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employed by all management personnel, is work-study. It introduces the most effective method of working. Work study has proved to be the most effective tool in the hands of management. Every industry is facing problems concerning the efficiency at all levels and so a systematic attempt is need to eliminate unnecessary work and the make remaining work easier. Thus productivity would automatically be increased. It is therefore, necessary to have a constant effort to reduce the waste in every phase of production. So, that there is surplus available for division to develop good life. According to the ILO, “Work Study is a term used to embrace the techniques of method study and work measurement, which are employed to ensure the best possible use of human and material resources in carrying out a specified activity.” According to British Standards Institute, “Work study is generic term for those techniques, particularly ‘method study’ and ‘work measurement’ which are used in the examination of human work in all its contexts and which lead systematically to the investigation of all factors which affect the efficiency and economy of the situation being renewed, in order to effect improvement.” Thus, the work study of human works in all aspects in order to improve productivity. It is a systematic and analytical study of work process and work methods with the objective of increasing efficiency and reducing costs. Work study helps to reduce waste through standardization of qualitative and quantitative element of the job.
2) Reduced manufacturing costs. it does not matter whether the activities studies had occurred in industry. 8) Reduced material handling costs. public services or in the armed forces. Since it is universal in its application. 9) Provides a standard of performance to measure labor efficiency. standardize the product. product planning and control. Basis for sound incentive schemes. maintenance or similar work in which there is little or no repetition of a particular operation. It is not confined to engineering activities of a repetitive nature. 5) Fair wages to employees.e. 3) Improved work place layout. 2) Improve the basic process by research and development. it can be applied to jobbing. . 5) Improve organization. 3) Improve the methods of operation. Uses of Work study 1) Increased productivity and operational efficiency.Objectives of work study 1) Provide more and improved physical means to motivate the workers. 6) Better working conditions to employees. Scope of Work Study There is a school of thought that work study is applicable only in the field of industry where processes are highly repetitive. i. 4) Simplify and improve the product and reduce the variety. 10) 11) Better industrial relations and employee morale. 4) Better manpower planning and capacity planning. 6) Improve manpower efficiency at all levels. 7) Improved work flow. This is not true.
Work study procedure There are eight basic steps involved in a work study procedure. Techniques of Work Study Work-study has two closely related facets : method study. 4) Develop: The new method for the job/process/operation. questioning the purpose. viz. place.12) Provides better job satisfaction to employees. which is the assessment of the time. 5) Measure: The work content and establish the standard time using an appropriate work-measurement technique.. flow diagram. Both are carried out systematically and follow very similar patterns. 3) Examine : Critically all the recorded facts. analytical estimating method. flow process chart. 6) Define : The new method for the job/process/operation. SIMO chart (simultaneous motion chart) and man-machine chart. 7) Install : The new method as standard practice. which a job should take. . These steps are : 1) Select : The job or the process or the operation to be studied. Some of them are common to both method study and work measurement. person and the means of doing the job/process/operation. 2) Record : All relevant facts about the job or process or operation using suitable charting techniques such as operation process chart. pre-determined motion time system and work sampling. and work measurement. an examination of the ways of doing work. 8) Maintain : The new method for the job/process/operation. synthesis method. sequence. time study using stop watch.
working conditions and equipments and tools used to carry out the job. as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective method and reducing costs”. Application of Method Study . It encompasses the study of work processes.Work study Method Study 1) Select task to be studied 2) Record the facts 3) Examine the facts 4) Develop and define the new method 5) Install the new method 6) maintain Work Measurement 1) Select task to be studied 2) Record the facts 3) Analyze the facts 4) Measure the task 5) Compile the standard time 6) Define method and its related time METHOD STUDY Meaning and definition of Method Study Work methods analysis or Method study is a scientific technique of observing recording and critically examining the present method of performing a task or job or operation with the aim of improving the present method and developing a new and cheaper method. “Method Study may be understood as the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work. It is also known as methods improvement or work improvement. According to British Standard Institute.
3) To reduce excessive materials handling or movement and thereby reduce fatigue of workmen.Method study can be applied to any filed of work. working conditions. machinery. operation or activity. 5) To eliminate wasteful and inefficient motions. 2) To develop an improved method to improve productivity and to reduce operating costs. Method study procedure . 6) To standardize work methods or processes. and manpower 4) Most effective handling of material 5) Improved flow of work. working area or factory 2) Improved design of plant and equipment. 4) To improve utilization of resources. 3) Improved use of material. plant. but the most improvement areas where it pays rich dividends are: 1) Improved layout of office. equipments and tools. 6) Standardization of methods and procedure 7) Improved safety standards 8) Better working conditions 9) Improved achievement with less effort 10) 11) Productive and effective utilization of human effort Economy of expenditure Objectives of Method Study 1) To study the existing / proposed method of doing any job. equipment.
c) Two handed process chart d) Multiple activity chart/Man-machine chart e) Simultaneous motion chart (SIMO Chart) ii) a) b) c) d) Diagrams such as Flow diagram String diagram Cycle graph Chronocycle graph 3) Examine : The recorded facts critically. questioning the purpose (What is achieved?). place (Where is it achieved?). sequence (When is it achieved?). offer scope for improving the working conditions and improving the utilizations of resources. the means (How is it achieved?). challenging everything being done and seeking alternatives. man-type and machine type / equipment type.The various steps involved in method study are as follows : 1) Select : The work or job to be studied and define the objectives to be achieved by method study. and the person (Who achieves it?). Given table illustrates the questioning attitude of methods analysis . shall offer vast scope for work improvement through reduction of excessive materials handling and fatigue of workmen. The job selected to have maximum economic advantage. 2) Record : All the relevant facts or information pertaining to the existing method using the recording techniques such as: i) Process charts a) Outline (operation) process chart / operation process chart b) Flow process chart-material type.
workplace layout and work.Questioning Attitudes of Methods Study 1) What is done? What is the purpose of the operation? Why should it be done? What would happen if it were not done? Is every part of the operation necessary? 2) Who does the work? Why does this person do it ? Who could do it better? Can changes be made to permit a person with less skill and training to do the work? 3) Where is the work done? Why is it done there? Could it be done somewhere else more economically? 4) When is the work done? Why should it be done then? Would it be better to do it at some other time? 5) How is the work done? Why is it done this way? 4) Develop : The improved method by generating several alternatives and selecting the best method. quality control. working conditions. planning and control techniques. tools. production planning and control. . The factors to be considered while evaluating alternatives and selecting the best method are : i) Cost of implementation ii) Expected savings in time and cost. jigs and fixtures. production and sales departments. material handling equipments. Establish the new method by providing suitable equipment design. iii) Feasibility iv) Producibility v) Acceptance to design. vi) Reaction of employees to the new method. mechanical aids. vii) Short term or long term implication of the alternative.
equipments. the programmes of installation and a schedule (i. time table) are planned and necessary requirements such as resources. This is done by periodic checks and verifications at regular intervals. operating instructions to workers are provided. tools. Proper control procedures are used to ensure that the new method is practiced to achieve the benefits of methods study and also to achieve higher productivity.5) Install : The impoved (new) method in three phases planning. 6) Maintain : The new method by ensuring that the installed method is functioning well. In the first two phases. The implementation phase involves the introduction of the developed method as standard practice to achieve the desired results. .e. arranging and implementing phases.
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