme that digests proteins) from the
juice and stems of pineapples. Bromelain concentration is high in pineapple stem, thus
necessitating its extraction because, unlike the pineapple fruit which is normally used as
food, the stem is a waste by product and thus inexpensive. There is a wide range of
therapeutic benefits have been claimed of for bromelain, such as surgical traumas,
sinusitis, bronchitis, reversible inhibition of platelet aggregation, and enhanced the
absorption of drugs, particularly in antibiotics. The bromelain can also help soothe and
relaxes tense, inflamed muscles and connective tissue. Bromelain is considered to be a
food supplement and is freely available to the general public health food stores and
pharmacies in the world. It is said that bromelain can be used as an effective health
supplement.

Properties of Bromelain Enzyme

Bromelain is known as the aqueous extract from stem and fruit of pineapple. It is
said to be the mixture of different thiol endopeptidases and other components like
phosphatases, glucosidase, peroxidases, cellulases, glycoproteins, carbohydrates, and
several protease. The stem of bromelain is different from fruit bromelain. The enzymatic
activities of bromelain comprise a wide spectrum with pH range of 5.5 to 8.0. Different
protein fractions were obtained by mean of various “biochemical techniques as sodium
dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis” (SDS-PAGE), isoelectric focusing
(IEF), and multicathodal-PAGE. Nowadays, bromelain is prepared from cooled pineapple
juice by centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and lyophilization. The process yields a yellowish
powder, the enzyme activity of which is determined with different substrates such as
casein (FIP unit), gelatin (gelatin digestion units), or chromogenic tripeptides.

Health Benefits of Bromelain Enzyme


A group of researchers conducted a study regarding the benefits of bromelain
enzyme specifically on the health aspects.

1. Bromelain Relieves Osteoarthritis


According to the article about 237 million or 3.3 % of the population are affected by the
osteoarthritis. From the study, the combination of bromelain, trypsin, and rutin was
compared to diclofenac in 103 patients with osteoarthritis. After six weeks of findings,
both treatments resulted reduction in the pain and inflammation. The bromelain has the
ability to reduce a pain and inflammation of joints and muscles. Bromelain is a food
supplement that may be alternative treatment to nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drug
(NSAIDs). Due to its powerful anti-inflammatory and analgesic characteristics, bromelain is fantastic for
reducing acute or chronic joint pain. The journal Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine published
a research trial that evaluated 42 osteoarthritis patients with degenerative spine or painful joint
conditions. https://draxe.com/natural-remedies-for-bone-and-joint-pain/ .Two 650-milligram capsules of
bromelain were given to the patients two to three times each day on an empty stomach (depending on
whether they had acute or chronic pain). Researchers discovered that pain decreased up to 60 percent in
participants dealing with acute pain and more than 50 percent in those with chronic disorders. The
researchers’ conclusion was that “Bromelain has been demonstrated to show anti-inflammatory and
analgesic properties and may provide a safer alternative or adjunctive treatment for osteoarthritis.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC538506/ Sarah Brien,1,* George Lewith,1 Ann Walker,2
Stephen M. Hicks,2 and Dick Middleton

2. Prevents Cancer
Today, it increases the number of people who suffers cancer. All we know that the
chemotherapy is the solution to prevent the cancer. Based from I have read an article,
there is a natural way on how to avert the cancer it is a bromelain. The bromelain has a
cytotoxic and showed a superior to the chemotherapy drug 5-fluoracil in treating cancer
in animal conducted by Planta Medica. Bromelain also helps to restore balance the
immune system of the human. In studies, bromelain has been found to have natural anti-cancer
effects, including promoting apoptotic cell death and preventing tumor growth. (3) It’s been shown in
animal studies that it can induce the production of distinct cytokines, that it has antimetastatic efficacy
and that it inhibits metastasis by reducing platelet aggregation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23570457. Studies have linked bromelain to increased
protection against breast and lung cancer, and recently the journal Anticancer Drugs published results
from a clinical trial that suggested it affects malignant peritoneal mesothelioma — a rare cancer caused
by asbestos exposure. According to the study, it was uncovered that “The addition of bromelain
increased the die off of cancer cells (cytotoxicity) significantly… Bromelain has the potential of being
developed as a therapeutic agent in treating malignant cancer.”
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095980491400519X. European Journal of Cancer

3. Aids Digestion
It says the bromelain can aid the digestion by enhancing the effects of digestive enzymes
trypsin and pepsin. It also can prevent the diarrhea, that caused by digestive enzyme.
The bromelain in the pineapple stimulates the protein digestion and inflammation. Studies
suggest that it decreases colonic inflammation and reduces secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines that
damage the gut lining. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18160345/ Onken JE, et al. Clin
Immunol. 2008.
Because it’s very effective at healing tissues within the gastrointestinal tract, bromelain is beneficial for
people with any of the following GI problems: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15936249 Hale
LP1, Greer PK, Trinh CT, Gottfried MR.

4. Cardiovascular and Improved Circulation


In 2015 an estimated 17.7 million died from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) worldwide,
representing 31% of all global deaths. According to World Health Organization the CVDs
are the number one cause of death globally. Cardiovascular diseases include disorders
of the heart and blood vessels, coronary heart disease (heart attack), cerebrovascular
disease (stroke), raised blood pressure (hypertension), peripheral artery disease,
rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease and heart failure. Of these deaths, an
estimated 7.4 million were due to coronary heart disease and 6.7 million were due to
stroke.
From the studies, bromelain minimizes the severity of angina pectoris and transient
ischemic attack (TIA). It is useful prevention and treatment of thrombophlebitis.
5. Asthma
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation. It is defined
by the history of respiratory symptoms such as wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough that vary over
time and in intensity, together with variable expiratory airflow limitation (GINA, 2014). According to
World Health Organization (WHO) estimates 300 million people suffer from an additional 100 million may be
diagnosed with asthma by 2025. It is one of the most common diseases of children and adults and is a major burden
to the national health care system. As per review on Therapeutic application of Bromelain by Bitange Nipa Tochi et
al. (2008), Ananas comosus (pineapple) and their extracts (bromelain) have been used clinically as anti-
inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-thrombus, control of diarrhoea and dermatological conditions. Reported review on
Properties and Therapeutic application of bromelain by Rajendra Pavan et al. (2012) suggests that the main
mechanism of action of Bromelain appears to be proteolysis while evidence also suggests mucolytic activities. The
present study determines the nutritional efficacy of Pineapple juice as an anti-inflammatory as well as a mucolytic
agent in asthmatics. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4998156/
http://www.aafa.org/page/asthma.aspx#_ftnref1 Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America
https://drjockers.com/10-steps-to-heal-asthma-naturally/

6. Allergies
An allergies are hypersensitive responsesfrom the immune system to substances that either enter
or come into contact with the body. A substance that causes an allergic reaction is called an
allergen. (Elaine K. Luo, MD 2017). https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/264419.php
It could be something you eat, inhale into your lungs, inject into your body or touch. This
reaction could cause coughing, sneezing, itchy eyes, a runny nose and a scratchy throat. In severe
cases, it can cause rashes, hives, low blood pressure, breathing trouble, asthma attacks and even
death.(AAFA) http://www.aafa.org/page/allergy-facts.aspx. With an estimated 30 percent of the
population suffering from allergies, you may very well be among them and searching for a non-
pharmaceutical way to get some relief. Whether you deal with seasonal allergies and are
dreading the upcoming hay fever season or allergies are an all-year-round misery for you, any
hope for resolving your sniffling, sneezing, watery eyes, scratchy throat, stuffy nose, headaches,
and other awful symptoms sounds like a dream come true. And amazingly, you might be able to
achieve this safely with bromelain, a natural substance that addresses the root cause of allergies
rather than just treating the symptoms.
Bromelain: is an allergy fighter that most people are not familiar with. Bromelain is a mixture of
enzymes found naturally in the juice and stems of pineapples and is helpful in reducing nasal
swelling and thinning mucus, making it easier for you to breathe. Bromelain has proven
mucolytic properties. As such, Bromelain supports normal mucosal tissue function and enhances
the absorption of Quercetin. In fact, bromelain is a very popular supplement in Germany, where
it received approval by the Commission E, a governmental regulatory agency that evaluates
herbs for human use. It was approved for treating inflammation and swelling of the nose and
sinuses after an injury or surgery. (KathyHoye, 2015) https://www.hoyespharmacy.com/allergy-
relief-with-bromelain-and-quercetin/.
7. Supports Faster Recovery from Surgery and Injuries

When someone is injured or undergoes any form of surgery, inflammation is a typical and quite
normal bodily response. It’s a defences mechanism or a reaction to the damage sustained by the
body’s tissues. The symptoms of inflammation include swelling, heat, pain and redness and
although may be uncomfortable, they form part of the body’s natural healing process. To assist
with these symptoms, quercetin and bromelain may help to reduce the swelling and inflammation
while assisting the body with the healing process. (VitaMedica) https://vitamedica.com/wellness-
blog/bromelain-and-quercetin-natural-anti-inflammatory-supplements/

Bromelain is an anti-inflammatory and is used in treating tendinitis, arthritis and swelling and
pain related to muscle injuries. Bromelain is thought to decrease bruising by breaking down
proteins that trap fluids in the tissues after an injury. Central and South American natives have
used this remedy for centuries. The University of Maryland Medical Center indicates bromelain
is particularly effective in treating inflammation caused by injuries. Bromelain is commonly used
to reduce inflammation associated with sprains, strains, muscle injuries and tendinitis. Bromelain
can also help to remove scarred tissue as the result of surgery. (MELISSA BISCARDI, 2017)
https://www.livestrong.com/article/481712-pineapple-enzymes-for-healing-torn-ligaments-and-
bones/

Bromelain Dosage: Look for MCUs

Unlike many vitamins and minerals, which are measured by weight (e.g., mg or mcg), bromelain
is measured by either milk clotting units (MCUs) or gelatin dissolving units (GDUs).

As a result, the best measure of a bromelain-containing supplement’s efficacy is based on MCUs


or GDUs and not milligrams.

MCUs and GDUs are used somewhat interchangeably (1 GDU equals 1.5 MCU) and relate to the
activity level of the bromelain. Since bromelain is an enzyme, a measure of its strength is how
quickly it can breakdown a protein.

To be effective, at least 3,000 MCUs of bromelain must be consumed in divided amounts during
the course of a day.

To ensure that the bromelain works on the site of injury and not in aiding digestion, it is best to
take it on an empty stomach.

Quercetin Dosage: 500-2,500 mg


For quercetin, dosing is measured in milligrams (mg). The recommended dosage varies based on
the type and extent of the issue to be treated. Dosages can range from 500 – 2,500 mg per day,
in divided doses.

Bromelain and Quercetin: Before or After a Surgical Procedure?

Bromelain should be taken 72 hours or 3 days prior to surgery. Bromelain should be continued
for 7 days following surgery. Following trauma or injury, Bromelain should be started as
quickly as possible and continued for 10 days.

Whether you are trying to hide the visible signs of post-procedure swelling, or are simply
recovering from an injury, bromelain and quercetin are the best natural anti-inflammatory
supplements to get you on the road to recovery. (VitaMedica) https://vitamedica.com/wellness-
blog/bromelain-and-quercetin-natural-anti-inflammatory-supplements/

8. Helps Prevent or Treat Sinus Infections (Rhinosinusitis)

Sinus inflammation is a common health problem. It can be caused by infection, allergy, autoimmune
problems, or toxic exposure. A new study shows that bromelain was able to help patients with chronic
rhinosinusitis. The researchers at the University of Cologne in Germany took 12 patients who had
previously undergone sinus surgery and still had problems. They were treated with 3000 mg bromelain
per day for three months. All patients had improvement in symptoms though the best results were in
patients that did not have nasal polyps. The results showed good tolerability, improved symptom
control, and improved quality of life. (PubMed) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24273953

It is great that bromelain can help reduce the swelling. It is a good idea to also try some nutrients like
lemon and quercetin, which are likely to give some additional benefits.

9. May Support Weight Loss


Obesity is a metabolic disease of pandemic proportion. The World Health Organization estimates
that 650 million of adults worldwide are obese and more than 1.9 billion are overweight (WHO
2016) http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/.Weight loss is a typically a long and
difficulty process, it can be tempting for dieters to purchase products that claim to shed pounds
quickly, such as weight loss supplements. Bromelain effects on weight management and fat cells
are still under investigation, but there’s reason to believe that it may help with weight loss due to
its anti-inflammatory effects, ability to reduce pain, and capability of improving physical abilities
and digestion. Bromelain is an ingredient sometimes used in these types of weight loss products.
According to a 2017 article published in PLOS One, “stem bromelain (SBM) is used as an anti-
obesity alternative medicine.” Some studies have found that bromelain helps
downregulate adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, fatty acid synthase and lipoprotein lipase. It
may also inhibit adipogenesis (cell differentiation that can contribute to formation of fat cells)
and reduce triglyceride accumulation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22292054.
10. Skin Disorders

Bromelain is also effective in treating a skin disorder called pityriasis lichenoides chronica,
which is characterized by the appearance of long-lasting, asymptomatic skin lesions. The disease
has no known cause and treatment outcomes have proved unpredictable and non-optimal. In a
recent study, investigators treated eight patients who had this disorder with bromelain for three
months. At the end of the treatment period, all patients showed complete clinical recovery with
no adverse effects. And although two patients relapsed five to six months after stopping therapy,
they responded again to another brief cycle of therapy. The investigators concluded that the
efficacy of bromelain “could be related to its anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and/or
antiviral properties.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17671882

Materials and Methods: