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Name: Juna S.

Consolacion Subject: Profed 7

Section: CED-01-401A Date: 01/15/18

Charles Fries’ Stages of Reading

Charles Carpenter Fries (1887-1967) was a major figure in American linguistics and
language haft of education during the first half of 20th century. Theoretical innovation
and practical implementation were important thread that ran throughout his work. Fries
believes that the attempt to deal with practical problems was a vital part of developing
linguistics theory. He spent most of his effort exploring grammar as a tool for
communicating meaning. Charles Fries was quite influential in the development of
linguistics in the United States, and yet in some ways remained outside of the
mainstream of the linguistics he helps to develop. The contributors to his volume were
asked to present and evaluate some aspect of Fries’ work and to show how similar
ideas are being used today.

Reading is the key that unlocks the door to the word of enlighten and enjoyment and
the basic tool for learning in the content field. Involves much more than recognition of
the graphic symbols it includes even more than the arousal of meaning or the gaining of
meaning from pined symbols. It is a process in which information from the text and
knowledge possessed the reading get together to produce to meaning.

Developmental Reading refers to a comprehensive reading program which consist of

several periods or stages. These periods usually coincide with the developmental stage
growth of the individual. It is believed that one progress gradually in acquiring and
developing certain skills.

Developmental Stages of Reading Growth

1. Reading Readiness Stage

2. Beginning Reading Stage
3. Listening Skills
4. Word Study Skills
5. Literary Appreciation Skills
6. Speaking Skills
7. Reading Skills
8. Writing Skills
9. Graphic Growth and Development
10. The Acquisition of Reading

Reading Readiness is a complex of many abilities, skills, understanding, and interest,

each of which contributes in some measure to process of learning to read. It refers to a
period when the child is getting ready to read. This starts at home, becomes more
organized in the guidance of teachers in school, in nursery or kindergarten. It’s how the
child engages on varied activities using real and concrete objects such as toys, tools,
etc. Then a child must acquire skills in auditory, visual, motor- ocular coordination and
critical thinking.

Theories of Reading Readiness

Stage 1: The transfer Stage it is the period during which the child learns a new set of
signal and the visual symbols (letters, spelling, patterns, and punctuation marks) that
stands for auditory symbols (the oral language) that he already knows.

A Beginning Reader is the stage at which the child starts to recognize certain words,
symbols, phrases, and sentences that stands the idea. They must get used to the
following patterns of graphic shapes:

1. Space direction sequence

 Filipino children whose first language (Filipino or any of the Philippine
dialects) is different from their language of instruction (English) do not
have chance to engage themselves in the functional use of the language
in real-real sitting.
 In Filipino and English, the space-direction is a horizontal sequence of
letter groups in parallel lines from left to right. (You’ve just done doing it
after reading this.)
 In Arabic writing, the space-direction used is also horizontal, but form to
 Chinese writing uses a vertical sequence proceeding from top to bottom,
in columns, beginning at the right, with each successive column to the left
of the proceeding one.
 Thus, the principles of reading readiness as had been practiced in the
traditional way would still apply to the Filipino child who is just learning to
read. Other children coming from more affluent homes with will have a
socio-cultural environment similar to that of their American or English
counterparts will learn how to read based on the emergent literacy
2. The alphabet
It is essential to reading at the very beginning that pupils have already
developed such an ability to identify and distinguish the graphic shapes of the
letters as can be shown by instant and automatic responses of recognition.
In English, these 12 letters formed the sequences of many words found in
the talk of a five-year old.
A, T, H, M, F, C, S, B, R, P, D, N
With the same sequence, in Filipino, we would expect the following letters in
the first letters to be learned.
A, M, S, O, T, I, N
 The alphabet is best taught only after all sounds been mastered.
 Learners are drilled on what comes before a letter and what comes after.
 Using letter cards, the learner is asked to arrange the letter in alphabetical
order, identifying the sound of each letter name.
 The capital letters (uppercase letters) the small letters (lowercase letters)
should also introduced.
 Matching uppercase letters and lowercase letters will be a good learning
Sounds and Letter Names- The sounds of letters of the alphabet are
introduced first. The children should master the phoneme-graphemes
(sounds-letter) relationships.
A, e, I, o, u
A. Ascending letters: b, d, h, k, l, t
B. Descending letters: g, j, p, q, y
C. One-space letter: c, m, n, r, s, v, w, x, x
D. Special letter: l
3. THE NUMERALS, Especially Hindu-Arabic numerals, that stand for the
number words the child already knows orally.
“Fries recommends that this be postponed until after the child has mastered the
reading process with the use of the alphabet.
4. Mathematical Signs- Signs for mathematical processes which are also word
signs like numerals, such as:
+ - = % #
5. Common abbreviation- presenting words or sequence of words
Mr. Mrs. Dr. Ms. A.M.
P.M. Jr. St. Rd. Sr. Sat.

6.Punctaion marks, graphic signs not found in the oral language (period, question
mark, comma, exclamation point, colons, semicolon, etc.

7. Language Signals, not represented in writing such as information patterns.

“Fries says that the transfer stages is complete when the child responds “as rapidly
accurately “to the visual symbols that represent a message as he does to auditory
symbols they replace.

Stage 2: The Productive Stage this is the period during which the child’s reading
become fluent an automatic that he no longer pays conscious attention to the shapes
and patterns of the letters on a page. He can now pay more attention to the construction
of meaning beyond the literal information of the text or word recognition. Word
recognition refers to the ability to identify, read and analyze the meaning attached to the
Word Families

 at family - bat, cat, sat, hat, mat rat,

 an family - ban, can, fan, man, ran
 ad family - bad, dad, had, mad, lad
 ar family - bar, car, far, mar, par, war
 ed family- fed, bed, red, wed, ted

Stage 3: The Vivid Imaginative Realization of Vicarious Experience (VIRVE) this

occurs when the reading process become so automatic that reading is used equally
with, or even more than live language in the acquiring, and developing experience.

Fries’ ends his discussion of the stages of reading with this taught.

“Learning to read has no end. We believe that we now know better that formerly
where to begin and how. We believe that we must give through and systematic practice
not only through the transfer stage but through the building up of a superior ability to
read productively. Nor must we stop before we go as far as possible in teaching our
students to really read literature.”

Factors That Affecting Reading Readiness

Physiological Factors. Reading makes constant use of the eyes. Studies show that
the eyes should move rhythmically and regularly along the printed line. If reading is to
be effective the eyes should move from the beginning of one line (left) to the end of the
line (right).

Fixation is made when the eyes stop. Good readers have fewer fixation than poor

Inter-fixation Movements are caused by the eyes which move from one stopping point
to another.

Return Sweeps refer to the quick swinging back to eyes from the end of the line
beginning of the next line.

Regressions are backward or right to left movements made in reverse direction.

Span of Recognition or perception span is the number of words taken every time the
eyes stop.

Duration of fixation is the length of time the eyes pause.

Intellectual factors the innate capacity to learn, intelligence, and mental maturity affect
reading performance.

Psychological factors feelings about self and others affect reading performance.

Linguistics factors reading is a social process affected by attitudes, loyalties, conflicts,

and prejudices.

Physical factors include environmental such as light, quality of eyesight in regard to

eye health, and source of the page one is reading, such as phone, TV, book, sign, or

Mental factors include comprehension, learning disabilities, speed of interpretation,

through processes, and abilities to focus away from distractions.


Physical & Physiological development

 physical health
 malnutrition
 illness
 hunger


 Astigmatism
 Congenital Exotropia
 Hypotropia (eye turns down)
 Hypertropia (eye turns up)
 Internment Exotropia (eye turns out)
 Exotropia (eye turn in)

Hearing defects

 Conductive loss -occurs when sound not conductively through the outer ear
canal to the eardrum and the tiny bones (ossicles) of the middle ear. Conductive
of hearing loss usually involves a reduction in level or the ability to hear faint
 Nerve loss- caused by an implement of auditory nerve. The child hears the
speech of others but may not understand what he hears.

Neurological deviations

 Brain injury at birth

 Injury to the brain tissue during childhood

Psychosocial development

 Emotional problems
 Personality development
 Motivation
 Reading interests

Charles Fries’ Approach in Developmental Reading

Charles Fries’ basic concept on reading is learning to read in one’s native

language, learning to shift, to transfer from auditory signs for language signals which the
child has already learned, to visual or graphic signs for the same signals for language
reception. His aim in teaching reading are to develop high speed recognition
responses, to teach the child to take in through the eye the same meanings that
learning to speak, and develop recognition responses to the letters of the alphabet.
Fries, approach shows that instead of trying to match the individual letters and separate
the sound units, we must develop the automatic habits of responding to terms they

 2012, The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistic
 https://www.mje.mcgil/article/reading