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Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.

: 67/21996

Project Report

Option -1
A Project bringing out training requirements of an Organization/ Department
(also includes five Training Sessions, One Evaluation Study and Two Cases discussed)

In partial fulfillment for the award of

Diploma in Training and Development
From ISTD, New Delhi

Submitted by
Smita Sharma
Registration No.: 67/21996

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996


I wish to express my deep gratitude to Mr. Rajiv Talwar, a senior professional in HR and also my guide for the
project for all the help, guidance, support and knowledge that he has imparted to me during the course of the
preparation of this project. I deeply appreciate the effort and the time that he has spent guiding me through
the project and providing valuable insights which has helped me grows in my training profession as well as
does great justice to my Internship report.

I also would like to thank Vkonnect Pvt Ltd., where I conducted training need analysis and trainings. I am
extremely grateful the Mr Mukesh- Director, Ms Vanita –Director and the entire staff of Vkonnect.


I hereby declare that the project entitled “bringing out training requirements of an Organization/
Department” submitted for the Diploma in Training & Development is my original work and the project has
not formed the basis for the award of any degree, associateship, fellowship or any other similar titles. This
project also includes five Training Sessions, One Evaluation Study and Two Cases.

Signature of the Student:

Name : Smita Sharma (Registration No.: 67/21996)

Place: Gurgaon
Date: June 29, 2016

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Certificate by the Guide

This is to certify that this project entitled “bringing out training requirements of an Organization/
Department” is the bonafide work carried out by Smita Sharma student of ISTD, under my guidance in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Diploma in Training & Development. This project also includes
five Training Sessions, One Evaluation Study and Two Cases.

Signature of the Guide:

Name of the Guide :Rajiv Talwar


Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Table of contents


1 Title Page 1
2 Acknowledgement 2
3 Certificate of the Guide 3
5 Table of Contents 4
6 Abstract 5
Part (a) One Study Report bringing out training requirements of an
7 Organization 6
Part(b) Report of Five Training Sessions, conducted by the candidate(or
any other person). The report should include session objective(s)
8 methodology, contents, training aids / reading material etc. 15
9 Training Report 1- Business Communication 15
10 Training Report 2- Strategies for Better Time Management 18
11 Training Report -3 Interviewing Techniques 33
12 Training Report 4 -Work – Life Balance 39
13 Training Report 5- Ethics in Recruitment 45
Part (c) One Evaluation Study of a specific Training Programme,
conducted by self or any other person / agency, using
14 appropriate methodology. 54
Part (d) Two cases prepared by the candidate, which may be used
in a training Session. The text of cases should be supported by
questions for discussions, possible learning points and faculty
15 notes 56
16 Case Study 1 56
17 Case Study 2 60
18 Conclusion 71
19 Bibliography 72

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Choice Of options

Both options given were interesting and frankly it was difficult to decide on to which option to exercise. While
the first option gave an opportunity to start at bringing out the training and development need of an
organization, conduct training sessions and evaluate the specific training programs , the other option gave an
opportunity to conduct an in depth study of the HRD and training aspects of an organization. I chose the
former as it gave me an opportunity to conduct Training need analysis, conduct training sessions and also
evaluate a specific training programmes.

Working with a young team!

Due to my extensive experience in Human Resource and in depth understanding of the industry, I choose an
HR consulting firm – Vkonnect for training need analysis and also conducting trainings. Vkonnect being
essentially a Talent Acquisition firm hence the trainings were designed accordingly. The employees at
Vkonnect were young, vibrant, energetic and willing to experiment. They also had a lot of suggestions which
were incorporated both in training need analysis and training design. During trainings too, the team was full of
questions and suggestions. Case studies bought some amazing insight from them. The group discussions
elicited passionate participation. In all, it was a thought stimulating experience for me. There was also huge
learning for me. My biggest challenge was to keep their attention focused and keeping them interested as
their attention span was short. I learnt to incorporate case studies, jokes and games in the lesson plan. As in
any group there were some who would be less responsive in sharing ideas and in participation, this was
handled by creating smaller groups for group tasks.

Happy with the results !

Training need Analysis on one hand bought me closer to the team which in turn helped me in all aspects whether it was
conducting trainings, Evaluation Studies or discussing cases with them. It also bought out amazing results in terms of
kind of training requirement for the organization.

Evaluation Study

For an objective evaluation study to be conducted, it is very important that subjectivity has to be minimized both while
collecting the data as well as while analyzing it. Here, briefing to the team as well as supervisors had to be correct. There
were still some areas which remained subjective due to the kind of results and industry.

Case Studies

The case studies were selected and modified to suit the audience. The questions, activities and probable answers were
also customized as per the requirement . Both the case studies were very relevant to the participants and the sessions

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

were full of passionate discussions and humor. Best part about the participants was that they could assume things not
mentioned in the case studies and come up with unique and new insights to the problems.

I hope that you enjoy reading this report as much as I have enjoyed writing it !

Part (a) One Study Report bringing out training requirements of an Organization

General Ideas

I have decided to conduct the Training and Development requirement of V-Konnect Associates which is an
end-to-end Human Resources solutions provider, serving clients for over 6 years now.

Vkonnect believes in advising its clients on recruiting and retaining outstanding and impactful leaders and
their teams across levels. The company provides organizational solutions to enhance the competitive
advantage and do so through long-term client relationships built on experience, insight and teamwork.

Training requirements differ from organization to organization and is closely linked to the vision of the
company. In my project I will try to link the Training Requirements to the Vision and Mission of the Company.
In other words the training programmes so designed will reflect the vision and mission of the company.

Another aspect that I would wish to bring out will be the relationship between the Learning and Development
policy of the company and the Company culture and environment. It will of course cover aspects such as
motivation, satisfaction , employee turnover and returns on investment.

Company Profile

V-Konnect Associates is an end-to-end Human Resources solutions provider, serving clients for over 6 years
now. We advise our clients on recruiting and retaining outstanding and impactful leaders and their teams
across levels. We believe in providing organizational solutions to enhance the competitive advantage and we
do so through long-term client relationships built on experience, insight and teamwork.

We work with clients across a range of industries, from India’s largest companies to medium-sized businesses,
entrepreneurial startups and nonprofit organizations.

We offer our services through focused industry groups. Each group features an expert team of consultants
whose depth of operational and search experience allows us to deliver the highest caliber of advice and
service to our clients in that industry.

Training Needs Analysis Design

Training Need Assessment refers to the process used to determine whether training is necessary. To
determine whether or not training is the solution to the problem.

Training Need Assessment

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

 Training need is a need for human performance improvement that can best be met by training of some
 Training Need identification is the process required to detect & specify training needs at individual or
organizational levels.
 Analysis of training needs is the process of examining training needs to determine how best they might
actually be met.

Training Need Analysis

 Organizational Analysis- Culture, Structure, Values, Leadership, Technology

 Competencies Analysis- Knowledge, Skills, Experience, Aptitude, Behavior
 Performance Analysis – Goals, Metrics, Feedback, Incentives, Training

Steps of Training Needs Assessment :

Step 1 : Determine Design of Need Analysis

Step 2 : Collect Data

Step 3 : Analyse Data

Step 4 : Inference

Methods of Training Needs Assessment

 Records & Reports/ Documentation

 Observation

 Survey/ Questionnaire

 Performance Appraisals

 Tests

 Interviews

Training Needs Assessment

Steps in a Training Needs Assessment

1. Needs Assessment (collecting and analyzing data)

2. Design (program objectives, plan, measures of success)

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

3. Testing (prototype the instrument and process)

4. Implementation (collection measures and update as needed)

5. Analysis & Evaluation (review feedback and data collected)

I have decided to use the following methods for Training Needs Analysis for my project:

1. Performance Appraisal
2. One to One interviews
3. Focus Group interviews
4. Questionnaire
5. Document Analysis- Reviewing existing documents and analyzing
6. Observation
7. Organization wide skill audit – Auditing operation process
8. Customer Satisfaction survey
9. Organizational Methods – Changes or impact on the organization
10. Job Analysis Method – Change or impact on the individual job
11. Industry Analysis Methods – changes in industry characteristics and the impact on the organization.
12. Behavioral Analysis – Data collection by observation
13. Critical incidents – reports/description of things
14. Human Analysis Methods – Paper pencil diagnostic tests of knowledge/opinions etc.
15. Advisory Committee methods – Seeking advice from departmental heads

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Questionnaire - Recruiter

Scale : 5 being highest and 1 being lowest. For ratings 3.5 and above no training required in that particular skill.

Communication Skills (Verbal &
Using Job Portals
Using Social Media
SOURCING ABILITY (1-5) Networking/ References
Head Hunting
Understanding of JD
Posting Skills
Response Speed
Interview Skills
(1-5) Influencing Skills
Selling Skills
Analytical Skills
Meeting Deadlines
Negotiation Skills
Team Handling / Mentoring
Account Mgmt./ Client Handling
Target Driven
Reliable/ Responsible
Team Spirit
Takes Initiative

INDUSTRY EXPERTISE RATING (1-5) Industry Expertise

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Questionnaire - Team Lead

Scale : 5 being highest and 1 being lowest. For ratings 3.5 and above no training required in that particular skill.
TL Name
Communication Skills (Verbal & Written)
Using Job Portals
Using Social Media
Networking/ References
Head Hunting
Understanding of JD
Posting Skills
Response Speed
Interview Skills
Listening Skills
SKILLS (1-5) Influencing Skills
Selling Skills
Analytical Skills
FOLLOW-UP / Persistant
COORDINATION (1-5) Meeting Deadlines
Negotiation Skills
Team Handling / Mentoring
OTHER SKILLS (1-5) Research & Knowledge Mgmt.
Relationship Management
Account Mgmt./ Client Handling Skills
Target Driven
Reliable/ Responsible
Team Spirit
Takes Initiative
Team Handling
Target Driven
Execution/ Implementation
Manpower/ Attrition Planning
Decision Making

INDUSTRY EXPERTISE RATING (1-5) 10 Industry Expertise

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Job Description Analysis

JD 1 – Recruiter

 Screening & short-listing relevant candidate profiles through portals, existing database, head-hunting
and cold calling.

 Ensuring accuracy of the profiles shared.

 Scheduling interviews for the short-listed candidates.

 Follow-up post interviews.

 Ensuring candidate joining.

 Salary Negotiation.

 Meeting revenue targets.

 Team Management

Skills required:

 1-3 yrs years’ experience in hiring for Non It

 Good communication skills

 Handled middle to senior level recruitments.

JD 2- Team Lead/ Manager


 Screening & short-listing relevant candidate profiles through portals, existing database, head-hunting
and cold calling.

 Ensuring accuracy of the profiles shared.

 Scheduling interviews for the short-listed candidates.

 Follow-up post interviews.

 Ensuring candidate joining.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

 Salary Negotiation.

 Meeting revenue targets.

 Team Management

Skills required:

 3- 5 years experience in hiring with at least one year team handling

 Good communication skills

 Handled middle to senior level recruitments.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Training Needs Analysis - Consolidated Data

Scale : 5 being highest and 1 being lowest. For ratings 3.5 and above no training required in that particular skill.
Training Needs : 0- No training required; Training Required
Reporting Manager's Interviews/ Final
Self Assessment
Feedback Observation Outcome
Training Training Training Training
Skills Average Average Average
Needs Needs Needs Needs
Communication Skills (Verbal
4.00 0 2.50 1 3.00 1 2 Training Required
& Written)
Using Job Portals 4.33 0 4.00 0 4.50 0 0 No Training Need
Using Social Media 2.83 1 2.00 1 2.50 1 3 Training Required
F SOURCING ABILITY (1-5) Networking/ References 3.50 1 3.00 1 3.00 1 3 Training Required
U Head Hunting 1.00 1 1.00 1 1.00 1 3 Training Required
N Understanding of JD 4.17 0 3.00 1 3.00 1 2 Training Required
C Posting Skills 3.33 1 3.00 1 4.00 0 2 Training Required
T Response Speed 3.67 0 3.00 1 3.15 1 2 Training Required
I Interview Skills 3.90 0 3.00 1 3.00 1 2 Training Required
O Listening Skills 4.00 0 3.00 1 4.25 0 1 No Training Need
N Objection Handling 3.58 0 3.58 0 3.00 1 1 No Training Need
A Influencing Skills 3.42 1 2.75 1 3.00 1 3 Training Required
L Selling Skills 3.33 1 3.00 1 3.40 1 3 Training Required
Analytical Skills 3.25 1 3.00 1 3.40 1 3 Training Required
S FOLLOW-UP / Persistant 4.17 0 4.00 0 4.50 0 0 No Training Need
K COORDINATION (1-5) Meeting Deadlines 3.70 0 3.60 0 4.00 0 0 No Training Need
I Negotiation Skills 3.17 1 3.00 1 2.95 1 3 Training Required
L Team Handling / Mentoring 3.40 1 3.00 1 3.00 1 3 Training Required
L Account Mgmt./ Client
3.83 0 4.00 0 4.20 0 0 No Training Need
S Handling Skills
Competitive 3.58 0 3.90 0 4.00 0 0 No Training Need
Target Driven 3.92 0 4.20 0 4.26 0 0 No Training Need
Reliable/ Responsible 4.17 0 4.00 0 4.00 0 0 No Training Need
BEHAVIOURAL / Team Spirit 4.33 0 3.90 0 3.30 1 1 No Training Need
RATING (1-5)
SOFT SKILLS Adaptability 4.17 0 4.20 0 4.00 0 0 No Training Need
Organized 3.92 0 3.60 0 3.70 0 0 No Training Need
Takes Initiative 3.67 0 3.00 1 3.20 1 2 Training Required
Perseverance 3.83 0 4.00 0 3.80 0 0 No Training Need
RATING (1-5) Industry Expertise 3.50 1 2.90 1 3.30 1 3 Training Required

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Result: Training Areas identified after Data Analysis

 Communication Skills

 Business Communication

 Use of Social Media for recruiting

 Headhunting

 Interviewing Skills

 Ethics in recruitment

 Selling and Influencing Skills

 Time Management

List of Training Programmes Recommended for current Employees

 Communication Skills

 Business Communication

 Use of Social Media for Recruitment

 Networking Skills for recruiters and Managers

 Mapping Industries and Companies

 Headhunting Resources

 Interviewing Skills

 Art of influencing and Selling to candidates

 Time Management


The Training Requirements of an organization was bought out and the following areas were identified:

Communication Skills, Business Communication, Use of Social Media for recruiting, Headhunting Skills,
Interviewing Skills, Ethics in recruitment, Selling and Influencing Skills and Time Management.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

(b) Report of Five Training Sessions , conducted by the candidate( or any other person). The report should
include session objective(s) methodology, contents, training aids / reading material etc.

Training – 1

Business Communication

Duration – Two days ( 10 hours)

Participants – 7

“Communication leads to community, that is, to understanding, intimacy and mutual valuing” Rollo

“May I know that you believe that you understood what you think I said, but I am not sure you realize that what you
heard is not what I meant.” Robert J. McCloskey

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996


Instructional methods include lecture with PowerPoint, individual and group tasks, role playing, drawing, demonstration,
group discussion, and question/answer sessions.

Training Aids

PowerPoint presentation on CD-ROM, Laptop computer, Projector, Screen, chart and markers, handouts.

Introductory Exercises

1. Write five words that express what you want to do and where you want to be a year from now. Take those five words
and write a paragraph that clearly articulates your responses to both “what” and “where.”

2. Think of five words that express what you want to do and where you want to be five years from now. Share your five
words with your classmates and listen to their responses. What patterns do you observe in the responses? Write a
paragraph that addresses at least one observation.

1.1 Why Is It Important to Communicate Well?

Learning Objectives

1. Recognize the importance of communication in gaining a better understanding of yourself and others.

2. Explain how communication skills help you solve problems, learn new things, and build your career.

Communication Skills Are Desired by Business and Industry Oral and written communication proficiencies are
consistently ranked in the top ten desirable skills by employer surveys year after year. In fact, high-powered business
executives sometimes hire consultants to coach them in sharpening their communication skills. According to the
National Association of Colleges and Employers, the following are the top five personal qualities or skills potential
employers seek: 1. Communication skills (verbal and written)

2. Strong work ethic

3. Teamwork skills (works well with others, group communication)

4. Initiative

5. Analytical skills Knowing this, you can see that one way for you to be successful and increase your promotion potential
is to increase your abilities to speak and write effectively.

Key Takeaways

Communication forms a part of your self-concept, and it helps you understand yourself and others, solve problems and
learn new things, and build your career.


Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

1. Imagine that you have been hired to make “cold calls” to ask people whether they are familiar with a new restaurant
that has just opened in your neighborhood. Write a script for the phone call.

2. Imagine you have been assigned the task of creating a job description. Identify a job, locate at least two sample job
descriptions, and create one.

1.2 What Is Communication

Learning Objectives

1. Define communication and describe communication as a process.

2. Identify and describe the eight essential components of communication.

3. Identify and describe two models of communication.

Key Takeaways

Eight Essential Components of Communication

In order to better understand the communication process, we can break it down into a series of eight essential

1. Source

2. Message

3. Channel

4. Receiver

5. Feedback

6. Environment

7. Context

8. Interference

Training Evaluation – The training delivery along with content was rated as Very good to Excellent by the participants.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Training – 2

Strategies for Better Time Management

Duration – One day ( 6 hours)

Participants – 10


Finding a time management strategy that works best for you depends on your personality, ability to self-motivate and
level of self-discipline. This lesson describes possible strategies for improving your ability to manage the events in your
life in relation to time.


Participants will increase their awareness of time management strategies and learn how to implement self-selected
strategies that will assist them in managing their time more effectively. The strategies include:

• Knowing how you spend your time

• Setting priorities

• Using a planning tool

• Getting organized

• Scheduling your time appropriately

• Getting help from others

Time Management: Strategies for Better Time Management

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996


• Not procrastinating

• Managing external time wasters

• Avoiding multi-tasking

• Staying healthy

Training Methodology:

Instructional methods include lecture with PowerPoint, individual and group tasks, role playing, drawing,
demonstration, group discussion, and question/answer sessions.


Blank paper, Pens or pencils, Some bills in play money, Large clear plastic or glass jar, Medium-sized rocks, Gravel or
pebbles, Sand, Water, Liquid container with pouring spout, Sample planning tools (e.g., calendars, “To Do” lists, diaries,
work logs, etc.) , Sample personal item to illustrate clutter, Laminated signs labeled: Always, Sometimes, Rarely, Tape


PowerPoint presentation on CD-ROM, Laptop computer, Projector, Screen, chart and markers, handouts


1: Money vs. Time Handout

2: Time Log Handout

3: Time Log Analysis Handout

4: My Time Management Matrix Handout

5: Balance Your Life Goals Handout

6: Program Evaluation


You can’t save it, You can’t borrow it, You can’t lend it, You can’t leave it, You can’t take it, You can only do two things
with it – use it or lose it. What is it?

Answer: TIME!

You only have 24 hours, 1,440 minutes or 86,400 seconds each day. How you use that time depends on skills learned
through self-analysis, planning, evaluation and self-control.


Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

While counting 24 dollars in play money, say the following: Pretend that I’m a bank and I credit your checking account
with 24 dollars every morning. I am open 365 days a year. You cannot get credit; you cannot have an overdraft; you
cannot carry an ongoing balance; you cannot move your money to a savings account; and you cannot draw against
tomorrow’s deposit. If you don’t use the 24 dollars before the end of the day, you will lose them forever. What would
you do with your 24 dollars?

Option: Ask a participant to give you the money back in money increments equivalent to how they spend each hour of
the day. Much like money, time is both valuable and limited. It must be protected, used wisely and budgeted. Let’s look
at a comparison of time and money in Materials Needed: 24 or more Rs1 bills in play money 2 your handout.

ACTIVITY: Money vs. Time REFER TO HANDOUT #1 and ask participants to complete the checklist. After 2-3 minutes, ask
participants to share responses by raising their hand if the statement applies to both money and time. Discuss any

ILLNESS/FATIGUE-DISORGANIZATION- LACK OF ACCOMPLISHMENT. Practicing good time management skills results in :
higher levels of productivity, more energy, less stress, the ability to get things done, positive relationships and increased
self-esteem. But, what happens when we don’t practice good time management? Your body responds to the stress you
feel when faced with a situation that’s new, unpleasant or threatening such as dealing with time issues. Too much stress
can affect mental and physical health and even damage relationships with family and friends. Over time, stress can harm
your health causing or contributing to allergies, muscle tension in the neck and back, gastrointestinal problems, sore
throat, sinus infections, colds and flu, migraine and tension headaches, sleep disorders, high blood pressure, and heart
disease. Poor time management also affects your performance by reducing productivity and efficiency. When a person is
having trouble managing time, they often become frustrated

Materials Needed: Handout #1 3 and short tempered. Whether they are part of a family or a work team, their
contributions are reduced and tasks often fall through the cracks.

Time Management

Time management refers to a range of skills, tools, and techniques used to manage events in your life in relation to time.
Time management is really a misnomer. We don’t really manage time – we manage ourselves and our life events in
relation to time.

Today, we will explore 10 strategies that can help you more effectively manage events in your life in relation to time.

Finding strategies that work best for you depend on your personality, culture, circumstances and priorities but you must
look critically at yourself and perhaps confront some difficult issues.


1. Know how you spend your time

2. Set priorities

3. Use planning tools

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

4. Get organized

5. Schedule

6. Delegate

7. Stop procrastinating

8. Manage time wasters

9. Avoid multi-tasking

10. Stay healthy

Feel free to pick and choose among these 10 strategies or incorporate ideas from all of them.

Strategy 1 - Becoming aware of how you use your time may improve your time management skills.

Use a Log to Determine How You Spend Your Time Maintain a daily log of how you spend your time. You may be
surprised at how much time you spend on various tasks or how much time is spent with phone calls and interruptions.
The time log can provide you with a starting point for determining what needs improvement. How long you keep the
time log depends on the nature of your work. For most people, keeping the log for 7 consecutive days (one week) will
suffice; for others, it may require a month or two. Split your day into chunks of 15-30 minutes (perhaps smaller chunks,
if necessary for your schedule). Record exactly how you spend your time – be specific. Log your time as you go, not at
the end of the day. Try not to change your behavior during this time, even if you see obvious areas where you can gain
better control – like keeping a food diary when you are on a diet. Rather, try to get a realistic picture of your typical
schedule. After you have completed the time log, separate your tasks into categories according to the nature of the task.
For example, you may use categories such as reading, meetings, replying to e-mail, assisting others, phone calls,
teaching, thinking, planning, exercising, sleeping, working on a hobby, etc. Then, calculate the percentage of time that
you spent on each category. This will give you a better picture of how you spend your time.

Use HANDOUT #3: TIME LOG ANALYSIS to answer important questions about your time log. (Dodd & Sundheim, 2005).
Look for patterns. Are you spending too much time on routine tasks? Are there things you can simplify? Are you
spending too much time doing something that could be done more succinctly or streamlined? Are there times during the
day when you are busier? Is it possible to reorganize your schedule so that you are able to work more consistently?
When are you most and least productive? Are you doing work that should be delegated? Or work that shouldn’t even be
done? Do tasks take longer than they should? What would happen if you didn’t do this task? Do you use “down time”
effectively? Do you have time to think?

ACTIVITY: Ideal vs. Real Provide a sheet of paper for each participant. Instruct the participants to draw a circle and divide
the circle into 5 or 6 sections representative of how they spend their time. Draw a second circle the same size and divide
it into sections reflecting how they would like to spend their time. Now, compare your actual time allocation with your
ideal time allocation. What are the discrepancies? Why aren’t your circles the same?

Strategy 2 – The key to prioritization is determining the most important thing to do to reach your goals.

Materials Needed: Paper, pens or pencils

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Priorities First!

DEMONSTRATION: Big Rocks in a Jar! Show an empty jar to the participants and say, The jar represents your schedule.
Add rocks to the jar. The rocks are the important tasks. Now add gravel, sand and water. The gravel, sand and water are
less important tasks or filler work. The moral of this story is you can make time for your big rocks, but only if you put
them into the schedule first and fit everything else around and between the rocks.

Slide 10

Determining Your Priorities

Using the Matrix : Urgent - Not Urgent- Important-Not Important

Managing your time effectively requires a distinction between what is important (as demonstrated by the rocks) and
what is urgent (MacKenzie, 1997). Urgent means it requires immediate attention – cannot be put off without creating
problems. Importance must do with results. If something is important, it contributes to your mission, goals and/or
values. Experts agree that the most important tasks usually are not the most urgent tasks. Yet we tend to let the urgent
dominate our lives.

Covey, Merrill, and Merrill (1994) group our activities into four quadrants in their Time Management Matrix: urgent, not
urgent, important and not important. While activities that are both urgent and important must be done, Covey suggests
that we spend less time on activities that are not important

Materials Needed: large glass or clear plastic jar, medium-sized rocks, gravel or small pebbles, sand, water & container
with a pouring spout. (regardless of their urgency) in order to gain time to focus on activities that are not urgent but
important. Focusing on these important activities allows you to gain greater control over your time and possibly reduce
the number of important tasks that do become urgent.

ACTIVITY: My Time Management Matrix Draw and label the matrix on a flipchart. Explain the matrix based on the 4
quadrants. Give examples such as those below:

Quadrant 1 (Urgent and Important) = Family member is hospitalized from a car accident and you need to pick up her
children and care for them overnight.

Quadrant 2 (Not Urgent but Important) = You need to get a wellness check-up. Items in this quadrant allow you to be
proactive. You should spend most of your time working on items in this quadrant.

Quadrant 3 (Urgent but Not Important) = Your boss wants information for a report that is due tomorrow. Or, you want
to clean the house before your extended family arrives for dinner. These are usually someone else’s important items.

Quadrant 4 (Not Urgent and Not Important) = You are reading junk mail or surfing the web. These items are considered
“busy work”. You may use these items as an escape.

Ask participants to complete the matrix for a specified time period (e.g., this week or this month) using their own
examples from each quadrant. Participants may work individually or in small groups. Allow a few participants to share
their examples and discuss whether or not they fit in the quadrant selected.

Strategy 3 – Using a planning tool can improve your productivity.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Planning Tools Keeping a reliable, easy-to-use record of upcoming events, meetings, and appointments is crucial for time
management. There are many types of planning tools available, so find one that you enjoy using. One of the most
traditional forms of planning tools is the diary or planner. The type of planner you choose depends on your personal
preference. You may want to see one day at a time or the entire week at a glance. You may prefer the standard diary,
either desk-size or small enough for your pocket or purse, to simply record events and appointments. You may want a
personal organizer with the diary, address book, task list, and notebook. Or, you may prefer a high-tech electronic
planner that stores details in digital form. Whichever form you use, you must use it consistently.

Here are a few tips for making your planning tool work better for you:

• Take time to record Materials Needed: examples of planning tools such as a diary, calendar, “To Do” list, etc.
appointments and events in your planner as they are made. Don’t jot them down on another piece of paper to transfer
to your planner at a later time.

• Include preparatory time in your planner if the activity will require travel or other types of preparation. Likewise,
include follow-up time after the activity.

• Use color to denote different types of tasks or more important tasks.

• If someone else manages your calendar, let them know of any appointments as soon as you make them.

• Remember to allow unscheduled time for unexpected situations that may arise.

• Pay attention to the type of tool that suits you best, including format (one or two page per day; weekly calendar; etc.),
type of fastener, size, etc.

• Always carry your planner with you. If you can’t, carry at least that day’s calendar and task list.

• Keep your goals, projects and other important lists in your planner.

• Regularly sync your electronic planner or refill your paper planner.

• Only schedule about 70% of your day. Remember to make an appointment with yourself.

ACTIVITY: Divide participants into small groups of 4-6 each. Have participants share the type of tool(s) they and list the
advantages and disadvantages of each. You may want to use a simple listing such as: A = highest importance and/or
urgency B = medium importance and/or urgency C = lower importance and/or urgency Finally, “to do” lists are often a
random listing of tasks. You can reduce this problem by grouping similar tasks together or using a 16 color code or
symbol to designate similar tasks.

Some helpful points when using a “to do” list are:

• Remember to check your list every day, usually at the beginning of the day.

• Cross off items immediately upon completion.

• At the end of the day, remember to transfer incomplete items.

• Be sure to assign priority rankings to items.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

• Combine related tasks whenever feasible.

Strategy 4: Removing the clutter and getting organized are valuable tasks.

Steps to Get Organized

Keep Give Away Toss

Time management experts say that we spend about 7 hours per week just looking for things or being distracted by
clutter (Missouri Business Development Program, 2009).

“Keep-Give Away-Toss” is one method used frequently to remove clutter. It involves a simple 3-part question for each
item you touch. Do I need to keep it, give it to someone else or throw it away? Once the clutter is gone, you can
implement a system that allows you to handle information less, only once when possible.

Conquer the clutter in your life! Throw it away Delegate it Act on it yourself File it temporarily Store it

Let’s consider this concept in more detail as it relates to information overload. There are five basic options for handling

• Throw it away, delete it or otherwise get rid of it.

Some questions to ask yourself before you toss are: Do I really need it? Will it help me in any way? Will it be useful
when I need it again? Is it new or unique? Is it a necessary part of a project or special file (e.g., personnel file, client file,
school record, tax related, etc.) Would it be hard to replace? Would anything bad happen if I toss it? (Dodd and
Sundheim, 2005)

• Delegate it: give it to someone else to do, file or respond.

• Act on it yourself. Then throw away or file it. Do the task now if it takes less than 3 minutes or if it is truly urgent.

• File it temporarily until it needs action or until additional information is received.

Strategy 5: Carefully scheduling your time can lead to having more time.

Alan Lakein, in his classic time management book entitled How to Get Control of Your Time and Your Life, states that
“There is always enough time for the important things. The busiest people are able to find time for what they want to
do, not because they have any more time than others but because they think in terms of ‘making’ time by careful

KNOW YOURSELF! When are you most productive and alert? When do you tend to overcommit? When can you
more easily balance responsibilities? When do you make time for YOURSELF? Are you a morning person or an
evening person? Typically, we experience a time of day when our energy level is highest and we are able to perform at
our peak mental and physical abilities. Becoming familiar with your natural daily rhythm can help you schedule your
time more appropriately. For example, if you perform best after that first cup of coffee in the morning, then allocate the
most demanding tasks of the day to that time. Using your time log, you can determine when you are most productive,
more alert and have the most energy

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Schedule Your Most Productive Time Block out time for your high priority activities first Only schedule about 70% of
your time to leave opportunity for creativity Scheduling is not just recording what you have to do, such as meetings and
appointments, but it is also making a commitment of time to the things you want to do. Block out time for your high
priority activities first and protect that time from interruptions. Again, strive to schedule only 70% of each day. You need
time to be creative -- this includes planning, thinking, dreaming and reading.

• Be honest. Don’t lie to yourself by saying “yes” when you mean “no.”

• Use non-verbal language. Your eye contact and posture must communicate “no” as well. Remember that only about
10% of what we communicate is through our words. Some suggest that 40% is our tone of voice and 50% is our non-
verbal behavior.

• Don’t be defensive. It leads to confrontation and guilt.

• Be brief. Use few words. Think about your words before you say them. You may need to use the broken record
technique of saying “no” over and over again.

• Don’t use an excuse. An explanation is acceptable if you want to provide one, however an excuse is typically broad and
only a half-truth. It may invite challenge. An explanation should be an explicit statement. For example, instead of saying
“I couldn’t get it together.”, say “I had 3 assignments to complete before I could start on that one.”

• Use positives to say “no.” Your response can be powerful and diplomatic if you start with 2 positive statements + 1
negative statement + 1 positive statement. For example, you might say, “I appreciate your inviting me to participate. You
must have a lot of confidence in me. Unfortunately, I am unavailable for additional events right now. I feel very special
that you asked me.” In work situations, you might practice using some of the phrases below to communicate your
inability to complete a task:

1. For someone other than your boss, you might say: I’m sorry but I can’t do that right now.

2. For your boss, you might say: I appreciate your confidence in me by assigning me this task, but I couldn’t possibly do a
good job on it right now with all the other assignments that I have.

Strategy 6: Not doing everything yourself is essential.

If you are constantly interrupted, then you have little time for completing substantial tasks. And, those who must
constantly check with you for decisions and information are held up on completing tasks as well. Delegation can
certainly help you save time, but you must learn to delegate properly. Doing tasks that can be delegated to others is
costly. Let’s determine what your time costs – consider how expensive it is when your time is not spent effectively.

ACTIVITY: Example example on a flipchart. Determine how much your time at work costs per hour and per minute, using
the following calculations: 1.5 x annual salary ÷ working hours per year = cost per hour

Get Help From Others

1. Identify the task

2. Match the task to a qualified person

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

3. Define the task and establish your expectations

4. Check on the progress

5. Reward success

Strategy 7: Putting things off results in poor time management.

Don’t Put it Off Do you put off tasks because they are overwhelming or unpleasant? Do you put off making decisions?
Maybe you don’t want to deal with the reality of a situation or the work it might create for you. Whatever the situation,
procrastination hinders your ability to manage your time. Chronic procrastination is considered to be a lifestyle for about
20% of people. Chronic procrastinators promote their own self protection by telling lies to themselves. They actively
seek distractions, such as constantly checking e-mail or visiting social networking websites. (Marano, 2008).
Procrastination has costs: • Health – procrastinators have more colds, flu, gastrointestinal problems, and insomnia. •
Teamwork – procrastinators shift responsibilities onto others who become resentful.

How to Stop Procrastinating :

Break the task down into smaller segments.

Complete a preparatory task to help you get started— organize notes.

Reward yourself for completing smaller tasks.

Some techniques are to:

• Break big projects into smaller, more manageable segments.

• Jump start yourself by breaking your pre-project tension. You can start with any small component of the task. Then,
keep on starting.

• Use the Swiss Cheese method (Lakein, 1973). Poke holes in your project. Do easy, quick tasks.

• Do the harded or most unpleasant part of the project first.

• Set aside 30 minutes of uninterrupted time to work on the project and then force yourself to stop, regardless of what
you have accomplished.

• Remove distractions. You may need to use earplugs.

• Say positive things to yourself about your progress.

• Aim for the exceptional but allow yourself to be pleased with good enough.

• Celebrate small accomplishments. Award yourself for small steps as you work toward the final product.

Strategy 8: Identifying some of the most common ways we waste time and addressing them helps us capitalize on
available minutes.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Don’t let this happen to you! We are bombarded in today’s world with multiple sources of communication. How can we
manage them all?

Time Wasters : Telephone, Meetings, E-mail & Internet, Family obligations Unexpected visitors

Which ones apply to you?

ACTIVITY: Have participants identify specific time wasters using the “Time Robbers” activity described below. Tape signs
saying “ALWAYS”, “SOMETIMES” and “RARELY” to a wall with space between them, preferably in 3 corners of the room.
Read the list of time robbers and instruct participants to move to the sign that indicates how often this item applies to
them. Ask for suggestions on how to handle the time robber.

Materials Needed: 3 signs labeled Always, Sometimes and Rarely

Time Robbers: (Select from a few or all of these items.)

• Chatting or texting on the phone/cell phone.

• Unexpected visitors come to my office or home.

• My door is always open – employees come and go as they please.

• Doing tasks that others are capable and willing to do.

• Doing nothing while standing in line.

• Doing nothing while riding on public transportation or as a passenger.

• Not planning ahead for meals.

• Going to routinely scheduled meetings.

• Checking e-mail when the alert prompts them that they have a message.

• Frequenting social networking sites (Facebook, My Space, Twitter, etc.)

• Surfing the Internet.

• Watching just one more TV show.

• Hitting the snooze button on the alarm clock to get up at the last time possible.

• Shuffling toys, newspapers, etc. from one table or area to another without putting them away.

• Not planning the activities for your day.

• Running errands without planning to optimize your trip time. (Rupured, et. al, 1998)

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996


Divide participants into 5 groups. Assign each group to one of the time wasters: telephone; meetings; mail/e-mail; family
obligations; and visitors. Ask each group to identify solutions to managing the time wasters and list on flipchart. Have
each group select a spokesperson to share their list.

The phone

Problems- Conversation gets off on a tangent, Person is not available, Interrupts your work

Solutions- Schedule calls, Prepare an outline before the conversation, Use voicemail, and set aside a time of day to
return calls, Use e-mail to save phone time


• Set times for making and receiving phone calls. Route calls to an assistant or to voice mail otherwise.

• Call people just before lunch or near the end of the work day so that the conversation is kept short.

• Eliminate small talk. Ask the caller, “what can I do for you?” to get past the small talk and to the point of the call.

• When leaving a message, indicate a time for the caller to return the call.

• Use caller ID to determine whether or not to accept the call. • Tell the caller that you only have a certain number of
minutes to talk.

• When making calls, set aside a specific time of day and bunch calls together. Be clear about the purpose of each call
and draft a brief agenda as if it were a meeting. Don’t let conversations stray too far from that agenda. Determine an
order of priority for the calls.

• Use e-mail instead of calling, when appropriate.

• Talk standing up – it automatically keeps the conversation shorter.

• Turn off your cell phone from time to time.

Meetings - Don’t schedule if not needed, Know the purpose in advance, Arrive on time, Start and end on schedule ,
Prepare and stick to an agenda


• Meet only if necessary. If a standing meeting is not needed, cancel it.

• Use conference calling, memos or individual meetings rather than pulling together the larger group.

• Meet standing up.

• Meet in unusual places, not a conference room.

• Schedule meeting one hour before lunch or the end of the work day.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

• Don’t serve food.

• Invite only the critical people to the meeting. Communicate to others via memos afterwards.

• Prepare a timed agenda.

• Don’t allow unexpected issues to be discussed. Hold them until a later meeting or assign someone to look into the
issue and report back at the next meeting.

• Use a meeting convener to manage time during the meeting.

Set aside a specificE-mail and Mail time of day to check e-mail Turn off instant message features Handle each
item once Sort mail near a trash can Limit Internet use E-mail and Mail:

Reduce the amount of information you have to manage. How?

• Cancel print and online subscriptions if you aren’t reading them.

• Remove yourself from mailing lists and e-mail lists or distribution lists. Unsubscribe.

• Schedule a weekly reading session, and then discard or file the books, magazines, etc.

• Save online articles to a travel drive and take it with you to read whenever you have a few minutes. Be sure to delete,
or discard, any articles that you haven’t read within a month

. • Skim reading materials. Use a highlighter to mark important items.

Let’s talk about problems with e-mail more specifically. We know that the majority of the messages are “junk” that
simply interrupt our ability to be productive. Checking e-mail can also be a tempting alternative, allowing us to
procrastinate on more urgent and important obligations. You can manage e-mail more effectively by…

• Not checking e-mail when you first arrive at the office. Work on one of your priority tasks first.

• Scanning your new messages to identify priorities. For example, you may want to read a message from your boss
before reading general announcements or advertisements.

• Immediately reading and responding to any messages that you can answer in less than 2-3 minutes.

• Organizing your e-mail into folders, much like we discussed in the section on “Getting Organized”. Create an “archive”
folder for mail that you may need to reference at a later date. You may wish to have sub-folders if the e-mail client you
are using does not allow for easy searching on topics, senders, or keywords. Create a “hold” folder for messages that will
require assistance or additional information. Finally, create a “follow-up” folder for messages that you can reply to but
will require more than a couple minutes. Try to keep the number of messages remaining in your inbox to a minimum.

• Removing your e-mail address from any list-generated e-mails that are no longer desired. Most “blast” type messages
include instructions for how to unsubscribe from the list.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

• Not checking your e-mail continuously throughout the day. Try to set aside certain times during the day when you read
email. Remember to turn off your message alert system so you are not constantly interrupted by a notice that a
message is in your inbox.

• Sending less e-mail and sending shorter messages. Use the telephone or walk down the hall and communicate face-
to-face. • Not sending work-related e-mail after hours.

Family Obligations Establish a master calendar to post time commitments Make everyone responsible for consulting
the “master calendar” Have a central message center Family Obligations: Post a calendar that everyone uses to note
events, project due dates, appointments, etc.

Keep the calendar in a central, accessible location. Remind your family members that all activities must be on the
calendar and have family discussions about any activities with conflicting times. Have one location in your home for
leaving messages for each other, sorting and distributing mail, and other communication activities. Many of these
suggestions work well with a work team also.


Schedule another time for visit Indicate visit is over Use physical indicators to end visit Schedule open-door
times Use body language Be the visitor


• Tell the visitor that you are working on a deadline and set a time to meet later.

• When you need to end the conversation, say “Thanks for stopping by.” or a similar closing remark to politely indicate
that the visitor should leave.

• If you are followed to your office, don’t sit down.

• Arrange your work space so that you are less visible to passersby.

• Don’t make it easy for the visitor to sit and stay awhile. You may need to put boxes or papers in your visitor chairs so
that the visitor has to stand.

• Schedule open-door and closed door times and let others know the schedule. You may simply close your door and
post a sign stating how long you anticipate before you open the door.

• Stand and escort the person out the door, discussing their topic as you walk.

• Use body language to discourage interruptions. Turn your head, but not your whole body, toward the visitors. Use
signals such as glancing at your watch or the clock. Hold your pen as if you are continuing to work. Pick up the phone as
if you need to make an important phone call.

• Go to the other person’s office when you need a quick answer. That way, you can control when the conversation ends.
Slide 37

Strategy 9: Focusing results in greater productivity.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

What are some ways that you multitask? Examples include:

•Working on the computer while we talk on the phone.

•Talking on our cell phones while we drive home from work.

Avoid Multi-tasking- Doesn’t really save time Limits concentration Restricts focus WHY? So, we know that multi-
tasking should be avoided because it doesn’t really save time, it limits our concentration, and it restricts our ability to
focus. To help minimize multi-tasking, you can:

• Minimize interruptions.

• Make a note to yourself about something you need to do later, rather than stopping a task to do it.

• Make a list of items you need to communicate to the same person and call them once, rather than every time you
think of something to tell them.

• Stand up periodically while you are working to improve concentration.

• Set deadlines for yourself that concentrate on completing one task at a time.

Strategy 10: Taking care of ourselves is important too.

Regular exercise, nutritious meals, and opportunities for continuous learning should be a part of your schedule.

You need to be one of the priorities you set for yourself. For those of us who are used to thinking about the needs of
others first, this can be more difficult. Think of meeting your own personal needs as taking care of a valuable piece of
equipment. You need routine maintenance. Take time to relax and pursue your own interests and try to keep a positive

ACTIVITY: Ask participants to name something they currently do as routine maintenance. Examples might include trying
new recipes, practicing yoga, reading romance novels, etc.

Reduce Stress

Listen to music Practice relaxation Treat yourself Get active and eat healthy Take up a new hobby

It is important to schedule relaxation time into your day. Relaxing, even if only for a few minutes, can help boost your
concentration levels. Your productivity declines as you tire. Most people can concentrate intensively for only one hour
or so without a break. Just a brief minute with your head down, eyes closed and deep breathing can help you regain
your energy level. Take a few minutes for yourself after completing a meeting, rather than rushing back to your office.

Summary :

1. Analyze where your time is spent.

2. Decide what is important and urgent.

3. Utilize tools to improve time management.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

4. Implement a system that allows you to handle information once.

5. Schedule!

6. Empower others.

7. Quit putting “it” off.

8. Control time wasters.

9. Switching tasks is NOT productive.

10. Take time for yourself. This slide summarizes the 10 strategies and provides a brief review of what we discussed in
this lesson.

Probably the most difficult aspect of time management is holding yourself accountable for practicing the skills you’ve
learned. Check to be sure you are meeting the goals you defined within the timeframe you established. Ask yourself
over and over again, “What is the best use of my time right now?” (Lakein, 1973) Routinely check to see if you’ve kept
the commitments you made to yourself and others. Identify 1-2 times when you did not follow your time management
plan. Acknowledge this to yourself. Recommit and honor it.

Ask participants to complete Evaluation Form and leave their completed form with you before leaving the room

Training Evaluation – The training delivery along with content was rated as Very good to Excellent by the participants.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Training – 3

Interviewing Techniques

Duration – Two days ( 12 hours)

Participants – 5


Instructional methods include lecture with PowerPoint, individual and group tasks, role playing, drawing, demonstration,
group discussion, and question/answer sessions.

Training Aids

PowerPoint presentation on CD-ROM, Laptop computer, Projector, Screen, chart and markers, handouts.

Conducting Effective interview


Helping in achieving the organizational goals. Selecting and Hiring the Best Skilled Candidates that fit the Organization


An interview is a face-to-face meeting between the candidate and the interviewer or a panel of interviewers. The
interview is intended to be an exchange of information.

Interview Purpose

To allow the organization to assess the suitability of the candidate for the vacancy in question and to allow the
candidate to assess the suitability of the vacancy and the organization for him/herself.

Types of Interviews

Structured Interview - Uses a set of standardized questions that are asked of all applicants. Every applicant is asked the
same basic questions, so that comparisons can be made more easily.

Situational Interview - A structured interview that is composed of questions about how applicants might handle specific
job situations.

Behavioral Interview - Interview in which<br />applicants give specific<br />examples of how they have performed or
handled problems in the past.

Nondirective interview - Interview that uses general questions, from which other questions are developed

Stress interview - Interview designed to create anxiety and put pressure on an applicant to see how the person

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Panel interview - Interview in which several interviewers interview the candidate at the same time.

Planning the Interview

 Selecting the time and place for the interview.

 Sufficient time should be allocated so that neither the interviewer nor the interviewee feels rushed.

 The interviewer should review the application form for completeness and accuracy before beginning the

Controlling the Interview

 If the interviewer does not control the interview, the applicant usually will.

 Control includes knowing in advance what information must be collected, Systematically collecting it, and
stopping when that information has been collected,

 Having control of the interview does not mean doing extensive talking

Steps in conducting an interview

 Put the applicant at ease.

 Explain how the candidate and organization can benefit from an open interview

 Explain areas that will be covered during interview.

 Ask questions that elicit answers to the dimensions in each area.

 Describe the job and the organization.

 Ask the candidate if he has any questions

 Close the interview.

What Should be Evaluated in an Interview

1. Communications- Listening, Oral Communication, Oral Presentation, Written Communication

2. Personal / Motivational -Job Motivation, Work Standards, Initiative, Tolerance for Stress

3. Interpersonal- Sensitivity, Leadership, Tenacity, Persuasiveness, Integrity

4. Decision Making - Analysis, Judgement, Decisiveness

5. Knowledge / Skills- Career Objective, Career History, Technical Proficiency, Technical , Meeting a Standards,
Process operation

6. Management- Planning and organizing, Delegation, Control, Development of his/her Team

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996


 Introduce yourself. Say what position you hold and how it is relevant to the position for which you are

 Explain the format of the interview

 Listen. Listen to what the candidate is not saying as well as to what he/she is saying. Encourage the
candidate by your body language: look interested, nod, etc.

 Ask open-ended questions, keeping them short and specific.

 Offer the chance to ask questions and take notes

 Press the interviewee for a specific answer if he/she appears to be avoiding a question

 Pause. If there is a gap after an answer, don’t rush to fill it. If you remain silent the candidate will often go
on to offer further information which may not otherwise come to light.


 Ask “Yes/No” questions

 Take notes immediately after the candidate has made a slip up

 Ask for information which is on the CV unless you need the candidate to expand on it

 Make assumptions or guess answers

 Criticize

 Be aggressive; you will rarely see the best side of a candidate by being aggressive.

 Ask overtly complicated or gimmicky questions.

Questioning Techniques

Good Questions

 Questions that investigate the past performance in order to predict the future performance.

 Ask Open ended questions directed toward particular goal. An open-ended questions is one that cannot be
answered yes or no. Who, what, when, why, tell me, how, and which are all good ways to begin questions that
will produce longer and more informative answers.

Example: “What was your attendance record on your last job?” is a better question than, “Did you have good
attendance on your last job?”

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Poor Questions

 Questions that rarely produce a true answer: An example is, “How did you get along with your coworkers?” This
question is almost inevitably going to be answered, “Just fine.”

 Leading questions: A leading question is one to which the answer is obvious from the way that the question is
asked. For example, “You do like to talk to people, don’t you?” Answer: “Of course.”

 Questions that are not job related: All questions asked should be directly related to the job for which the
interviewee has applied.

 Obvious questions: An obvious question is one for which the interviewer already has the answer and the
applicant knows it.

 Illegal questions: Questions that involve information such as race, age, gender, national origin, marital status,
and number of children are illegal. They are just as inappropriate in the interview as they are on the application

Problems in the Interview

 Inexperience of interviewers

 Asking discriminatory questions

 Snap Judgments

 The Halo Effect

 The Horns Effect

 Stereotyping

 Biases

Tips to Avoid Interview Problems

 Ensure a clear job description has been defined and clear criteria set.

 Ensure the interviewing staff have been trained or otherwise prepared.

 Ensure that interviewers are aware of criteria being used.

 Ensure all candidates are asked the same questions about matters that might create a problem, e.g. overtime or
travel commitments.

 Do not ask questions which are based on stereotyped assumptions.

Interview Questions

General Questions
Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

 What are your strengths and weaknesses?

 Why did you leave your last job?

 Why should we hire you?

 What is most important to you in a job?

 What questions do you have for me?

Questions about Motivation

 What have you done that shows initiative?

 What career objectives have been met?

 How do you measure success?

 What rewards mean most to you?

 What projects make you excited?

Problem Solving

 What is the most creative work related idea you have had?

 Describe a difficult problem you faced and solved.

 What approach to problem solving works best for you?

Working with Others

 What kind of people do you like to work with?

 Tell me about a conflict with a fellow worker–how was it resolved?

 Describe your management style.

 How do others see you?

 What three words describe you?

Integrity Indicators

 Tell me about a time when you were not honest.

 How would you react if you were asked to do something unethical?

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

 If you saw a coworker doing something dishonest, what would you do?

 When did you last break a rule?

 When I call your previous employer, what will they say about you?

Training Evaluation – The training delivery along with content was rated as Very good to Excellent by the participants.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Training – 4

Work – Life Balance

Duration – Half Day ( 4 hours)

Participants – 7


Instructional methods include lecture with PowerPoint, individual and group tasks, role playing, drawing, demonstration,
group discussion, and question/answer sessions.

Training Aids

PowerPoint presentation on CD-ROM, Laptop computer, Projector, Screen, chart and markers, handouts.

Men for the sake of getting a living forget to live. ~Margaret Fuller

Work Life Balance- The main principle is equality between work and private life. Work–life balance is a
concept including proper prioritizing between "work" (career and ambition) and "lifestyle"(Health, pleasure,
leisure, family and spiritual development/meditation).

Lets start with some basic questions!

Do you often take a lunch break which does not even last for 30 minutes?

Do you miss out on quality time with your family and friends because of pressure of work?

Do you work late hours at office every day & take your work at home as well?

Do you think work is having a negative effect on your personal life?

Do you often think that you do not get enough time for yourself?

Do you feel anxious or upset because of what is happening at work?

Do you feel tired or depressed because of work? Do you often lose your temper at work?

If your answer is yes, Then think about it seriously because work life balance means management in every
aspect Life and work both.


 Fulfillment: People who successfully implement work life balance improve their sense of fulfillment at
work and at home.

 Health: A healthy work life balance decreases the risk of heart disease and other health problems
Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

 Greater productivity: Being relaxed and well rested increases productivity and improves work

 Stronger relationships: Personal and professional relationships are strengthened and conflicts are
avoided when there is work life balance.

The 4 pillars- Family, Work, Health and Society

A balanced life is one where we spread our energy and effort - emotional, intellectual, imaginative, spiritual
and physical – between key areas of importance.

Warning Stages

These are typical signs of work life imbalance :

 Feeling that you are merely trying to get through the day

 Barely making it to the end of the week and feeling completely exhausted by the time you get home.

 Feeling that you are on the merry-go-round of life and just wanting to get off.

 Feeling like you are falling behind and never catching up in the game of life.

Is it time to change course?

First thing that you need to know is that people that have work/life balance don't always have work/life
balance. Think of it as a continuum from a 10 being "perfect balance" to a 1 meaning "total chaos”.

Balance comes from answering a series of questions about yourself on a regular basis:

 Am I clear about my personal, professional and play goals?

 When was the last time I did something for myself rather than for someone else?

 When was the last time I lost my temper at work?

Benefits to the Individual

 More value and balance in your life

 Understanding your best work life balance

 Increased productivity

 Better relationship both on and off the job

 Reduced Stress

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Benefits to the organization

 Measured increase in productivity, accountability, commitment

 Better teamwork and communication

 Improved morale

 Less negative organizational stress Benefits to the organization

Four Stages of W/L Balance Process

1. Self-Assessment

"Who am I?“ (I, employee, father, brother, friend etc) Reflect on your skills, values, interests
and priorities List them down

2. Exploration

Where am I going?“ List down your goals that match the information gained in the first stage
State your goals in each of these areas faith, family, friends, finances, fitness, fun (yes, fun),
future career development, and finally further learning.

3. Implementation

"How do I get there?" Develop a strategic action plan to obtain your goals on a weekly,
monthly and annual basis Remember your goals need to be specific, measurable, action-
oriented, realistic and time- sensitive. Apply GROW Goal Reality Options Will/Way forward

4. Evaluation

Determine what went right and what went wrong List down what was going wrong up to today
and then discuss with how would you correct it. Also list what were you doing right and
reinforce your plan to make it real every time.

Process Activity

Write down your personal vision statement and mission statement - it will help you see where you are
going in life.

Nine Easy Steps towards WLB

1. Simplify

5. Learn to say “NO”

6. No one is indispensable
Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

7. Stay at HOME. Listen to music

2. De - Stress

 Stress – higher levels of creativity

 But “Take it EASY” Else High BP!!

 Take up: Yoga Painting Art of Living!

3. Be a Child

 Read Fairy Tales to your child

 Take a pet

 Eat cotton candy, ice cone

 Go on holiday

 An impulse outing with family.

4. Share the Load

 In family, divide the tasks like Dusting etc

 In Work place : DELEGATE “Don’t do their fishing for them, Teach them how to fish”

5. Slow Down

 Do Not get pulled from different directions

 One step at a time.

 Let go Discover new ways to get things done.

6. Take Care of your Health

 “All work and no play, makes Jack a dull boy”

 Take a walk, Go to Yoga or Gym

 Take up Sport, Pet, Hobby Well balanced food

 Please SLEEP

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

7. Don’t Postpone

Using Time Efficiently

 Sometimes a poor work-life balance is a symptom of poor time management. Realize that time is
your most valuable resource.

 Monitor and review your time at work to make sure you are working efficiently.

 Break tasks into manageable sizes, and schedule them accordingly

8. Have a positive Approach

 Look around you. So many things to be grateful about.

 Make a list of things you are thankful for

 List three gratitude's per day for 20 days

9. Take Charge -Plan Ahead

 Long Term

 Medium Term

 Short Term


Mindfulness forms a significant part of acceptance and commitment therapy (act) which research shows can
improve psychological flexibility in the workplace. Psychological flexibility has been positively correlated with
innovation, productivity as well as psychological well being.

Remember Work is not where you go But what you do

- John Chambers

Work-life Balance Exercise #1

Ali is 45-year old man and an only child whose elderly, widowed mom has Alzheimer's disease. Ali needs to aid
his mom with personal needs as well as such things as cooking, housework, buying groceries, etc. Ali is also a
sales representative for an alarm company and must put in endless hours at the office in order to get a
promotion to district sales manager. What can Ali do to balance his work and non-work lives?

What can Ali’s organization do to help him balance his work and non-work lives?

Work-life Balance Exercise #2

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Maria is a 26-year old wife and new mother. She has just returned to work after a 6-week maternity leave and
found out that her husband, Ahmad, was laid off. Maria and Ahmad are both paying off credit card loans, they
just put their new baby into a great daycare facility and bought a new car after the old one broke down.

How can Maria work toward balancing her work and non-work lives?

How can Ahmad help ?

How can Maria and Ahmad work together so that they each have balance?


In the end, the key word is balance. – Find the right balance that works for you – Celebrate your successes
and don’t dwell on your failures. – Life is a process and so is striving for balance in your life.

Training Evaluation – The training delivery along with content was rated as Very good to Excellent by the participants.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Training – 5

Ethics in Recruitment

Duration – Six hours ( One day)

Participants – 10

Learning Objectives

 Understand and appreciate the need of ethics in recruitment and selection.

 To discuss the various issues in Ethical Recruitment.

 Best Practice Guidelines in Recruitment and Selection.

 Key set of values.


Instructional methods include lecture with PowerPoint, case studies, individual and group tasks, role playing, drawing,
demonstration, group discussion, and question/answer sessions.

Training Aids

PowerPoint presentation on CD-ROM, Laptop computer, Projector, Screen, chart and markers, handouts.


Ethics are the principles or standards that guide day-to-day business activities in accordance with established
corporate values. Ethical business conduct offers a wide range of organizational integrity, involving strategy,
business goals, policies and activities. Among ethical values are trust, respect, honesty, responsibility and the
overall pursuit of perfection. Recruitment refers to the processes followed by organisations when they wish to
attract applicants for vacant or new positions. Selection follows the recruiting process with the appointment
of the most suited applicant to the position. Ethics in the field of hiring, staffing and recruitment is based on a
combination of things and depends on who is actually involved in the hiring process. Certainly, the job
searcher, hiring manager and recruiter are just three possible people involved in a hiring decision.

Ethical Issues in Recruiting :

• Organisations comprise employees who need respect as people.

• Streamlining has lead to downsizing or right-sizing of organizations.

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• As organisations become more complex with fewer employees, legislative requirements become crucial to
maintain the psychological well-being of employees

• Discriminatory recruitment practices may inhibit the success of women or people from minority
backgrounds, but also older applicants.

•Assume personal responsibility for publishing resume, pictures and other information.

• Discrimination in employment on the basis of utility, rights and justice- The arguments mustered against
discrimination generally fall into three groups namely utilitarian, rights, justice.

1. Utility:The standard utilitarian argument against racial and sexual discrimination is based on the idea
that a society‟s productivity will be optimized to the extent that jobs are awarded on the basis of
competency. Different jobs, the argument goes, require different skills and personality traits if they are
to be carried out in as productive manner as possible. Furthermore, different people have different
skills and personality traits. Consequently, to ensure that jobs are maximally productive, they must be
assigned to those individuals whose skills and personality traits qualify them as the most competent for
the job. Insofar as jobs are assigned to individuals on basis of other criteria unrelated to competency,
productivity must necessarily decline.

Discriminating among job applicants on the basis of race, sex, religion, or other characteristics unrelated to job
performance is necessarily inefficient and, therefore , contrary to utilitarian principles:

 Accept and expect employment history verification

 Ensure Resume accuracy
 Rely only on relevant and job-related information when making hiring decisionsCode of ethics for
 No discrimination based on race, origin, religious or political views, gender, age or sexual orientation
Do not request Jobseekers to include their photos in the resume
 Treat all jobseekers equally

2. Rights:Non-utilitarian arguments against racial and sexual discrimination may take the approach that
discrimination is wrong because it violates a person’s basic moral rights. Kantian theory for example,
holds that human beings should be treated as ends and never as means. At a minimum, this principle
means that each individual has moral right to be treated as a free person equal to any other person
and that all individuals have a correlative moral duty to treat each individual as a free and equal
person. Discriminatory practices violate the principle in two ways. First, discrimination is based on the
belief that one group is inferior to the other groups.Racial and sexual discrimination, for instance,
maybe based on stereotypes that see minorities as “lazy” and see women as “emotional” and “weak”
such degrading stereotypes undermine the self esteem of those groups against whom stereotypes are
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directed and thereby violate their right to be treated as equals. Second discrimination places the
member of group that are discriminated against in lower social and economic position: women and
minorities have fewer job opportunities and are given lower salaries. Again, the right to be treated as a
free job and equal person is violated.
3. Justice : A second group of non-utilitarian arguments against discrimination view it is as a violation of
the principle of justice. “Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are attached
to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity

Among the practices now widely recognized as discriminatory are the following:

 Recruitment practices firms that rely solely on the word-of-mouth referrals of present employes to
recruit new workers tend to recruit only from those racial and sexual groups that are already
represented in their labor force.
 Also, when desirable job positions are only advertised in media that are not used by minorities or
women or are classified as for men only, recruitment will also tend to be discriminatory.
 Screening practice Job qualification are discriminatory when they are not relevant to the job to be
performed. Aptitude or intelligence tests used to screen applicants become discriminatory when
they serve to disqualify members from minority culture who are unfamiliar with the language,
concepts, and social situations used in the tests but who are in fact fully qualified for the job.
 Job interviews are discriminatory if the interviewer routinely disqualifies women and minorities by
relying on sexual or racial stereotypes. These stereotypes may include assumptions about the sort
of occupations “proper” for women, the sort of work and time burdens that may fittingly be
“imposed” on women, the ability of women or minority person to maintain “commitment” to job,
the propriety of putting women in “male” environments, the assumed effects women or minorities
would have on employee morale or on customers, and the extent to which women or minorities
are assumed to have personality and aptitude traits that make them unsuitable for a job. Such
generalizations about women or minorities are not only discriminatory, they are also false.
 Promotion practices :Promotion, job progression, and transfer practice are discriminatory when
employers place employees on job tracks separate from those open to women and minorities.

How can we promote ethical practices within our field and reduce the negative stigma attached to the

As there is no policing agency that oversees recruiting practices,ethics must be self-enforced. Ethical behavior
begins with the definition of roles and responsibilities when interacting with candidates, clients, and other
recruiters. One of the ways in which recruiters can foster an ethical relationship from the outset is by creating
a mission statement or ethical code that emphasizes key values and guiding ethical practices. Ensuring that
agreements are in writing can resolve complicated issues more quickly, both protecting your interests and
allowing you to be upfront in relationships. Additionally, it is important to examine what is occurring around
you. Detecting and effectively handling unethical behavior is central to maintaining upstanding business

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Candidates must also grapple with ethical issues, being honest throughout the process, from interviewing, to
selection, to accepting an offer. Misinforming a recruiter to obtain an interview or cinch the job can place
recruiters in compromising positions with clients. Both parties have a responsibility to maintain ethical

The benefits of ethical practices during each step of the hiring process are numerous. Recruiters often build
their client bases through referrals. Both clients and candidates willrefer business to reliable, high-quality
recruiters. Upon placement, candidates have no loyalty to recruiters and poor practices may quickly become
public knowledge. As in other industries, we all have a responsibility to uphold the reputation of our

Best Practice Guidelines in Recruitment and Selection

Best practice can be viewed as a well defined procedure, technique, method, process, activity, incentive or
reward that is known to produce near optimum results. It is usually regarded as more effective at delivering a
particular outcome than any other technique, method, process, etc. When applied to a particular condition or
circumstance. It also focuses on delivering the best results with the least amount of effort, by applying
procedures that have proven themselves over time. A specific best practice guideline is generally applicable to
a condition or circumstance and can be modified for similar circumstances. Best Practice can transform or
mature as the industry discovers new developments.

Key Set of Values

According the Independent Commission against Corruption following are viewed as key values that apply to
Recruitment and Selection:

Impartiality: All stages of the recruitment process should be impartial and objective in its execution

Accountability: all stakeholders in the recruitment process should be accountable for all their decisions and
ensure proper record keeping to support such decisions

Competition: the pool of potential candidates must be maximized to the extent that it is practicable and

Openness: factors impacting on recruitment and selection must be clear to all stakeholders involved, and the
decision-making processes should be transparent, while maintaining confidentiality with regards to the

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Integrity: recruitment and selection practices must be carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines,
codes or rules.

Case Study

The following case studies illustrate some of the key values in the context of various common areas of
complaint in recruitment and selection:

Case Study 1( Maximizing Applicants) : Mr Kumar has been acting as the IT manager for 18 months when it
was decided to advertise the job. His Director prepared the advertisement without specifying any recruitment
for qualifications or extensive experience in information technology, which had previously been part of the
selection criteria. The Director decided to advertise the job internally. Joe was the sole applicant and was
appointed to the position permanently without an interview.

Remarks: Receiving one application does not mean that is necessarily the best person for the job – but could
indicate that the job has not been advertised widely enough to maximize the potential field of applicants.
Perceptions of favoritism may result if the job that requires technical skill, tertiary qualifications or industry
knowledge is advertised without requiring such competencies.

It may appear that the Director deliberately removed such selection criteria that appeared previously, but may
have precluded Mr Kumar from getting the job.

What can be done instead?

1. Acknowledge the importance of maximizing the pool of applicants

2. Specifying the qualities sought from applicants, in addition to specific knowledge required,may
broaden the field – e.g. instead of having knowledge of a specific act, the candidate can show he/she
has the ability to interpret legislation.

3. Ensure that potential candidates are not discouraged from applying for a job for reasons other than the
content of the job advertisement; for example: advertisements placed in journals to which few people
have access or managers making statements regarding the competitiveness or lack of competitiveness
of applicants.

Case Study 2: Putting It All On Paper (, 2002)

A large State Government department (International) advertised to fill the position of Director,Corporate
Services, reclassified in a recent evaluation of its Senior Executive Service structure.Three short-listed
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applicants were interviewed and the selection panel offered Mr Bhasin the job. Shortly afterwards, the ICAC
received a complaint alleging that Mr Bhasin knew he had been appointed to the position before the
interviews were held and got the job because he had worked for the department before. The ICAC asked the
department to report on the matter. The department wanted to prove the recruitment process was above
board so its Internal Auditor reviewed the files. He was surprised that the checklist did not show how
applicants met the selection criteria and that there were no notes from the interviews. He also found that the
selection panel report contained only the recommended applicant’s name and the convener’s signature (no
date or title of the position, no recommended salary, no reasons for recommendations and no eligibility
list).The selection panel claimed that Mr Bhasin was not appointed to the position before the interview and
was clearly the best person for the job. However, the Auditor found no evidence to support this claim, making
it difficult to assess the matter. Consequently, the department could not satisfy the ICAC that the recruitment
process was fair.

Remarks: Better record keeping would have supported the department’s claim that the process had been all
above board. The way staff is recruited sets the standard for induction and the culture of the organisation.

What can be done instead?

Sound record keeping includes a selection report that includes the following: Specific assessment methods
utilized, Reasons for the candidates unsuitability and reasons for selecting/ de-selecting prior to the interview.
General notes or comments on each applicant interviewed, with reference to each selection criterion.
Establish the reasons for the successful applicant being chosen over the rest of the pool of candidates. Include
names of referees who were contacted and include notes taken from referee checks Notes made by each
member of the selection panel should be retained on the recruitment, together with the selection report.

Ethical Considerations in Recruitment and Selection


Van der Westhuizen ((Ethical model adapted from H.E. Brand (2008) Journal of Contemporary Management,
Volume 5, 205-222,) states that there is an increase in appreciation for ethics management and the positive
economic impact it has on the performance of organizations:

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Phase 1: During phase one, a job analysis is conducted to compile a job description and job specification. The
advertisement is then compiled based on criteria specified in the job description. It is essential that the
method of advertising does not lead to discrimination or exclusion of applicants. When considering initial
applicants, they should be compared to the minimum criteria in the advertisement. Eliminations are then
done according to the guidelines in the company recruitment and selection policy and procedures.

Phase 2: During phase two, applications are acknowledged by sending out a letter to all the applicants.
Applications are screened based on criteria from the advertisement making use of the same decision criteria
for all the applications. Thereafter, a regret letter is sent to applicants that did not pass the initial screening.

Phase 3: Phase three includes conducting interviews of all applicants that meet the criteria. The interview
should be asked the same questions of all applicants and should exclude anything discriminatory. The
assessments are then conducted by using instruments that are valid and reliable. Final assessment scores and
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information from the interview are integrated for the applicants. Next, final interviews are conducted with
short-listed applicants and an offer is made to the successful applicant. It is essential that all documentation
relating to the recruitment and selection process is completed accurately.


When making use of psychometric assessments, it is important that they are seen to be one part of the
selection process and are not solely relied on to make decisions regarding the employment of an individual.
The psychometric assessments should predict success in the work situation as accurately as possible. Thus it is
critical that the professional conducting the assessments has knowledge and understanding of the
psychological instruments with which they work. The psychometric assessments should be reliable and valid,
and free from bias or discrimination against any group of people. The assessment process should be
standardised and consistent to ensure that each candidate being assessed go through exactly the same
process. The professional conducting the assessments should do so within the context of a professional
relationship that is transparent. Informed consent must be obtained from the individual undertaking the
assessment, informing them of the purpose of the assessments and how the results will be used. The
confidentiality in terms of who will see the results should be clearly explained to the candidate. It is the
responsibility of the professional to take the necessary steps to ensure that the results of the assessment are
not misused by others in any way. This would include refraining from releasing the raw test results to any
persons other than a qualified professional. It is essential that the individual or client organization to whom
the results are released, understands the ethical implications of how they should make use of the results. The
interpretation of results should include additional information that has any bearing on the overall results
pertaining to selection such as situational factors. When communicating the results of the assessment to the
client, the professional should ensure that this is done in such a manner that the individual receiving the
results fully understands those results.


Recruitment and selection form a vital function any business organization, since human resource is treated as
an asset of an organization, ethical issues governing recruitment and selection has to be taken into cognizance
while recruiting and selecting an employee for a proposed job. Job discrimination is the major problem
prevailing in many organization today. Job discrimination is the wrongful acts of distinguishing illicitly among
people not on the basis of individual merit, but on the basis of prejudice or morally reprehensible attitude. Job
discrimination generally fall into three groups viz, utility, rights, justice. Regardless of the problem inherent in
some of the arguments against discrimination, it is clear that there are strong reasons for holding that
discrimination is wrong. It is consequently understandable that the law has gradually been changed to
conform to these moral requirements and that there has been a growing recognition of the various ways in
which discrimination in employment occurs. Discriminatory practices like sexual harassment is another major
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problem in many organization, effective majors have been taken to tackle this issue but still the problem
prevails in many organization, effective measures have to be taken to get rid of these issue.

Key Points


Professionally accepted standards of personal and business behavior, values and guiding principles. Codes of
professional ethics are often established by professional organizations to help guide members in performing
their job functions according to sound and consistent ethical principles.

Ethics for a Recruiter

• Transparency

• Information sharing

• Respect

• Confidentiality

Code of behavior

• Research and Understand the Skill Sets

• Asking for Too Much Information

• Focus on the Prospect's Needs, Not the Recruiter's

• Too much follow up

Steps for ethical decision making

• Law of the land

• Company policy

• Best Practices

• Key Set of Values

• Situations Discussed

Training Evaluation – The training delivery along with content was rated as Very good to Excellent by the

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

c) One Evaluation Study of a specific Training Programme , conducted by self or any other person / agency,
using appropriate methodology.

Evaluation Study of a functional use of HCRM software Training Programme, conducted by self was conducted.

Planning of the evaluation process began shortly after the first group had finished training (the Data Collection Plan
prepared is attached as an Appendix). Nonetheless, it was decided to invite them to complete a 'smile' sheet (level 1)
evaluation and in fact all the participants subsequently returned the questionnaire. The following tools were used to
conduct the evaluation:

Level 1 - The reaction to the training was assessed by a Questionnaire which was completed by all trainees at the end of
the training.

Level 2 - The learning obtained by the participants was assessed by a Questionnaire/Test at the end of the training and
by observation by the instructors based on both a check list which was completed in respect of each participant and
observation of a structured skill/confidence-building exercise.

Level 3 - Two to three months after the training the trainees supervisors (Team Leads ) completed a detailed
questionnaire in order to assess whether the trainees were using the skills acquired during training on the job.

Level 4 - In measuring business impact it was planned to focus on:

 Reduction of TAT

 Increased number of submissions of profiles by recruiters

 Increase of shortlisted profiles

 Reduced Error

 Reduction in duplicate profiles

Evaluation Results

Level 1 and Level 2 -Evaluation Result

The analysis of questionnaires at the end of training showed an average satisfaction level of 3.7 out of 4.0 against a
target of 3.5 which displayed a very high level of satisfaction with the training. Comments provided by the trainees
showed that they found the training very worthwhile, practical and directly job related. Some had been a bit reluctant
about it prior to training but were happy they had done the training. All were willing to use the skills learned. Both the
trainees questionnaire at the end of training and observation by the instructors confirmed that all the trainees had
learned most of what had been taught on the course. Almost all the trainees had asked for further training and support
for self and team.

Level 3 Evaluation Result

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Evaluation of supervisors responses ( Team Leads and Managers ) showed satisfactory result with all applying the
training on the job. In terms of increase in productivity, about 60% of the trainees’ supervisors reported better
performance and greater motivation.

Level 4 Evaluation Result

 Reduction of TAT - No significant change was noticed

 Increased number of submissions of profiles by recruiters – Number of submissions went up by 15%

 Increase of shortlisted profiles – No significant change was noticed

 Reduced Error – Number of errors came down drastically up to 50%

 Reduction in duplicate profiles – This too was impacted as duplicate profiles was totally eliminated.


The training was a success and was well taken by the employees. Although the training impacted certain areas more
than the others yet it fulfilled its purpose completely. It also increased the motivation level and contributed to the
productivity of the trainees. Thus, the training met all the criteria of a successful training programme.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Part (d) Two cases prepared by the candidate , which may be used in a training Session. The text of cases should be
supported by questions for discussions, possible learning points and faculty notes

Case Study – 1

Effectively using Social Media for Recruitment

Case Study

How General Mills Uses Social Media to Recruit [CASE STUDY]

General Mills is the world’s 6th largest food company, headquartered in Minneapolis, MN, with over 35,000 employees.
The maker of Cheerios, General Mills is a fantastic example of a company that has recognized key recruitment challenges
and has addressed the m through a smart social recruitment and employer branding strategy.

The General Mills Social Media Strategy

One key issue that General Mills has addressed through their social media strategy is the fact that Generation Y
jobseekers, or millennials, are increasingly expecting companies to have a social presence online. This particular
audience wants to engage with potential employers on popular social platforms like Twitter and Facebook, and General
Mills has distinguished itself by fulfilling this need.

Another important challenge faced by General Mills (and most other companies) is the need to stand out from
competition in the labour market. It is crucial, now more than ever, for organisations to ensure that the right talent is
aware of what they have to offer, and for companies to make sure that they are conveying the right messages to
prospective employees.

General Mills has established an impressive Employee Value Proposition that sets them apart from other companies,
and they have distinguished themselves by sharing their message through a variety of social media channels. General
Mills portrays itself as a favourable employer through engaging with and being responsive to their external audience,
presenting themselves online with a genuine human voice, and sharing great content. The social recruitment team often
shares articles and videos about what it is like to work at General Mills, as well as what prospective employees can
expect fromliving in the Twin Cities, where the company is headquartered.

General Mills understands the importance of company culture as a motivating factor for potential job candidates, and
they appreciate the value of being in the online social space where candidates expect them to be. In order to bring their
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culture to life, General Mills has developed a comprehensive social strategy that includes using channels like Facebook,
LinkedIn, Twitter and YouTube to engage the members of their potential talent pool.

Facebook Strategy

With over 15,000 followers, the Facebook Careers Page provides interested job seekers with information about current
job openings, relevant videos and an introduction to the company’s recruiting team. There are also links to career
events, job search advice and information about the General Mills brand and careers in general. The Facebook page’s
cover photo highlights some of the most popular General Mills brands and proudly boasts the tagline ‘Our Brands. Your

If you click on the ‘Job Openings’ tab, you see a listing with all open positions and you can search for the location, job
title etc that you are interested in. You can also connect your Facebook or LinkedIn profile to match up your skills to
current vacancies.

LinkedIn Strategy

The main goals of General Mills’ LinkedIn strategy are to build relationships and to source candidates. The Careers
Page on LinkedIn serves as a platform to host discussions about the company, its industry, and other topics that might
interest the LinkedIn community. The page has over 140,000 followers on LinkedIn (14,000 employees), and includes
videos, employee testimonials, information about benefits, a list of awards and recognition, and of course, current job
openings. There is even information on the Careers page for job seekers to contact General Mills recruiters.

YouTube Strategy

The General Mills Careers YouTube channel is a space for the company to showcase videos that highlight key aspects of
its culture and employer brand. Videos on the channel, which have received over 127,000 views, cover things like a day
in the life of a General Mills employee and insights into the interview process.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Twitter Strategy

The General Mills Careers Twitter account is a means by which all of the company’s online recruitment and employer
branding content is aggregated and shared with over 5,000 followers. This channel is also used to ‘live tweet’ relevant
events, share the latest job openings, provide job search advice and interact with job applicants and new hires.

Questions for discussion and deliberation

Question 1 . How to Create a Social Media Strategy Like General Mills ?

Question 2. Why is it important for a well known and market leader like General Mills to have a Social Media Strategy?

Question 3. Do you think without the Social Media recruitment strategy, General Mills would have attracted similar

Questions 4. What would be your observations regarding their stategy, could they have done something else/

Possible Learning Outcomes :

For creating a successful Social Media Strategy :

 Assemble your team. If your organisation does not currently have the talent required for creating and
implementing an effective social media strategy for recruitment and employer branding, consider hiring an
external agency to get you started on the right track.

 Set overall objectives. When General Mills began its social media journey, their main objectives included things
like establishing a unified brand presence across multiple channels, creating ‘super users’ within their team, and
inspiring jobseekers to apply for jobs by engaging the external community.

 Create channel-by-channel strategies and objectives. Each of the main social media tools that General Mills uses
has a unique strategy and purpose. Facebook, LinkedIn, YouTube and Twitter have different target audiences and
different measures of success, and this should be taken into account when devising your social media strategy.

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 Join forces with internal partners. A strong social media strategy is not solely the responsibility of the recruitment
team. At General Mills, for example, the Legal and Information Systems departments have been involved
throughout the process.

 Establish a set of ground rules. Particularly as more people become involved with social media in your
organization, it is a good idea to have formal guidelines in place for proper usage. General Mills employees follow
a set of ‘Social Medium Engagement Principles,’ and the recruitment team makes use of a formal guidebook and
 Develop and share compelling content. One of the most important tools used by General Mills is a ‘content
calendar,’ used to schedule posts across their various social media channels. In fact, it is a good idea to develop a
‘content library’ well before getting started with employer branding and social recruiting efforts. When creating
original content, General Mills often leverages the power of their popular brands to engage their audience.

 Measure and fine-tune your strategy as you go. Social recruiting is a dynamic process that should be monitored
like any other important aspect of your business. For example, General Mills uses monthly and quarterly measures
of things like comments, ‘likes,’ wall posts and impressions on their Facebook careers page. Tracking social media
as a source for applicants is key in determining the success of your online efforts. New social tools are constantly
being created, so it is important to stay on top of current trends like mobile, gaming and new social networks like

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Case Study -2
Southwood School: A Case Study in Training and Development

(© 2008 Society for Human Resource Management. Fiona L. Robson)

Case Overview

This fictionalized case study is based on a real organization. The case is set in a school, but many of the issues
raised are the same across different countries and sectors (for example, the tension between the school’s
professional staff members and support staff members). The case study’s author was the organization’s HR
manager when the events took place in 2004-05.

Additional information about the school:

Industry: UK public sector, education (a mixed comprehensive secondary school).It is a nonprofit organization
(it is government-funded).

Staff: 120 (80 teaching and 40 non-teaching).

Student Body: 800 students aged 13-18.

Student Learning Objectives

 To identify the components of an effective training program.

 To understand what needs to be considered when designing a training program.
 To compare the soft and hard skills required by the appraisers and appraisees in
 this case study.
 To identify the vital role of appraisees in an effective performance management
 program.
 To effectively evaluate a training program.

Southwood school administrators realized that a newly designed performance management system for their
support staff would require a formal training program. Designing and implementing the new performance
management system was a challenge for the organization; the last system was unpopular with employees, and
negative feelings about the value of performance management linger.

Case Overview

As discussed in the first Southwood case study, some of the issues identified with the previous performance
management system included:

 Annual deadlines to complete the process were missed by many staff members.
 Some staff members were confused about what exactly needed to be completed and when.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

 There were complaints that the previous system was a “waste of time” and that there were no
measurable outputs.
 A trade union representative felt the system was not appropriate for all staff members.
 Criteria on the forms were irrelevant to support staff. For example, support staff could not set
objectives in pupil progress or have lessons observed.
 There was little attention on identifying training needs, and where needs had been identified, there
was no follow-up with appropriate actions.
 Appraisals were led by teachers with little knowledge of their appraisees’ jobs.
 Performance meetings were a one-way process; often, performance goals were identified before the
meeting and without the appraisee’s input.

A new system was designed in consultation with all stakeholders to address the

issues raised with the previous system. School leaders felt that a formal training

program was vital to ensure all employees supported the new system. This case

study demonstrates how the training was designed and delivered and some of the

complexities involved in this process.

Case Details

The case study consists of two parts:

I. Designing the training program for managers (appraisers).

II. Designing the training program for appraisees.

I. Designing the Training Program for Managers (Appraisers).

The managers in this case study are the appraisers in the new performance management process. In some
cases, they will be teachers with no formal management qualifications. In other cases, they will be support
staff with specific management responsibilities in the organization.

Needs Analysis

Initially, the director of administration recommended that a selection of managers complete a standard
Internet-based training program provided by an online training organization. Managers who completed the
online training would receive a certificate of achievement. Based on input from the HR manager, however, it
was decided that a custom-designed program would be more appropriate because it would better meet

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

managers’ needs. A custom-designed program would also allow the school to relate the training back to their
new performance management system and provide flexibility in the program’s delivery.

There were a number of options available to determine who would design and deliver

the program:

 The HR manager could design and deliver the training.

 The HR manager could design the content, and the training could be conducted by a member of the
school’s senior management team.
 An external consultant could design and deliver the training.
 An external consultant could design the content, and the HR manager could conduct the training.

In the end, it was decided that the HR manager would design and develop the program with support from the
senior management team, if necessary. The reasons for this decision:

 Specialized knowledge. The HR manager had developed the new performance management system
and was therefore the most knowledgeable about it.
 Experience. The HR manager was experienced in developing training programs.
 Cost. This was the least expensive option; no direct costs would be incurred.
 Context. It would be easier to include specifics about the new performance management system if the
training was designed by an internal person.
 Flexibility. The sessions could be run at the times convenient to managers, which may have been more
difficult to accommodate with an external trainer.

PLEASE NOTE : From this point forward, the HR manager is referred to as the trainer.

Designing the Training

A focus group was held with five managers to find out what they wanted from the training and to assess their
concerns about performance management. This was a useful process. The managers wanted to include
training in how to deal with difficult people, which otherwise may not have been included in the program.
Including this, also assured managers that their views were important and had been considered in the
program’s design.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

The training would take place in-house and outside the normal workday. It was agreed that the most
appropriate method was a two-hour workshop. The workshop would include various activities geared to
develop the skills and knowledge of the participants:

 Trainer-led interactive presentations.

 Role play exercises.
 Use of a specially designed case study.
 Small-group exercises.

By developing and delivering the session in-house, training materials specific to the new performance
management system could be created, rather than relying on generic training materials. It was hoped that this
would facilitate the transfer from training to the workplace. The training would be mandatory for all
appraisers to ensure consistency. The trainer developed a plan for the two-hour session and included activities
that would appeal to participants of various learning styles. Appropriate resources and handouts were
designed. The trainer used the organization’s generic training evaluation form (provided at the end of this

workbook) to evaluate the program.

The program would include the following:

 How to develop questioning and listening skills.

 How to complete the new performance management documents.
 How to develop SMART objectives (objectives that are specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and
 How to help employees identify training and development opportunities.

Training Delivery

Participants were asked to read all the documents related to the new performance management system
before the training. The session was held in a classroom with the necessary IT equipment during non-school
hours. Eighty percent of appraisers attended this scheduled session; the remaining 20 percent participated in
another presentation four weeks later.

Evaluation of the Training Program: The Trainer’s Perspective

The following is an excerpt from the trainer’s evaluation report:

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

 Overall, I thought the session went really well. I covered all of the materials and had some good
 I think most of the participants now have a good understanding of how to carry out a performance
review, but I am not entirely sure they believe there are benefits to a
 performance appraisal system.
 I was a bit disappointed with two participants who did not actively participate in the activities. Perhaps
they thought they already knew the information.
 I might have misjudged one of the communication activities. I estimated that it would take about 45
minutes, but everyone completed it in 20 minutes.
 Unfortunately I didn’t have any extra activities, so I had to stretch out the final discussion so we didn’t
finish too early.
Evaluation of the Training Program: The Managers’ Perspective

Managers were asked to provide feedback at the end of the training. Some of the

results are shown below:

Qualitative feedback was also offered:

“The trainer was very good and was clearly knowledgeable about the subject.”

“I found the practical tips to be really useful.”

“It was a bit annoying when the administrators kept interrupting us to pass on


How would you rate the… Percentage who rated it as

good/very good

Quality of materials 78%

Knowledge of trainer 90%

Presentation skills of trainer 70%

Location of training event 50%

Duration of event 85%

Rate the following statements: Percentage who rated it as

agree/strongly agree

The session met the stated objectives. 78%

I feel confident in leading performance reviews with members of my team. 80%

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

The training methods used were appropriate. 60%

“It would have been easier if everyone had read the new performance management documents before they
arrived at the session.”

“Some of the activities were a bit too childish – I think the trainer forgot that we are all teachers.”

“Some of the handouts are really good.”

“I am still not convinced that performance management is something which benefits us – it seems like
another paper exercise.”

II . Designing the Training Program for Appraisees

Needs Analysis

The HR manager was assigned responsibility for this program because of the successful design and delivery of
the manager’s training. This session was internally led, for the same reasons the manager’s training was
internally led.

Past experience showed that it was difficult to hold focus groups with support staff members. Instead, an e-
mail was sent to all support staff asking them what they wanted to be included in their training program. Less
than 10 percent of the support staff responded to the e-mail.

The following instructional methods were chosen for this program based on experience with previous training
programs (see “Sample Training Program


 Presentations by trainer
 Practical activities
 Role plays
 Worksheets

Training Delivery

The appraisees were not assigned pre-work before the training because this may have intimidated some
participants. Although details of the new performance management system had been shared with appraisees
in an earlier e-mail, most participants had not seen the actual documents that would be used. The documents
Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

were distributed during the session so the trainer could guide them through and answer any questions

The session was held in a school classroom, but was scheduled outside of normal working hours (see
“Appraisee Training Program Agenda”) to avoid disrupting staff and students during the normal school day. To
compensate for the inconvenience, attendees received overtime for the two hours spent in the training.

Training Program Evaluation

The trainer ran out of time during training. Consequently, no formal evaluations were submitted by
participants. The trainer thought it had been a challenging session; it had been difficult to engage the
participants. The participants had very different needs and it was difficult to accommodate them within a two-
hour session.

The trainer also reported that few trainees participated in the activities or asked any questions.


This case study shows that there are many issues to consider when planning, designing and delivering training
programs. It is also clear that because people have different needs and learning styles, it is difficult to produce
a program that will be rated well by everyone. In this instance, it was harder to satisfy people because of the
topic; negative experiences with the school’s previous performance management system made this training

3. Discussion Questions

These questions are suitable for independent work, small groups or a class-wide discussion.

3.1. Would it be appropriate to use e-learning to deliver the performance management training? Explain
your answer.

Possible Answer -

Pro:There are many advantages to e-learning. It provides flexibility for learners to work at their own pace and
at a time which is convenient for them. E-learning enables participants to concentrate on areas most
appropriate for them and enables employers to track participants’ progress. One popular design is to use a
generic online course to teach fundamentals and follow up with a workshop for experiential exercises.

Con: E-learning is not appropriate for all topic areas and should not be seen as the easy or best option in all
cases. In this case study, it would not be appropriate to deliver it exclusively in this format because one of the
key topics to be covered is soft skills. When dealing with soft-skill issues (such as how to have difficult
Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

conversations), it is more effective to have the personal touch of a skilled trainer. Participants also need the
practical experience of taking part in simulations and role plays. A trainer-led session also enables participants
to have any questions answered immediately.

3.2. What are the potential barriers to a successful training session? Outline how you might overcome them.

Possible Answer- Potential Barrier to a successful training session:

Poorly-skilled trainer-Ensure an appropriate trainer is selected using objective criteria .

Unclear objectives- Ensure the trainer sets clear objectives at the start of the session.

Lack of time management-Ensure the training session is well organized and that the trainer’s plan shows
suggested timing for each section.

Unmotivated participants-The trainer can use warm-up activities to motivate participants and can emphasize
the benefits of participating in the training. The trainer could also ask participants to be open about their
concerns so they can be addressed during training.

Lack of flexibility-The trainer should have a session plan which allows for flexibility, to ensure time to answer
participant questions and to respond to different needs.

Over-reliance on one training method-Trainers should remember that participants have a variety of preferred
learning styles.The technology breaks down and the session relied on it. The trainer should anticipate such
problems and have training materials available in a different format. For example, handouts could be provided
if the PowerPoint presentation fails.

The content is not at an appropriate level for the audience. The trainer must receive a detailed brief explaining
the purpose of the training and participants’ existing skills and knowledge. The trainer should provide a variety
of activities so all ability levels are accommodated.

The content is not relevant to the organizational context-Where possible, the trainer should make activities as
relevant as possible to the organization. This includes using real organizational documents, rather than generic
materials. This will help participants transfer their learning to the workplace.

Poor training environment-Ensure a suitable room with the necessary computer equipment is provided for the
session. Ideally, it should be in a quiet location where people will not be disturbed.

Lack of time to practice skills-The trainer should plan a combination of activities so participants can learn the
theory and then practice the skills.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

Lack of perceived relevance to workplace-Content should be as relevant as possible to the workplace. The
trainer must emphasize this to participants so they understand how to apply it when they go back to their

3.3. In the information provided in the case study, do you see any evidence that the trainer considered
Dessler’s “Five-Step Training and Development Process” in the manager’s training program? Explain your

Possible Answer

There is some evidence that the trainer used this model. For example:

1. Needs analysis. The trainer considered the skills needed for participants to complete the new performance
management process and consulted with participants. This stage of the process could have been more
detailed. Analysis typically provides information that feeds into the design phase. Based on the case study, not
enough information is provided to gauge this. While it appears that the performance management system will
be covered, techniques on how to use the system are not mentioned. Some soft-skills training will be offered,
but other than conflict management, no other soft-skills topics are mentioned.

2. Instructional design. There is evidence that the trainer identified and organized suitable activities. The steps
taken are not detailed, but would include identifying topic areas; the sequence of topic areas; topic objectives;
times for each topic; learning activities; delineation of teaching methods (such as role play, lecture, etc.); and
test items.

3. Validation. There is no evidence that the program was tested with a small group.

4. Implementation. The training sessions occurred. However, the administrative documents did not indicate
what equipment, student-to-instructor ratio, student materials, etc., would be needed.

5. Evaluation. The manager’s training program included time for an evaluation, but this did not happen at the
end of the appraisee training session.

3.4. Would you require any information about your participants before the training session?

Possible Answer- The following information would be useful for the trainer to have before the training

1. The average number of years managers and support staff have worked at the organization.

2. The job titles for managers and how many appraisees they will be evaluating.

3. Any special needs that will require additional support.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

4. The number (if any) of managers who have received supervisory training.

5. Any previous experience participants have had with performance management (this could be
achieved through a questionnaire) and their preferred learning styles.

3.5. Why is it important for appraisees to be trained in using the new performance management system?

Possible Answer- For the new system to be successful, all stakeholders must understand and commit to it. If
appraises do not understand how to complete the documentation, it will not be successful. The training
reinforces the organization’s commitment to performance management and shows that appraisees’ needs are
recognized just as much as appraisers’ needs. For those employees who had negative experiences with
performance appraisal before, this may reassure them that it can be a positive process.

3.6. From the perspective of the trainer, describe how you would incorporate the participating managers’
feedback (as detailed in the case study) into future programs.

Possible Answer-

 Obtain information about participants ahead of time so the program can be tailored to their needs.

 Be more responsive to the needs of the group when the session is taking place.

 Encourage participants to take more ownership of the session and identify areas they wish to discuss.

 Accept that it is nearly impossible to meet everyone’s needs in a single training session.

3.7 Write a paragraph for each program depicting their differences.

Appraisee’s Training Program

An outline was provided.There was an opportunity for participants to ask questions.There weren’t too many
activities for a two-hour training session. Did not incorporate activities for different learning styles. Not very
detailed. Trainer-led with limited interaction. No chance to practice skills. Limited variety of training methods.
No evaluation at the end of the event.

Manager’s Training Program

It was very detailed.It was flexible. A variety of training methods were used. Appropriate range of training
methods used.Oportunity to practice skills. Wide range of topic areas covered. Evaluation at the end. There

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

was a lot of material to be covered in a two-hour session. No time was allocated for general communication
skills. May not meet the needs of people with more complex learning style preferences.

Additional Questions:

4.3.4. Discuss how a new program could be designed to address the weaknesses identified in the previous

4.4. Write an overview of the appraisee’s training program. Use the questions below to help structure the

Who will deliver the training?

How long would the session(s) last?

What are the key areas to cover?

Can you use any of the same areas from the manager’s training program?

What are the key differences between a session suitable for managers and one geared toward employees?

How would you allocate time for the different activities during the training?

If you split the session into two parts, how would you divide the content between the two sessions?

4.5. Considering your answer to the previous set of questions, how would you rate the proposed appraisee

4.6. Design an evaluation form that could be completed by participants at the end of the training program.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996

The Training Requirements of an organization ( Vkonnect Pvt Ltd.) was bought out and the following areas of
training were identified: Communication Skills, Business Communication, Use of Social Media for recruiting,
Headhunting Skills, Interviewing Skills, Ethics in recruitment, Selling and Influencing Skills and Time

Five training programs were also successfully conducted namely - Business Communication, Strategies for
Better Time Management, Interviewing Techniques, Work – Life Balance and Ethics in Recruitment. All the
Trainings were received with enthusiasm with a training feedback measured between very good to excellent.

One Evaluation Study of a functional use of HCRM software Training Programme, conducted by self was
conducted. Although the training impacted certain areas more than the others yet it fulfilled its purpose
completely. It also increased the motivation level and contributed to the productivity of the trainees. Thus,
the training met all the criteria of a successful training programme.

The case studies were selected and modified to suit the audience. The questions, activities and probable
answers were also customized as per the requirement . Both the case studies were very relevant to the
participants and the sessions were full of passionate discussions and humor. Best part about the participants
was that they could assume things not mentioned in the case studies and come up with unique and new
insights to the problems.

Name : Smita Sharma Registration No.: 67/21996


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4 © 2008 Society for Human Resource Management. Fiona L. Robson

Internet Sources

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© 2008 Society for Human Resource Management. Fiona L. Robson 5