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EX1800-3

Technical Manual
SAFETY
RECOGNIZE SAFETY INFORMATION

• This is the SAFETY ALERT SYMBOL.

• When you see this symbol on your machine or in


this manual, be alert to the potential for personal
injury.
• Follow recommended precautions and safe
operating practices.

001-E01A-0001
SA-001

UNDERSTAND SIGNAL WORDS

• On machine safety signs, signal words designating


the degree or level of hazard - DANGER, WARNING,
or CAUTION - are used with the safety alert symbol.

• DANGER indicates an imminently hazardous


situation which, if not avoided, will result in death
or serious injury.

• WARNING indicates a potentially hazardous


situation which, if not avoided, could result in
death or serious injury.

• CAUTION indicates a potentially hazardous


situation which, if not avoided, may result in minor
or moderate injury.

• DANGER or WARNING safety signs are located


near specific hazards. General precautions are
listed on CAUTION safety signs.

• CAUTION also calls attention to safety messages in SA-1223


this manual.

• To avoid confusing machine protection with personal


safety messages, a signal word IMPORTANT
indicates a situation which, if not avoided, could
result in damage to the machine.

• NOTE indicates an additional explanation for an


element of information.

002-E01A-1223

SA-1
SAFETY
FOLLOW SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS

• Carefully read and follow all safety signs on the


machine and all safety messages in this manual.

• Safety signs should be installed, maintained and


replaced when necessary.

• If a safety sign or operator's manual is damaged


or missing, replace it with new one.

• Learn how to operate the machine and its controls


correctly and safely. SA-003

• Allow only trained, qualified, authorized personnel to


operate the machine.

• Keep your machine in proper working condition.

• Unauthorized modifications of the machine may


impair its function and/or safety and affect
machine life.

• The safety messages in this SAFETY chapter are


intended to illustrate basic safety procedures of
machines. However it is impossible for these safety
messages to cover every hazardous situation you
may encounter. If you have any questions, you
should first consult your supervisor and/or your
authorized dealer before operating or performing
maintenance work on the machine.
S003-E01B-0003

PREPARE FOR EMERGENCIES

• Be prepared if a fire starts or if an accident occurs.

• Keep a first aid kit and fire extinguisher on hand.


• Thoroughly read and understand the label
attached on the fire extinguisher to use it properly.
• Establish emergency procedure guidelines to
cope with fires and accidents.
• Keep emergency numbers for doctors,
ambulance service, hospital, and fire department
posted near your telephone.
SA-437

004-E01A-0437

SA-2
SAFETY
WEAR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

• Wear close fitting clothing and safety equipment


appropriate to the job.

You may need:


A hard hat
Safety shoes
Safety glasses, goggles, or face shield
Heavy gloves
Hearing protection
Reflective clothing
Wet weather gear SA-438
Respirator or filter mask.
Be sure to wear the correct equipment and clothing
for the job. Do not take any chances.

• Avoid wearing loose clothing, jewelry, or other


items that can catch on control levers or other
parts of the machine.

• Operating equipment safely requires the full


attention of the operator. Do not wear radio or music
headphones while operating the machine.

005-E01A-0438

PROTECT AGAINST NOISE

• Prolonged exposure to loud noise can cause


impairment or loss of hearing.

• Wear a suitable hearing protective device such as


earmuffs or earplugs to protect against
objectionable or uncomfortably loud noises.

006-E01A-0434 SA-434

INSPECT MACHINE

• Inspect your machine carefully each day or shift by


walking around it before you start it to avoid personal
injury.

• In the walk-around inspection be sure to cover all


points described in the “PRE-START
INSPECTION” chapter in the operator’s manual.

S007-E01A-0435
SA-435

SA-3
SAFETY
USE HANDHOLDS AND STEPS

• Falling is one of the major causes of personal injury.

• When you get on and off the machine, always


face the machine and maintain a three-point
contact with the steps and handrails.

• Do not use any controls as hand-holds.

• Never jump on or off the machine. Never mount or


dismount a moving machine.
SA-439
• Be careful of slippery conditions on platforms,
steps, and handrails when leaving the machine.

008-E01A-0439

ADJUST THE OPERATOR'S SEAT

• A poorly adjusted seat for either the operator or for


the work at hand may quickly fatigue the operator
leading to misoperations.

• The seat should be adjusted whenever changing


the operator for the machine.
• The operator should be able to fully depress the
pedals and to correctly operate the control levers
with his back against the seat back.
• If not, move the seat forward or backward, and
check again. SA-378

009-E01A-0378

SA-4
SAFETY
FASTEN YOUR SEAT BELT

• If the machine should overturn, the operator may


become injured and/or thrown from the cab.
Additionally the operator may be crushed by the
overturning machine, resulting in serious injury or
death.

• Prior to operating the machine, thoroughly


examine webbing, buckle and attaching hardware.
If any item is damaged or worn, replace the seat
belt or component before operating the machine.
• Be sure to remain seated with the seat belt SA-237
securely fastened at all times when the machine is
in operation to minimize the chance of injury from
an accident.
• We recommend that the seat belt be replaced
every three years regardless of its apparent
condition.

010-E01A-0237

MOVE AND OPERATE MACHINE SAFELY

• Bystanders can be run over.

• Take extra care not to run over bystanders.


Confirm the location of bystanders before moving,
swinging, or operating the machine.
• Always keep the travel alarm and horn in working
condition (if equipped). It warns people when the
machine starts to move.
• Use a signal person when moving, swinging, or
operating the machine in congested areas.
Coordinate hand signals before starting the SA-426
machine.

011-E01A-0426

SA-5
SAFETY
OPERATE ONLY FROM OPERATOR'S
SEAT

• Inappropriate engine starting procedures may cause


the machine to runaway, possibly resulting in serious
injury or death.

• Start the engine only when seated in the


operator's seat.
• NEVER start the engine while standing on the
track or on ground.
• Do not start engine by shorting across starter
terminals. SA-444
• Before starting the engine, confirm that all control
levers are in neutral.

012-E01B-0444

HANDLE STARTING AIDS SAFELY

Starting fluid:

• Starting fluid is highly flammable.

• Keep all sparks and flame away when using it.


• Keep starting fluid well away from batteries and
cables.
• Remove container from machine if engine does
not need starting fluid.
• To prevent accidental discharge when storing a
pressurized container, keep the cap on the
container, and store it in a cool, well-protected SA-293
location.
• Do not incinerate or puncture a starting fluid
container.
036-E01A-0293

JUMP STARTING

• Battery gas can explode, resulting in serious injury.

• If the engine must be jump started, be sure to


follow the instructions shown in the “OPERATING
THE ENGINE” chapter in the operator’s manual.
• The operator must be in the operator’s seat so
that the machine will be under control when the
engine starts. Jump starting is a two-person
operation.
• Never use a frozen battery. SA-032
• Failure to follow correct jump starting procedures
could result in a battery explosion or a runaway
machine.

S013-E01A-0032

SA-6
SAFETY
KEEP RIDERS OFF MACHINE

• Riders on machine are subject to injury such as


being struck by foreign objects and being thrown off
the machine.

• Only the operator should be on the machine.


Keep riders off.
• Riders also obstruct the operator’s view, resulting
in the machine being operated in an unsafe
manner.

SA-379
014-E01B-0379

PROVIDE SIGNALS FOR FOBS INVOLV-


ING MULTIPLE NUMBERS OF MACHINES

• For jobs involving multiple numbers of machines,


provide signals commonly known by all personnel
involved. Also, appoint a signal person to coordinate
the job site. Make sure that all personnel obey the
signal person’s directions.

018-E01A-0481
SA-481

CONFIRM DIRECTION OF MACHINE TO


BE DRIVEN

• Incorrect travel pedal/lever operation may result in


serious injury death.

• Before driving the machine, confirm the position of


the undercarriage in relation to the operator’s po-
sition. If the travel motors are located in front of
the cab, the machine will move in reverse when
travel pedals/levers are operated to the front.
SA-491
017-E01A-0491

SA-7
SAFETY
DRIVE MACHINE SAFELY

• Before moving the machine, confirm which way to


move travel pedals/levers for the corresponding
direction you wish to go.

• Pushing down on the front of the travel pedals or


pushing the levers forward moves the machine
towards the idlers. (Refer to the Steering the
Machine Using Pedals/Levers section in the
operator's manual for correct travel operation.)

• Traveling on a grade may cause the machine to slip SA-387


or to overturn, possibly resulting in serious injury or
death.

• When traveling up or down a grade, keep the


bucket in the direction of travel, approximately 0.5
to 1.0 m (approximately 2 to 3 ft)(A) above the
ground.
• If machine starts to skid or becomes unstable,
lower the bucket immediately.

SA-388

• Driving across the face of a slope or steering on a


slope may cause the machine to skid or turnover.
If the direction must be changed, move the
machine to level ground, then, change the
direction to ensure safe operation.

SA-441

SA-589

S019-E02B-0590

SA-8
SAFETY
AVOID INJURY FROM ROLLAWAY
ACCIDENTS

• Death or serious injury may result if you attempt to


mount or stop a moving machine.

To avoid rollaways:
• Select level ground when possible to park
machine.
• Do not park the machine on a grade.
• Lower the bucket and/or other work tools to the
ground.
• Turn the auto-idle switch off. SA-391
• Run the engine at slow idle speed without load for
5 minutes to cool down the engine.
• Stop the engine and remove the key from the key
switch.
• Pull the pilot control shut-off lever to LOCK
position.
• Block both tracks and lower the bucket to the
ground. Thrust the bucket teeth into the ground if
you must park on a grade.
• Position the machine to prevent rolling.
• Park a reasonable distance from other machines.

020-E02A-0493 SA-392

SA-9
SAFETY
AVOID INJURY FROM BACK-OVER AND
SWING ACCIDENTS

• If any person is present near the machine when


backing or swinging the upperstructure, the machine
may hit or run over that person, resulting in serious
injury or death.

To avoid back-over and swing accidents:


• Always look around BEFORE YOU BACK UP
AND SWING THE MACHINE. BE SURE THAT
ALL BYSTANDERS ARE CLEAR.
SA-383
• Keep the travel alarm in working condition (if
equipped).
ALWAYS BE ALERT FOR BYSTANDERS
MOVING INTO THE WORK AREA. USE THE
HORN OR OTHER SIGNAL TO WARN
BYSTANDERS BEFORE MOVING MACHINE.

• USE A SIGNAL PERSON WHEN BACKING UP


IF YOUR VIEW IS OBSTRUCTED. ALWAYS
KEEP THE SIGNAL PERSON IN VIEW.
Use hand signals, which conform to your local
regulations, when work conditions require a signal
person. SA-384

• No machine motions shall be made unless signals


are clearly understood by both signalman and
operator.

• Learn the meanings of all flags, signs, and


markings used on the job and confirm who has
the responsibility for signaling.

• Keep windows, mirrors, and lights clean and in


good condition.

• Dust, heavy rain, fog, etc., can reduce visibility. As


visibility decreases, reduce speed and use proper
lighting.

• Read and understand all operating instructions in


the operator’s manual.

S021-E01A-0494

SA-10
SAFETY
AVOID TIPPING

• The danger of tipping is always present when


operating on a grade, possibly resulting in serious
injury or death.

To avoid tipping:
• Be extra careful before operating on a grade.

• Prepare machine operating area flat.


• Keep the bucket low to the ground and close to
the machine.
• Reduce operating speeds to avoid tipping or SA-012
slipping.
• Avoid changing direction when traveling on
grades.
• NEVER attempt to travel across a grade steeper
than 15 degrees if crossing the grade is
unavoidable.
• Reduce swing speed as necessary when swinging
loads.

• Be careful when working on frozen ground.

• Temperature increases will cause the ground to


become soft and make ground travel unstable. SA-440

S025-E02B-0495

SA-11
SAFETY
AVOID POWER LINES

• Serious injury or death can result if the machine or


front attachments are not kept a safe distance from
electric lines.

• When operating near an electric line, NEVER


move any part of the machine or load closer than
3 m (10 ft) plus twice the line insulator length.
• Check and comply with any local regulations that
may apply.
• Wet ground will expand the area that could cause
any person on it to be affected by electric shock.
Keep all bystanders or co-workers away from the
site. SA-381

029-E01A-0381

OBJECT HANDLING

• If a lifted load should fall, any person nearby may be


struck by the falling load or may be crushed
underneath it, resulting in serious injury or death.

• When using the machine for craning operations,


be sure to comply with all local regulations.
• Do not use damaged chains or frayed cables,
sables, slings, or ropes.
• Before craning, position the upperstructure with
the travel motors at the rear.
• Move the load slowly and carefully. Never move it
suddenly.
• Keep all persons well away from the load.
• Never move a load over a person's head.
• Do not allow anyone to approach the load until it is
SA-014
safely and securely situated on supporting blocks
or on the ground.
• Never attach a sling or chain to the bucket teeth.
They may come off, causing the load to fall.

032-E01A-0014

SA-12
SAFETY
PROTECT AGAINST FLYING DEBRIS

• If flying debris hit eyes or any other part of the body,


serious injury may result.

• Guard against injury from flying pieces of metal or


debris; wear goggles or safety glasses.
• Keep bystanders away from the working area
before striking any object.

SA-432
031-E01A-0432

PARK MACHINE SAFELY

To avoid accidents:
• Park machine on a firm, level surface.
• Lower bucket to the ground.
• Turn auto-idle switch off.
• Run engine at slow idle speed without load for 5
minutes.
• Turn key switch to OFF to stop engine.
• Remove the key from the key switch.
• Pull the pilot control shut-off lever to the LOCK
position.
• Close windows, roof vent, and cab door. SA-390
• Lock all access doors and compartments.

033-E02B-0390

SA-13
SAFETY
HANDLE FLUIDS SAFELYҥ
ҥAVOID FIRES

• Handle fuel with care; it is highly flammable. If fuel


ignites, an explosion and/or a fire may occur,
possibly resulting in serious injury or death.

• Do not refuel the machine while smoking or when


near open flame or sparks.
• Always stop the engine before refueling the
machine.
• Fill the fuel tank outdoors.

• All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolants are SA-018


flammable.

• Store flammable fluids well away from fire


hazards.
• Do not incinerate or puncture pressurized
containers.
• Do not store oily rags; they can ignite and burn
spontaneously.

034-E01A-0496 SA-019

SA-14
SAFETY
PRACTICE SAFE MAINTENANCE
To avoid accidents:

• Understand service procedures before doing


work.
• Keep work area clean and dry.
• Do not spray water or steam inside cab.
• Never lubricate or service the machine while it is
moving.
• Keep hands, feet and clothing away from power-
driven parts.

• Before servicing the machine:


1) Park the machine on a level surface.
2) Lower the bucket to the ground.
3) Turn the auto-idle switch off.
4) Run the engine at slow idle speed without load SA-028
for 5 minutes.
5) Turn the key switch to OFF to stop engine.
6) Relieve the pressure in the hydraulic system by
moving the control levers several times.
7) Remove the key from the switch.
8) Attach a “Do Not Operate” tag on the control
lever.
9) Pull the pilot control shut-off lever to the LOCK
position.
10) Allow the engine to cool.

• If a maintenance procedure must be performed


with the engine running, do not leave machine
unattended.
• If the machine must be raised, maintain a 90 to
110 angle between the boom and arm. Securely
support any machine elements that must be
raised for service work.
• Never work under a machine raised by the boom. SA-527

• Inspect certain parts periodically and repair or


replace as necessary. Refer to the section
discussing that part in the “MAINTENANCE”
chapter in the operator’s manual.
• Keep all parts in good condition and properly
installed.
• Fix damage immediately. Replace worn or broken
parts. Remove any buildup of grease, oil, or
debris.
• Disconnect battery ground cable (-) before
making adjustments to electrical systems or
before welding on the machine.
• Illuminate your work area adequately but safely.
• Use a portable safety light for working inside or
under the machine.
SA-037
• Make sure that the bulb is enclosed by a wire
cage.
The hot filament of an accidentally broken bulb
can ignite spilled fuel or oil.
S500-E02B-0497

SA-15
SAFETY
WARN OTHERS OF SERVICE WORK

• Unexpected machine movement can cause serious


injury.

• Before performing any work on the machine,


attach a “Do Not Operate” tag on the control lever.

S501-E01A-0287
SA-287

SUPPORT MACHINE PROPERLY


• Never attempt to work on the machine without
securing the machine first.

• Always lower the attachment to the ground before


you work on the machine.
• If you must work on a lifted machine or
attachment, securely support the machine or
attachment. Do not support the machine on cinder
blocks, hollow tires, or props that may crumble
under continuous load. Do not work under a
machine that is supported solely by a jack. SA-527

519-E01A-0527

STAY CLEAR OF MOVING PARTS

• Entanglement in moving parts can cause serious


injury.

• To prevent accidents, care should be taken to


ensure that hands, feet, clothing, jewelry and hair
do not become entangled when working around
rotating parts.

502-E01A-0026 SA-026

SA-16
SAFETY
PREVENT PARTS FROM FLYING

• Grease in the track adjuster is under high pressure.


Failure to follow the precautions below may result in
serious injury, blindness, or death.

• Do not attempt to remove GREASE FITTING or


VALVE ASSEMBLY.
• As pieces may fly off, be sure to keep body and
face away from valve.

• Travel reduction gears are under pressure.


SA-344
• As pieces may fly off, be sure to keep body and
face away from AIR RELEASE PLUG to avoid
injury. GEAR OIL is hot.
• Wait for GEAR OIL to cool, then gradually loosen
AIR RELEASE PLUG to release pressure.

503-E01B-0344

STORE ATTACHMENTS SAFELY

• Stored attachments such as buckets, hydraulic


hammers, and blades can fall and cause serious
injury or death.

• Securely store attachments and implements to


prevent falling. Keep children and bystanders
away from storage areas.

SA-034

504-E01A-0034

USE TOOLS PROPERLY

• Use tools appropriate for the work to be done.


• Makeshift tools, parts, and procedures can create
safety hazards.
• For loosening and tightening hardware, use the
correct size tools to avoid injury caused by
slipping wrenches.
• Use only recommended replacement parts.
(See the parts catalog.)

SA-040
S522-E01A-0040

SA-17
SAFETY
PREVENT BURNS

Hot spraying fluids:

• After operation, engine coolant is hot and under


pressure. Hot water or steam is contained in the
engine, radiator and heater lines.
Skin contact with escaping hot water or steam can
cause severe burns.

• To avoid possible injury from hot spraying water.


DO NOT remove the radiator cap until the engine
is cool. When opening, turn the cap slowly to the SA-039
stop. Allow all pressure to be released before
removing the cap.
• The hydraulic oil tank is pressurized. Again, be
sure to release all pressure before removing the
cap.

Hot fluids and surfaces:

• Engine oil, gear oil and hydraulic oil also become hot
during operation.
The engine, hoses, lines and other parts become hot
as well.
SA-225

• Wait for the oil and components to cool before


starting any maintenance or inspection work.

505-E01B-0498

REPLACE RUBBER HOSES


PERIODICALLY

• Rubber hoses that contain flammable fluids under


pressure may break due to aging, fatigue, and
abrasion. It is very difficult to gauge the extent of
deterioration due to aging, fatigue, and abrasion of
rubber hoses by inspection alone.

• Periodically replace the rubber hoses.

• Failure to periodically replace rubber hoses may


cause a fire, fluid injection into skin, or the front SA-019
attachment to fall on a person nearby, which may
result in severe burns, gangrene, or otherwise
serious injury or death.

506-E01A-0019

SA-18
SAFETY
AVOID HIGH-PRESSURE FLUIDS

• Fluids such as diesel fuel or hydraulic oil under


pressure can penetrate the skin or eyes causing
serious injury, blindness or death.

• Avoid this hazard by relieving pressure before


disconnecting hydraulic or other lines.
• Relieve the pressure by moving the control levers
several times. Tighten all connections before
applying pressure. SA-031

• Search for leaks with a piece of cardboard; take


care to protect hands and body from high-
pressure fluids. Wear a face shield or goggles for
eye protection.
• If an accident occurs, see a doctor familiar with
this type of injury immediately. Any fluid injected
into the skin must be surgically removed within a
few hours or gangrene may result.

SA-292

507-E01A-0499 SA-044

SA-19
SAFETY
PREVENT FIRES

Check for Oil Leaks:

• Fuel, hydraulic oil and lubricant leaks can lead to


fires.

• Check for oil leaks due to missing or loose clamps,


kinked hoses, lines or hoses that rub against each
other, damage to the oil-cooler, and loose oil-
cooler flange bolts for oil leaks.
• Tighten, repair or replace any missing, loose or
damaged clamps, lines, hoses, oil-cooler and oil-
cooler flange bolts.
SA-019
• Do not bend or strike high-pressure lines.
• Never install bent or damaged lines, pipes, or
hoses.

Check for Shorts:

• Short circuits can cause fires.

• Clean and tighten all electrical connections.


• Check before starting work for loose, kinked,
hardened or frayed electrical cables and wires.
• Check before starting work for missing or
damaged terminal caps.
• DO NOT OPERATE MACHINE if cable or wires
are loose, kinked, etc..

Clean up Flammables:

• Spilled fuel and oil, and trash, grease, debris,


accumulated coal dust, and other flammables may
cause fires.

• Prevent fires by inspecting and cleaning the


machine daily and by removing spilled or
accumulated flammables immediately.

Check Key Switch:

• If a fire breaks out, failure to stop the engine will


escalate the fire, hampering fire fighting.

• Always check key switch function before


operating the machine every day:
1) Start the engine and run it at slow idle.
2) Turn the key switch to the OFF position to
confirm that the engine stops.

• If any abnormalities are found, be sure to repair


them before operating the machine.

S508-E05B-0019

SA-20
SAFETY
Check Emergency Engine Stop Switch:

• If a fire breaks out, failure to stop the engine will


escalate fire, hampering fire fighting.

• Check the emergency engine stop switch function


every 250 hours:
1) Start the engine and run it at slow Idle.
2) Turn the emergency engine stop switch to
the EMERG. STOP position.
ȓȉȀ Confirm that the engine(s) stop.

• If any abnormalities are found, be sure to repair


them before operating the machine.

Check Heat Shields:

• Damaged or missing heat shields may lead to fires.

• Damaged or missing heat shields must be


repaired or replaced before operating the
machine.
S508-E05B-0019

EVACUATING IN CASE OF FIRE

Evacuating in Case of Fire:

• If a fire breaks out, evacuate the machine in the


following way:

• Stop the engine by turning the emergency engine


stop switch to the EMERG. STOP position if there
is time.
• Use a fire extinguisher if there is time.
• Exit the machine. Refer to the section
“HANDLING LADDER/EMERGENCY ROPE” or
“EMERGENCY ROPE” in the operator’s manual
SA-393
for details on the procedures for emergency exits
from the machine.

S518-E01A-0393

SA-21
SAFETY
BEWARE OF EXHAUST FUMES

• Prevent asphyxiation. Engine exhaust fumes can


cause sickness or death.

• If you must operate in a building, be sure there is


adequate ventilation. Either use an exhaust pipe
extension to remove the exhaust fumes or open
doors and windows to bring enough outside air
into the area.

509-E01A-0016 SA-016

AVOID HEATING NEAR PRESSURIZED


FLUID LINES

• Flammable spray can be generated by heating near


pressurized fluid lines, resulting in severe burns to
yourself and bystanders.

• Do not heat by welding, soldering, or using a torch


near pressurized fluid lines or other flammable
materials.
• Pressurized lines can be accidentally cut when
heat goes beyond the immediate flame area.
Install temporary fire-resistant guards to protect SA-030
hoses or other materials before engaging in
welding, soldering, etc..

AVOID APPLYING HEAT TO LINES


CONTAINING FLAMMABLE FLUIDS

• Do not weld or flame cut pipes or tubes that


contain flammable fluids.
• Clean them thoroughly with nonflammable solvent
before welding or flame cutting them.

510-E01B-0030

SA-22
SAFETY
REMOVE PAINT BEFORE WELDING OR
HEATING

• Hazardous fumes can be generated when paint is


heated by welding, soldering, or using a torch. If
inhaled, these fumes may cause sickness.

• Avoid potentially toxic fumes and dust.


• Do all such work outside or in a well-ventilated
area. Dispose of paint and solvent properly.

• Remove paint before welding or heating:


1) If you sand or grind paint, avoid breathing the SA-029
dust.
Wear an approved respirator.
2) If you use solvent or paint stripper, remove
stripper with soap and water before welding.
Remove solvent or paint stripper containers and
other flammable material from area. Allow
fumes to disperse at least 15 minutes before
welding or heating.

511-E01A-0029

PREVENT BATTERY EXPLOSIONS

• Battery gas can explode.

• Keep sparks, lighted matches, and flame away


from the top of battery.
• Never check battery charge by placing a metal
object across the posts. Use a voltmeter or
hydrometer.
• Do not charge a frozen battery; it may explode.
Warm the battery to 16 °C ( 60 °F ) first.

• Battery electrolyte is poisonous. If the battery should SA-032


explode battery electrolyte may be splashed into
eyes, possibly resulting in blindness.

• Be sure to wear eye protection when checking


electrolyte specific gravity.

512-E01B-0032

SA-23
SAFETY
SERVICE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM
SAFELY

• If spilled onto skin, refrigerant may cause a cold


contact burn.

• Refer to the freon container for proper use when


servicing the air conditioning system.
• Use a recovery and recycling system to avoid
venting freon into the atmosphere.
• Never let the freon stream make contact with the
skin.
SA-405

513-E01A-0405

AVOID HARMFUL ASBESTOS DUST

• Inhaled asbestos fibers may cause lung cancer.

• Avoid breathing dust that may be generated when


han-dling components containing asbestos fibers.
• Components that may contain asbestos fibers are
some gaskets. The asbestos used in these
components is usually found in a resin or sealed
in some way. Normal handling is not hazardous as
long as airborne dust containing asbestos is not
generated.
• Avoid creating dust. Never use compressed air for
cleaning. Avoid brushing or grinding asbestos-
SA-029
containing materials. When servicing, wear an
approved respirator. A special vacuum cleaner is
recommended to clean asbestos. If not available,
wet the asbestos containing materials with a mist
of oil or water.
• Be sure to comply with all applicable rules and
regulations for the work place.
Follow all local environmental rules and
regulations for the disposal of asbestos.
• Keep bystanders away from the areas where
asbestos particles may be in the air.
514-E01A-0029

SA-24
SAFETY
HANDLE CHEMICAL PRODUCTS SAFELY

• Direct exposure to hazardous chemicals can cause


serious injury. Potentially hazardous chemicals used
with your machine include such items as lubricants,
coolants, paints, and adhesives.

• A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) provides


specific details on chemical products: physical
and health hazards, safety procedures, and
emergency response techniques.

• Check the MSDS before you start any job using a SA-309
hazardous chemical. That way you will know
exactly what the risks are and how to do the job
safely. Then follow procedures and use
recommended equipment.

S515-E01A-0309

DISPOSE OF WASTE PROPERLY

• Improperly disposing of waste can threaten the


environment and ecology. Potentially harmful waste
used with HITACHI equipment includes such items
as oil, fuel, coolant, brake fluid, filters, and batteries.

• Use leakproof containers when draining fluids. Do


not use food or beverage containers that may
mislead someone into drinking from them.
• Do not pour waste onto the ground, down a drain,
or into any water source.
• Air conditioning refrigerants escaping into the air SA-226
can damage the Earth’s atmosphere.
Government regulations may require a certified air
conditioning service center to recover and recycle
used air conditioning refrigerants.
• Inquire on the proper way to recycle or dispose of
waste from your local environmental or recycling
center.

S516-E01A-0226

SA-25
SAFETY
BEFORE RETURNING THE MACHINE TO
THE CUSTOMER

• After maintenance or repair work is complete,


confirm that:
• The machine is functioning properly, especially
the safety systems.
• Worn or damaged parts have been repaired or
replaced.

S517-E01A-0435 SA-435

SA-26
SECTION 1
GENERAL

—CONTENTS—

Group 1 Specification
Base Machine Dimensions ..........................T1-1-1
Working Range ............................................T1-1-2

Group 2 Component Layout


Main Components ........................................T1-2-1
Electrical System Component .....................T1-2-2
Electrical System Component
(In the Cab) ................................................T1-2-4
Pump............................................................T1-2-6
Engine ..........................................................T1-2-7
Electrical Equipment Box .............................T1-2-8
Battery Compartment .................................T1-2-10

Group 3 Component Specification


Engine ..........................................................T1-3-1
Engine Accessories .....................................T1-3-3
Hydraulic Device ..........................................T1-3-4
Electrical Component ...................................T1-3-7
Others ..........................................................T1-3-7

144T-1-1
(Blank)

144T-1-2
GENERAL / Specifications
BASE MACHINE DIMENSIONS

M144-11-003

Model Designation EX1800-3


Front Attachment Type – Loading Shovel Front Backhoe Front
3 3 PCSA: 9.6 (12.6)
Standard Bucket Capacity (Heaped) m (yd ) 10.5 (13.7)
CECE: 8.4
Operating Weight kg (lb) 180000 (396800) 180000 (396800)
QSK19-C 336 kW/1800 min−1
Engine –
(456 PS/1800 rpm)
A : Overall Width mm (ft in) 6200 (20′4″)
B : Cab Height mm (ft in) 6910 (22′8″)
C : Rear End Swing Radius mm (ft in) 6010 (19′9″)
D : Minimum Ground Clearance mm (ft in) ∗795 (2′7″)
E : Counterweight Clearance mm (ft in) ∗2000 (6′7″)
F : Overall Width of Upperstructure mm (ft in) 6040 (19′10″)
G : Undercarriage Length mm (ft in) 7500 (24′7″)
H : Undercarriage Width mm (ft in) 5400 (17′9″)
I : Sprocket Center to Idler Center mm (ft in) 5780 (19′0″)
J : Track Shoe Width mm (ft in) 800 (2′8″)
2
Ground Pressure kPa (kgf/cm , psi) 173 (1.76, 25)
–1
Swing Speed min (rpm) 4.8 (4.8)
Travel Speed (Fast/Slow) km/h (mph) 2.8/2.1 (1.74/1.31)
Gradeability % (Degree) 60 (30)
NOTE: ∗The dimensions include the height of the shoe lug.

T1-1-1
GENERAL / Specifications
WORKING RANGE
Loading Shovel

M144-11-001

Items
A: Minimum Digging Reach 5510 mm (18 ft 1 in)
B: Minimum Level Crowding Reach 7610 mm (25 ft 0 in)
C: Level Crowding Distance 4820 mm (15 ft 10 in)
D: Maximum Digging Reach 13400 mm (44 ft 0 in)
E: Maximum Cutting Height ∗14540 mm (47 ft 9 in)
F : Maximum Dumping Height ∗10400 mm (34 ft 1 in)
G: Maximum Digging Depth ∗5930 mm (19 ft 6 in)
NOTE: ∗The dimensions include the height of the shoe lug.

T1-1-2
GENERAL / Specifications

Backhoe

M144-11-004

Boom m 8.3 8.7 8.7 11.8 11.8 11.8


(ft in) (27′3″) (28′7″) (28′7″) (38′9″) (38′9″) (38′9″)
Arm m 3.6 4.0 5.5 4.0 5.5 7.0
(ft in) (11′10″) (13′2″) (18′1″) (13′2″) (18′1″) (23′0″)
3
Bucket Capacity (PCSA) m 11.3 9.6 8.0 6.0 4.8 4.4
3
(yd ) (14.8) (12.6) (10.5) (7.9) (6.3) (5.8)
3
(CECE) (m ) 10.0 8.4 7.0 5.3 4.2 3.8
A: Maximum Digging mm 15240 16070 17500 19390 20860 21850
Reach (ft in) (50′0″) (52′9″) (57′5″) (63′7″) (68′5″) (71′8″)
∗B : Maximum Digging mm 8220 9270 10770 11820 13320 14470
Depth (ft in) (27′0″) (30′5″) (35′4″) (38′9″) (43′8″) (47′6″)
∗C : Maximum Cutting mm 14280 14440 14970 17340 18100 17860
Height (ft in) (46′10″) (47′5″) (49′1″) (56′11″) (59′5″) (58′7″)
∗D : Maximum Dumping mm 9020 9160 9770 11780 12620 13180
Height (ft in) (29′7″) (30′1″) (32′1″) (38′8″) (41′5″) (43′3″)
:
NOTE ∗The dimensions include the height of the shoe lug.

T1-1-3
GENERAL / Specifications
(Blank)

T1-1-4
GENERAL / Component Layout
MAIN COMPONENTS 4
Backhoe 3 6
2
7
1

6
Loading Shovel 7

8
M145-01-016
5
9
4 10
3 11
2
12
1 13
14
15

16

33
32
34 31
30

29 17
28
27
26
25
24 18
23 19
22 T144-01-02-001
21
20
1 - Bucket 10 - Lubricator 19 - Auxiliary Hydraulic Oil Tank 27 - Accumulator (For Pilot Circuit)

2 - Bucket Cylinder 11 - Swing Control Valve 20 - Travel Device 28 - Adjuster Cylinder


3 - Arm 12 - Fuel Tank 21 - Travel Brake Valve 29 - Compressor Drive Motor,
Compressor (For Air Conditioner)
4- Arm Cylinder 13 - Main Hydraulic Oil Tank 22 - EHC Valve 30 - Travel Mode Shift Solenoid Valve
5- Level Cylinder 14 - Main Control Valve 23 - Center Joint 31 - Pilot Shut-Off Valve
6- Boom Cylinder 15 - Fuel Cooler 24 - Lower Roller 32 - Bucket Open-Close Pilot Valve
7- Boom 16 - Radiator, Oil Cooler 25 - Upper Roller 33 - Travel Pilot Valve
8- Front/Swing Pilot 17 - Engine 26 - Accumulator (For 34 - Dump Cylinder
Valve Adjuster Cylinder)
9 - Swing Device 18 - Pump Device

T1-2-1
GENERAL / Component Layout
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM COMPONENT

23
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
22

21

20

19

18

17

16

15

14
13
12
11 T144-01-02-002

1 - Entrance Light 7- Battery Compartment 13 - Ladder Limit Switch 19 - Condenser


Condenser Fan Motor
2 - Travel Mode Shift 8- Swing Inter Lock 14 - Hydraulic Oil Level 20 - Room Light (The room
Solenoid Valve Solenoid Valve Switch 2 (For Warning) under the cab)
3 - Swing Pi Pressure 9- Fuel Level Sensor 15 - Hydraulic Oil Level 21 - Horn
Control Solenoid Valve Switch 1 (For Indicator)
4 - Pressure Switch 10 - Low Fuel Level Switch 16 - Electrical Equipment Box 22 - Wiper Motor
(For Travel Alarm)
5 - Auto Idle Pressure Switch 11 - Hydraulic Oil 17 - Air Conditioner Unit 23 - Work Light
Temperature Sensor (On the cab)
6 - Work Light 12 - Hydraulic Oil 18 - Work Light
(On the right side of base Temperature Switch (On the left side of base
machine) machine)

T1-2-2
GENERAL / Component Layout

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

47
46

37
45
44 38
43 39 T144-01-02-002
42
41
40

24 - Air Cleaner Restriction 30 - Coolant Temperature 36 - Coolant Temperature 42 - Pump Room Light
Switch Sensor Sensor
25 - Ether Solenoid Valve 31 - Engine Room Light 37 - ∗Engine Oil Level Switch 43 - Engine Speed Sensor
26 - Coolant Level Switch 32 - Ether Solenoid Valve 38 - Travel Alarm 44 - Pump Transmission Oil
(For Indicator) Pressure Switch
27 - Thermo Guard Switch 33 - Coolant Level Switch 39 - Engine Speed Sensor 45 - Contamination Sensor
(For Ether Solenoid Valve) (For Indicator)
28 - Coolant Level Switch 34 - Thermo Guard Switch 40 - Pump Transmission Oil 46 - Engine Stop Switch
(For ECM) (For Ether Solenoid Valve) Pressure Switch
29 - Air Cleaner Restriction 35 - Coolant Level Switch 41 - Contamination Sensor 47 - EHC Valve
Switch (For ECM)

NOTE: ∗Engine oil level switch for the front engine is located in the same position.

T1-2-3
GENERAL / Component Layout
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM COMPONENT (In the cab)

4
1
5

M144-01-020

6 7

15

14

8
13 9

10
12
11
M144-01-005

M144-07-096

1 - Switch Panel 5 - Key Switch 9 - Data Link Connector 13 - Data Link Connector
(For Front Engine) (For Front Engine) (For Rear Engine)
2 - Monitor Panel 6 - Fuse Box 2 10 - Engine Diagnostic 14 - Engine Diagnostic
Switch B Switch A
(For Front Engine) (For Rear Engine)
3 - Emergency Engine Stop 7 - Power Source Terminal 11 - Transformer 15 - Buzzer
Switch (24 V to 12 V)
4 - Key Switch 8 - Engine Diagnostic 12 - Engine Diagnostic
(For Rear Engine) Switch A Switch B
(For Front Engine) (For Rear Engine)

T1-2-4
GENERAL / Component Layout
Monitor Panel 10 11 12 13 14
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

34
33
32
31
30
29
28

27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 T144-01-02-006

Switch Panel 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

42
43
44

45

54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46
M144-01-017

1 - Engine Oil Level Indicator 16 - Alternator Indicator 29 - Air Cleaner Restriction Indi- 42 - Indicator Light Check
(For Front Engine) cator (For Rear Engine) Switch
2 - Coolant Level Indicator 17 - Pump Transmission Oil 30 - Pump Contamination 43 - Level Check Switch
(For Front Engine) Pressure Indicator Indicator
(For Front Engine)
3 - Hydraulic Oil Level Indicator 18 - Hydraulic Oil Level 31 - Engine Stop Indicator 44 - Buzzer Stop Switch
Indicator
4 - Slow Travel Mode Indicator 19 - Pump Transmission Oil 32 - Ladder Position Indicator 45 - Dimmer Switch
Pressure Indicator
(For Rear Engine)
5 - Auto Idle Indicator 20 - Fuel Level Indicator 33 - Engine Oil Level Indicator 46 - Engine Speed Control
(For Rear Engine) Lever
6 - Engine Room Light 21 - Auto-Lubrication Indicator 34 - Coolant Level Indicator 47 - Work Light Switch
Indicator (Option) (For Rear Engine)
7 - Entrance Light Indicator 22 - Engine Stop Indicator 35 - Washer Switch 48 - Dome Light Switch
(For Front Engine)
8 - Work Light Indicator 23 - Engine Warning Indicator 36 - Cigar Lighter 49 - Engine Room Light
(For Front Engine) Switch
9 - Fast Travel Mode Indicator 24 - Engine Protection Indicator 37 - Wiper Delay Selector 50 - Entrance Light Switch
(For Front Engine)
10 - Coolant Temperature Gauge 25 - Engine Protection Indicator 38 - Wiper Switch 51 - Travel Mode Switch
(For Rear Engine) (For Rear Engine)
11 - Hydraulic Oil 26 - Engine Warning Indicator 39 - Air Conditioner Control 52 - Auto Idle Switch
Temperature Gauge (For Rear Engine) Panel (For Rear)
12 - Tachometer 27 - Engine Stop Indicator 40 - Air Conditioner Control 53 - Ether (Starting Aid)
(For Rear Engine) (For Rear Engine) Panel (For Side) Switch
13 - Tachometer 28 - Air Cleaner Restriction Indi- 41 - Air Conditioner Control 54 - Auxiliary Switch
(For Front Engine) cator Panel (For Front)
14 - Coolant Temperature Gauge (For Front Engine)
(For Front Engine)
15 - Fuel Gauge

T1-2-5
GENERAL / Component Layout
PUMP

T144-03-01-001

1 - Main Pump 4 3 - Center Gear Pump 4- Main Pump 3 5- Triple Gear Pump
(For Front Engine) (For Front Engine)
Main Pump 2 Main Pump 1
(For Rear Engine) (For Rear Engine)
2 - Swing Pump 2
(For Front Engine)
Swing Pump 1
(For Rear Engine)

T1-2-6
GENERAL / Component Layout
ENGINE

1 2 3

7 6 5 T144-01-02-003

1 - Coolant Temperature 3 - Intake Manifold 5 - ECM (Electrical Control 7 - Engine Oil Pressure
Sensor (For ECM) Temperature Sensor Module) Sensor (For ECM)
(For ECM)
2 - Intake Manifold Pressure 4 - Engine Speed Sensor 6 - Air Pressure Sensor
Sensor (For ECM) (For ECM) (For ECM)

T1-2-7
GENERAL / Component Layout
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT BOX
1

2
3

28 4

5
25, 26, 27
6

7
24
8
21, 22, 23
9

10

20 11

12
19

13

18 14

15
16
17
T144-01-02-004

1 - Limit Switch 8 - Work Light Relay (On the left 15 - Auto-Lubrication Relay 22 - Side Air Conditioner
side of base machine) Controller (Middle Shelf)
2 - Lower Wiper Slow Relay 9 - Work Light Relay (On the right 16 - Auto-Lubrication 23 - Front Air Conditioner
side of base machine) Interval Switch Controller (Lower Shelf)
3 - Upper Wiper Fast Relay 10 - Work Light Relay 17 - Fuse Box 1 24 - Resister (R2:27 Ω)
(On the cab)
4 - Upper Wiper Slow Relay 11 - Slow Wiper Relay 18 - Ether Relay 25 - Contamination Amplifier
(For Rear Engine) (Upper Shelf)
5 - Upper Wiper Main Relay 12 - Hour Meter Relay 19 - Ether Relay 26 - MC (B) (Middle Shelf)
(For Front Engine)
6 - Lower Wiper Main Relay 13 - Swing Inter Lock Relay 20 - Resister (R3:5.6 Ω) 27 - MC (A) (Lower Shelf)
7 - Load Dump Relay 14 - Fluorescent 21 - Rear Air Conditioner 28 - Resister (R1:27 Ω)
Illumination Light Controller (Upper Shelf)

T1-2-8
GENERAL / Component Layout

29
30
31

45 32

33
44
34

35
43
36

42
37

38

41 39

40

T144-01-02-004

29 - Illumination Relay 34 - Engine Room Light 38 - Air Conditioner Relay 42 - Air Conditioner Relay
Relay (For Side) (For Front)
30 - Indicator Light Check 35 - Emergency Relay 39 - Air Conditioner Relay 43 - Fan Motor Relay
Relay (For Front Engine) (For Rear) (For Front)
31 - Washer Motor Relay 36 - Fan Motor Relay 40 - Lower Wiper Fast Relay 44 - Entrance Light Relay
(For Side)
32 - Travel Speed Change 37 - Fan Motor Relay 41 - Dome Light Relay 45 - Horn Relay
Relay (For Rear)
33 - Emergency Relay
(For Rear Engine)

T1-2-9
GENERAL / Component Layout
BATTERY COMPARTMENT
1 2 3

10
4

9 7

T144-01-02-005

1 - Starter Relay Ȓ 4 - Grease Pressure Switch 7 - Breaker 9- Battery Relay


(For Auto-Lubrication)
2 - Junction Box 5 - Lubrication Mode Switch 8 - Battery 10 - Starter Relay 1
3 - Slow Blow ȦɕɓɅ 6 - Grease Pressure Switch
(For Manual-Lubrication)
ȀȀȀȀȀȀȀȀ

T1-2-10
GENERAL / Component Specifications
COMPONENT SPECIFICATIONS
ENGINE
MAIN SPECIFICATIONS
Manufacture .................................................. CUMMINS ENGINE COMPANY, Inc.
Model............................................................. QSK19C
Type............................................................... Diesel, 4 cycle, vertical, 6-cylinder inline, water-cooled,
turbo charged, after cooled, direct injection type
Cyl. No.-bore × stroke ................................... 6-159 mm×159 mm (6.25 in×6.25 in)
3 3
Piston displacement ...................................... 18900 cm (1140 in )
Rated output (SAE J1995) (GROSS)............ 373 kW/1800 min−1 (507 PS/1800 rpm)
(NET) .................. 333 kW/1800 min−1 (452 PS/1800 rpm)
Dry weight ..................................................... 2150 kg (4740 lb)
Firing order .................................................... 1-5-3-6-2-4
Rotation direction .......................................... Clockwise (view from fan side)

COOLING SYSTEM
Cooling fan .................................................... Dia. 1219 mm (48 in), draw-in type
Fan pulley ratio.............................................. 0.7 : 1
Thermostat .................................................... Cracking temp. : 79°C (174°F)
(under atmospheric pressure) Full open temp. : 91°C (196°F)
Water pump................................................... Centrifugal type

LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Lubrication pump type ................................... Gear pump
Oil filter .......................................................... Paper element type (Spin on type)
Oil pan capacity............................................. 49 to 61 L (13 to 16 US gal)
Include filters : 55 to 67 L (14.5 to 18 US gal)

STARTING SYSTEM
Motor ............................................................. Delco Remy 50MT-400
VoltagexOutput .............................................. 24 Vx9.0 kW

STARTING AID SYSTEM


Type............................................................... Ether aided

ENGINE STOP SYSTEM


Stop method.................................................. Fuel cut solenoid

ALTERNATOR
Type............................................................... Delco Remy 30Sl-400, AC generator
VoltagexOutput .............................................. 24 Vx75 A

FUEL SYSTEM
Injection pump............................................... Cummins HPI electronic control
Governor ....................................................... Electronic all speed control

PERFORMANCE
Fuel consumption ratio (NET) ....................... 234 g/kWxh (173 g/PSxh)
Max. output torque (GROSS) ................. 2235 Nxm (228 kgfxm, 1650 Ibfxft) @ 1400±100 min−1
(NET) ....................... 2108 Nxm (215 kgfxm, 1555 Ibfxft) @ 1400±100 min−1
Max. no load speed ....................................... 2000±50 min−1
Min. no load speed ........................................ 700±25 min−1

T1-3-1
GENERAL / Component Specifications
Engine Performance Curve

Preparation : SAE J 1995 Conditions


Alternator (Unloaded)
Fan 48 in

PEAK TORQUE
∗2237 (2107) Nxm
@1400±100 min−1

GROSS

TORQUE NET
(Nxm)

POWER
OUTPUT
(kW)

RATED
∗370 (333) kW
@1800 min−1

GROSS

NET

FUEL
CONSUMPTION
(g/kWĊh)
NET

GROSS
HIGH IDLE
2000±50 min−1

Engine Speed
T144-01-03-001

NOTE: ∗GROSS (NET)

T1-3-2
GENERAL / Component Specifications
ENGINE ACCESSORIES

RADIATOR ASSEMBLY
Type............................................................... Radiator/Oil cooler tandem type assembly
Weight ........................................................... 900 kg (1985 lb)

Radiator Oil cooler


Core type....................................................... Corrugated fin Plate fin
Capacity ........................................................ 72 L (11.4 US gal) 43 L (9.5 US gal)
Air-tight testing pressure ............................... 147 kPa 981 kPa
2 2
(1.5 kgf/cm , 21 psi) (10 kgf/cm , 142 psi)
Cap opening pressure................................... 49 kPa –
2
(0.5 kgf/cm , 7 psi)
BATTERY
Capacity ........................................................ 170 Ah (20 hours)
Voltage .......................................................... 12 V
Weight ........................................................... 49 kg (108 Ib)×2

T1-3-3
GENERAL / Component Specifications
HYDRAULIC DEVICE

PUMP DEVICE
Gear speed ratio ........................................... Main pump : 1.02
Swing pump : 0.82
Center gear pump :1
Triple gear pump : 1.02

MAIN PUMP
Model............................................................. K3V280SH102L-SK
Type............................................................... Variable displacement swash plate type plunger pump
3 3
Displacement ................................................ 280 cm (17 in ) /rev

SWING PUMP
Model............................................................. K3V280SH102L-1 P
Type............................................................... Variable displacement swash plate type plunger pump
3 3
Displacement ................................................ 280 cm (17 in ) /rev

CENTER GEAR PUMP


Model............................................................. KPF3225CSSME
3 3
Displacement ................................................ 25 cm (1.5 in ) /rev

TRIPLE GEAR PUMP


Model............................................................. KRP4-9-19AW
Pilot Pump
3 3
Displacement ................................................ 9.4 cm (0.57 in ) /rev
Fuel Cooler Fan Motor Drive PumpxTransmission Oil Circulation Pump
3 3
Displacement ................................................ 19.2 cm (1 .17 in ) /rev

CONTROL VALVE
Model............................................................. KSV1000
Type............................................................... Pilot pressure operated type
2
Main relief pressure type ............................... 29 MPa (300 kgf/cm , 4270 psi)
2
Overload relief pressure................................ 31 MPa (320 kgf/cm , 4550 psi)
2
17 MPa (170 kgf/cm , 2420 psi) (Bucket Open-Close)

SWING CONTROL VALVE


Model............................................................. KVM600
Type............................................................... Pilot pressure operated type
2
Main relief pressure....................................... 29 MPa (300 kgf/cm , 4270 psi)
2
Overload relief pressure................................ 31 MPa (320 kgf/cm , 4550 psi)

SWING REDUCTION DEVICE


Type............................................................... Two-stage planetary gear type

SWING MOTOR
Model............................................................. MX750
Type............................................................... Swash plate type, fixed displacement plunger motor
3 3
Displacement ................................................ 750 cm (45.8 in ) /rev
2
Relief pressure .............................................. 29 MPa (300 kgf/cm , 4270 psi)
+0 +0 2 +0
Parking brake release pressure .................... 1.77 −0.4 MPa (18 −4 kgf/cm , 256 −57 psi)

T1-3-4
GENERAL / Component Specifications
TRAVEL REDUCTION DEVICE
Type............................................................... Two-stage planetary gear type
Gear ratio ...................................................... 106.6 : 1

TRAVEL MOTOR
Model............................................................. MB750
Type............................................................... Swash plate type, variable displacement plunger motor
3 3
Displacement (Slow speed) .......................... 737 cm (45 in ) /rev
3 3
(Fast speed) ........................... 554 cm (33.8 in ) /rev
2
Parking brake release pressure .................... 1.42 to 1.71 MPa (14.5 to 17.4 kgf/cm , 206 to 247 psi)

TRAVEL BRAKE VALVE


Model............................................................. VBR-12ST
Flow............................................................... 660 L/min (174 US gal/min)
+2 +20 2 +284
Relief pressure .............................................. 29 −0 MPa (300 −0 kgf/cm , 4270 −0 psi)

BOOM CYLINDER (Loading shovel) (Backhoe)


Rod dia. ......................................................... 200 mm (7.84 in) 200 mm (7.84 in)
Cylinder bore ................................................. 280 mm (11 in) 280 mm (11 in)
Stroke............................................................ 2640 mm (8 ft 7.9 in) 2640 mm (8 ft 7.9 in)
Fully retracted length..................................... 3870 mm (12 ft 8.4 in) 3870 mm (12 ft 8.4 in)

ARM CYLINDER (Loading shovel) (Backhoe)


Rod dia. ......................................................... 180 mm (7.09 in) 170 mm (6.7 in)
Cylinder bore ................................................. 240 mm (9.45 in) 250 mm (9.85 in)
Stroke............................................................ 2205 mm (7 ft 2.8 in) 2140 mm (7 ft 0.3 in)
Fully retracted length..................................... 3405 mm (11 ft 2.1 in) 3350 mm (10 ft 11.9 in)

LEVEL CYLINDER (Loading shovel)


Rod dia. ......................................................... 200 mm (7.88 in)
Cylinder bore ................................................. 280 mm (11 in)
Stroke............................................................ 885 mm (2 ft 10.8 in)
Fully retracted length..................................... 2160 mm (7 ft 1 in)

BUCKET CYLINDER (Loading shovel) (Backhoe)


Rod dia. ......................................................... 170 mm (6.69 in) 150 mm (5.9 in)
Cylinder bore ................................................. 225 mm (8.86 in) 200 mm (7.88 in)
Stroke............................................................ 1730 mm (5 ft 8.1 in) 2035 mm (6 ft 8.1 in)
Fully retracted length..................................... 3780 mm (12 ft 4.8 in) 2985 mm (9 ft 9.5 in)

DUMP CYLINDER (Loading shovel)


Rod dia. ......................................................... 110 mm (4.33 in)
Cylinder bore ................................................. 190 mm (7.48 in)
Stroke............................................................ 510 mm (1 ft 8.1 in)
Fully retracted length..................................... 1250 mm (4 ft 1.2 in)

T1-3-5
GENERAL / Component Specifications
COMPRESSOR DRIVE MOTOR
Model............................................................. MSF-46
3 3
Displacement ................................................ 46.1 cm (2.8 in ) /rev

FUEL COOLER FAN MOTOR


Model............................................................. A2FM
3 3
Displacement ................................................ 12 cm (0.73 in ) /rev
2
Relief pressure .............................................. 7.85 MPa (80 kgf/cm , 1138 psi)

TRAVEL MODE SHIFT SOLENOID VALVExSWING Pi PRESSURE CONTROL SOLENOID VALVExSWING


INTER LOCK SOLENOID VALVE

Type............................................................... ON-OFF type


Voltage .......................................................... 24 V

EHC VALVE
Type............................................................... Proportional type
Voltage .......................................................... 24 V
2
Control pressure............................................ 0.3 to 3.1 MPa (3 to 32 kgf/cm , 43 to 455 psi)

T1-3-6
GENERAL / Component Specifications
ELECTRICAL COMPONENT

BATTERY RELAY
VoltagexCurrent ............................................. 24 Vx100 A

STARTER RELAY
VoltagexCurrent ............................................. 24 Vx180 A

STARTER RELAY 2
VoltagexCurrent ............................................. 12 Vx15 A

BRAKER
Current .......................................................... 120 A

HORN
Specification .................................................. 24 Vx2 Ax121 dB/mx669 Hz

WORK LIGHT
Specification .................................................. Halogen 24 Vx70 W

OTHERS

LUBRICATION DEVICE
Manufacture .................................................. LINCOLN
Grease capacity ............................................ 200 kg (440 lb)
2
Max. grease pressure ................................... 24 MPa (245 kgf/cm , 3480 psi)
3 3
Displacement ................................................ 240 cm (15 in ) /min

AIR CONDITIONER
3
Cooling ability ................................................ 3500 kcal/h (14700×10 J)
3
Heating ability................................................ 3600 kcal/h (15100×10 J)
Rated voltage consumption........................... 200 W (24 V Hour)
3
Condenser heat dissipation capacity............. 8200 kcal/h±10 % (34300×10 J)

T1-3-7
GENERAL / Component Specifications
(Blank)

T1-3-8
SECTION 2
SYSTEM

—CONTENTS—

Group 1 Control System


Outline..........................................................T2-1-1
EngineȀ
ȀControl.............................................T2-1-2
Pump Control ...............................................T2-1-5
Auto-Lubrication Control ..............................T2-1-6
Wiper Control ...............................................T2-1-8
Monitor Control...........................................T2-1-10
Others ........................................................T2-1-11

Group 2 Hydraulic System


Outline..........................................................T2-2-1
Hydraulic Circuit Diagram ............................T2-2-2
Main Circuit ..................................................T2-2-4
Pilot Circuit .................................................T2-2-24
Pump Transmission Oil
Cooling Circuit ..........................................T2-2-28
Fuel Cooler Fan Motor Circuit ....................T2-2-28
Compressor Motor Circuit ..........................T2-2-28

Group 3 Electrical System


Outline..........................................................T2-3-1
Power Supply Circuit ....................................T2-3-2
Accessory Circuit .........................................T2-3-4
Starting Aid Circuit .......................................T2-3-6
Engine Start Circuit ......................................T2-3-8
Charging Circuit .........................................T2-3-12
Surge Voltage Prevention Circuit ...............T2-3-14
Engine Stop Circuit
(With Key Switch) .....................................T2-3-16
Engine Stop Circuit (With Emergency
Engine Stop Switch) .................................T2-3-18
Engine Stop Circuit
(With Engine Stop Switch) .......................T2-3-18

144T-2-1
(Blank)

144T-2-2
SYSTEM / Control System
OUTLINE

MC (Main Controller) (A), MC (Main Controller) (B), NOTE: The ECM is the control unit for the QUAN-
and ECM (Electronic Control Module) process signals TM
TUM Electronic Governor System.
from various sensors and switches, activating solenoid A ECM is provided for each engine. The
valves and relays, and controlling the engines, pumps, ECM monitors engine conditions using vari-
auto-lubrication system, wiper, and monitor system. ous sensors, such as coolant temperature,
coolant level, boost pressure, engine oil
pressure, engine speed, fuel pressure, and
timing pressure sensors. Upon receiving
signals from these sensors, the ECM con-
trols fuel injection volume/pressure, injec-
tion timing, engine torque, and engine
speed, and turns on the engine warning in-
dicator, engine stop indicator, and engine
protection indicator as required.

MC (A)
Input Source Output Control Device Control Function
Engine Speed Sensor (Front Engine) EHC Valve Increased Horsepower Pump Control
Auto-Lubrication Interval Switch Auto-Lubrication Solenoid Valve Relay Auto-Lubrication Control
Auto-Lubrication Switch

MC (B)
Input Source Output Control Device Control Function
Engine Speed Sensor (Rear Engine) EHC Valve Increased Horsepower Pump Control
Wiper Switch Wiper Relay (Slow Speed) Wiper Control
Interval Switch
Auto-Idle Pressure Switch Electronic Governor via ECM Engine Control (Auto-Idle Control)
Auto-Idle Switch

ECM
Input Source Output Control Device Control Function
Accelerator Sensor Electronic Governor Engine Speed Control
Auto-idle signal from MC (B) Electronic Governor Auto-Idle Control
Engine Diagnostic Switches A and B Engine Warning Indicator Engine Diagnosing Function
(Front Engine) Engine Stop Indicator
Engine Diagnostic Switches A and B Engine Protection Indicator
(Rear Engine)

T2-1-1
SYSTEM / Control System
ENGINE CONTROL
Engine Speed Control

Purpose:
To control the engine speed corresponding to the en-
gine speed control lever stroke.

Operation:
The accelerator sensor sends the ECM an electrical
signal corresponding to the engine speed control
lever stroke. Consequently, the ECM activates the
electronic governor to control the engine speed.

Engine Speed Control Lever Front Engine


(Front Engine)

ECM
Accelerator Sensor Electronic
Governor

MC (B)

Engine Speed Control Lever


(Rear Engine) ECM
Electronic
Governor

Accelerator Sensor
Rear Engine

T144-02-01-001

T2-1-2
SYSTEM / Control System
Auto-Idle Control

Purpose:
To save fuel and to lower noise by lowering engine
speed while all control levers are in neutral.

Operation:
Signals from the auto-idle switch and auto-idle pres- Approximately three seconds after receiving the sig-
sure switch are sent to the MC (B). nal, the ECM activates the electronic governor, low-
The auto-idle pressure switch is turned off when all ering the engine speed to the auto-idle setting.
control levers are returned to neutral. When control lever(s) are moved, the auto-idle pres-
With the auto-idle switch turned in the ON position, sure switch is turned ON. Consequently, the MC (B)
the MC (B) outputs a signal to the ECM after the stops sending a signal to the ECM. Then, the ECM
auto-idle pressure switch is turned off. raises the engine speed to the engine control lever
setting.

Front Engine

ECM
Electronic
Governor

Auto-Idle Switch

Auto-Idle Pressure Switch MC (B)

ECM
Electronic
Governor

Rear Engine

T144-02-01-002

T2-1-3
SYSTEM / Control System
Engine Diagnosing Function

Purpose: Operation:
To indicate fault code(s) for engine troubleshooting if After the engine is stopped, turn the key switch to the
the engine protection indicator, engine warning indi- ON position and hold the engine diagnostic switch A
cator, and/or engine stop indicator should come on, in the ON (upward) position. The ECM will then send
due to failure of engine or engine related components. an electrical signal to the monitor to indicate fault
Fault codes can be indicated on the monitor by press- code on the monitor.
ing the engine diagnostic switches A and B. If the engine diagnostic switch B is pressed upward or
downward while a fault code is indicated on the moni-
tor, an another electrical signal is sent from the ECM
to the monitor to indicate the next or previous fault
code. (Refer to the “Troubleshooting A” group in the
“TROUBLESHOOTING” section for the trou-
bleshooting procedure.)

Engine Protection
Indicator

Engine Warning
Indicator ECM

Engine Stop
Indicator

24 V
Engine Diagnostic Engine Diagnostic
Switch A Switch B

T144-02-01-004

T2-1-4
SYSTEM / Control System
PUMP CONTROL
Increased Horsepower Pump Control (Speed
Sensing)
Purpose:
To efficiently utilize engine horsepower by increasing
the pump delivery rate corresponding to the actual
engine speed when the engine runs faster than the
rated speed.

Operation:
The engine speed sensors input the MC (A) and (B) This increased horsepower pump control is kept ac-
the engine speeds as electric signals. tivated until the engine speed is reduced to 1700
As long as the engine is running at a speed between min−1. (Note that the engine speed decreases with
1700 min−1 and 2050 min−1, the MC (A)/(B) sends the this pump control because the load applied to the en-
EHC valve an signal corresponding to the engine gine increases due to the increased pump displace-
speed. ment angle.)
Consequently, the EHC valve sends the main pump
regulator port PZ pilot pressure corresponding to the
signal, increasing the pump displacement angle. As a
result, the pump delivery rate is increased, moving
the actuator(s) faster. (Refer to “Pump Device” group,
“COMPONENT OPERATION” section.)

Engine Speed Sensor

MC (A)
Front Engine

EHC Valve

Flywheel Housing

Pilot Pump

Engine Speed Sensor

MC (B)
Rear Engine

Flywheel Housing
T144-02-01-005

T2-1-5
SYSTEM / Control System
AUTO-LUBRICATION CONTROL

The auto-lubrication system functions to automatically


lubricate the front joint pins, swing bearing, and center
joint. Three switch positions, i.e. AUTO LUB., OFF, and
MANUAL, are provided on the auto-lubrication mode
switch.

Automatic Lubrication Mode Manual Lubrication Mode

Purpose: Purpose:
To automatically lubricate at a specified interval. To lubricate manually with a grease gun.

Operation: Operation:
When the auto-lubrication mode switch is turned to When the auto-lubrication mode switch is turned to
the AUTO LUB. position, an electrical signal is sent to the MANUAL position, an electrical signal is sent to
the MC (A). When a time specified by the auto- the MC (A), turning on the auto-lubrication solenoid
lubrication interval switch lapses, turning on the auto- relay. The auto-lubrication solenoid relay is kept on
lubrication solenoid relay is turned ON. Consequently, without any intermission.
the auto-lubrication solenoid valve 1 and auto- Since the grease pump is operated continuously in
lubrication solenoid valve 2 (the cycle timer) are this mode even when the grease gun is not in use,
turned on. pressure in the lubrication line rises continuously. To
Auto-lubrication solenoid valve 1 routs the pilot pres- prevent this from occurring, a grease pressure switch
sure from the pilot pump to auto-lubrication solenoid for the manual lubrication operation is provided in the
valve 2. Auto-lubrication solenoid valve 2 is turned on lubrication line.
and off by its cycle timer at a specified interval. Con- This grease pressure switch is turned on when the
2
sequently, the hydraulic lines to and from the grease grease pressure reaches 23.5 MPa (240 kgf/cm ).
pump are alternately changed. As a result, the grease When this grease pressure switch is turned on, the
pump is operated, discharging grease into the lubrica- MC (A) turns off the auto-lubrication solenoid valve
tion line, at a specified interval. relay. As a result, auto-lubrication solenoid valve 1
A grease pressure switch for the auto-lubrication is and the cycle timer (auto-lubrication solenoid valve 2)
provided in the lubrication line. This grease pressure are turned off, stopping the grease pump operation.
switch is turned on when the grease pressure
2
reaches 17.7 MPa (180 kgf/cm ). When this grease
pressure switch is turned on, the MC (A) turns off the
auto-lubrication solenoid valve relay. As a result,
auto-lubrication solenoid valve 1 and the cycle timer
(auto-lubrication solenoid valve 2) are turned off,
stopping the grease pump operation.
When a time specified by the auto-lubrication interval
switch lapses, the MC (A) turns on the auto-
lubrication solenoid valve relay, operating the grease
pump again.

NOTE: If the grease pressure switch for the auto-


lubrication is not turned on 150 seconds af-
ter the auto-lubrication solenoid valve relay
is turned on, the MC (A) turns on the auto-
lubrication indicator.

T2-1-6
SYSTEM / Control System

Auto-Lubrication Interval Switch

Auto-Lubrication Indicator

Auto-Lubrication Mode Switch


AUTO LUB.

Grease Pressure MC (A) Auto-Lubrication Solenoid


Switch for Auto- OFF Valve Relay
Lubrication MANUAL

Power Source (From fuse #23.)

Cycle Timer
Grease Pressure
Switch for Manual Grease Pump
Lubrication

To the
Auto-Lubrication lubrication
Auto-Lubrication Solenoid Valve 2 line.
Solenoid Valve 1
Vent Valve

Pilot Pump
Orifice

T144-02-01-006

T2-1-7
SYSTEM / Control System
WIPER CONTROL

Intermittent Operation Washer Operation

Purpose: Purpose:
To operate the wiper at an interval set by the wiper de- To spray windshield washer fluid and to operate the
lay selector. wiper a few turns at slow speed.

Operation: Operation:
An electrical signal is sent to the MC (B) when the When the washer switch is pressed, the washer mo-
wiper switch is turned to the INT position. Conse- tor relay is turned on and an electrical signal is sent to
quently, the MC (B) turns on the slow wiper relay for the MC (B). The washer motor operates as the
approximately one and half seconds at an interval set washer motor relay is turned on. At the same time,
by the wiper delay selector. the MC (B) turns on the slow wiper relay, operating
As the slow speed wiper relay is turned on, the upper the wiper at slow speed. The wiper is operated for
side and lower side slow speed wiper relays are approximately five seconds after the washer switch is
turned on, operating the upper and lower wiper mo- released.
tors for one wiper turn at the slow speed.

Slow Speed Operation

Purpose:
To operate the wiper at slow speed.

Operation:
An electrical signal is sent to the MC (B) when the
wiper switch is turned to the LOW position. Conse-
quently, the MC (B) turns on the slow wiper relay. As
the slow wiper relay is turned on, the upper and lower
slow wiper relays are turned on, operating the upper
and lower wiper motors at the slow speed.

Fast Speed Operation

Purpose:
To operate the wiper at fast speed.

Operation:
When the wiper switch is turned to the HI position, the
upper and lower fast wiper relays and the upper and
lower main wiper relays are turned on, operating the
upper and lower wiper motors at fast speed.

T2-1-8
SYSTEM / Control System

Washer Motor

Wiper Switch Lower Wiper Motor Upper Wiper Motor

Upper Main Upper Slow Upper Fast


Wiper Delay Selector Wiper Relay Wiper Relay Wiper Relay

Washer
Motor Relay
MC (B)

Slow
Wiper Relay

Washer Switch

Lower Main Lower Slow Lower Fast


Wiper Relay Wiper Relay Wiper Relay
Power Source (From fuse #22.)

Power Source (From fuse #21.)

T144-02-01-007

T2-1-9
SYSTEM / Control System
MONITOR CONTROL

Purpose: Operation:
To display machine conditions on the monitor. Electrical signals from various sensors and switches
are sent to the MC (A) and MC (B). Upon receiving
these electrical signals, the MC (A) and MC (B) oper-
ate the gauges and indicators as required.

MC (A)
Input Source Output Control Device
Engine Speed Sensor (Front Engine) Tachometer (Front Engine)
Hydraulic Oil Level Switch 2 Hydraulic Oil Level Indicator (Warning)
Air Cleaner Restriction Switch (Front Engine) Air Cleaner Restriction Indicator (Front Engine)
Pump Transmission Oil Pressure Switch (Front Engine) Pump Transmission Oil Pressure Indicator (Front Engine)
Pump Transmission Oil Pressure Switch (Rear Engine) Pump Transmission Oil Pressure Indicator (Rear Engine)
Fuel Level Switch Fuel Level Indicator
Auto-Lubrication Mode Switch Auto-Lubrication Indicator
Pump Contamination Sensor Amplifier Pump Contamination Indicator
Starter Relay 2 (Front/Rear Engines) Alternator Indicator

MC (B)
Input Source Output Control Device
Engine Speed Sensor (Rear Engine) Tachometer (Rear Engine)
Hydraulic Oil Level Switch 1 Hydraulic Oil Level Indicator
Coolant Level Switch (Front Engine) Coolant Level Indicator (Front Engine)
Coolant Level Switch (Rear Engine) Coolant Level indicator (Rear Engine)
Engine Oil Level Switch (Front Engine) Engine Oil Level Indicator (Front Engine)
Engine Oil Level Switch (Rear Engine) Engine Oil Level Indicator (Rear Engine)
Air Cleaner Restriction Switch (Rear Engine) Air Cleaner Restriction Indicator (Rear Engine)
Auto-Idle Switch Auto-Idle Indicator
Emergency Engine Stop Switch (Located in the cab) Engine Stop Indicator
Engine Stop Switch (Located in the pump room)
Ladder Limit Switch Ladder Position Indicator

Others
Input Source Output Control Device
Coolant Temperature Sensor (Front Engine) Coolant Temperature Gauge (Front Engine)
Coolant Temperature Sensor (Rear Engine) Coolant Temperature Gauge (Rear Engine)
Hydraulic Oil Temperature Sensor Hydraulic Oil Temperature Gauge
Fuel Sensor Fuel Gauge
ECM (Front/Rear Engines) Engine Stop Indicators (Front/Rear Engines)
Engine Diagnostic Switch A (Front/Rear Engines) Engine Warning Indicators (Front/Rear Engines)
Engine Diagnostic Switch B (Front/Rear Engines) Engine Protection Indicators (Front/Rear Engines)
Travel Mode Switch→Travel Mode Relay Travel Mode Indicator (Slow Speed)
Travel Mode Indicator (Fast Speed)
Work Light Relay→Illumination Relay Panel Illumination
Engine Room Light Switch→Engine Room Light Relay Engine Room Light Indicator
Entrance Light Switch→Entrance Light Relay Entrance Light Indicator

T2-1-10
SYSTEM / Control System
OTHERS
Travel Mode Change Circuit

Purpose: NOTE: The diagram illustrates the travel mode cir-


To change the travel mode. cuit in the slow speed mode.

Operation:
When the travel switch is in the OFF (Slow Speed)
position, the travel mode relay is turned off. Conse-
quently, the travel mode change solenoid valve is
turned off, changing the travel mode to the slow
speed mode.
When the travel switch is in the ON (Fast Speed) po-
sition, the travel mode relay is turned on. Conse-
quently, the travel mode change solenoid valve is
turned on, changing the travel mode to the fast speed
mode. (Refer to the “Travel Device” group,
“COMPONENT OPERATION” section.)

Travel Switch

Power Source

Travel Motor Relay

Power Source

To the travel mode indicator (slow speed).

To the travel mode indicator (fast speed).

Power Source

Travel Mode Change Solenoid Valve


T144-02-01-008

T2-1-11
SYSTEM / Control System
Swing Interlock Control

Purpose:
To deactivate the swing function when the ladder is
lowered or when the emergency engine stop switch is
turned ON.

Operation:
The ladder limit switch is turned on while the ladder is As the swing stop solenoid valve is turned on, the
lowered. swing pilot pressure is blocked between the pilot
Consequently, the swing interlock relay is turned on, valve and control valve. For this reason, the swing
turning on the swing stop solenoid valve. function is interlocked.
When the emergency engine stop switch is turned
ON, the swing stop relay is turned ON, turning the
swing stop solenoid valve ON.

Swing Interlock Relay

Power Source

Ladder Limit Switch


Emergency Engine Stop Switch

Pilot Valve
Swing Spool

Swing Stop
Solenoid Valve

T144-02-01-009

T2-1-12
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
OUTLINE

The hydraulic system consists of the main circuit, pilot


circuit, pump transmission oil cooling circuit, fuel cooler
fan motor circuit, and compressor motor circuit.

Main Circuit:
A hydraulic circuit that actuates cylinders and motors
by pressure oil delivered from the main pumps.

Pilot Circuit:
A hydraulic circuit that supplies pressure oil from the
pilot pump to the pilot operating circuit, travel speed
mode shift circuit, pump control circuit, auto lubrication
circuit, and swing parking brake release circuit.

Pump Transmission Oil Cooling Circuit:


An oil circuit that cools the pump transmission oil by
routing transmission oil to an oil cooler using the
transmission oil cooling pump.

Fuel Cooler Fan Motor Circuit:


A hydraulic circuit that drives the fuel cooler fan motor
using pressure oil delivered from the fuel cooler fan
motor drive pump.

Compressor Motor Circuit:


An oil circuit that drives the compressor motor using
pressure oil delivered from the compressor motor drive
pump.

T2-2-1
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
Loading shovel 1- Bucket Cylinder
2- Dump Cylinder
3- Arm Cylinder
4- Boom Cylinder
5- Level Cylinder
6- Bucket Close Pilot Valve
7- Bucket Open Pilot Valve
8- Travel Pilot Valve
9- Left Pilot Valve
10 - Right Pilot Valve
11 - Pilot Shut-Off Valve
12 - Accumulator
13 - Hydraulic Oil Tank
14 - Suction Strainer
15 - Full-Flow Filter
16 - Bypass Filter
17 - Air-Con. Comp. Motor
18 - Control Valve (Swing)
19 - Swing Motor
20 - Center Joint
21 - Grease Pump
22 - Drain Filter
23 - Pilot Filter
24 - Control Valve (Left Travel)
25 - Control Valve (Boom Raise/Bucket Tilt-in)
26 - Control Valve (Bucket Open and Close)
27 - Control Valve (Arm)
28 - Control Valve (Arm)
29 - Control Valve (Bucket)
30 - Control Valve (Boom)
31 - Control Valve (Right Travel)
32 - Fan Motor
33 - Relief Valve
34 - Fuel Cooler
35 - Hydraulic Oil Tank (Aux Tank)
36 - Engine
37 - Main Pump
38 - Swing Pump
39 - Air-Con. Comp. Pump
40 - Pilot Pump
41 - Fan Drive Pump
42 - Oil Pump (Transmission)
43 - Check Valve
44 - High Pressure Strainer
45 - Check Valve
46 - Radiator
Supply Line from Pumps
47 - Oil Cooler
Return Line
48 - Transmission Cooler
Suction Line
49 - Bypass Check Valve
Actuator Line
50 - Travel Motor
Drain and Pilot Line
51 - Brake Valve
M144-07-072

T2-2-2
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
Backhoe

1- Bucket Cylinder
2- Arm Cylinder
3- Boom Cylinder
4- Travel Pilot Valve
5- Left Pilot Valve
6- Right Pilot Valve
7- Pilot Shut-Off Valve
8- Accumulator
9- Hydraulic Oil Tank
10 - Suction Strainer
11 - Full-Flow Filter
12 - Bypass Check Valve
13 - Air-Con. Comp. Motor
14 - Control Valve (Swing)
15 - Swing Motor
16 - Center Joint
17 - Grease Pump
18 - Drain Filter
19 - Pilot Filter
20 - Control Valve (Left Travel)
21 - Control Valve (Boom)
22 - Control Valve (Bucket)
23 - Control Valve (Arm)
24 - Control Valve (Arm)
25 - Control Valve (Bucket Roll-in)
26 - Control Valve (Boom)
27 - Control Valve (Right Travel)
28 - Fan Motor
29 - Relief Valve
30 - Fuel Cooler
31 - Hydraulic Oil Tank (Aux Tank)
32 - Engine
33 - Main Pump
34 - Swing Pump
35 - Air-Con. Comp. Pump
36 - Pilot Pump
37 - Fan Drive Pump
38 - Oil Pump (Transmission)
39 - Check Valve
40 - High Pressure Strainer
41 - Check Valve
42 - Radiator
43 - Oil Cooler
44 - Transmission Cooler
45 - Bypass Check Valve
Supply Line from Pumps 46 - Travel Motor
Return Line 47 - Brake Valve
Suction Line
Actuator Line
Drain and Pilot Line
M144-07-073

T2-2-3
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
MAIN CIRCUIT

Total of six main pumps are used; three main pumps


are designated for each front and rear engine.
Pressure oil from main pumps 1 and 4 is used to actu-
ate the left travel, boom raise/bucket tilt-in, bucket
open/close, and arm functions after being controlled by
the left control valve.
Pressure oil from main pumps 2 and 3 is used to actu-
ate the arm, bucket, boom, and right travel functions
after being controlled by the right control valve.
Pressure oil from swing pump 1 is routed to the left
swing control valve while that from swing pump 2 is
routed to the right swing control valve. Pressure oil
flowing out of the left and right swing control valves is
combined before it is supplied equally to both swing
motors.

NOTE: For backhoe type excavators, the left con-


trol valve is designated for the left travel,
boom, bucket, arm functions while the right
control valve is designated for the arm,
bucket roll-in, boom, and right travel func-
tions.

T2-2-4
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System

NOTE: The diagram shown below is of the loading


shovel type excavator.
Bucket Open/
Close Cylinder Bucket Cylinder Arm Cylinder Boom Cylinder Level Cylinder

Right Swing
Left Swing
Swing Motor Control Valve
Control Valve

Swing Swing

Center Joint

Left Boom Bucket Arm Arm Bucket Boom Right


Travel Raise/ Open/ Travel
Bucket Close
Tilt-In

Left Control Valve Right Control Valve Front Engine

Swing Pump 2

Main Pump 4

Main Pump 3

Swing Pump 1

Main Pump 2

Main Pump 1
Center Joint
Rear Engine

Travel Motor Travel Motor

T144-02-02-014

T2-2-5
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
Single Operation Circuit

• Boom Operation

Loading Shovel Type: Backhoe Type:


Boom Raise Boom Raise
When the boom lever is operated to raise the boom, When the boom lever is operated to raise the boom,
pressure oil from main pumps 1 and 4 flows into the pressure oil from main pumps 1 and 4 flows into the
bottom side of the boom cylinder via the boom bottom side of the boom cylinder via the boom raise
raise/bucket tilt-in section of the left control valve section of the left control valve while pressure oil from
while pressure oil from main pumps 2 and 3 also main pumps 2 and 3 also flows into the bottom side of
flows into the bottom side of the boom cylinder via the the boom cylinder via the boom section of the right
boom section of the right control valve. control valve.

Boom Lower Boom Lower


When the boom lever is operated to lower the boom, When the boom lever is operated to lower the boom,
pressure oil from main pumps 2 and 3 flows into the pressure oil from main pumps 2 and 3 flows into the
rod side of the boom cylinder via the boom section of rod side of the boom cylinder via the boom section of
the right control valve. the right control valve.
No port for boom lowering is provided in the left con- Although the boom spools in both the right and left
trol valve. (Only the port for boom raise is provided.) control valves are moved, pressure oil flows into the
For this reason, no pressure oil from the left control rod side of the boom cylinder via the boom section of
valve flows into the rod side of the boom during boom only the right control valve. The return oil from the
lowering operation. bottom side of the boom cylinders flows back to the
hydraulic oil tank via the boom sections of both the
right and left control valves.

T2-2-6
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System

NOTE: The diagram shown below is of the loading


shovel type excavator.

Boom Cylinder

Boom Raise/
Bucket Tilt-In
Boom
Boom
Lower

From From
Main Pumps Main Pumps
1 and 4 2 and 3

Boom Boom
Raise Raise

Left Control Valve Right Control Valve


T144-02-02-001

T2-2-7
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
• Arm Operation

Loading Shovel Type: Backhoe Type:


Arm Extend Arm Roll-Out
When the arm lever is operated to extend the arm, When the arm lever is operated to roll-out the arm,
pressure oil from main pumps 1 and 4 flows into the pressure oil from main pumps 1 and 4 flows into the
bottom of the arm cylinder via the arm section of the rod side of the arm cylinder via the arm section of the
left control valve while pressure oil from main pumps left control valve while pressure oil from main pumps
2 and 3 also flows into the bottom of the arm cylinder 2 and 3 also flows into the rod side of the arm cylinder
via the arm section of the right control valve. via the arm section of the right control valve.

Arm Retract Arm Roll-In


When the arm lever is operated to retract the arm, When the arm lever is operated to roll-in the arm,
pressure oil from main pumps 1 and 4 flows into the pressure oil from main pumps 1 and 4 flows into the
rod side of the arm cylinder via the arm sectionn of bottom of the arm cylinder via the arm section of the
the left control valve. left control valve, while pressure oil from main pumps
No port for arm retracting is provided in the right con- 2 and 3 also flows into the bottom of the arm cylinder
trol valve. (Only the port for arm extend is provided.) via the arm section of the right control valve.
For this reason, no pressure oil from the right control
valve flows into the rod side of the boom during arm
retracting operation.

Level Circuit Operation (Loading Shovel Type Only):


When the arm lever is operated to extend the arm,
the level cylinder is extended as one end of the level
cylinder is connected to the arm. Because the hydrau-
lic line from the rod side of the level cylinder is con-
nected to the rod side of the boom cylinder, oil in the
rod side of the level cylinder is routed to the rod side
of the boom cylinder, retracting the boom cylinder.
When the arm lever is operated to retract the arm, the
level cylinder is retracted as one end of the level cyl-
inder is connected to the arm. Because the hydraulic
line from the bottom side of the level cylinder is con-
nected to the bottom side of the boom cylinder, oil in
the bottom side of the level cylinder is routed to the
bottom side of the boom cylinder, extending the boom
cylinder.
Due to this level circuit operation which occurs when
the arm is operated, the bucket moves horizontally
when the arm lever is operated.

T2-2-8
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System

NOTE: The diagram shown below is of the loading


shovel type excavator.

Arm Circuit

Arm Cylinder

Arm Arm

Arm Extend Arm Extend

From From
Main Pumps Main Pumps
1 and 4 2 and 3

Arm
Retract

Left Control Valve Right Control Valve


T144-02-02-002
Level Circuit

Level
Cylinder
Extend

Extend Retract
Retract

Boom
Cylinder

T144-02-02-003

T2-2-9
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
• Bucket Operation

Loading Shovel Type: Backhoe Type:


Bucket Tilt-In Bucket Roll-In
When the bucket lever is operated to tilt-in the bucket, When the bucket lever is operated to roll-in the
pressure oil from main pumps 1 and 4 flows into the bucket, pressure oil from main pumps 1 and 4 flows
bottom of the bucket cylinder via the boom into the bottom of the bucket cylinder via the bucket
raise/bucket tilt-in section of the left control valve section of the left control valve while pressure oil from
while pressure oil from main pumps 2 and 3 also main pumps 2 and 3 also flows into the bottom of the
flows into the bottom of the bucket cylinder via the bucket cylinder via the bucket roll-in section of the
bucket section of the right control valve. right control valve.

Bucket Tilt-Out: Bucket Roll-Out


When the bucket lever is operated to tilt-out the When the bucket lever is operated to roll-out the
bucket, pressure oil from main pumps 2 and 3 flows bucket, pressure oil from main pumps 1 and 4 flows
into the rod side of the bucket cylinder via the bucket into the rod side of the bucket cylinder via the bucket
section of the right control valve. section of the left control valve.
No port for bucket tilt-out operation is provided in the No port for bucket roll-out operation is provided in the
left control valve. (Only the port for bucket tilt-in is right control valve. (Only the port for bucket roll-in is
provided.) For this reason, no pressure oil from the provided.) For this reason, no pressure oil from the
left control valve flows into the rod side of the bucket right control valve flows into the rod side of the bucket
cylinder during bucket tilt-out operation. cylinder during bucket roll-out operation.

T2-2-10
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System

NOTE: The diagram shown below is of the loading


shovel type excavator.
Bucket Cylinder

Boom Raise/
Bucket Tilt-In Bucket
Bucket Bucket
Tilt-In Tilt-Out

From From
Main Pumps Main Pumps
1 and 4 2 and 3

Bucket
Tilt-In

Left Control Valve Right Control Valve


T144-02-02-004

T2-2-11
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
• Bucket Open/Close Operation
(Loading Shovel Type Only)

Bucket Open
When the bucket open/close pedal is operated to
open the bucket, pressure oil from main pumps 1 and
4 flows into the rod side of the dump cylinder via the
bucket open/close section in the left control valve.

Bucket Close
When the bucket open/close pedal is operated to
close the bucket, pressure oil from main pumps 1 and
4 flows into the boom side of the dump cylinder via
the bucket open/close section in the left control valve.

Dump Cylinder

Bucket Open/ Left Control Valve


Close

Bucket
Open
From
Main Pumps
1 and 4

Bucket
Close

Left Control Valve


T144-02-02-005

T2-2-12
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
• Travel Operation
When the travel levers are operated, pressure oil
from main pumps 1 and 4 flows into the left travel
motor via the left travel section of the left control
valve while pressure oil from main pumps 2 and 3
flows into the right travel motor via the right travel
section of the right control valve.

Left Travel Motor Right Travel Motor

Center Joint

Right
Left Travel Travel

Reverse Reverse

From From
Main Pumps Main Pumps
1 and 4 2 and 3

Forward Forward

Left Control Valve Right Control Valve


T144-02-02-006

T2-2-13
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
• Swing Operation
Pressure oil from swing pump 1 flows into the
swing motors via the left swing control valve while
pressure oil from swing pump 2 flows into the
swing motors via the right swing control valve.
Pressure oil flowing out of the left and right swing
control valves is combined before it is supplied
equally to both swing motors.

Swing Motor

Right Swing

Left Swing
From
Swing Pump 1

From
Swing Pump 2
Left Swing

Right Swing
Swing Motor
Left Swing Control Valve Right Swing Control Valve

T144-02-02-007

T2-2-14
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
(Blank)

T2-2-15
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
Combined Operation Circuit

• Travel/Front Combined Operation


When the travel function and front function are NOTE: Since the bucket open/close section is lo-
operated simultaneously, the travel pilot pressure cated downstream of the left travel section
shifts the flow combiner valve shift valve. Conse- in the left control valve, bucket open/close
quently, the front pilot pressure shift the shift valve operation cannot be performed while the
2 and then the flow combiner valve via the flow travel function is used.
combiner valve shift valve.
As a result, pressure oil from main pumps 1 and 4
flows to both the left travel spool in the left control
valve and, via the flow combiner valve, the right
travel spool in the right control valve. Pressure oil
from main pumps 2 and 3 is routed to the right
control valve to be used for the front function op-
erated, i.e. arm, bucket or boom function. Thus,
the machine can travel straight during travel/front
combined operations.

Pilot Circuit

NOTE: The diagram


shown below To Flow Flow Combiner Valve
Shift Valve Shift Valve 2
is of the load- Combiner Valve
ing shovel type
excavator.

Travel Pilot Pressure

Shuttle Valve Block

T144-02-02-015

T2-2-16
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
Main Circuit

NOTE: The diagram shown below is of the loading


shovel type excavator.

Left Travel Motor Right Travel Motor

Center Joint

To Respective Cylinder
Bucket
Open/Close Right
Left Travel Travel
Arm Bucket Boom

From
Main Pumps From
1 and 4 Main Pumps
From Flow 2 and 3
Combiner
Valve
Shift Valve

Left Control Valve Right Control Valve


Flow Com-
biner Valve
T144-02-02-008

T2-2-17
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
• Bucket Tilt-In/Boom Raise Combined Operation
(Loading Shovel Type)
In bucket tilt-in and boom raise combined opera- Consequently, pressure oil from main pumps 1
tion, the bucket tilt-in pilot pressure shifts the and 4 is supplied to the left control valve to be
bucket priority shift valve. As the bucket priority used only for bucket tilt-in function, while pressure
shift valve is shifted, the boom raise pilot pressure oil from main pumps 2 and 3 is supplied to the
to the left control valve is blocked, shifting the right control valve to be used for both the boom
bucket tilt-in/boom raise spool in the left control raise and bucket tilt-in functions.
valve to the bucket tilt-in side.

Pilot Circuit

Boom Raise
Pilot Pressure
Bucket Tilt-In
Pilot Pressure

Shuttle Valve Block

Bucket Priority Shift Valve

Boom Raise Pilot Pressure


(To the left control valve)
T144-02-02-016

T2-2-18
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
Main Circuit

Bucket Cylinder Boom Cylinder

Boom Raise/
Bucket Tilt-In
Bucket Boom
Bucket
Tilt-In

From From
Main Pumps Main Pumps
1 and 4 2 and 3

Tilt-In Raise

Left Control Valve Right Control Valve

T144-02-02-009

T2-2-19
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
• Arm Retract/Other Function Combined Operation
(Loading Shovel Type)
In arm retract (single) operation, the arm spool To prevent this from occurring, the pilot pressure
section in the right control valve is not used. shifts the shift valve 3 and arm retract shift valve
(Refer to “Arm Operation” on page T2-2-8.) in arm retract/other function combined operation.
Moreover, because a parallel passage is not pro- As the arm retract shift valve is shifted, the arm re-
vided in the arm section of the left control valve, tract pilot pressure is re-routed to the right control
arm retract and other function (left travel, boom valve from the left control valve.
raise, bucket tilt-in, or bucket close/open) com- Consequently, arm retract/other function com-
bined operation becomes inoperable. bined operation becomes operable.

Pilot Circuit

Arm Retract Pilot Pressure

Shuttle Valve Block

Shift Valve 3
Arm Retract Pilot Pressure Arm Retract
(To the right control valve) Shift Valve

Arm Retract Pilot Valve


(To the left control valve)
T144-02-02-017

T2-2-20
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
Main Circuit

Arm Cylinder

Boom Raise/ Bucket


Bucket Tilt-In Open/
Left Travel Close Arm Arm
Reverse Bucket Open
Tilt-In

From From
Main Pumps Main Pumps
1 and 4 2 and 3

Forward Boom Close Retract


Raise

Left Control Valve Right Control Valve

T144-02-02-010

T2-2-21
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
Hydraulic Oil Cooling Circuit

Most of the return oil from the left and right control When the hydraulic oil temperature is less than 30 °C
valves returns directly to the hydraulic oil tank. A part (86 °F), the swing Pi pressure control solenoid valve
of this return oil goes through the oil cooler due to is turned ON. In this case, Pi pressure is supplied to
back pressure applied by the bypass check valve. swing pumps 1 and 2 to increase swing pump deliv-
All return oil from the left and right swing control ery rate only when the control lever is operated.
valves goes through the oil cooler before returning to When the hydraulic oil temperature is more than 30
the hydraulic oil tank. In other words, most of the re- °C (86 °F), the swing Pi pressure control solenoid
turn oil from the front and travel functions returns to valve is turned OFF. In this case, Pi pressure is al-
the hydraulic oil tank without being cooled. To in- ways supplied to swing pumps 1 and 2, increasing
crease hydraulic circuit cooling efficiency, delivery swing pump delivery rate as long as the pilot control
rate of swing pumps 1 and 2 are set relatively high so shut-off lever is in the unlock position.
that a large volume of hydraulic oil passes through
the oil cooler.

Pilot Circuit

NOTE: The diagram From the Swing Pi Pressure Control


shown below Pilot Shut- Solenoid Valve
Off Valve
isȀof the load-
ing shovel type
excavator.

From the Pilot Valve ON↔OFF

Shuttle Valve Block

Pi Pressure
(To Swing Pumps 1 and 2)

T144-02-02-018

T2-2-22
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
Main Circuit

Bypass Check Valve

Left Control Valve Right Control Valve

Hydraulic Oil Tank

Left Swing Control Valve Right Swing Control Valve

From Fuel Cooler


Fan Drive Motor

Pi Pi

Oil Cooler Swing Pump 1 Swing Pump 2

T144-02-02-019

T2-2-23
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
PILOT CIRCUIT

Pressure oil from the pilot pump is supplied as operat- In addition, three accumulators are provided in the pilot
ing pressure to the pilot operating circuit, travel speed circuit to supply pressure oil into the pilot circuit for a
mode shift circuit (Refer to “Travel Device” group, limited period of time in case the engine stalls.
“COMPONENT OPERATION” section), pump control
circuit (Refer to “Pump Device” group, “COMPONENT
OPERATION” section), auto lubrication circuit (Refer to
“Control System” group, “SYSTEM” section), and
swing parking brake release circuit (Refer to “Swing
Device” group, “COMPONENT OPERATION” section).

Pilot Operating Circuit

Travel Pilot Bucket Open/Close Right Pilot


Left Pilot Valve Valve
Valve Pilot Valve

Travel Speed Mode Pump Control Swing Parking Brake Release Circuit
Shift Valve Circuit

Pilot Shut-Off Valve


Accumulators

Pilot Relief Valve

Pump Control Circuit Auto Lubrication Circuit


Pilot Filter

Pilot Pumps
T144-02-02-011

T2-2-24
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
Pilot Operating Circuit

Pressure oil from the pilot pumps is supplied to the


pilot valves via the pilot shut-off valve. (Pressure oil
will not be supplied to the pilot valves when the pilot
shut-off valve is closed.)
When a control lever is operated, the corresponding
pilot valve supply pilot pressure in proportion to the
control lever stroke is routed to the control valve
spool end, shifting the spool. Consequently, the main
pressure is routed to the corresponding actuator to
operate the function.

Pilot Shut-Off Valve


Pilot Valves

Pilot Pumps Swing/


Arm
Travel

To the Control Valve


To the Control Valve

Accumulators
Bucket Boom/
Open/ Bucket
Close

To the Control Valve


To the Control Valve
T144-02-02-012

T2-2-25
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
Pump Control Circuit

The pump control circuit consists of the torque con-


stant control, flow rate control (Pi pressure), in-
creased horsepower pump control (Pz pressure),
maximum flow rate reducing control (Pic pressure),
relief oil minimizing control, and relief oil minimizing
control override control (Pe pressure).
(Refer to “Pump Device” group, “COMPONENT OP-
ERATION” section.)

When a control lever is operated, the pilot pressure


exerts on the pump regulator via the corresponding
shuttle valve as one of pump control pressures de-
scribed below.

• Loading Shovel Type • Backhoe Type


Flow Rate Control Pressure Pi Flow Rate Control Pressure Pi
Main Pumps 1, 2, and 4: Main Pumps 1, 2, and 4:
Supplied when front or travel function is operated. Supplied when front or travel functions are operated.
Main Pump 3: Main Pump 3:
Supplied when front functions other than arm extend Supplied when a front function other than arm roll-out
or travel are operated. and bucket roll-in or travel functions are operated.
Swing Pumps 1 and 2: Swing Pumps 1 and 2:
Always supplied when hydraulic oil temperature is Always supplied when the hydraulic oil temperature is
more than 30°C (86°F), or supplied when a control more than 30°C (86°F), or supplied when a control
lever is operated when the hydraulic oil temperature lever is operated when the hydraulic oil temperature
is less than 30°C (86°F). (Refer to page T2-2-22.) is less than 30°C (86°F). (Refer to page T2-2-22.)

Maximum Flow Rate Reducing Pressure Pic Maximum Flow Rate Reducing Pressure Pic
Main Pump 1: Main Pumps 1, 2, 3, and 4:
Supplied when the arm retract or travel function is Supplied when the travel function is operated.
operated.
Main Pumps 2, 3, and 4: Relief Oil Minimizing Control Override Pressure Pe
Supplied when the travel function is operated. Main Pumps 1, 2, 3, and 4:
Supplied when the travel function is operated.
Relief Oil Minimizing Control Override Pressure Pe
Main Pumps 1, 2, 3, and 4:
Supplied when the travel function is operated.

T2-2-26
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System

NOTE: The diagram shown below is of the loading


shovel type excavator.

From the Pilot Valves

Shuttle Valve Block

Pi pressure to main pumps 1, 2, and 4


Pi pressure to main pump 3
Pic pressure to main pump 1
Pi pressure to swing pumps 1 and 2
Pic pressure to main pumps 2, 3, and 4
Pe pressure to main pumps 1, 2, 3, and 4

T144-02-02-020

T2-2-27
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
PUMP TRANSMISSION OIL COOLING CIR-
CUIT

The transmission oil cooling pump draws transmission


oil and routes it to the oil cooler. Oil cooled at the oil
cooler returns to the pump transmission.

FUEL COOLER FAN MOTOR CIRCUIT

Pressure oil from the fuel cooler fan motor drive pump
drives the fuel cooler fan motor.
Because high fuel pressure is used for fuel injection
timing control, the quantity of returning fuel is relatively
large, requiring the returning fuel to be cooled. For this
reason, a fuel cooler is provided on the machine.

COMPRESSOR MOTOR CIRCUIT

Pressure oil from the compressor drive pump drives


the air conditioner compressor drive motor. (Refer to
“Others” group, “COMPONENT OPERATION” sec-
tion.)

Compressor Drive Motor

Pump Transmission
Fuel Cooler Fan Motors

Compressor Drive Pump


Front Engine

Oil Cooler

Fuel Cooler Transmission Oil


Fan Motor Cooling Pump
Drive Pump Pump Transmission

Compressor Drive Pump


Rear Engine

Oil Cooler

Fuel Cooler Transmission Oil


Fan Motor Cooling Pump
Drive Pump

T144-02-02-013

T2-2-28
SYSTEM / Electrical System
OUTLINE

The electrical system can be divided into three circuits:


the main circuit, control circuit and monitor circuit.

• Main Circuit
• Power Supply Circuit
Power source for the whole electrical system.
• Accessory Circuit
Electrical components are activated with the key
switch in the ACC position.
• Starting Aid Circuit
Helps the engine to start using starting aid fluid
(ether) in cold weather.
• Engine Start Circuit
The starter is rotated to start the engine.
• Charging Circuit
Alternator generated electrical current is used to
charge the batteries and to actuate the electrical
components.
• Surge Voltage Prevention Circuit
Protects the electrical components, such as the
controllers, from surge voltage.
• Engine Stop Circuit (with Key Switch)
Stops the engine by turning the key switch to the
OFF position.
• Emergency Engine Stop Circuit
(with Emergency Engine Stop Switch)
Stops the engine with the emergency engine stop
switch.
• Engine Stop Circuit (with Engine Stop Switch)
Stops the engine with the engine stop switch. Also,
prevents the engine from being started with the
key switch.

• Control Circuit
A circuit pertinent to machine control, such as en-
gine and pump flow rate controls. (Refer to the
“Control System” group in this section.)

• Monitor Circuit
Indicates machine conditions. (Refer to the “Control
System” group in this section.)

T2-3-1
SYSTEM / Electrical System
POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT

Since the negative terminal of the battery is grounded


to the vehicle frame, the battery supplies electricity as
a back-up source to the components listed below via
the slow blow fuse #5 while the key switch is turned off.

Fuse No. Back-Up Power Supplied Components Remarks


– Key Switch Terminal B (Front/Rear Engine)
1 Load Dump Relay
Limit Switch For the fluorescent light in the
electrical equipment box.
2 MC (B)
3 ECM (Front Engine)
4 ECM (Rear Engine)
37 Air Conditioner Controllers (Front, Side, and
Rear Controllers)
1∗ Radio
∗ : The number in the fuse box 2.

T2-3-2
SYSTEM / Electrical System

Fuse Box 2

Fuse Box 1

㈏㈓ 4 3 2 1

B G1 G2 ACC M ST B G1 G2 ACC M ST
H H
OFF OFF
ACC ACC
ON ON
START START

Key Switch (Rear Engine) Key Switch (Front Engine) Load Dump
Relay

To MC (B)

Slow Blow Fuse #5

G Battery

T144-02-03-001

T2-3-3
SYSTEM / Electrical System
ACCESSORY CIRCUIT

When the key switch is turned to the ACC position,


terminal B is connected to terminal ACC inside the key
switch.
Electrical current from terminal ACC is supplied to the
components listed below, activating them.

Fuse No. Back-Up Power Supplied Components Remarks


19 Horn Relay, Horn
20 Dome Light Relay, Dome Light
2∗ Radio
3∗ Cigar Lighter
4∗ Power Source Terminal 12 V x 5 A
∗ : The number in the fuse box 2.

T2-3-4
SYSTEM / Electrical System

2 3 4

Fuse Box 2

Fuse Box 1

㈏㈓
20 19

B G1 G2 ACC M ST B G1 G2 ACC M ST
H H
OFF OFF
ACC ACC
ON ON
START START

Key Switch (Rear Engine) Key Switch (Front Engine)

Slow Blow Fuse #5

G Battery

T144-02-03-002

T2-3-5
SYSTEM / Electrical System
STARTING AID CIRCUIT

The starting aid circuit helps the engine start by supply-


ing starting aid fluid to the engine intake manifold when
the engine is hard to start in cold weather.
When the key switch is turned to the START position,
terminal B is connected to terminals G2 and M inside
the key switch.
Electrical current from key switch terminal M turns on
the battery relay via fuse #28. Consequently, electrical
current is routed to the switch part of the starting aid
relay via fuse #10. Electrical current from key switch
terminal G2 is routed to the coil part of the starting aid
relay via fuses #25 and #27.
If the starting aid switch is pressed with the above con-
ditions, i.e. the key switch in the START position, the
starting aid relay is turned on, activating the starting aid
solenoid valve. As a result, starting aid fluid (ether) is
supplied to the intake manifold upon releasing the
starting aid switch, i.e. when the starting aid solenoid
valve is turned off.

NOTE: When the coolant temperature is 38 °C


(100 °F) or higher, the thermoguard switch
is turned off, interrupting the starting aid so-
lenoid valves ground line. In this condition,
the starting aid solenoid valve cannot be
activated with the starting aid switch.

T2-3-6
SYSTEM / Electrical System

Starting Aid Solenoid Valve Starting Aid Relay

Thermoguard (Front) (Front) Starting Aid Switch


(Rear)
Switch
(Front)

(Rear) (Rear)

Fuse Box 1

28 27 25 10 1

B G1 G2 ACC M ST B G1 G2 ACC M ST
H H
OFF OFF
ACC ACC
ON ON
START START

Key Switch (Rear Engine) Key Switch (Front Engine) Load Dump
Relay

To MC (B)

Slow Blow Fuse


#1 #5

Battery Relay

G Battery

T144-02-03-003

T2-3-7
SYSTEM / Electrical System
ENGINE START CIRCUIT

When the key switch is turned to the START position,


terminal B is connected to terminals G2 and M.
Electrical current from key switch terminal M energizes
the battery relay via fuse #28, routing the battery power
source to starter terminal B and the starter relay via the
battery relay. At the same time, electrical current from
key switch terminal M flows to the MC (A) and (B) via
fuse #30. Consequently, the MC (B) energizes the load
dump relay. Electrical current from key switch terminal
M also flows to the ECM via fuses #5 and #6, activating
the electronic governor to the engine start position.
Electrical current from key switch terminal G2 ener-
gizes the starter relay 1 via fuses #24 and #26, routing
the battery power source to starter terminal S via the
starter relay. As the battery power is routed to the
starter terminal S, the starter built-in relay is energized,
connecting starter terminals B and M with each other.
As a result, the starter motor rotates to start the en-
gine.

T2-3-8
SYSTEM / Electrical System

To the ECM (Front Engine).


To the ECM (Rear Engine).

Fuse Box 1
To MC (B)

30 28 26 24 6 5 1

B G1 G2 ACC M ST B G1 G2 ACC M ST
H H
OFF OFF
ACC ACC
ON ON
START START

Key Switch (Rear Engine) Key Switch (Front Engine) Load Dump
Relay

To MC (B)

Engine Stop Switch


Starter
Relay 1
Battery Relay

(Front)

B S (Rear)
G (F) Battery
M
(Rear)
B S
G
M
Starter Starter Relay 2
(R)

T144-02-03-004

T2-3-9
SYSTEM / Electrical System
As the engine starts, the alternator starts generating
electrical current. Alternator generated electrical cur-
rent flows from alternator terminals R and B.
Electrical current from alternator terminal R energizes
starter relay 2. Consequently, starter relay 2 is deacti-
vated, interrupting the starter relay 1 ground line, thus
deenergizing starter relay 1.
For this reason, the starter does not rotate even when
the key switch is turned to the START position while
the engine is running, i.e. while the alternator is gener-
ating electrical current.

T2-3-10
SYSTEM / Electrical System

26 24

B G1 G2 ACC M ST B G1 G2 ACC M ST
H H
OFF OFF
ACC ACC
ON ON
START START

Key Switch (Rear Engine) Key Switch (Front Engine)

Starter
Relay 1

(Front)

(Front)
R
(Front) (Rear)
G B Battery
Alternator (Rear)
R

G
B
(Rear) Starter Relay 2

T144-02-03-005

T2-3-11
SYSTEM / Electrical System
CHARGING CIRCUIT

After the engine is started, the key switch returns to the


ON positioned upon releasing the key. With the key
switch in the ON position, terminal B is connected to
terminals ACC and M inside the key switch.
Electrical current from alternator terminal B charges
the batteries via the breaker, junction box, and battery
relay.
Electrical current from alternator terminal B is also
used as the power source for all electrical compo-
nents.
Electrical current from alternator terminal R energizers
starter relay 2. As starter relay 2 is energized, the hour
meter relay is energized and at the same time, a signal
to turn off the alternator indicator is sent to the MC (A).

T2-3-12
SYSTEM / Electrical System

1 2 3 4 5

Fuse Box 2

Fuse Box 1

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

B G1 G2 ACC M ST B G1 G2 ACC M ST
H H
OFF OFF
ACC ACC
ON ON
START START

Key Switch (Rear Engine) Key Switch (Front Engine)


From the MC(A).
Hour Meter
To MC (B)
From Fuse #29.
Hour Meter Relay
#1 #2 #3 #4 #5

From Fuse #29. Slow Blow Fuse


Engine Stop Switch
Battery Relay

(Front)
R
(Front)
G B Battery
Alternator (Rear)
R Breaker
G B
(Rear) Starter Relay 2

T144-02-03-006

T2-3-13
SYSTEM / Electrical System
SURGE VOLTAGE PREVENTION CIRCUIT

When the engine is stopped, i.e. when the key switch


is turned to the OFF position, electrical current from
key switch terminal M to the battery relay stops, deen-
ergizing the battery relay. Since the engine keeps run-
ning by inertia just after the key switch is turned to the
OFF position, the alternator keeps generating. At this
moment, because alternator generated electrical cur-
rent does not flow to the battery as the battery relay
was just deenergized, surge voltage rises in the elec-
trical circuit, possibly causing the electronic compo-
nents such as the controllers to fail. To prevent this
from occurring, the surge voltage prevention circuit is
provided.
When the key switch is in the ON or START position,
MC (B) receives “Power ON” signal from key switch
terminal M via fuse #30. When the key switch is turned
to the ACC or OFF position, “Power ON” signal to MC
(B) is cut. The MC (B) keeps energizing the load dump
relay approximately 30 seconds after “Power ON” sig-
nal to MC (B) is cut.
Consequently, the battery relay is kept energized for
the same time period.
As a result, alternator generated current is routed to
the battery while the engine keeps running due to the
inertia force just after the key switch is turned to the
OFF position, preventing any surge voltage from rising
in the electrical circuit.

T2-3-14
SYSTEM / Electrical System

To MC (B)

30

B G1 G2 ACC M ST B G1 G2 ACC M ST
H H
OFF OFF
ACC ACC
ON ON
START START

Key Switch (Rear Engine) Key Switch (Front Engine) Load Dump
Relay

To MC (B)

Battery Relay

R
(Front)
G
B
Battery
Alternator R

G
B
(Rear)

T144-02-03-007

T2-3-15
SYSTEM / Electrical System
ENGINE STOP CIRCUIT (WITH KEY
SWITCH)

When the key switch is turned to the OFF position from


the ON position (engine running), electrical current
from key switch terminal M is cut. For this reason, elec-
trical current from key switch terminal M to the ECM’s
(one for the front engine and the other for the rear en-
gine) via fuses #5 and #6 is cut. Consequently, the
ECM turned off the fuel solenoid (shut-off valve) to
stop the engine.

T2-3-16
SYSTEM / Electrical System

Emergency Relay

ECM (Front)
ECM (Rear)
(Rear) (Front)

6 5

B G1 G2 ACC M ST B G1 G2 ACC M ST
H H
OFF OFF
ACC ACC
ON ON
START START

Key Switch (Rear Engine) Key Switch (Front Engine)

Battery

T144-02-03-008

T2-3-17
SYSTEM / Electrical System
EMERGENCY ENGINE STOP CIRCUIT
(WITH EMERGENCY ENGINE STOP
SWITCH)

lf the emergency engine stop switch is turned to the


EMERG.STOP position while the engines are running,
both engines stop simultaneously.
When the emergency engine stop switch is turned to
the EMERG.STOP position, the emergency relays are
energized, cutting “Power ON” signals to the ECMs.
Consequently, the ECMs deactivates the fuel solenoids
(shut-off valve) to stop the engines.

NOTE: If the emergency engine stop switch is


turned to the EMERG.STOP position, the
swing stop relay is also energized. (Refer to
the “Control System” group in this section.)

ENGINE STOP CIRCUIT (WITH ENGINE


STOP SWITCH)

If the engine stop switch is turned to the


EMERGE.STOP position while the engines are running,
both engines stop simultaneously. (The same as the
EMERGENCY ENGINE STOP CIRCUIT function.)
If the engine stop switch is turned to the
EMERG.STOP position with the engine stopped (not
running), the engines cannot be started with the key
switches.
When the engine stop switch is turned to the
EMERG.STOP position with the engine stopped (not
running), starter relay 2s’ ground lines are interrupted,
deenergizing starter relay 1s. Consequently, electrical
current does not flow to starter terminal Ss even when
the key switches are turned to the START position.
Thus, the starters do not rotate and the engines do not
start.

T2-3-18
SYSTEM / Electrical System

Emergency En-
Emergency Relay gine Stop Switch

ECM (Front)
ECM (Rear)
(Rear) (Front)

6 5

B G1 G2 ACC M ST B G1 G2 ACC M ST
H H
OFF OFF
ACC ACC
ON ON
START START

Key Switch (Rear Engine) Key Switch (Front Engine)

To MC (B)

Starter Relay 2
Engine Stop Switch

(Front)

(Rear)

T144-02-03-009

T2-3-19
SYSTEM / Electrical System
(Blank)

T2-3-20
SECTION 3
COMPONENT OPERATION

—CONTENTS—

Group 1 Pump Device Group 5 Travel Device


Outline..........................................................T3-1-1 Outline ......................................................... T3-5-1
Main Pump ...................................................T3-1-2 Travel Motor................................................. T3-5-2
Regulator......................................................T3-1-4 Travel Speed Change.................................. T3-5-4
Gear Type Center Pump ............................T3-1-24 Brake Valve.................................................. T3-5-6
Gear Type Triple Pump ..............................T3-1-25 Parking Brake .............................................. T3-5-7
Travel Reduction Gear................................. T3-5-8
Group 2 Swing Device
Outline..........................................................T3-2-1 Group 6 Others (Upperstructure)
Swing Motor .................................................T3-2-2 Pilot Shut-Off Valve ..................................... T3-6-1
Valve Unit .....................................................T3-2-4 Air Conditioner ............................................. T3-6-2
Swing Parking Brake....................................T3-2-6 Auto-lubrication System............................... T3-6-4
Swing Reduction Gear .................................T3-2-7 Solenoid Valve ............................................. T3-6-5
Fuel Cooler Fan Motor................................. T3-6-6
Group 3 Control Valve Accumulator................................................. T3-6-7
Outline..........................................................T3-3-1
Hydraulic Circuit ...........................................T3-3-2 Group 7 Others (Undercarriage)
Flow Combiner Valve ...................................T3-3-4 Swing Bearing.............................................. T3-7-1
Main Relief Valve..........................................T3-3-5 Adjuster Cylinder ......................................... T3-7-2
Overload Relief Valve...................................T3-3-5 Accumulator................................................. T3-7-3
Make-Up Valve.............................................T3-3-5 Center Joint ................................................. T3-7-4

Group 4 Pilot Valve


Outline..........................................................T3-4-1
Construction .................................................T3-4-2
Function .......................................................T3-4-3
Operation .....................................................T3-4-4

144T-3-1
(Blank)

144T-3-2
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
OUTLINE

The pump device consists of two transmissions, four The gear type center pump supplies pressure oil to the
main pumps, two swing pumps, gear type center pump air conditioner compressor drive motor.
and gear type triple pump. The gear type triple pump consists of the transmission
The transmissions distribute and transmit engine oil cooling pump, fuel cooler fan motor drive pump, and
power to the pumps in proportion to each pump’s gear the pilot pump, in that order from the end of the trans-
ratio. The gear ratios of the main pumps, swing pumps, mission.
center pump, and triple pump are 1.02, 0.82, 1, and
1.02, respectively.
(Gear Ratio=Pump Speed/Engine Speed)
The main pumps and swing pumps are variable dis-
placement, swash plate type, axial plunger pumps,
supplying high operating pressure into the main circuit.

Gear Type Center Pump

Gear Type Triple Pump


Swing Pump
Main Pump

T144-03-01-001

T3-1-1
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
MAIN PUMP

The shaft is connected to the cylinder block via a spline


coupling. The plungers are inserted into the cylinder
block bores.
Engine power is transmitted to the shaft via the trans-
mission, as the shaft rotates, the plunger rotates along
with cylinder block, sliding along the surface of the
shoe plate. Because the swash plate is positioned at
an angle against the plungers, the plungers reciprocate
in the cylinder block bores, drawing and discharging
hydraulic oil.

Shaft Shoe Plate Servo Piston

W142-02-03-010

Swash Plate Plunger Cylinder Block

T3-1-2
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
Delivery Rate Increase/Decrease Operation

The main pump delivery rate is changed by changing


swash plate angle (displacement angle), thus chang-
ing plunger stroke in the cylinder block bores.
The servo piston is moved by pressure oil from the
regulator to control the swash plate angle (displacement
angle). As the swash plate is connected to the servo
piston, the swash plate angle is changed by the
movement of the servo piston.

Servo Piston

Shaft

Valve Plate

Cylinder Block

Plunger

Swash Plate
T142-02-01-001

T3-1-3
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
REGULATOR

The regulators are provided on the top of the main and • Reduced Horsepower Pump Control
swing pumps, controlling pump flow rate. Two type of (Main pump only)
the regulators are provided: one for the main pumps When the travel or swing function is operated, re-
and the other for the swing pumps. duced horsepower pump control pressure P2
from the reduced horsepower pump control valve
Various Regulator Functions acts on the regulator, decreasing the pump dis-
placement angle.
• Constant Torque Control
Monitoring the pump delivery pressure (P), the • Increased Horsepower Pump Control
regulator controls pump delivery rate to utilize en- (Main pump only)
–1
gine power to the best possible extent. This con- When the engine speed exceeds 1700 min , in-
stant torque control consists of two operations as creased horsepower pump control pressure Pz
follows: from the EHC valve acts on the regulator, increas-
(1) Overload Preventing Operation ing the pump displacement angle.
When the pump delivery pressure (P) in-
creases, the regulator decreases the pump • Relief Oil Minimizing Control (Main pump only)
displacement angle, decreasing pump deliv- When the pump delivery pressure (P) reaches the
ery rate. set relief oil minimizing pressure (a pressure
(2) Delivery Rate Increasing Operation slightly lower than the relief pressure), the pump
When the pump delivery pressure (P) de- displacement angle is decreased to the minimum.
creases, the regulator increases the pump
displacement angle, increasing pump deliv- • Relief Oil Minimizing Control Override Control
ery rate. (Main pump only)
When the travel function is operated, the relief oil
• Flow Rate Control minimizing control override pressure Pe acts on
(1) Main Pump Regulator the regulator to override the relief oil minimizing
When a control lever is operated, the pump control.
flow rate control pressure Pi acts on the regu-
lator via the shuttle valve, changing the pump • Maximum Flow Rate Reducing Control
displacement angle to control flow rate. (Main pump only)
(2) Swing Pump Regulator When the travel or arm retract functions are oper-
The flow rate control pressure Pi from the ated, the maximum flow rate reducing pressure
swing Pi pressure control solenoid valve acts Pic acts on the regulator to reduce the maximum
on the regulator, changing the pump dis- flow rate.
placement angle to control flow rate. (Refer
to “Hydraulic System” group, “SYSTEM” sec- • Preference Mechanism to Lowest Displacement
tion.) Angle (Flow Rate) Command
When a multiple number of pump control com-
mands exist at the same time, the lowest dis-
placement angle (flow rate) command is me-
chanically selected.

P- Pump Delivery Pressure


Psv- Servo Assist Pressure (From the pilot pump)
Pi- Flow Rate Control Pressure
(From the pilot valve, swing Pi pressure control sole-
noid valve)
P2- Reduced Horsepower Pump Control Pressure
(From the reduced horsepower pump control valve)
Pz- Increased Horsepower Pump Control Pressure
(From the EHC valve)
Pe- Relief Oil Minimizing Control Override Pressure
P2 Pi Pic Psv Pe Pz (From the shuttle valve block)
T144-03-01-004 Pic- Maximum Flow Rate Reducing Pressure
(From the shuttle valve block)

T3-1-4
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
Cross Section

A
C
B

A B C T117-02-01-005

Cross Section A-A (Flow Rate Control Section)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Pic

Pi

17 16 15 14 13 12

T144-03-01-002

1- Spring 6- Pin 10 - Pilot Piston 14 - Servo Piston


2- Sleeve 7- Lever 1 11 - Spring 15 - Piston
3- Spool 8- Hole 12 - Feedback Lever 16 - Stopper
4- Pin 9- Pin 13 - Pin 17 - Stopper
5- Pin

T3-1-5
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
Cross Section B-B (Horsepower Pump Control Section)

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Pz

Pi

27
T144-03-01-003

Cross Section C-C (Relief Oil Minimizing Control Section)

28 29 30 31 32 33
T Pe

T144-03-01-014
18 - Piston 22 - Hole 26 - Piston 30 - Sleeve
19 - Compensating Piston 23 - Compensating Piston 27 - Pin 31 - Outer Spring
20 - Lever 2 24 - Outer Spring 28 - Piston 32 - Inner Spring
21 - Pin 25 - Inner Spring 29 - Spool 33 - Piston

T3-1-6
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
Link Mechanism

Movement of pilot piston (10) is transmitted to lever 1 For this reason, when lever 1 (7) or lever 2 (20) ro-
(7) via pin (9). Lever 1 (7) rotates around pin (4), tates, pin (5) comes into contact with the hole edge
which is fixed to the support plug. on the lever, and is moved further. As a result, feed-
Movement of compensating rod (23) is transmitted to back lever (12) rotates around pin (13) located on
lever 2 (20) via pin (27). Lever 2 (20) rotates around servo piston (14). On the other hand, when compen-
pin (21), which is fixed to the casing. sating rod (23) and pilot piston (10) are not moved, i.e.
Pin (5) is threaded through a hole on feedback lever levers 1 (7) and 2 (20) do not move, and when servo
(12), and the ends of pin (5) are inserted in a hole on piston (14) is moved, feedback lever (12) rotates
levers 1 (7) and 2 (20) respectively. (The hole is around pin (5).
larger than the pin (5) diameter.)

NOTE: To decrease displacement angle


21 To increase displacement angle
27
Housing 20
22
12
23

6
5
7
8
4
3 9 Support Plug

13

10
14
T117-02-01-009

3- Spool 7- Lever 1 12 - Feedback Lever 21 - Pin


4- Pin 8- Hole 13 - Pin 22 - Hole
5- Pin 9- Pin 14 - Servo Piston 23 - Compensating Rod
6- Pin 10 - Pilot Piston 20 - Lever 2 27 - Pin

T3-1-7
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
Constant Torque Control

• Overload Preventing Operation

1. If pump delivery pressure P rises from P1 to P2,


compensating piston moves compensating rod
(23) to the right until it balances with outer spring
(24) and inner spring (25).

2. Movement of compensating rod (23) is transmit-


ted to lever 2 (20) via pin (27), rotating lever 2 (20)
counterclockwise around pin (21).

3. Since pin (5), which is connected to feedback


lever (12), is inserted into hole (22) on lever 2 (20),
feedback lever (12) rotates around pin (13) clock-
wise as lever 2 (20) rotates, moving spool (3) to
the right.

4. As spool (3) is moved, pump delivery pressure P Q


is routed to the servo piston large chamber via P (Pressure Increase)
(Flow Rate)
spool (3). Although pump delivery pressure P is
also routed to the servo piston small chamber, Q1 Q (Flow Rate Decrease)
servo piston (14) is moved to the right due to the Q2
difference in pressure receiving area between the
servo piston ends.

5. As servo piston (14) is moved to the right, the


pump displacement angle decreases corretspond-
ing to the distance that servo piston (14) has P1 P2 P
moved, decreasing the pump delivery rate. (Pump Delivery Pressure)

6. As servo piston (14) moves, feedback lever (12)


moves via pin (13). Since compensating rod (23)
and lever 2 (20) do not move, feedback lever (12)
rotates counterclockwise around pin (5), shifting
spool (3) to the left until the notches on spool (3)
and sleeve (2) close completely. As the these
notches close, the pump pressure stops acting on
the servo piston large chamber. Consequently, the
movement of servo piston (14) stops.

7. With the above operation, the pump delivery rate


decreases from Q1 to Q2, relieving excessive
load otherwise applied to the pump.

T3-1-8
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device

1 2 3 19 5 20 21 22 23 24 25

Pressure
(P1→P2)

Large Chamber Small Chamber

14 13 12 27
21
27 T144-03-01-005
Housing 20
22
12
23

14

13

T117-02-01-009

1- Spring 12 - Feedback Lever 20 - Lever 2 24 - Outer Spring


2- Sleeve 13 - Pin 21 - Pin 25 - Inner Spring
3- Spool 14 - Servo Piston 22 - Hole 27 - Pin
5- Pin 19 - Compensating Piston 23 - Compensating Rod

T3-1-9
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
• Delivery Rate Increasing Operation

1. If pump delivery pressure P drops from P2 to P1,


compensating piston (19) (along with compensat-
ing rod (23)) is returned to the left until it balances
against outer spring (24) and inner spring (25).

2. Movement of compensating rod (23) is transmit-


ted to lever 2 (20) via pin (27), rotating lever 2 (20)
clockwise around pin (2l). which is fixed to the
housing.

3. Since pin (5), which is connected to feedback


lever (12), is inserted into hole (22) on lever 2 (20),
feedback lever (12) rotates around pin (13) coun-
terclockwise as lever 2 (20) rotates, moving spool
(3) to the left.
Q
4. As spool (3) is moved, pressure oil in the servo
(Flow Rate)
piston large chamber is routed to the hydraulic oil
tank via spool (3). Since pump delivery pressure P Q1 Q (Flow Rate Increase)
is routed to the servo piston small chamber all the Q2 P (Pressure Decrease)
time, servo piston (14) is moved to the left.

5. As servo piston (14) is moved to the left, the pump


displacement angle increases corresponding to
the distance that servo piston (14) has moved, in-
creasing the pump delivery rate. P1 P2 P
(Pump Delivery Pressure)
6. As servo piston (14) is moved and because com-
pensating rod (23) and lever 2 (20) do not move,
feedback lever (12), which is connected to servo
piston (14) via pin (13), rotates clockwise around
pin (5), moving spool (3) to the right until the
notches on sleeve (2) are completely closed, thus
closing the line from the servo piston large cham-
ber to the hydraulic oil tank. As a result, move-
ment of servo piston (14) stops.

7. With the above operation, the pump delivery rate


increases from Q2 to Q1 .

T3-1-10
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device

2 3 19 5 20 21 22 23 24 25
Pressure
(P1→P2)

Pressure
(P2→P1)

Large Chamber Small Chamber

14 13 12 27
21 T144-03-01-006
27
Housing 20
22
12
23

14

13

T117-02-01-009
2- Sleeve 13 - Pin 21 - Pin 24 - Outer Spring
3- Spool 14 - Servo Piston 22 - Hole 25 - Inner Spring
5- Pin 19 - Compensating Piston 23 - Compensating Rod 27 - Pin
12 - Feedback Lever 20 - Lever 2

T3-1-11
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
Flow Rate Control

• Flow Rate Increasing Operation

1. When a control lever is operated, flow rate control


pressure Pi acts on piston (17). As pressure Pi in-
creases, piston (17) is moved, pushing pilot piston
(10) to the right via piston (15) and stopper (16)
until pilot piston (10) balances against spring (11).

2. As lever 1 (7) is connected to pilot piston (10) via


pin (9), movement of pilot piston (10) rotates lever
1 (7) counterclockwise around pin (4) which is
fixed to the support plug.

3. Because pin (5) on feedback lever (12) is inserted


into hole (8) on lever 1 (7), feedback lever (12) ro-
tates counterclockwise around pin (13) as lever 1
(7) rotates, moving spool (3) to the left.
Q
4. As spool (3) is moved, pressure oil in the servo (Flow Rate)
piston large chamber is routed to the hydraulic oil
tank via spool (3). Since pump delivery pressure P
is routed to the servo piston small chamber all the
time, servo piston (14) is moved to the left.

5. As servo piston (14) is moved to the left, the pump


displacement angle increases corresponding to
the distance that servo piston (14) has moved, in-
Pi
creasing the pump delivery rate.
(Flow Rate Control Pressure)

6. As servo piston (14) is moved and because com-


pensating rod (23) and lever 2 (20) do not move,
feedback lever (12), which is connected to servo
piston (14) via pin (13), rotates clockwise around
pin (5), moving spool (3) to the right until the
notches on sleeve (2) are completely closed, thus
closing the line from the servo piston large cham-
ber to the hydraulic oil tank. As a result, move-
ment of servo piston (14) stops.

7. With the above operation, the pump delivery rate


is increased in proportion to the control lever
stroke (increment of pressure Pi).

T3-1-12
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device

17 16 15 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11

Pi

Large Chamber Small Chamber

14 13 12

T144-03-01-007

Housing

12

3 4

Support Plug

14

13

10

T117-02-01-009
2- Sleeve 7- Lever 1 11 - Spring 15 - Piston
3- Spool 8- Hole 12 - Feedback Lever 16 - Stopper
4- Pin 9- Pin 13 - Pin 17 - Piston
5- Pin 10 - Pilot Piston 14 - Servo Piston

T3-1-13
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
• Flow Rate Decreasing Operation

1. When pressure Pi decreases, i.e. when the oper-


ated control lever is returned some degree, piston
(17), piston (15) and pilot piston (10) are returned
to the left until they, or pressure Pi in other words,
balances against spring (11).

2. As lever 1 (7) is connected to pilot piston (10) via


pin (9), movement of pilot piston (10) rotates lever
1 (7) clockwise around pin (4) which is fixed to the
support plug.

3. Because pin (5) on feedback lever (12) is inserted


into hole (8) on lever 1 (7), feedback lever (12) ro-
tates clockwise around pin (13) as lever 1 (7) ro-
tates, moving spool (3) to the right.
Q
4. As spool (3) is moved, pump delivery pressure P (Flow Rate)
is routed to the servo piston large chamber via
spool (3). Although pump delivery pressure P is
also routed to the servo piston small chamber,
servo piston (14) is moved to the right due to the
difference in pressure receiving area between the
servo piston ends.

5. As servo piston (14) is moved to the right, the Pi


pump displacement angle decreases correspond-
(Flow Rate Control Pressure)
ing to the distance that servo piston (14) has
moved, decreasing the pump delivery rate.

6. As servo piston (14) moves, feedback lever (12)


moves via pin (12). Since compensating rod (23)
and lever 2 (20) do not move, feedback lever (12)
rotates counterclockwise around pin (5), shifting
spool (3) to the left until the notches on spool (3)
and sleeve (2) closes completely. As the these
notches close, the pump pressure stops acting on
the servo piston large chamber. Consequently, the
movement of servo piston (14) stops.

7. With the above operation, the pump delivery rate


is decreased in proportion to the degree the con-
trol lever is returned (decrement of pressure Pi).

T3-1-14
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device

17 15 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11

Pi

Large Chamber Small Chamber

14 13 12

T144-03-01-00

12

3 4

Support Plug

14

13

10

T117-02-01-009

2- Sleeve 7- Lever 1 11 - Spring 14 - Servo Piston


3- Spool 8- Hole 12 - Feedback Lever 15 - Piston
4- Pin 9- Pin 13 - Pin 17 - Piston
5- Pin 10 - Pilot Piston

T3-1-15
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
Reduced Horsepower Pump Control

1. Reduced horsepower pump control pressure P2


acts on piston (18). When pressure P2 acts on
piston (18), compensating piston (19) and com-
pensating rod (23) move until they balance
against outer spring (24) and inner spring (25).

2. Movement of compensating rod (23) is transmit-


ted to lever 2 (20) via pin (27), rotating lever 2 (20)
counterclockwise around pin (21).

3. Since pin (5), which is connected to feedback


lever (12), is inserted into hole (22) on lever 2 (20),
feedback lever (12) rotates around pin (13) clock-
wise as lever 2 (20) rotates, moving spool (3) to
the right.
Q
4. As spool (3) is moved, pump delivery pressure P
(Flow Rate)
is routed to the servo piston large chamber via
spool (3). Although pump delivery pressure P is
also routed to the servo piston small chamber,
servo piston (14) is moved to the right due to the
difference in pressure receiving area between the
servo piston ends.

5. As servo piston (14) is moved to the right, the


pump displacement angle decreases corresponding P (Pump Delivery Pressure)
to the distance that servo piston (14) has moved,
decreasing the pump delivery rate.

6. As servo piston (14) moves, feedback lever (12)


moves via pin (12). Since compensating rod (23)
and lever 2 (20) do not move, feedback lever (12)
rotates counterclockwise around pin (5), shifting
spool (3) to the left until the notches on spool (3)
and sleeve (2) close completely. As the these
notches close, the pump pressure stops acting on
the servo piston large chamber. Consequently, the
movement of servo piston (14) stops.

7. With the above operation, the P-Q curve is reset


as illustrated (when reduced horsepower pump
control pressure P2 acts on piston (18)). Conse-
quently, the torque constant control (overload pre-
venting operation and delivery rate increasing op-
eration) is performed on this reset P-Q curve.

T3-1-16
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device

18 19 2 3 5 20 21 22 23 24 25

P2

Large Chamber Small Chamber

14 13 12 27

21 T144-03-01-009
27
Housing 20
22
12
23

14

13

T117-02-01-009

2- Sleeve 13 - Pin 20 - Lever 2 24 - Outer Spring


3- Spool 14 - Servo Piston 21 - Pin 25 - Inner Spring
5- Pin 18 - Piston 22 - Hole 27 - Pin
12 - Feedback Lever 19 - Compensating Piston 23 - Compensating Rod

T3-1-17
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
Increased Horsepower Pump Control

1. When increased horsepower pump control pres-


sure Pz rises, piston (26) moves compensating
rod (23) to the left until it balances against pump
delivery pressure P which is acting on compensat-
ing rod (19).

2. Movement of compensating rod (23) is transmit-


ted to lever 2 (20) via pin (27), rotating lever 2 (20)
clockwise around pin (21) which is fixed to the
housing.

3. Since pin (5), which is connected to feedback


lever (12), is inserted into hole (22) on lever 2 (20),
feedback lever (12) rotates around pin (13) coun-
terclockwise as lever 2 (20) rotates, moving spool
(3) to the left.
Q
4. As spool (3) is moved, pressure oil in the servo
(Flow Rate)
piston large chamber is routed to the hydraulic oil
tank via spool (3). Since pump delivery pressure P
is routed to the servo piston small chamber all the
time, servo piston (14) is moved to the left.

5. As servo piston (14) is moved to the left, the pump


displacement angle increases corresponding to
the distance that servo piston (14) has moved, in-
creasing the pump delivery rate. P (Pump Delivery Pressure)

6. As servo piston (14) is moved and because com-


pensating rod (23) and lever 2 (20) do not move,
feedback lever (12), which is connected to servo
piston (14) via pin (13), rotates clockwise around
pin (5), moving spool (3) to the right until the
notches on sleeve (2) are completely closed, thus
closing the line from the servo piston large cham-
ber to the hydraulic oil tank. As a result, move-
ment of servo piston (14) stops.

7. With the above operation, the P-Q curve is reset


as illustrated (when increased horsepower pump
control pressure Pz rises). Consequently, the con-
stant torque control (overload preventing opera-
tion and delivery rate increasing operation) is per-
formed on this reset P-Q curve.

T3-1-18
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device

2 3 19 5 20 21 22 23 24 Pz 25 26

Large Chamber Small Chamber

14 13 12 27

21 T144-03-01-010

27
Housing 20
22
12
23

14

13

T117-02-01-009

2- Sleeve 13 - Pin 21 - Pin 25 - Inner Spring


3- Spool 14 - Servo Piston 22 - Hole 26 - Piston
5- Pin 19 - Compensating Piston 23 - Compensating Rod 27 - Pin
12 - Feedback Lever 20 - Lever 2 24 - Outer Spring

T3-1-19
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
Relief Oil Minimizing Control

1. Pump delivery pressure P is acting on piston (28). 3. With the above operation, the pump displacement
When the pump pressure acting on piston (28) angle becomes the minimum pump delivery rate
rises to overcome the combined set force of outer when a function is relieving.
spring (31) and inner spring (32), which is slightly
lower than the system relief pressure, piston (28)
move spool (29) to the right.

2. As spool (29) is moved, pump delivery pressure P


is routed to the servo piston large chamber via
spool (29). Although pump delivery pressure P is
also routed to the servo piston small chamber,
servo piston (14) is moved to the right due to the
difference in pressure receiving areas between
the servo piston ends.

28 29 30 31 32
T Pe

Large Chamber Small Chamber P

14
T142-02-01-010
Q
(Flow Rate)

14 - Servo Piston 30 - Sleeve


28 - Piston 31 - Outer Spring
29 - Spool 32 - Inner Spring

P (Pump Delivery Pressure)

T3-1-20
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
Relief Oil Minimizing Control Override Control

1. When the travel levers are operated, relief oil 3. Therefore, the Relief Oil Minimizing Control is
minimizing control override pressure Pe acts on overridden when the travel levers are operated.
piston (33), moving it to compress outer spring
(31) and inner spring (32), thus increasing the
spring set force.

2. With the above, spool (29) does not move before


pump delivery pressure P reaches the system
relief pressure.

28 29 30 31 32 33
T Pe

15
T142-02-01-011
Q
(Flow Rate)
14 - Servo Piston 31 - Outer Spring
28 - Piston 32 - Inner Spring
29 - Spool 33 - Piston
30 - Sleeve

P (Pump Delivery Pressure)

T3-1-21
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
Maximum Flow Rate Reducing Control

1. When the travel or arm retract functions are 2. Since the rightward movable range of piston (15)
operated, maximum flow rate reducing pressure is decided by the position of stopper (16), the
Pit acts on stopper (16), moving stopper (16) to maximum flow rate in the flow rate control (T3-1-
the left until it comes into contact with stopper (17). 12) is reduced by the above operation, as
Moreover, as the left end staged part of stopper illustrated below.
(16) comes into contact with the neck part of
piston (15), piston (15) also moves to the left.

Pic

17 16 15

T144-03-01-011
Q
(Flow Rate)

15 - Piston 17 - Stopper
16 - Stopper

Pic
(Maximum Flow Rate Reducing Pressure)

T3-1-22
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
Preference Mechanism to Lower Displacement
Angle (Flow Rate) Command

The regulator functions to give priority to the lower


displacement angle (flow rate) command when two
pump control commands, one for increasing flow rate
and the other for decreasing flow rate for example,
exist at the same time.

T3-1-23
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
GEAR TYPE CENTER PUMP

The engine power is transmitted to the center pump


shaft via the transmission. The drive gear rotates the
driven gear as the shaft rotates, drawing hydraulic oil.
Hydraulic oil drawn from the inlet port into the pump is
trapped between the gear teeth and the pump housing
wall, and it is delivered to the outlet port as the gears
rotate.

Driven Gear

Housing Drive Gear T144-03-01-012

Driven Gear Inlet Port Drive Gear

Outlet Port Housing

T137-02-03-005

T3-1-24
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
GEAR TYPE TRIPLE PUMP

The triple pump consists of pilot pump (A), fuel cooler In each pump, the drive gear rotates the driven gear as
fan motor drive pump (B) and transmission oil cooling the shaft rotates, drawing hydraulic oil. Hydraulic oil
pump (C). drawn from the inlet port into the pump is trapped
The engine power is transmitted to the shaft via the between the gear teeth and the pump housing wall,
transmission. Since three pumps are connected via and it is delivered to the outlet port as the gears rotate.
couplings, they operate simultaneously.

A B C

T144-03-01-013

A - Pilot Pump B - Fuel Cooler Fan Motor Drive Pump C - Transmission Oil Cooling Pump

Driven Gear Inlet Port Drive Gear

Outlet Port Housing

T137-02-03-005

T3-1-25
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pump Device
(Blank)

T3-1-26
COMPONENT OPERATION / Swing Device
OUTLINE

The swing device consists of the valve unit, the motor, The reduction gear functions to reduce the speed of
and the reduction gear. the rotational force and to increase its torque before
The motor is driven by pressure oil from the pump and transmitting the rotational force to the pinion shaft.
transmits rotational force to the reduction gear. The valve unit functions to protect the swing circuit.

Valve Unit Swing Motor

Swing Reduction Gear

㈩ 144-03-02-001

T3-2-1
COMPONENT OPERATION / Swing Device
SWING MOTOR

The swing motor is a swash-plate-type axial plunger The spherical end of plunger (5) is installed in shoe (2)
motor. by a ball-and-socket joint. The shaft part of plunger (5)
The swing motor consists of shaft (4), swash plate (3), is inserted into rotor (6). Rotor (6) is installed onto shaft
shoes (2), plungers (5), rotor (6), valve plate (7), and (4) with a spline coupling.
housing (1). The parking brake is a wet-type multiple disc brake,
consisting of friction plates (8) and plates (9).

7 1

2
5

W117-02-04-005

1 - Housing 4 - Shaft 6- Rotor 8- Friction Plate


2 - Shoe 5 - Plunger 7- Valve Plate 9- Plate
3 - Swash Plate

T3-2-2
COMPONENT OPERATION / Swing Device
Principles of Motor Operation

Swing speed varies depending on the amount of oil The rotational force is then transmitted to the swing
delivered from the pump. reduction gear via the shaft. As the rotor is rotated,
When pressure oil is fed into the rotor bores via port the plungers are moved to port (B) side one by one,
(A), the plungers are pushed from the top dead returning oil to the hydraulic oil tank. When pressure
center to the bottom dead center causing the shoes oil is fed via port (B), the motor rotates in the opposite
to slide along the swash plate, developing rotational direction.
force.

Plunger

Shoe

T115-02-03-003

Shaft

T3-2-3
COMPONENT OPERATION / Swing Device
VALVE UNIT

The valve unit consists of relief valve (2) and make-up


valve (1).

Relief Valve
When starting or stopping swing operation, oil
pressure in the swing circuit becomes high. The relief
valve prevents the circuit pressure from rising higher
than the specified pressure.
If the pressure at port AV (BV) side rises higher than
the relief valve set pressure, the pressure at port AV
(BV) is routed to piston chamber (9) via orifice (3) in
main poppet (4), acting against pilot piston (7). As the
pressure overcomes spring (8) force, pilot poppet (7)
is moved to the right, reducing the pressure in piston
chamber (9). As a result, a pressure difference arises
between in front of and behind main poppet (4). As
the pressure difference increases, it overcomes
spring (5) force, opening main poppet (4) to route oil
from port AV (BV) to the hydraulic oil tank side.
As pilot piston (7) is moved to the stroke end, the
differential pressure between in front of and behind
orifice (3) in main poppet (4) disappears, closing main
poppet (4).

As the pressure at port AV (BV) further increases, the


pressure in piston chamber (9) moves piston (6) to
the left, increasing the tension of spring (5).
As piston (6) reaches to its stroke end, the spring
tension increment stops.
If the pressure at port AV (BV) increases more, the
pressure overcomes the compressed spring (5) force,
opening main poppet (4) again, relieving the pressure
at port AV (BV) to the hydraulic oil tank side.
As described above, main poppet (4) opens in two
stages to reduce shock loads in the circuit.

Make-Up Valve
When the swing lever is moved toward the neutral
position during swing operation, the control valve
spool moves to close the line to the swing motor,
decreasing oil supply to the swing oil supply line.
However, the swing motor continues to rotate
because of the inertia force of the upperstructure,
causing cavitation in the swing motor. To prevent this
from occurring, the make-up valve functions to draw
hydraulic oil from port M (return line) to compensate
for insufficient oil in the oil supply line.
If pressure at the port AV (BV) becomes lower than
that in the make-up circuit, poppet (10) opens to
supply oil to port AV (BV).

T3-2-4
COMPONENT OPERATION / Swing Device
Valve Unit
Port M Make-Up Circuit

Port M

T144-03-02-003

T117-02-02-003
Port AV (BV) To Hydraulic Oil Tank

Relief Valve 3 4 5 6 7
8

Port AV (BV)

T117-02-02-004
To Hydraulic Oil Tank 9

10 11
Make-UP Valve

Make-Up Circuit

T117-02-02-005
Port AV (BV)

1 - Make-Up Valve 4 - Main Poppet 7 - Pilot Piston 10 - Poppet


2 - Relief Valve 5 - Spring 8 - Spring 11 - Spring
3 - Orifice 6 - Piston 9 - Piston Chamber

T3-2-5
COMPONENT OPERATION / Swing Device
SWING PARKING BRAKE

The swing parking brake consists of coupling (4), When the pilot control shut-off lever is in the UN-LOCK
friction plates (5), plates (6), piston (2), and springs (1). position, the brake release pressure is routed into the
Coupling (4) is spline-connected to shaft (3). piston chamber, pushing piston (2) against springs (1).
Plates (6) are spline-connected to coupling (4). And, For this reason, friction plates (5) and plates (6) are
friction plates are spline-connected to casing (7). disengaged from each other so that shaft (3) can
When the pilot control shut-off lever is in the LOCK rotate.
position, as the brake release pressure does not exert
on the piston chamber, springs (1) push piston (2) to
lock friction plates (5) and plates (6) together so as to
lock shaft (3) rotation.

1 2 3 4

Piston Chamber

6 Brake Release
Pressure
5 (From the Pilot
Shut-Off Valve)

㈩ 144-03-02-002

1 - Spring 3 - Shaft 5 - Friction Plate 7 - Casing


2 - Piston 4 - Coupling 6 - Plate

T3-2-6
COMPONENT OPERATION / Swing Device
SWING REDUCTION GEAR

The swing reduction gear is of a two-stage planetary As the second speed reduction takes place between
gear type. second stage planetary gears (2) and second stage
Rotational force of the motor shaft is transmitted to first carriers (4), the rotational force of second stage sun
stage sun gear (7). gear (5) is then transmitted to output shaft (3).
The first speed reduction takes place between first
stage planetary gears (1) and first stage carriers (6),
turning second stage sun gear (5).

6
2

W114-02-06-022

1 - First Stage Planetary Gear 3 - Shaft 5 - Second Stage Sun Gear 7 - First Stage Sun Gear
2 - Second Stage Planetary 4 - Second Stage Carrier 6 - First Stage Carrier
Gear

T3-2-7
COMPONENT OPERATION / Swing Device
(Blank)

T3-2-8
COMPONENT OPERATION / Control Valve
OUTLINE

The control valve controls oil pressure, flow rate, and Main components of the control valves are main relief
flow direction in the hydraulic circuit. The machine is valves, overload relief valves, flow combiner valve,
equipped with two main control valves and two swing load check valves, make-up valve, and spools. The
control valves. spools are operated by hydraulic pilot pressure.

NOTE: The diagram shown below is of the loading


shovel type excavator.

Main Control Valve (Right) Main Control Valve (Left)


Bucket Open/Close Boom Raise/Bucket Tilt-In

Right Travel Boom Bucket Arm Arm Left Travel

Overload Relief
Valve

Flow Combiner
Valve
Main Relief Valve

Make-Up Valve Load Check Valve


T144-03-03-001

Swing Control Valve (Left / Right)

Overload Relief Valve

Main Relief Valve

Load Check Valve

T144-03-03-004

T3-3-1
COMPONENT OPERATION / Control Valve
HYDRAULIC OIL CIRCUIT

Pressure oil from main pumps 1 and 4 is routed to the


left main control valve while pressure oil from main
pumps 2 and 3 is routed to the right main control valve.
Pressure oil from swing pumps 1 and 2 is routed to the
left and right swing control valves, respectively.
When the control valve spools are in neutral, i.e. when
the control levers are in neutral, pressure oil from the
pumps returns to the hydraulic oil tank via the neutral
passages in the control valves. When the control valve
spools are moved, i.e. when the control levers are
operated, pressure oil from the pumps is routed to
each actuator via control valve spools. In addition, the
parallel passages in the main control valves make
possible of combined operations.
Overload relief valves control actuator circuit pressure
(between the control valves and each actuator),
protecting actuator circuits from excessive pressure
which may arise due to excessive external force
applied to each actuator.

Spools in the main control valves are arranged as


follows (viewed from part P):

• Loading Shovel Type


Left Main Control Valve : Left Travel
Boom Raise/Bucket
Tilt-In
Bucket Open/Close
Arm
Right Main Control Valve : Arm
Bucket
Boom
Right Travel

• Backhoe Bucket Type


Left Main Control Valve : Left Travel
Boom
Bucket
Arm
Right Main Control Valve : Arm
Bucket Roll-In
Boom
Right Travel

T3-3-2
COMPONENT OPERATION / Control Valve
NOTE: The diagram shown below is of the loading
shovel type excavator.

Left Swing Control Valve Right Swing Control Valve


Boom Raise/ Bucket Neutral
Left Bucket Tilt-In Open/ Right
Passage
Travel Close Arm Neutral Arm Bucket Boom Travel
Passage

Main Relief
Port P Valve
Port P

Parallel
Passage

Parallel
Passage

Main Relief
Valve Left Main Control Valve Right Main Control Valve

Front Engine

Swing Pump 2

Main Pump 4

Main Pump 3

Rear Engine

Swing Pump 1

Main Pump 2

Main Pump 1

T144-03-03-002

T3-3-3
COMPONENT OPERATION / Control Valve
FLOW COMBINER VALVE

When a combined operation of the travel and front


functions is operated, the flow combiner valve located
in the left control valve is shifted. (Refer to “Hydraulic
Circuit” group, “SYSTEM” section.)
As the flow combiner valve is shifted, pressure oil from
main pumps 1 and 4 is routed to both the left travel
spool in the left control valve and the right travel spool
in the right control valve. Pressure oil from main control
valves 2 and 3 is routed to the arm, bucket, or boom
section in the right control valve.
Thus, the machine can travel straight in travel/front
(excluding bucket open/close) combined operations.

Left Right
Travel Arm Bucket Boom Travel

From the From the


Main Pumps Main Pumps
1 and 4 2 and 3

From the Flow


Combiner
Valve
Shift Valve

Flow
Combiner
Valve

Left Main Control Valve Right Main Control Valve


T144-03-03-003

T3-3-4
COMPONENT OPERATION / Control Valve
MAIN RELIEF VALVE OVERLOAD RELIEF VALVE
The main relief valve protects the main circuit from The overload relief valve protects each actuator circuit
excessive pressure. from excessive pressure.
The pressure at port P acts on pilot poppet (7) via Principles of valve operation is the same as those of
orifice (2) of main poppet (1) and orifice (6) of sleeve the main relief valve.
(5). If the pressure at port P exceeds the specified
pressure (the pressure set by spring (8)), pilot poppet
(7) opens to route a small amount of oil from port P to
port T via the circumference of sleeve (9), decreasing
pressure at spring chamber (4).
Consequently, a pressure difference arises between
port P and spring chamber (4) due to orifice (2).
When this pressure difference, which acts as a
pushing force against main poppet (1), increases,
overcoming spring (3), main poppet (1) opens, routing
pressure oil at port P directly to port T.
As the pressure at port P decreases, main poppet (1)
is seated on port P by spring (3).

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1- Main Poppet 6- Orifice


2- Orifice 7- Pilot Poppet
3- Spring 8- Spring
Port P 4- Spring Chamber 9- Sleeve
5- Sleeve

Port T T145-02-03-001

MAKE-UP VALVE
The make-up valve functions to supply oil from port T if If the actuator port pressure drops below the pressure
the pressure at the actuator circuit decreases lower at port T, poppet (10) opens to route oil at port T into
than pressure in the hydraulic tank. the actuator circuit via the actuator port.
The actuator port pressure acts on poppet (10). As As the pressure at the actuator port increases, poppet
long as the actuator port pressure is larger than (10) is closed by the combined force of spring (12) and
pressure at port T, poppet (10) is seated on sleeve (11) the pressure acting on poppet (10) (the actuator port
and oil in the actuator circuit does not flow into the port pressure).
T side.

10 11 12

10 - Poppet
Actuator Port 11 - Sleeve
12 - Spring

T145-02-03-002
Port T

T3-3-5
COMPONENT OPERATION / Control Valve
(Blank)

T3-3-6
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pilot Valve
OUTLINE

The pilot valve functions to control pilot pressure oil, The machine is equipped with the front/swing pilot
causing the control valve spools to move. When a valve, travel pilot valve, and bucket open/close pilot
control valve is operated, the pilot valve routes a pilot valve (the loading shovel only). Construction and
pressure, in proportion to the lever stroke, to the operation of all pilot valves are approximately the same
control valve to move the respective control valve as each other.
spool.
Travel Pilot Valve, Bucket Open/Close Pilot Valve

15 16 17 18 22 23 24

1 2 3 8 9 10

F F

21 20 19 26 25
R L R L T115-02-05-002

7 14
4 11

R R
6 5 13 12
T117-02-04-001

1 - Left Pilot Valve 8 - Right Pilot Valve 15 - Travel Pilot Valve 22 - Bucket Open/Close Pilot
Valve
2- Tank Port 9- Port P 16 - Left Travel Forward 23 - Bucket Open Port
3- Right Swing Port 10 - Boom Lower Port 17 - Port P 24 - Port P
4- Arm Roll-In Port 11 - Bucket Roll-In Port 18 - Left Travel Reverse 25 - Tank Port
5- Port P 12 - Tank Port 19 - Right Travel Reverse 26 - Bucket Close Port
6- Left Swing Port 13 - Boom Raise Port 20 - Tank Port
7- Arm Roll-Out Port 14 - Bucket Roll-Out Port 21 - Right Travel Forward

T3-4-1
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pilot Valve
CONSTRUCTION

Spool (7) is held upward by return spring (6) via spring With spool (7) in this position, the output port is
guide (4). Spring guide (4) cannot be lifted further as it connected to port T via a notch on spool (7).
is held by the lower neck of collar (3) that is making
contact with bushing (2) which is immovable.

Front/Swing Pilot Valve Travel Pilot Valve, Bucket Open/Close Pilot Valve

1
1 2
4
3
5 Port T
2 6
7

3
Port P
4
Port T 8
5
Output Port

T115-02-05-004
7
Notched Part

Port P

Output Port
T115-02-05-003

1 - Pusher 3 - Collar 5 - Balance Spring 7 - Spool


2 - Bushing 4 - Spring Guide 6 - Return Spring 8 - Piston

T3-4-2
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pilot Valve
FUNCTION

When a control lever is operated, oil pressure, in The return oil from the opposite-side of the spool
proportion to the lever stroke, is output to the control returns to the hydraulic oil tank via the other port of the
valve via the output port and a hydraulic pilot line, pilot valve.
moving the respective control valve spool to a position
where the combined force of the spring and the output
pressure balances against the opposite-side spring.

Pilot Valve
Actuator

Control Valve

Opposite-Side Spring

Spool
From Main Pump To Hydraulic Oil Tank

Output Port
Hydraulic Pilot Lines

T115-02-05-005

T3-4-3
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pilot Valve
OPERATION
In neutral
(Pusher stroke: A to B in the output diagram)
When the control lever is in the neutral position, spool
(7) completely blocks pressure oil from port P. Since
the output port is open to port T, pressure at the
output port equals that of the hydraulic oil tank.
When the control lever is slightly moved, pusher (1),
collar (3), and spring guide (4) move downward as a
unit against return spring (6) and balance spring (5).
As the neck of spool (7) is pulled downward and held
against spring guide (4) by balance spring (5), spool
(7) is also moved downward together with the above-
mentioned unit until clearance “a” of the spool notch
becomes zero.
Output Port
Operation Corresponding to the control lever Pressure E F
stroke (Pilot Pressure)
(Pusher stroke: C to D in the output diagram)
D
As the control lever is moved further, the lower notch
on spool (7) reaches port P, routing pressure oil from
port P to the output port, thus increasing pressure at
the output port. A part of the pressure oil at the output
port is routed inside spool (7) via a passage on spool
C
(7), acting against spool (7) from the inside, pushing it
upward, and also acting against piston (8). As long as
the force of balance spring (5) is larger than this
upward pressure, the output port pressure rises A B Pusher Stroke
continuously.
When the output port pressure overcomes balance Output Diagram
spring (5) force, spool (7) is moved upward,
compressing balance spring (5). As a result, the
lower notch is closed to block pressure oil from port P
to the output port, stopping pressure rise at the output
port.
If the control lever is further moved, spool (7) is
pushed downward again, opening the notch and in-
creasing the output port pressure. At this time,
balance spring (5) is compressed for the amount
equivalent to the movement of spool (7). For this
reason, the output pressure rises further until the
output pressure (pressure force to push spool (7)
upward) balances against balance spring (5) force.

Full Stroke Operation


(Pusher stroke: E to F in the output diagram)
When the control lever is moved further to the stroke
end, pusher (1) is lowered until collar (3) comes in
contact with the stepped part of the valve housing.
At the stroke point “D (E)”, pusher (1) comes in direct
contact with spool (7) so that the lower notch does not
close from this point on to the stroke end.
For this reason, the pressure at the output port rises
until it reaches port P pressure, and stays there.

T3-4-4
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pilot Valve
Pusher Stroke : A to B

1
2
3
4
Port T
5
6
7

a
a

Port P

T115-02-05-006
Output Port Output Port T115-02-05-007

Pusher Stroke : C to D Pusher Stroke : E to F

5
3

7
7

Passage

Port P
Port P

Output Port T115-02-05-008 Output Port T115-02-05-009

1 - Pusher 3 - Collar 5 - Balance Spring 7 - Spool


2 - Bushing 4 - Spring Guide 6 - Return Spring 8 - Piston

T3-4-5
COMPONENT OPERATION / Pilot Valve
(Blank)

T3-4-6
COMPONENT OPERATION / Travel Device
OUTLINE

The travel device consists of the travel motors and


travel reduction gear. In addition, brake valves are
provided separately. The travel motor is driven by
pressure oil delivered from the pump and rotates the
travel reduction gears.

The travel reduction gear converts power from the


travel motor into a strong slow torque which transfers
to the sprocket. The brake valve protects the travel
circuits from excessively high oil pressure.

Front

Brake Valve

Travel Line

Travel Speed
Change Line

Drain Line

Travel Motor
T117-03-01-001

Rear
Travel Reduction Gear
Travel Reduction Gear

T3-5-1
COMPONENT OPERATION / Travel Device
TRAVEL MOTOR

The travel motor is a swash plate variable displace-


ment axial plunger type motor equipped with a parking
brake and a travel speed change valve. Major parts are
a shaft, a swash plate, shoes, plungers, a rotor, a valve
plate, and a housing.

The shoe is mushroomed onto the plunger which is


installed into the rotor bore. The rotor is connected with
the shaft via a spline joint.

Swash Plate Rotor Plunger Valve Plate

Shaft

T115-03-02-002

Shoe Housing

T3-5-2
COMPONENT OPERATION / Travel Device
Operation Principles

Travel speed varies depending on both the quantity of


oil supplied to the travel motor and the swash plate
angle. When pressure oil is fed into one half of the
rotor via port A of the valve plate, the plungers are
pushed. Reaction force from the plungers and the
slanted swash plate cause the rotor to rotate while the
shoes are sliding along the swash plate surface.

This rotational force is transferred to the reduction


gears via the shaft. As the rotor rotates, plungers are
moved to port B one by one, returning oil to the
hydraulic oil tank. Switching from forward to reverse
travel and vice verse is realized by switching the
pressure-oil-port from port A to port B.

Rotor Valve Plate Port B Port A

Shaft

T117-03-01-003

Shoe Plunger

T3-5-3
COMPONENT OPERATION / Travel Device
TRAVEL SPEED CHANGE
Slow Speed

When the travel speed switch is turned OFF (slow),


the travel speed change solenoid valve is deactivated
so that the pilot pressure is fed to the spool ends in
the travel speed change valve after being reduced by
the reducing valve.

However, as the pilot pressure is reduced, the spools


in the travel speed change valve are not moved.
Therefore, the main pressure acts on the slow side tilt
piston, increasing the travel motor swash angle and
decreasing travel speed.

Reducing Valve
Travel Speed
Change
Solenoid
Travel Speed Valve
Switch

Center Joint

Pilot Pump

From Control Valve From Control Valve

Travel Speed
Change Valve
Travel Speed
Change Valve

Tilt Piston
Tilt Piston

Parking Brake
Parking Brake
Left Travel Motor Right Travel Motor
T144-03-05-003

T3-5-4
COMPONENT OPERATION / Travel Device
Fast Speed

When the travel speed switch is turned ON (fast), the


travel speed change solenoid valve is activated,
allowing the pilot pressure to act on the spring side in
the reducing valve. Then the pilot pressure is fed to
the spool ends in the travel speed change valve
without being reduced by the reducing valve.

As the pilot pressure is not reduced, the spools in the


travel speed change valve are moved. Therefore, the
main pressure acts on the fast side tilt piston,
decreasing the travel motor swash angle and
increasing travel speed.

Reducing Valve
Travel Speed
Change Solenoid
Valve
Travel Speed
Switch

Center Joint

Pilot Pump

From Control Valve From Control Valve

Travel Speed
Change Valve
Travel Speed
Change Valve

Tilt Piston
Tilt Piston

Parking Brake
Parking Brake
Left Travel Motor Right Travel Motor
T144-03-05-004

T3-5-5
COMPONENT OPERATION / Travel Device
BRAKE VALVE

The brake valve consists of counterbalance valve (10) Therefore, oil pressure in port AV and chamber (1)
and relief valve (11). decreases so that spool (5) returns to the left, block-
ing the return oil flow from port BM and braking motor
Traveling Flat or Up rotation. Once the return oil from port BM is blocked,
When the pressure oil from the control valve is routed the oil pressure in port AV again increases.
to port AV, the pressure oil further flows into port AM Thereby, spool (5) is moved to the right. The
after passing around spool (5) and opening check repetition of this blocking and easing of the return oil
valve (4). On the other hand, the return oil from port flow, which is called hydraulic braking, prevents the
BM is blocked by check valve (6) and spool (5) so that machine from running away while traveling down
the return oil cannot flow into port BV. Accordingly, slopes.
pressure at port AV increases gradually and is routed
into chamber (1) through orifice (3), causing spool (5) Circuit Protection
to move to the right. As a result, the return oil from If the circuit pressure exceeds the specified set
port BM can flow to port BV via a notch on spool (5), pressure, relief valves (11) open to relieve excessive
allowing the motor to rotate. high pressure to the low pressure side, protecting the
motor from overload. Also, relief valves (11) buffers
Traveling Down Slope shock pressure which occurrs due to the machine
While traveling down slope, the travel motor is forcibly inertial force when stopping. Moreover, check valve
driven by the machine weight, causing the motor to (4) or (6) opens (a make-up operation) to prevent
draw oil in port AM. cavitation from occurring in the motor circuit when the
motor begins to draw oil.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

AV BV

10

AM BM

11
11

T144-03-05-002

1 - Chamber 4 - Check Valve 7 - Orifice 10 - Counterbalance Valve


2 - Spring 5 - Spool 8 - Spring 11 - Relief Valve
3 - Orifice 6 - Check Valve 9 - Chamber

T3-5-6
COMPONENT OPERATION / Travel Device
PARKING BRAKE

The parking brake consists of coupling (3), friction With the pilot control shut-off lever placed in the unlock
plate (1), plate (2), piston (4), and spring (5). Coupling position, the pilot pressure is routed to port (PB),
(3) is connected to the shaft with a spline coupling and pushing piston (4) against spring (5). Thus, friction
each plate (2) is connected to coupling (3) with a spline plates (1) and plates (2) are freed, allowing the shaft to
coupling. Each friction plate (1) is connected to casing rotate.
(6) with a spline coupling and installed between the
center plates. With the pilot control shut-off lever NOTE: The parking brake can be manually
placed in the lock position, the pilot pressure is not released in an emergency. .
routed to port (PB). For this reason, friction plates (1)
and plates (2) are pushed together by spring (5) via
piston (4), holding the shaft immovable.

1 2

4
Shaft

PB
T115-03-02-008

Pilot Pressure 6 5

1 - Friction Plate 3 - Coupling 5 - Spring 6- Casing


2 - Plate 4 - Piston

T3-5-7
COMPONENT OPERATION / Travel Device
TRAVEL REDUCTION GEAR

The reduction gear consists of one stage spur gear The first stage sun gear rotation is transferred to the
and two stage planetary gear combination. The total second stage sun gear after the second stage
reduction gear ratio is 106.6 : 1. The travel motor shaft reduction takes place between the first stage planetary
rotates the spur gear via the pinion gear where the first gear and the first stage carrier. The second stage sun
speed reduction takes place. The spur gear rotation gear rotation drives the sprocket after the third stage
drives the first stage sun gear via the shaft. reduction takes place between the second stage
planetary gear and the second stage carrier.

Pinion Gear Shaft Sprocket Ring Gear

Travel Motor

Second Stage Carrier

First Stage Carrier

Second Stage Sun


Gear

First Stage Sun Gear

Spur Gear

First Stage Planetary Gear

Second Stage Planetary


Gear

T144-03-05-001

T3-5-8
COMPONENT OPERATION / Others (Upperstructure)
PILOT SHUT-OFF VALVE To Pilot Valve

The pilot control shut-off valve is a manually operated


switch valve. The valve spool is rotated when the pilot
control shut-off lever is operated, switching ON and
OFF the pilot pressure oil to the pilot valve.
From Pilot
Valve
To Hydraulic
Oil Tank

From Pilot
Valve

From Pilot
Pump

T162-03-06-001

• Operation with Pilot Control Shut-Off Lever in


LOCK Position From Pilot Valve
When the pilot control shut-off lever is in the
LOCK position, the pilot shut-off valve is set in
neutral (OFF), blocking the pilot pressure oil from
the pilot pump to the pilot valve. The pilot pressure
oil in the pilot valve side is routed to the hydraulic
oil tank. As a result, the pilot valves become
inoperable with the control levers.

From Pilot Pump To Hydraulic Oil Tank

T162-03-06-002

• Operation with Pilot Control Shut-Off Lever in


To Pilot Valve
UNLOCK Position
When the pilot control shut-off lever is moved to
the UNLOCK position, the pilot shut-off valve is
turned to the ON position, blocking the line to the
hydraulic oil tank and, at the same time, routing
the pilot pressure oil from the pilot pump to the
pilot valves. Thus, the pilot valves become
operable with the control levers.

From Pilot
T162-03-06-003
Pump

T3-6-1
COMPONENT OPERATION / Others (Upperstructure)
AIR-CONDITIONER
The air-conditioner system consists of a compressor Compressor drive motor (4) is driven by pressure oil
drive pump (mounted on the engine), compressor from the compressor drive pump when the engine is
drive motor (4), air-conditioner units (11, 12, and 13), running. When the air-conditioner is turned ON, the
condensers (8, 9, and 10), and receiver-dryers (5, 6, compressor clutch is engaged, activating the
and 7). compressor. When the heater system is activated, the
compressor clutch is disengaged, deactivating the
compressor.

1
2
3
13

12
11

10

7
6
5
4

T144-03-06-001

1- Compressor (Rear) 5 - Receiver-Dryer (Rear) 8 - Condenser (Rear) 11 - Air-Conditioner Unit (Rear)


2- Compressor (Side) 6 - Receiver-Dryer (Side) 9 - Condenser (Side) 12 - Air-Conditioner Unit (Side)
3- Compressor (Front) 7 - Receiver-Dryer (Front) 10 - Condenser (Front) 13 - Air-Conditioner Unit (Front)
4- Compressor Drive Motor

T3-6-2
COMPONENT OPERATION / Others (Upperstructure)
Cooling Operation
The cooling circuit consists of compressor (10), con- • Receiver-Dryer:
denser (1), receiver-dryer (9), expansion valve (3), Removes moisture from the refrigerant, then
evaporator (5), thermistor (6), thermo sensor tube (4), stores the refrigerant.
and blower fan (2). The system is charged with • Expansion Valve:
refrigerant. As the high-pressurized refrigerant (liquid) goes
Air via the fresh air inlet port or the circulation air port through a restriction in the expansion valve, the
is sent to the evaporator by blower fan (2). As refrigerant is atomized, becoming low-pressurized
evaporator (5) is cold, air cooled through the refrigerant.
evaporator is sent into the cab via the vents. • Thermo Sensor Tube:
Function of each component is as follows: Senses air temperature blowing through the
evaporator, and depending on the temperature
• Compressor: sensed, adjusts the restriction in the expansion
Suctions and compresses refrigerant from the low valve to adjust the refrigerant flow.
pressure line (the line between the evaporator and • Thermistor:
compressor), then sends it to the condenser. Deactivates the compressor when the
(Refrigerant generates heat when compressed.) temperature on the evaporator fin falls to 0 °C.
• Condenser: • Blower Fan:
Cools the heated refrigerant. Blows air through evaporator.

Heating Operation Dehumidifying and Heating


When the heating system is activated, valve (8) Dehumidifying and heating can be done at the same
opens to route high temperature engine coolant into time by activating both the air conditioner and the
heater (7). Air from blower fan (2) is warmed as it heater. When both the air conditioner and the heater
heater (7). are turned on, the air from blower fan (2) first goes
Air from blower fan (2) is warmed as it flows through through evaporator (5), being cooled and
heater (7). Then, the warmed air is sent into the cab dehumidified.
via the vents. Then, the air goes through heater (7) before it (warm
air) blows out from the vents in the cab.

1 2 3 4 5 6
Fresh Air Inlet Port Vent

Air
Conditioner

Fan Fresh Air/Circulation


Changeover Damper Circulation Air Inlet Port
Air
Damper 7
8

10 9 From Hot Water To Hot Water


Inlet Port Return Port

T117-02-05-002
1 - Condenser 4 - Thermo Sensor Tube 7 - Heater 9 - Receiver-Dryer
2 - Blower Fan 5 - Evaporator 8 - Valve 10 - Compressor
3 - Expansion Valve 6 - Thermistor

T3-6-3
COMPONENT OPERATION / Others (Upperstructure)
AUTO-LUBRICATION SYSTEM

The auto-lubrication system automatically lubricates This system can be switched, into one of three modes
the front attachment joint pins, swing bearing, and using the auto-lubrication mode selection switch: auto-
center joint. The major components in this system are lubrication, off, and manual-lubrication.
the grease pump, the auto-lubrication solenoid valve 1, When the auto-lubrication mode is selected, greasing
the auto-lubrication solenoid valve 2, the pressure is automatically performed at the interval set by the
reducing valve, the vent valve, MC (A), the auto- auto-lubrication interval switch. When the switch is off,
lubrication interval switch, the auto-lubrication mode no lubrication is done. When the manual-lubrication
selection switch, and the grease pressure switch. mode is selected, auto-lubrication is not performed so
that greasing can be done using a grease gun.

Grease Pump

Vent Valve

Pressure Reducing valve

Auto-Lubrication Solenoid Valve2

Auto-Lubrication Solenoid Valve1

T117-02-05-003

T3-6-4
COMPONENT OPERATION / Others (Upperstructure)
SOLENOID VALVE

The solenoid valves provided on this machine are the Travel Speed Change
travel speed change solenoid valve with the pressure Solenoid Valve
reducing valve, the swing stop solenoid valve, the
swing Pi pressure control solenoid valve, and the EHC
valve.

• Travel Speed Change Solenoid Valve


This valve controls the travel motor displacement
angle by turning the travel speed change switch.
(Refer to the Travel Device Group in the Component
Operation Section.)

T144-05-02-007

• Swing Stop Solenoid Valve Swing Stop Solenoid Valve


This valve is activated when the ladder is lowered to
stop the swing function. (Refer to the Control
System Group in the System Section.)

T144-03-06-002

• Swing Pi Pressure Control Solenoid Valve


This valve is activated when the hydraulic oil
temperature is 30 °C (86 °F) or lower to increase the Swing Pi Pressure
Control Solenoid
swing pump delivery. (Refer to the Hydraulic System Valve
in the System Section.)

T144-03-06-003

• EHC Valve
This valve delivers oil pressure in proportion to the EHC Valve
electrical signals from the main controller (MC) to
the pump regulator.

T144-04-04-002

T3-6-5
COMPONENT OPERATION / Others (Upperstructure)
FUEL COOLER FAN MOTOR

The fuel cooler fan motor is a bent-axis fixed


displacement axial plunger type motor. The operating
principle of this motor is the same as the travel motor.
(Refer to the Travel Device Section.)

Drive Disc

Rotor

T142-06-04-021

T3-6-6
COMPONENT OPERATION / Others (Upperstructure)
ACCUMULATOR

The accumulator is provided in the pilot circuit to buffer


fluctuations in oil pressure and maintain the pilot
pressure for a short time period after the engine has 6
stopped. The accumulator mainly consists of body (5),
holder (4), bladder (4), which encloses nitrogen gas
(N2), and poppet (1).
1
• Pressure oil from the pilot pump enters into the
5
accumulator via port A. Then, pressure oil
Nitrogen Gas
compresses the nitrogen gas in bladder (2) until they (N2)
balance. 2
4
• When the pressure supply is stopped due to engine
stall or any other reasons, bladder (2) begins
expanding and supplying accumulated oil into the Pilot Pressure Oil
pilot circuit via port A. 3

A
T105-02-10-003

1 - Poppet 4 - Holder
2 - Bladder 5 - Body
3 - Oil Port 6 - Gas Plug

T3-6-7
COMPONENT OPERATION / Others (Upperstructure)
(Blank)

T3-6-8
COMPONENT OPERATION / Others (Undercarriage)
SWING BEARING

The swing bearing supports the upperstructure on the


undercarriage and allows the upperstructure to rotate
smoothly. The bearing is a single-row-ball type bearing,
consisting of the outer race, the inner race, the balls,
and the support seals. The outer race is bolted onto
the upperstructure and the inner race is bolted onto the
undercarriage. The internal gear on the inner race
meshes with the swing reduction device output shaft.

Support Seal

Outer Race

Ball
Inner Race

T144-03-07-001

Support Seal

T3-7-1
COMPONENT OPERATION / Others (Undercarriage)
ADJUSTER CYLINDER

The adjuster cylinder comprises two single-acting In addition, the travel stop pilot valve is installed on the
cylinders, the rear cylinder is a cushion cylinder as a stroke end of the cushion cylinder. If the track tension
buffer and the front one is a track sag adjusting exceeds the specified limit and the cushion cylinder
cylinder. reaches the stroke end, the travel stop pilot valve is
The pressure from the right forward travel circuit is activated, causing the travel function to stop. (Refer to
routed to the cushion cylinder after reducing its the Hydraulic Circuit in the System Section.)
pressure at a reducing valve. When an external load is The adjuster cylinder adjusts the track sag depending
applied on the front idler, the cushion cylinder is moved on the grease amount supplied in the cylinder
back, causing the hydraulic oil in the cylinder chamber chamber.
to flow into the accumulator. As a result, the bladder in
the accumulator is contracted to absorb an impact
load.

Cushion Cylinder

Adjuster Cylinder
Hydraulic Oil

Signal Pressure
to Pilot Pressure
Switch Valve
Front Idler
Yoke

Rear Side
Front Side

Travel Stop Pilot


Valve

Grease

T144-03-07-002

T3-7-2
COMPONENT OPERATION / Others (Undercarriage)
ACCUMULATOR

The accumulator consists of the shell, the bladder, the


gas valve, and the oil port assembly. Hydraulic oil is
filled inside the shell. Nitrogen gas is sealed in the
bladder. The bladder contracts until the gas pressure
balances with hydraulic oil pressure which has flowed
in the accumulator via the oil port assembly. (Refer to
the Hydraulic Circuit in the System Section.)

Oil Port
Assembly Shell Bladder Gas Valve

T115-03-03-003

T3-7-3
COMPONENT OPERATION / Others (Undercarriage)
CENTER JOINT

The center joint is a 360 ° rotating joint. It allows oil to Oil flows into travel motors via oil passages in spindle
flow to and from the travel motors without twisting (1) and body (2). Seals (3) are installed between
hoses when the upperstructure is rotated. spindle (1) and body (2), preventing oil leaks from oil
Spindle (1) is fastened to the upperstructure. Body (2) ports.
is fastened to the swing center of the undercarriage.

T145-03-02-001

1 - Spindle 2- Body 3- Seal

T3-7-4
SECTION 4
OPERATIONAL
PERFORMANCE TEST

 CONTENTS

Group 1 Introduction Group 4 Component Test


Operational Performance Test ....................T4-1-1 Pilot Primary Pressure................................. T4-4-1
Preparation for Performance Tests ..............T4-1-2 Pilot Secondary Pressure ........................... T4-4-2
Solenoid Valve Set Pressure ...................... T4-4-3
Group 2 Engine Test Main Relief Pressure ................................... T4-4-4
Engine Speed...............................................T4-2-1 Overload Relief Pressure ............................ T4-4-8
Main Pump Flow Rate ............................... T4-4-10
Group 3 Excavator Test Swing Motor Drainage ............................... T4-4-16
Travel Speed ................................................T4-3-1
Travel Motor Drainage ............................... T4-4-18
Track Revolution Speed...............................T4-3-2
Mistrack .......................................................T4-3-3 Group 5 Standard
Travel Parking Function Check ...................T4-3-4 Operational Performance
Swing Speed ................................................T4-3-5 Standard Table........................................... T4-5-1
Swing Function Drift .....................................T4-3-6 Main Pump P-Q Diagram ............................ T4-5-4
Swing Motor Leakage ..................................T4-3-7
Maximum Swingable Slant Angle.................T4-3-8
Swing Bearing Play ......................................T4-3-9
Hydraulic Cylinder Cycle Time ...................T4-3-10
Cylinder Drift ..............................................T4-3-11
Control Lever Operating Force...................T4-3-12
Control Lever Stroke ..................................T4-3-13
Combined Boom Raise/Swing
Function Check ........................................T4-3-14

144T-4-1
(Blank)

144T-4-2
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Introduction
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TESTS

Use operational performance test procedures to


quantitatively check all systems and functions on the
machine.

Purpose of Performance Tests Precautions for Evaluation of Test Data

1. To comprehensively evaluate each operational 1. To evaluate not only that the test data are correct,
function by comparing the performance test data but also in what range the test data are.
with the standard values.
2. Be sure to evaluate the test data based on the
2. According to the evaluation results, repair, adjust, machine operation hours, kinds and state of work
or replace parts or components as necessary to loads, and machine maintenance conditions.
restore the machine’s performance to the desired
standard. The machine performance does not always
deteriorate as the working hours increase. However,
3. To economically operate the machine under the machine performance is normally considered to
optimal conditions. reduce in proportion to the increase of the operation
hours.
Kinds of Tests Accordingly, restoring the machine performance by
repair, adjustment, or replacement shall consider the
1. Base machine performance test is to check the number of the machine’s working hours.
operational performance of each system such as
engine, travel, swing, and hydraulic cylinders. Definition of “Performance Standards”

2. Hydraulic component unit test is to check the 1. Operation speed values and dimensions of the
operational performance of each component such new machine.
as hydraulic pump, motor, and various kinds of
valves. 2. Operational performance of new components
adjusted to specification. Allowable errors will be
Performance Standards indicated as necessary.

“Performance Standards” is shown in tables to


evaluate the performance test data.

T4-1-1
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Introduction
PREPARATION FOR PERFORMANCE
TESTS

Observe the following rules in order to carry out


performance tests accurately and safely.

1. THE MACHINE
Repair any defects and damage found, such as oil
or water leaks, loose bolts, cracks and so on,
before starting to test.

2. TEST AREA
(1) Select a hard, flat surface.
(2) Secure enough space to allow the
machine to run straight more than 20 m
(65 ft 7 inch), and to make a full swing
with the front attachment extended.
(3) If required, rope off the test area and
provide signboards to keep unauthorized
personnel away.

3. PRECAUTIONS T105-06-01-003

(1) Before starting to test, agree upon the sig-


nals to be employed for communication
among coworkers. Once the test is started,
be sure to communicate with each other us-
ing these signals, and to follow them without
fail.
(2) Operate the machine carefully and always
give first priority to safety.
(3) While testing, always take care to avoid ac-
cidents due to landslides or contact with
high-voltage power lines. Always confirm that
there is sufficient space for full swings.
(4) Avoid polluting the machine and the ground
with leaking oil. Use oil pans to catch
escaping oil. Pay special attention to this
when removing hydraulic pipings.
T105-06-01-004
4. MAKE PRECISE MEASUREMENTS
(1) Accurately calibrate test instruments in ad-
vance to obtain correct data.
(2) Carry out tests under the exact test condi-
tions prescribed for each test item.
(3) Repeat the same test and confirm that the
test data obtained can be procured repeat-
edly.
Use mean values of measurements if neces-
sary.

T4-1-2
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Engine Test
ENGINE SPEED
Preparation:

1. Disconnect the engine speed sensor connector.


Attach a pulse counter.

2. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5


°C (122±9 °F).

Measurement:

1. Start the engine and run it at the specified speeds.


Read the pulse number for each engine speed
setting. Calculate the engine speed using the fol-
lowing formula:

Engine Speed = Pulse Number (sec−1) / 2.36 (min−1)

Evaluation:

Refer to the Operational Performance Standard


group (T4-5).

T4-2-1
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Engine Test
(Blank)

T4-2-2
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Excavator Test
TRAVEL SPEED
Summary:
1. Check the overall operational performance of the
travel power system (between the hydraulic
pumps and travel motors) by measuring time re-
quired for the machine to travel the specified dis-
tance.

Preparation:
1. Equally adjust the track sag on both right and left Track Sag
undercarriages. 570 to 640 mm
2. Prepare a flat and firm travel test yard 20 m (65.5 (22 to 25 in)
ft) long with fringes 7 to 9 m (22.8 to 29.4 ft) on
both ends for machine acceleration and decelera- T145-05-03-001

tion.
3. Empty the bucket and roll in the arm.
4. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C
(122±9 °F).

Deceleration Zone Finish Travel Test Distance Start Acceleration Zone


7 to 9 m 20.0 m 7 to 9 m T142-05-03-001

Measurement:
1. Measure travel time at both fast and slow travel
speeds.
2. Engine Speed Control Lever : Fast Idle Position
3. Start machine to travel from the rear end of the
acceleration zone by moving the travel levers full
stroke.
4. Measure the time required to travel the travel test
distance 20 m (65.5 ft).
5. After measuring the forward travel time, rotate the
machine upperstructure 180 °. Then, measure the
reverse travel time on the way back to the starting
position in the same method.
6. Repeat steps (4) and (5) three times and calculate
the average values.

Evaluation:
Refer to T4-5 Operational Performance Standard.

Remedy:
Refer to the T5-4 Troubleshooting B.

T4-3-1
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Excavator Test
TRACK REVOLUTION SPEED
Summary:
1. Check the overall operational performance of the
travel power system (between the hydraulic
pumps and travel motors) by measuring the track
revolution cycle time.

Preparation:
1. Equally adjust the track sag on both right and left
undercarriages.
Track sag : 570 to 640 mm (22 to 25 in)
2. Mark one shoe with chalk or a piece of cloth on 90 to 110 °
the track to be measured.
3. Rotate the upperstructure 90° to the track and
lower the bucket to raise the track to be measured
off the ground. Keep the boom and arm angle be- T142-05-03-011

tween 90 to 110 ° as illustrated.


4. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C
(122±9 °F).

CAUTION: Never work under a machine


raised and solely supported by the boom.
90 to 110 °
Place blocks under the machine frame to
support the machine.
T142-05-03-012

Measurement:
1. Measure the track rotation time at both fast and
slow travel speeds.
2. Engine Speed Control Lever : Fast Idle Position
3. Operate the travel control lever of the raised track
in full forward and reverse.
4. After the track revolution attains to constant speed,
measure the time required for the marked shoe to
rotate three times in both directions.
5. Raise the other side of the track and repeat the Forward
procedure.
6. Repeat steps (3) and (4) three times and calculate Reverse
the average values.
T145-05-03-001
Evaluation:
Refer to T4-5 Operational Performance Standard. Travel Device

Remedy:
Refer to T5-4 Troubleshooting B.

T4-3-2
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Excavator Test
MISTRACK
Summary:
1. Check the equilibrium in operational performance
between the right and left travel power systems
(between the hydraulic pumps and travel motors)
by measuring the amount of mistrack found while
the machine travels for the specified distance.

NOTE: When tested on a concrete surface road,


the amount of mistrack may be reduced.

Preparation:
1. Equally adjust the track sag on both right and left
undercarriages.
Track sag : 570 to 640 mm (22Ȁto 25 in) T145-05-03-005
2. Prepare a flat and firm travel test yard 20 m (65.5
ft) long with fringes 7 to 9 m (22.8 to 29.4 ft) on
both ends for machine acceleration and decelera-
tion.
3. Set the front attachment in the driving position.
4. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C
(122±9 °F).

Measurement:
T145-05-03-006
1. Measure the amount of mistracking in both fast
and slow travel speeds.
2. Engine Speed Control Lever : Fast Idle Position Deceleration Zone
3. Start machine to travel from the rear end of the 7 to 9 m
acceleration zone by moving both travel levers full
stroke.
4. Draw a 20 m (65.5 ft) straight line along the rut
from the travel start point to the travel end point as Maximum Distance (A)
illustrated. Measure the maximum distance (A)
20 m
between the rut and the straight line.
5. Conduct the measurement in both forward and
reverse travel operation in the same method.
6. Repeat steps (4) and (5) three times and calculate
the average values. Acceleration Zone
7 to 9 m
Evaluation:
T115-07-03-005
Refer to T4-5 Operational Performance Standard.

Remedy:
Refer to T5-4 Troubleshooting B.

T4-3-3
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Excavator Test
TRAVEL PARKING FUNCTION CHECK
Summary:
To measure the parking brake function on a specified
slope.

Preparation:
1. The surface of the test slope shall be even with a
gradient of 20 % (11.3 °).
2. Mark a white line on the travel device cover.
3. Hold the bucket 0.5 to 1.0 m (20 to 40 in) above
the ground with the arm and bucket fully rolled in.
4. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C
(122±9 °F). 0.5 to 1.0 m

Measurement:
1. Measure in the fast travel mode.
2. Engine Speed Control Lever : Fast Idle Position
3. Measure the displacement (revolution angle) of T142-05-03-002
the travel device cover until the parking brake is
applied.
3-1. Climb the slope and place the travel levers in
Position where the machine
neutral. comes to a stop.
3-2. Pull the pilot control shut-off lever to the LOCK Position when the travel
position. levers are in neutral.
3-3. Measure the displacement from the mark posi- Displacement
(Revolution Angle)
tion on the travel device cover when the pilot
control shut-off lever to the LOCK position Mark
when the machine stops moving.
4. Measure the travel parking brake slip amount
while parked.
4-1. Climb the slope and place the travel levers in
neutral. T107-06-03-002
4-2. Pull the pilot control shut-off lever to the LOCK
position.
4-3. Stop the engine.
4-4. After the machine stops, put alignment marks
on a track link or shoe, and the track side
frame.
4-5. After 5 minutes, measure the distance between
the marks on the track link or shoe and the Alignment marks on the track side
track side frame. frame and shoe when the machine
comes to a stop.
Displacement measured after 5
Evaluation: minutes.
Refer to T4-5 Operational Performance Standard. T105-06-03-006

T4-3-4
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Excavator Test
SWING SPEED
Summary:
1. Check the overall operational performance of the
swing power system (between the hydraulic
pumps and swing motors) by measuring time re-
quired for the machine upperstructure to make
three complete turns.

Preparation:
1. Confirm that the swing gears and bearing are suf-
ficiently greased.
2. Secure a space wide enough for the machine up-
perstructure to swing on a flat and firm surface.
Never attempt to perform this test on a slope.
3. Empty the bucket and roll out (extend) the arm. T145-05-03-007
4. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C
(122±9 °F).
CAUTION: Prevent personal injury. Always
make sure that the area is clear and that co-
workers are out of the swing area before
starting the measurement.

T145-05-03-008

Measurement:
1. Engine Speed Control Lever : Fast Idle Position
2. Operate the swing control lever at full stroke.
3. After the swing attains to constant speed, meas- 3 Revolutions
ure the time required for the upperstructure to ro-
tate three times.
4. Measure in both directions (clockwise and coun-
terclockwise).
5. Repeat steps (3) and (4) three times and calculate
the average values.

Evaluation
Refer to T4-5 Operational Performance Standard.

Remedy:
Refer to T5-4 Troubleshooting B.
T145-05-03-009

T4-3-5
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Excavator Test
SWING FUNCTION DRIFT
Summary:
1. Measure the swing drift on the circumference of
the swing-bearing outer race when stopping after
a 180 ° full-speed swing to evaluate the opera-
tional performance of the swing brake valve.

Preparation:
1. Confirm that the swing gears and bearing are suf-
ficiently greased.
2. Secure a space wide enough for the machine up-
T145-05-03-007
perstructure to swing on a flat and firm surface.
Never attempt to perform this test on a slope.
3. Empty the bucket and roll out (extend) the arm.
4. Put aligning marks on the outer circumference of
the swing bearing and the track frame.
5. Swing the upperstructure 180 °.
6. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C
(122±9 °F).
CAUTION: Prevent personal injury. Always
make sure that the area is clear and that co-
workers are out of the swing area before
T145-05-03-008
starting the measurement.
Return the swing
control lever to the
Measurement: neutral position.
1. Engine Speed Control Lever : Fast Idle Position
2. Operate the swing control lever at full stroke and
rotate the upperstructure at full-speed back to the Drift
original position. Then, return the swing control Amount
lever to the neutral position when the upper-
structure rotates 180 °.
3. After the upperstructure stops, measure the dis-
tance between the two marks along the outer cir-
cumference of the swing bearing.
4. Align the marks again. Then, measure in the op-
posite direction. Rotate 180 °
5. Repeat steps (2) to (4) three times and calculate
the average values.

Evaluation:
Refer to T4-5 Operational Performance Standard.

Remedy:
Refer to the T5-4 Troubleshooting B.
. Start rotation T142-05-03-003

T4-3-6
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Excavator Test
SWING MOTOR LEAKAGE
Summary:
Check for upperstructure drift while suspending a
load on a slope.

Preparation:
1. Check the lubrication of the swing gear and swing
bearing.
2. Park the machine on a smooth slope with a gradi-
ent of 26.8 % (15 °)
3. Bucket empty.
4. With the arm rolled out (extended), and bucket
rolled in, (tilted in) position the arm top pin height
to be level with the boom foot pin.
5. Swing the upperstructure to position it 90 ° to the T142-05-03-004
slope. Make aligning marks on the swing bearing
periphery and track frame using tape, as illus-
trated.
6. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C
(122±9 °F).

Measurement:
1. Pull the pilot control shut-off lever to the LOCK
position.
2. Stop the engine. After five minutes, measure the
difference between the marks along the swing
bearing periphery and the track frame.
3. Perform the measurement in both right and left
swing directions.
4. Perform the measurement three times in each di-
rection and calculate the average values.

Evaluation:
Refer to T4-5 Operational Performance Standard. Measure Difference Between Marks

Remedy:
Refer to the T5-4 Troubleshooting B.

Marking on the Track Frame

Mark on the Swing Bearing

T105-06-03-010

T4-3-7
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Excavator Test
MAXIMUM SWINGABLE SLANT ANGLE
Summary:
With the upperstructure swung 90 ° to the slope,
check the maximum slant angle on which the upper-
structure can swing to the uphill side.

Preparation:
1. Check that the swing gear and bearing are well
lubricated.
2. Load bucket fully. In lieu of loading the bucket,
weight (W:tons) of the following specification can
be used.
W=M×1.5
3
Where: M=bucket heaped capacity (CECE: m )
1.5=Soil specific gravity.
3. With the arm rolled out (retracted) and the bucket
rolled (tilted in), hold the arm top pin to the posi- T142-05-03-004
tion flush with the boom foot pin height.
4. Park the machine on a smooth slope with a gradi-
ent of 26.8 % (15 °).
5. Climb a slope and swing the upperstructure 90 °
to the slope.
6. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C
(122±9 °F).

Measurement:
1. Engine Speed Control Lever : Fast Idle Position
2. Operate the swing lever to full stroke to swing the
upperstructure to the uphill side.
3. If the machine can swing, measure the cab floor
slant angle.
4. Increase the slope angle and repeat steps (2 and
3). Check both clockwise and counterclockwise.
5. Perform the measurement three times in each di-
rection and calculate the averageȀ Ȁvalues.

Evaluation:
Refer to T4-5 Operational Performance Standard.

Remedy:
Refer to the T5-4 Troubleshooting B.

T4-3-8
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Excavator Test
SWING BEARING PLAY
Summary:
1. Measure the play between the outer and inner
races of the swing bearing to check wear on the
bearing races and balls.

Preparation:
1. Confirm that the swing bearing mounting bolts are
securely tightened.
2. Confirm that the swing bearing is well lubricated
and rotates smoothly with no noise.
3. Attach a dial gauge on the track frame using a
magnetic base. T105-06-03-015

4. Position the upperstructure so that the boom and


bucket center line aligns with that of the track and A
face toward the front idlers. D
5. Position the dial gauge so that its needle point B
comes into contact with the bottom face of the
swing bearing outer race. Measure the plays
6. Empty the bucket. at positions A, B, C,
and D.
C
Measurement:
1. Take measurements of the play at positions A, B,
C, and D.
2. With the machine positioned as illustrated in fig-
ures 1 or 1”, set the dial gauge reading to 0.
3. Lower the bucket to the ground to raise the front
idlers as illustrated in fingers 2 or 2”. Then, record
the dial gauge readings.

Evaluation:
Refer to T4-5 Operational Performance Standard.
T145-05-03-023

Backhoe Front

Figure 1” Figure 2” T142-05-03-006

Loader Front

Figure 1 Figure 2
T142-05-03-005

T4-3-9
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Excavator Test
HYDRAULIC CYLINDER CYCLE TIME Backhoe

Summary:
Boom Cylinder
1. Check the overall operational performance of the
front attachment hydraulic system (between the
hydraulic pumps and each cylinder) by measuring
the cycle time of the boom, arm, bucket, and
bucket dump (open/close) cylinders with the
T145-05-03-012
bucket emptied.
Preparation:
1. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C
(122±9 °F).
Measurement:
Arm Cylinder
1. Engine Speed Control Lever : Fast Idle Position
2. Position the front attachment as described in the
following. Then, measure the operating time until
T145-05-03-013
the cylinder reaches the stroke end by fully mov-
ing the control lever.
• Backhoe
Boom Cylinder:
With the bucket cylinder fully extended and the
arm cylinder fully retracted, lower the bucket to Bucket Cylinder
the ground.
Arm Cylinder: Loading Shovel T145-05-03-014

Adjust the boom cylinder stroke so that the bucket


bottom height is 1 m above the ground with the
bucket cylinder fully extended while positioning
the center line between the arm and bucket con- Boom Cylinder
nection pin centers vertical with the arm cylinder
extended half stroke.
• Loading Shovel
Ȁ Boom Cylinder:
Ȁ With the bucket cylinder and the arm cylinder fully T145-05-03-015
extended, lower the bucket to the ground.
Ȁ Arm Cylinder:
Ȁ With the arm fully retracted, position the bucket so
that the rear bucket does not come in contact with
the arm stopper. Then, adjust the boom cylinder
stroke to position the bucket bottom 1 m above Arm Cylinder
the ground.
Ȁ Bucket Cylinder: T145-05-03-016

Ȁ With the bucket closed and held in a load dump


position, adjust the boom cylinder stroke so that
bucket bottom height is approx. 1 m above the
ground.
Ȁ Bucket Open-Close Cylinder: Bucket Cylinder
Ȁ With the bucket cylinder and arm cylinder fully ex-
tended, adjust the boom cylinder stroke so that T145-05-03-017

the bucket bottom height approx. 1 m above the


ground.
3. Repeat the measurement three times and calcu-
late the average values.
Dump Cylinder
Evaluation:
Refer to T4-5 Operational Performance Standard.
Remedy:
T145-05-03-018
Refer to the T5-4 Troubleshooting B.

T4-3-10
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Excavator Test
CYLINDER DRIFT
Summary:
1. Evaluate the internal oil leakage in the control
valve, boom, arm, and bucket cylinders by meas-
uring cylinder (dig function) drift with the bucket
loaded.

NOTE: When checking soon after cylinder re- T145-05-03-020

placement, move to full stroke each cylin-


der to purge air trapped in the cylinders.

Preparation:
1. Load bucket fully. In lieu of loading the bucket,
weight (W:tons) of the following specification can
be used.
W=M×1.5
3
Where: M = bucket heaped capacity (CECE: m )
T145-05-03-021
1.5 = Soil specific gravity.
2. Position the arm and bucket cylinders with rods
approx. 50 mm (2 in) extended or retracted from
the stroke end as illustrated to the right.
3. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C
(122±9 °F).

Measurement: Mark Mark


1. Stop the engine.
2. After five minutes, measure the change of each
cylinder retraction or extension as illustrated.
3. Repeat step (2) three times and calculate the av-
erage values.

Evaluation:
Refer to T4-5 Operational Performance Standard. T110-06-03-002

Remedy:
Refer to the T5-4 Troubleshooting B.

Mark

T110-06-03-001

T4-3-11
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Excavator Test
CONTROL LEVER OPERATING FORCE
Summary:
Use a spring scale to measure the maximum resis-
tance of each control lever as illustrated.

Preparation:
Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C
(122±9 °F).

Measurement:
1. Start the engine.

2. Engine Speed Control Lever : Fast Idle Position


T107-06-03-003

CAUTION: Prevent personal injury. Always


make sure that the area is clear and that co-
workers are out of the swing area before
starting the measurement.

3. Operate each boom, arm, bucket and swing lever


to at full stroke and measure the maximum oper-
ating force for each.

4. Lower the bucket to the ground to raise one track


off the ground. Operate the travel lever to full
stroke and measure the maximum operating force
required. When finished, lower the track and then
T107-06-03-004
jack-up the other track.

5. Repeat steps (3) to (4) three times and calculate


the average values.

Evaluation:
Refer to T4-5 Operational Performance Standard.

T4-3-12
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Excavator Test
CONTROL LEVER STROKE
Summary:
Measure each lever stroke at the lever top using a
ruler.

NOTE: When the lever has play, take a half of this


value and add it to the measured stroke.

Preparation:
Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C
(122±9 °F).

Measurement:
1. Stop the engine. T107-06-03-005
2. Measure each lever stroke at the lever top from
neutral to the stroke end using a ruler.
3. Repeat step (2) three times and calculate the av-
erage values.

Evaluation:
Refer to T4-5 Operational Performance Standard.

T4-3-13
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Excavator Test
COMBINED BOOM RAISE/SWING FUNC-
TIONS CHECK
Summary:
Check boom raise and swing movement and speeds
while operating both functions simultaneously.

Preparation:
1. Start the engine and run it at fast idle. Operate the T142-05-03-007

boom raise function and check to be sure that the


cylinder movement is smooth, without sticking.
2. With the arm fully rolled out (extended) and
bucket fully rolled in, (tilted in) lower the bucket to
the ground. The bucket must be empty.
3. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C
(122±9 °F).
T142-05-03-008

CAUTION: Prevent personal injury. Always


make sure that the area is clear and that co-
workers are out of the swing area before
starting the measurement.

Measurement:
1. Engine Speed Control Lever : Fast Idle Position
2. Raise the boom and swing simultaneously, both at
full stroke.
3. When the upperstructure rotates 90 °, release the
control levers to stop both functions. Measure the
time required to swing 90 ° and the height (H) of
the bucket teeth.
4. Repeat steps (2) to (3) three times and calculate T142-05-03-009

the average values.

Evaluation:
Refer to T4-5 Operational Performance Standard.

Remedy:
Refer to the T5-4 Troubleshooting B.

T142-05-03-010

T4-3-14
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
PILOT PRIMARY PRESSURE
Preparation:
Plug
1. Stop the engine.

CAUTION: The hydraulic oil tank cap may fly


off if turned quickly due to internal pressure.
Pilot Filter
Turn it slowly to release internal pressure be-
fore removing.

2. Loosen the hydraulic oil tank cap to release inter-


nal pressure.

3. Remove the plug from the pilot filter outlet port.


Install nipple (ST 6069) and pressure gauge (ST Pilot Relief Valve T144-04-04-006
6942).

4. Start the engine. Check that no oil leaks from the


pressure gauge connections.

5. Maintain hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C


(122±9 °F).

Measurement:
1. Select the following lever and switch positions:
Engine Speed Control Lever : Fast Idle Position
Auto-Idle Switch : OFF

2. Measure the pilot pressure during no load oper-


ations.

3. Repeat the measurement three times and calcu-


late the average values.

Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in
Group T4-5.

Adjustment:
Pilot relief valve pressure setting is not adjust-
able.

T4-4-1
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
PILOT SECONDARY PRESSURE
Measurement:
Preparation:
1. Select the following lever and switch positions:
1. Stop the engine.
Engine Speed Control Lever : Fast Idle Position
Auto-Idle Switch : OFF
CAUTION: The hydraulic oil tank cap may fly 2. Measure the pilot pressure with the correspond-
off if turned quickly due to internal pressure. ing control lever operated full stroke.
Turn it slowly to release internal pressure be- 3. Repeat the measurement three times and cal-
fore removing. culate the average values.

2. Loosen the hydraulic oil tank cap to release in- Evaluation:


ternal pressure. Refer to Performance Standard Table in Group
3. Remove the pilot hose in the measuring circuit. T4-5.
Install tee (ST 6450) and pressure gauge (ST
6942). Corrective Measures:
: 14 mm, 17 mm Refer to Troubleshooting B in Group T5-4.

4. Start the engine. Check that no oil leaks from the


pressure gauge connections.
5. Maintain hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C
(122±9 °F).

Do not remove the spool lock plates. Do not remove the spool lock plates.

Right Boom Bucket Arm Arm Bucket Boom Left


Travel Raise Roll-In Retract Retract Close Raise Travel
Forward Forward

Right Boom Bucket Arm Arm Bucket Bucket Left


Travel Lower Roll-Out Extend Extend Open Roll-In Travel
Reverse Reverse

Control Valve (Right) Control Valve (Left) Plug


Plug
T144-03-03-001

NOTE: This figure shows the loading shovel control valve.

T4-4-2
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
SOLENOID VALVE SET PRESSURE
Travel Speed Change Solenoid Valve
Preparation:
1. Stop the engine. Output Port

CAUTION: The hydraulic oil tank cap may fly


off if turned quickly due to internal pressure.
Turn it slowly to release internal pressure be-
fore removing.

2. Loosen the hydraulic oil tank cap to release inter-


nal pressure.

3. Install tee (ST 6451) and pressure gauge (ST


6942) to the solenoid valve output port.
: 17 mm, 19 mm T144-04-04-001
EHC Valve
4. Start the engine. Check that no oil leaks from the
pressure gauge connections.

5. Maintain hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C


(122±9 °F).

Measurement:
1. Select the following switch positions:
Ȁ Auto-Idle Switch: OFF
Output Port
2. Measure each solenoid valve set pressure during
the following operations:
• Travel Speed Change Solenoid Valve
Measure travel mode change pressure while op- T144-04-04-002

erating the travel mode switch.


• EHC Valve
Check pressure variation while operating the en-
gine speed control lever. (Pressure should vary in
the range of 1700 to 2050 min−1.)

3. Repeat the measurement three times and calcu-


late the average values.

Evaluation:
Refer to Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-5.

T4-4-3
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
MAIN RELIEF PRESSURE
Summary:
Measure the main relief valve set pressure at the Pressure Gauge
main pump delivery port.

Preparation:
1. Stop the engine.

CAUTION: The hydraulic oil tank cap may fly


off if turned quickly due to internal pressure.
Turn it slowly to release internal pressure be-
fore removing.

2. Loosen the hydraulic oil tank cap to release inter-


nal pressure.
3. Remove the plug from the test port located on the
main pump delivery port. Install adapter (ST 6069)
hose (ST 6943), and pressure gauge (ST 6941).
T142-05-04-019
4. Start the engine. Check that no oil leaks from the
pressure gauge connections.
5. Maintain hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C
(122±9 °F).

Measurement:
1. Select the following lever and switch positions:
Engine Speed Control Lever : Fast Idle Position
Auto-Idle Switch : OFF
2. Slowly operate the bucket, arm, and boom control
levers until each cylinder is fully extended or re-
tracted and the main relief valve relieves.
3. When checking swing relief pressure, make the
upperstructure immovable. Then, slowly operate
the swing lever to relieve the swing function.
4. When checking travel relief pressure, secure the
tracks against an immovable object. Then, slowly
operate the travel levers to relieve the travel func-
tion.

Evaluation:
Refer to Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-5.

Reference:
If the pressures for all measured functions are lower
than specifications, the probable cause is a decrease
in the main relief valve set pressure.

In case the relief pressure in a particular function is


low, the probable cause is something other than the
main relief valve.

T4-4-4
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
Main Relief Valve Set Pressure Adjustment
Lock Nut
Adjustment:
After loosening the lock nut, turn the adjusting screw
to adjust the set pressure.

1. Loosen the lock nut.


2. Turn the adjusting screw to adjust the pressure.
3. Retighten the lock nut.
: 17 mm
: 19.5 Nxm (2 kgfxm, 4 Ibfxft)
: 6 mm Adjusting
Screw
4. Recheck the set pressure. T145-02-03-001

Referential Pressure Change for Adjustment


Adjusting Screw
Screw Turns 1/4 1/2 3/4 1
Change in MPa 4.41 8.83 13.3 17.8
Relief kgf/cm
2
45 90 136 181
Pressure
psi 640 1280 1934 2574

Pressure Increase Pressure Decrease

W107-02-05-129

T4-4-5
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
Swing Relief Valve Set Pressure Adjustment
Swing Relief Valve
Adjustment:
After loosening the lock nut, turn the adjusting screw
to adjust the set pressure.

1. Loosen the lock nut.

2. Turn the adjusting screw to adjust the pressure.

3. Retighten the lock nut.

4. Recheck the set pressure.


: 17 mm
: 19.5 to 29.5 Nxm
M144-07-012
(2 to 3 kgfxm, 4 to 6 Ibfxft)

Referential Pressure Change for Adjustment

Screw Turns 1/4 1/2 3/4 1 Adjusting


Screw
MPa 2.92 5.84 8.75 11.7
Change in Lock Nut
2
Relief kgf/cm 30 59.5 89 119 T117-02-02-004
Pressure
psi 427 846 1266 1692

T4-4-6
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
Travel Relief Valve Set Pressure Adjustment

Adjustment:
After loosening the lock nut, turn the adjusting screw
to adjust the set pressure.

1. Loosen the lock nut.

2. Turn the adjusting screw to adjust the pressure.

3. Retighten the lock nut.

4. Recheck the set pressure.


: 17 mm
Travel Relief Valve
: 34 to 44 Nxm
T115-03-02-006
(3.5 to 4.5 kgfxm, 5.7 to 9.9 Ibfxft)
: 6 mm
Lock Nut

Adjusting
Screw
T145-05-04-004

Referential Pressure Change for Adjustment


Adjusting Screw
Screw Turns 1/4 1/2 3/4 1
MPa 1.96 3.92 5.88 7.85
Change in
2
Relief kgf/cm 20 40 60 80
Pressure
psi 284 569 853 1138

Pressure Increase Pressure Decrease

W107-02-05-129

T4-4-7
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
OVERLOAD RELIEF VALVE SET PRES-
SURE
Summary:
1. The circuit pressure must be increased by apply-
ing an external force while blocking the return cir-
cuit from the control valve. This measuring Pressure Gauge
method is hazardous and the results obtained with
this method are unreliable.

2. Pressure setting of the overload relief valve must


be made at a specified oil flow rate normally far
smaller than the main pump delivery flow rate.
Accordingly, even if the main relief valve set pres-
sure can be reset higher than the overload relief
valve set pressure, the main pump supplies too
much oil to correctly measure the set pressure of
the overload relief valve. For this reason, in order
to correctly measure the set pressure of the over-
load relief valve, the overload relief valve unit
must be removed from the machine and tested on
a test stand (test at appropriate flow rate).

3. If the overload relief valve performance must be T142-05-04-019

checked on the machine, however, measure the


main relief pressure.
Measurement:
Preparation:
1. Select the following lever and switch positions:
1. Stop the engine.
Engine Speed Control Lever : Fast Idle Position
Auto-Idle Switch : OFF
CAUTION: The hydraulic oil tank cap may fly
off if turned quickly due to internal pressure. 2. Slowly operate the bucket, arm, and boom con-
Turn it slowly to release internal pressure be- trol levers until each cylinder is fully extended or
fore removing. retracted and the main relief valve relieves.

2. Loosen the hydraulic oil tank cap to release in- 3. Measure the relief pressure.
ternal pressure.
4. Measure the bucket, arm, and boom circuits one
3. Remove the plug from the test port located on the by one.
main pump delivery port. Install adapter (ST 6069),
hose (ST 6943), and pressure gauge (ST 6941). 5. Repeat the measurement three times and cal-
culate the average values.
4. Start the engine. Check that no oil leaks from the
pressure gauge connections. Evaluation:
Performance of each overload relief valve is con-
5. Maintain hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C (122 sidered to be normal if the measured main relief
±9 °F). pressure for the bucket, arm, or boom function is
within the specifications.

Refer to Performance Standard Table in Group


T4-5.

T4-4-8
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
Overload Relief Valve Set Pressure Adjustment

NOTE: In principle, adjust the overload relief valve


set pressure using a specified test stand.

Adjustment:
After loosening the lock nut, turn the adjusting screw Lock Nut
to adjust the set pressure.

1. Loosen the lock nut.

2. Turn the adjusting screw to adjust the pressure.

3. Retighten the lock nut.


: 17 mm
: 27.5 to 31.4 Nxm
Adjusting
(2.8 to 3.2 kgfxm, 6 to 7 Ibfxft) Screw
: 6 mm
T145-02-03-001

4. Recheck the set pressure.

Referential Pressure Change for Adjustment


Adjusting Screw
Screw Turns 1/4 1/2 3/4 1
MPa 4.41 8.83 13.3 17.8
Change in
2
Relief kgf/cm 45 90 136 181
Pressure
psi 640 1280 1934 2574

Pressure Increase Pressure Decrease

W107-02-05-129

T4-4-9
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
MAIN PUMP FLOW RATE MEASURE-
MENT 7. Disconnect the engine speed sensor and connect
a pulse meter. Fully open the hydraulic tester load-
Summary: ing valve.
Connect a hydraulic tester to the main pump delivery
pipe. Measure the main pump flow rate to check the 8. Start the engine. Check line connections for any
pump performance. Use a pressure gauge at the oil leaks.
same time.
Measurement:
Preparation: 1. Maintain hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C
(122±9 °F).

CAUTION: The hydraulic oil tank cap may fly 2. Select the following lever and switch positions:
off if turned quickly due to internal pressure. Engine Speed Control Lever : Fast Idle Position
Turn it slowly to release internal pressure be- Auto-Idle Switch : OFF
fore removing.
3. While slowly closing the hydraulic tester loading
1. Stop the engine. Loosen the hydraulic oil tank cap valve, measure the flow rate and engine speed at
to release internal pressure. Connect a vacuum each specified delivery pressure. (Refer to page
pump to the tank cap hole. T4-4-4.)

NOTE: Keep operating the vacuum pump during 4. Repeat the measurement three times and cal-
the work of connecting test circuit to the culate the average values.
main pump.
Evaluation:
2. Disconnect the delivery hose from the main pump. Convert the measured results to data for the
Connect pipe (ST 6139) to the main pump deliv- pump rated speed. Then, refer to the Perform-
ery port using the removed split flanges and bolts. ance Standard Table in Group T4-5.

3. Connect test hose (ST 6145), adapter (ST6146), Qc = (Np×Q) / (i×Ne)


hydraulic tester (ST 6299), adapter (ST6146), test Ne = Pulse Number / 2.37
hose (ST 6145), and flange (ST 6140) to pipe (ST
6139). Connect other end of flange (ST 6140) to Where:
the high pressure strainer using the removed split QC : Converted Pump Flow Rate
flange and bolts (refer to fig. A on next page). Q : Measured Pump Flow Rate
i : Pump Transmission Gear Ratio
4. Remove the plug from the main pump pressure (Main Pump=51/50=1.02,
check port. Connect adapter (ST 6069), hose (ST Swing Pump=51/62 = 0.82)
6943), and pressure gauge (ST 6941) to the port. Np : Rated Pump Speed (1836 min−1)
Ne : Measured Engine Speed
5. Disconnect pipes (1 and 2) from the regulator.
Connect tee (ST 6451) and two hoses (ST 6327)
to pipe (1) and the regulator ports from which
pipes (1 and 2) were disconnected. Plug the dis-
connected end of pipe (2) [allowing the pump dis-
placement angle to increase to the maximum].
(Refer to fig. B on next page.)

6. Remove the vacuum pump from the hydraulic


tank. Bleed the trapped air from the main hydrau-
lic pump.

T4-4-10
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test

Fig. A

Pipe Test Hose Test Hose


(ST 6139) (ST 6145) Hydraulic Tester Flange
(ST 6299) (ST 6145) (ST 6140)

Main
Pump

High Pres-
sure Strainer
Adapter
(ST 6146)

T144-04-04-005

Fig. B

2 1
T144-03-01-004

T4-4-11
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
Adjustment:

Adjustment of Maximum and Minimum Flow Rate NOTE: Turn screw (1) clockwise to decrease the
maximum flow rate and counterclockwise to
The pump flow rate can be adjusted by changing the increase. Turning screw (1) one forth a turn
maximum stroke of the servo piston. changes approx. 9.4 L/min of flow rate.
When adjusting the maximum flow rate, loosen nut Turn screw (4) clockwise to increase the
(2) and turn screw (1) on the small chamber side of minimum flow rate and counterclockwise to
the servo piston. When adjusting the minimum flow decrease. Turning screw (4) one forth a
rate, loosen nut (3) and turn screw (4) on the large turn changes approx. 9.4 L/min of flow rate.
chamber side of the servo piston.
: screw (1): 13 mm
: nuts (2), (3): 30 mm
: screw (4): 10 mm

1 2 3 4

T144-03-01-004

Q Q
(Flow (Flow
Rate) Rate)

Pi Pi
(Flow Rate Control Pressure) (Flow Rate Control Pressure)

Maximum Flow Rate Adjustment Minimum Flow Rate Adjustment

T4-4-12
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
Constant Pump Drive Torque Adjustment

Pump drive torque is controlled by the delivery pres- : nut (3): 36 mm


sure (Pd) of the pump. Therefore, the pump drive : screw (4): 24 mm
torque setting is adjusted by changing the set force of : nut (5): 13 mm
inner spring (2) and outer spring (1). : screw (6): 4 mm
When adjusting the set force of inner spring (2), loosen
nut (5) and turn screw (6). When adjusting the set
force of outer spring (1), loosen nut (3) and turn screw
(4).

NOTE: When screw (4) is adjusted, the set force of


in-ner spring (2) changes. Therefore, turn
screw (6) in the reverse direction to reset
inner spring (2)[screw (4) turns × 2.24].

1 2 3 4

5 6

2
NOTE: 1 kgf/cm =0.09807 Mpa
1 kgfxm=9.807 Nxm T144-04-04-003

When adjusting the outer spring When adjusting the inner spring
Screw Turns 1/4 Screw Turns 1/4
Flow Rate 42.0 L/min Flow Rate 18.7 L/min
2 2
Pressure 19.2 kgf/cm Pressure 18.4 kgf/cm
Pump Drive Torque 6.2 kgfxm Pump Drive Torque 3.9 kgfxm

Q Q
(Flow (Flow
Rate) Rate)

Pd Pd
Delivery Pressure Delivery Pressure

T4-4-13
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
Flow Rate Control Adjustment

The pump flow rate is controlled by flow rate control : nut (2): 13 mm
pressure (Pi). Therefore, the pump flow rate is ad- : screw (3) : 4 mm
justed by changing set force of spring (1).
When adjusting set force of spring (1), loosen nut (2)
and turn screw (3).

NOTE: When the flow rate is adjusted, the mini-


mum relief flow rate and the maximum flow
rate reduction control setting are also
changed.

2 3

T144-04-04-004
When adjusting the outer spring
Screw Turns 1/4
Flow Rate 43.9 L/min 2
NOTE: 1 kgf/cm =0.09807 MPa
2
Pressure 2.7 kgf/cm

Q Q
(Flow (Flow Q
Rate) Rate) (Flow
Rate)

Pi Pd Pic (Maximum Flow Rate


Reduction Pressure)
Flow Rate Control Minimum Relief Flow
Maximum Flow Rate
Rate Control
Reduction Control

T4-4-14
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
(Blank)

T4-4-15
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
SWING MOTOR DRAINAGE
Summary:
Check the swing motor performance by measuring
the swing motor drain oil quantity while rotating the
upperstructure.

NOTE: The quantity of drain oil from the swing mo-


tor will change depending on the hydraulic
oil temperature.
Be sure to maintain hydraulic oil tempera-
ture at 50±5 °C (122±9 °F).

CAUTION: Prevent personal injury. Always


make sure that the area is clear and that co-
workers are out of the swing area before
starting machine operation.

Preparation:
1. Maintain hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C
(122±9 °F). Rotate the swing motor to warm the
inside of the swing motor.

CAUTION: The hydraulic oil tank cap may fly


off if turned quickly. Slowly turn it to release
internal pressure before removing.

2. Stop the engine. Loosen the hydraulic oil tank cap


to release internal pressure from the hydraulic oil
tank.

3. Disconnect the swing motor drain hoses at the


hydraulic oil tank connection side. Install plug (1- Drain Hose
1/16-12UN) to the tank side ports.
: 36 mm
: 177 Nxm (18 kgfxm, 130 lbfxft)

CAUTION: Always make sure that the area is


clear and that co-workers are out of the
swing area before starting machine operation.
Take care to ensure that co-workers do not
slip off the machine during inspection.

Precautions for Measurement:


Select the following lever and switch positions:
Engine Speed Control Lever : Fast Idle Position
T144-04-04-007
Auto-Idle Switch : OFF

T4-4-16
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
Measurement:
Quantity of Drain Oil While Swinging
(1) With the bucket empty, position the front attach-
ment as follows:
Backhoe:
With the arm cylinder fully retracted, and the
bucket cylinder fully extended, raise the boom so
that the arm tip pin height is flush with the boom
foot pin height.
Loading Shovel:
With the arm cylinder and the bucket cylinder fully T145-05-03-007
extended, raise the boom so that the arm tip pin
height is flush with the boom foot pin height.
(2) Start the engine. Operate and hold the swing lever
full stroke. Begin to measure time and the drain oil
quantity from the drain hose using a container af-
ter the swing speed reaches a constant maximum
speed.
(3) Repeat the measurement at least three times in
both clockwise and counterclockwise directions,
and calculate the average values.
(4) The measuring time should be more than 20 sec-
onds. T145-05-03-008

Evaluation:
Refer to Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-5.

∗ Conversion of the measured drain oil quantity into


the volume per minute.
After measuring the drain oil volume using a cali-
brated container, obtain the volume per minute
using the formula below:

∆QȀȝȀȖȐȀ×ȀɑȀȏȀɔ

∆Q : Drain Oil Quantity Per Minute (L/min)


t : Measurement Time (Seconds)
q : Measured Drain Oil Quantity (L)

T4-4-17
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
TRAVEL MOTOR DRAINAGE
Summary:
Check the travel motor performance by measuring
the travel motor drain oil quantity while rotating the
travel motor with the measuring side track raised off
the ground with the front attachment.

NOTE: The quantity of drain oil from the travel mo-


tor will change depending on the hydraulic
oil temperature. Be sure to maintain hydrau-
lic oil temperature at 50±5 °C (122±9 °F).

CAUTION: Prevent personal injury. Always


support the raised track with wooden blocks.
Take extra care not to touch the rotating track
during check.

Preparation:
1. Maintain hydraulic oil temperature at 50±5 °C
(122±9 °F). Rotate the travel motor to warm the
inside of the travel motor.
CAUTION: The hydraulic oil tank cap may fly
off if turned quickly. Turn it slowly to release
internal pressure before removing. Drain Hose

2. Stop the engine. Loosen the hydraulic oil tank cap


to release internal pressure from the hydraulic oil
tank.
3. Disconnect the travel motor drain hoses. Install
plug (1-1/16-12) to the disconnected hose end.
Connect drain hose (1-1/16-12 UNF) to the travel
motor.
: 36 mm
: 177 Nxm (18 kgfxm, 130 Ibfxft)

Precautions for Measurement:


Select the following lever and switch positions:
Engine Speed Control Lever : Fast Idle Position
Auto-Idle Switch : OFF M144-12-002

T4-4-18
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
Measurement:
Quantity of Drain Oil While Rotating the Travel Motor
(1) Start the engine. Raise the measuring side track
off the ground using the front attachment.

CAUTION: Securely support the raised track


with wooden blocks. 90 to 110ń

(2) Rotate the raised track with the corresponding


travel lever fully stroked. Begin to measure time T142-05-03-011

and the drain oil quantity from the drain hose us-
ing a container.
(3) Repeat the measurement at least three times in
both forward and reverse directions, and calculate
the average values.
(4) The measuring time should be more than 20 sec-
onds. 90 to
110ń

Evaluation:
T142-05-03-012
Refer to Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-5.

∗ Conversion of the measured drain oil quantity


into the volume per minute.
After measuring the drain oil volume using a
calibrated container, obtain the volume per mi-
nute using the formula below:

∆QȀȝȀȖȐȀ×ȀɑȀȏȀɔ

∆Q : Drain Oil Quantity Per Minute (L/min)


t : Measurement Time (Seconds)
q : Measured Drain Oil Quantity (L)

T4-4-19
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST / Component Test
(Blank)

T4-4-20
SECTION 5
TROUBLESHOOTING

CONTENTS

Group 1 Diagnosing Procedure Group 4 Troubleshooting B


Introduction ..................................................T5-1-1 Troubleshooting B Procedure ...................... T5-4-1
Diagnosing Procedure..................................T5-1-2 Correlation between Trouble
Symptoms and Part Failures ..................... T5-4-2
Group 2 Component Layout Engine System Troubleshooting.................. T5-4-4
Main Component..........................................T5-2-1 Actuator Operating System
Electrical System Component ......................T5-2-2 Troubleshooting ....................................... T5-4-10
Electrical System Component Front Attachment System
(In the cab) ...................................................T5-2-4 Troubleshooting ....................................... T5-4-11
Pump............................................................T5-2-6 Swing System Troubleshooting ................. T5-4-16
Engine ..........................................................T5-2-7 Travel System Troubleshooting ................. T5-4-19
Electrical Equipment Box .............................T5-2-8 Auto Lubrication System
Battery Compartment .................................T5-2-10 Troubleshooting ....................................... T5-4-24
Pilot Piping (Loading Shovel) .....................T5-2-11 Air-Conditioner System
Pilot Piping (Backhoe)................................T5-2-31 Troubleshooting ....................................... T5-4-30

Group 3 Troubleshooting A
Introduction ..................................................T5-3-1
How to Read CUMMINS Engine
Fault Codes ................................................T5-3-2
Cummins Engine Fault Code
Information .................................................T5-3-4

144T-5-1
Group 5 Troubleshooting C
Troubleshooting C Procedure ......................T5-5-1 Malfunction of Level Check Switch............ T5-5-29
Malfunction of Tachometer...........................T5-5-2 Malfunction of Indicator Light
Malfunction of Coolant Check Switch ........................................... T5-5-30
Temperature Gauge ...................................T5-5-4 Malfunction of Hour Meter ......................... T5-5-31
Malfunction of Hydraulic Oil Malfunction of Buzzer ................................ T5-5-32
Temperature Gauge ...................................T5-5-6 Troubleshooting Pump Contamination
Malfunction of Fuel Gauge ...........................T5-5-8 Indicators ................................................. T5-5-33
Malfunction of Hydraulic Oil Level
Indicator (Warning)...................................T5-5-10 Group 6 Electrical System Inspection
Malfunction of Fuel Level Precautions for Inspection and
Indicator....................................................T5-5-11 Maintenance .............................................. T5-6-1
Malfunction of Auto-lubrication Battery Voltage Check ................................. T5-6-3
Indicator....................................................T5-5-12 Fuse Continuity Check ................................ T5-6-4
Malfunction of Pump Transmission Slow Blow Fuse Inspection.......................... T5-6-6
Oil Pressure Indicator...............................T5-5-13 Alternator Check.......................................... T5-6-7
Malfunction of Pump Contamination Voltage Check ............................................. T5-6-8
Indicator....................................................T5-5-14 Continuity Check........................................ T5-6-10
Malfunction of Ladder Indicator..................T5-5-16 5 Volt Circuit............................................... T5-6-11
Malfunction of Air Filter Restriction Circuit Check with Lamp Harness ............. T5-6-12
Indicator....................................................T5-5-17
Malfunction of Engine Stop, Engine Warning,
or Engine Protection Indicator ..................T5-5-18
Malfunction of Hydraulic Oil Level
Indicator....................................................T5-5-19
Malfunction of Coolant Level
Indicator....................................................T5-5-20
Malfunction of Engine Oil Level
Indicator....................................................T5-5-21
Malfunction of Emergency Stop
Indicator....................................................T5-5-22
Malfunction of Entrance Light
Indicator....................................................T5-5-23
Malfunction of Engine Room Light
Indicator....................................................T5-5-24
Malfunction of Auto-idle
Indicator....................................................T5-5-25
Malfunction of Fast Speed Travel
Indicator....................................................T5-5-26
Malfunction of Slow Speed Travel
Indicator....................................................T5-5-27
Malfunction of Alternator
indicator....................................................T5-5-28

144T-5-2
TROUBLESHOOTING / Diagnosing Procedure
INTRODUCTION

Each group of the troubleshooting section is presented


in orderly fashion so as to make inspection and trou-
bleshooting procedures easy to follow.
Use the troubleshooting section to guide you in locat-
ing the source of any problems that may arise.

This troubleshooting section consists of 6 groups;


diagnosing procedure component layout, troubleshoot-
ing A (diagnosis in accordance with indicated fault
codes), troubleshooting B (diagnosis in accordance
with the trouble symptom), troubleshooting C
(diagnosis related to monitor trouble), and electrical
system inspection procedure.

• Component layout drawing

• Troubleshooting A (Diagnosis in accordance with


indicated fault codes)
ȀApply this procedure if any fault code is displayed
after diagnosing using engine stop indicator, en-
gine warning indicator, and engine protection indi-
cator. (The ECM memorizes malfunctions, which
have occurred in the engine control system, with
the form of fault codes by the self-diagnosis func-
tion.)

Example: Fault code 4: EC Failure

• Troubleshooting B (starting with phenomenons)


Use these charts when the machine is exhibiting
trouble.

ȀExample: Using the engine speed control lever,


engine speed does not change.
Ȁ
• Troubleshooting C (Gauges and indicators)
Use these charts when any gauges or indicators
malfunction.

ȀExample: The fuel gauge does not operate.

• Electrical system inspection procedure


Ȁ Refer to this group for precautions and inspection
procedures of the electrical system when or be-
fore performing inspections on the electrical sys-
tem.

T5-1-1
TROUBLESHOOTING / Diagnosing Procedure
DIAGNOSING PROCEDURE

These six basic steps are essential for efficient trou-


bleshooting:

1. Study the system

Study the machine’s technical manuals. Know the


system and how it works, and what the construction,
functions and specifications of the system compo-
nents are.
T107-07-01-001
2. Ask the operator

Before inspecting, get the full story of malfunctions


from your star witness --- the operator.

(a) How is the machine being used? (Find out if the


machine is being operated correctly)

(b) When was the trouble noticed, and what types of


work the machine doing at that time?

(c) What are the details of the trouble? Is the trou-


ble getting worse, or did it appear suddenly for
the first time?

(d) Did the machine have any other troubles previ-


ously? If so, which parts were repaired before?

3. Inspect the machine T107-07-01-002

Before starting the troubleshooting procedure, check


the machine’s daily maintenance points, as shown in
the operator’s manual.

Also, check the electrical system, including the bat-


teries, as troubles in the electrical system such as
low battery voltage, loose connections and blown
fuses will result in malfunction of the controllers,
causing total operational failure of the machine.
Fuse failure is often caused by a fine crack in the
fuse, and such fine cracks are very hard to detect by
visual inspection.

T107-07-01-003

T5-1-2
TROUBLESHOOTING / Diagnosing Procedure
4. Operate the machine yourself

Try to identify the trouble by operating the machine


yourself.
If the trouble cannot be confirmed, stop the engine
and obtain further details of the malfunction from the
operator.
Also, check for any incomplete connections of the
wire harnesses.

5. Perform troubleshooting
T107-07-01-004

CAUTION: Never attempt to disconnect har-


nesses or hydraulic lines while the engine is
running. The machine may malfunction or
pressurized oil may spout, possibly resulting
in personal injury. Be sure to stop the engine
before disconnecting harnesses or hydraulic
lines.

If any fault codes are displayed on the engine stop


indicator, engine warning indicator, and engine pro-
tection indicator, check sensing signal circuits, refer-
ring to Troubleshooting A.
T107-07-01-005

If no fault code is indicated on the engine stop indi-


cator, engine warning indicator, and engine protec-
tion indicator, go to the troubleshooting B group.

6. Trace possible causes

Before reaching a conclusion, check the most likely


causes again. Try to identify the actual cause of the
trouble.

Based on your conclusion, make a plan for appro-


priate repairs to avoid consequent malfunctions.

T107-07-01-006

T107-07-01-007

T5-1-3
TROUBLESHOOTING / Diagnosing Procedure
(Blank)

T5-1-4
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
MAIN COMPONENTS 4
Backhoe 3 6
2
7
1

6
Loading Shovel 7

8
M145-01-016
5
9
4 10
3 11
2
12
1 13
14
15

16

33
32
34 31
30

29 17
28
27
26
25
24 18
23 19
22 T144-01-02-001
21
20
1 - Bucket 10 - Lubricator 19 - Auxiliary Hydraulic Oil Tank 27 - Accumulator (For Pilot Circuit)
2 - Bucket Cylinder 11 - Swing Control Valve 20 - Travel Device 28 - Adjuster Cylinder
3 - Arm 12 - Fuel Tank 21 - Travel Brake Valve 29 - Compressor Drive Motor,
Compressor (For Air Conditioner)
4- Arm Cylinder 13 - Main Hydraulic Oil Tank 22 - EHC Valve 30 - Travel Mode Shift Solenoid Valve
5- Level Cylinder 14 - Main Control Valve 23 - Center Joint 31 - Pilot Shut-Off Vale
6- Boom Cylinder 15 - Fuel Cooler 24 - Lower Roller 32 - Bucket Open-Close Pilot Valve
7- Boom 16 - Radiator, Oil Cooler 25 - Upper Roller 33 - Travel Pilot Valve
8- Front/Swing Pilot Valve 17 - Engine 26 - Accumulator (For Adjuster 34 - Dump Cylinder
Cylinder)
9 - Swing Device 18 - Pump Device

T5-2-1
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM COMPONENT

23
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
22

21

20

19

18

17

16

15

14
13
12
11 T144-01-02-002

1 - Entrance Light 7 - Battery Compartment 13 - Ladder Limit Switch 19 - Condenser


Condenser Fan Motor
2 - Travel Mode Shift 8 - Swing Inter Lock Solenoid 14 - Hydraulic Oil Level 20 - Room Light (The room
Solenoid Valve Valve Switch 2 (For Warning) under the cab)
3 - Swing Pi Pressure 9 - Fuel Level Sensor 15 - Hydraulic Oil Level 21 - Horn
Control Solenoid Valve Switch 1 (For Indicator)
4 - Pressure Switch 10 - Low Fuel Level Switch 16 - Electrical Equipment Box 22 - Wiper
(For Travel Alarm)
5 - Auto Idle Pressure Switch 11 - Hydraulic Oil Temperature 17 - Air Conditioner Unit 23 - Work Light (On the cab)
Sensor
6 - Work Light (On the right 12 - Hydraulic Oil Temperature 18 - Work Light (On the left side
side of base machine) Switch of base machine)

T5-2-2
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

47
46

37
45
44 38
43 39 T144-01-02-002
42
41
40

24 - Air Cleaner Restriction 30 - Coolant Temperature 36 - Coolant Temperature 42 - Pump Room Light
Switch Sensor Sensor
25 - Ether Solenoid Valve 31 - Engine Room Light 37 - Engine Oil Level Switch* 43 - Engine Speed Sensor
26 - Coolant Level Switch 32 - Ether Solenoid Valve 38 - Travel Alarm 44 - Pump Transmission Oil
(For Indicator) Pressure Switch
27 - Thermo Guard Switch 33 - Coolant Level Switch 39 - Engine Speed Sensor 45 - Contamination Sensor
(For Ether Solenoid Valve) (For Indicator)
28 - Coolant Level Switch 34 - Thermo Guard Switch 40 - Pump Transmission Oil 46 - Engine Stop Switch
(For ECM) (For Ether Solenoid Valve) Pressure Switch
29 - Air Cleaner Restriction 35 - Coolant Level Switch (For 41 - Contamination Sensor 47 - EHC Valve
Switch ECM)

∗ Engine oil level switch for the front engine is located in the same position.

T5-2-3
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM COMPONENT (In the cab)
2

3
1 4
5

M144-01-020

6 7

15

14 8

13 9
10
12
11

M144-01-005 M144-07-096

1 - Switch Panel 5 - Key Switch 9 - Data Link Connector 13 - Data Link Connector
(For Front Engine) (For Front Engine) (For Rear Engine)
2 - Monitor Panel 6 - Fuse Box 2 10 - Engine Diagnostic Switch B 14 - Engine Diagnostic Switch A
(For Front Engine) (For Rear Engine)
3 - Emergency Engine Stop 7 - Power Source Terminal 11 - Transformer (24 V to 12 V) 15 - Buzzer
Switch
4 - Key Switch 8 - Engine Diagnostic Switch A 12 - Engine Diagnostic Switch B
(For Rear Engine) (For Front Engine) (For Rear Engine)

T5-2-4
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Monitor Panel 10 11 12 13 14
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

34
33
32
31
30
29
28

27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 T144-01-02-006

Switch Panel 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

42
43
44

45

54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46
M144-01-017

1 - Engine Oil Level Indicator 16 - Alternator Indicator 29 - Air Cleaner Restriction 42 - Indicator Light Check
(For Front Engine) Indicator (For Rear Engine) Switch
2 - Coolant Level Indicator 17 - Pump Transmission Oil 30 - Pump Contamination 43 - Level Check Switch
(For Front Engine) Pressure Indicator Indicator
(For Front Engine)
3 - Hydraulic Oil Level Indicator 18 - Hydraulic Oil Level 31 - Engine Stop Indicator 44 - Buzzer Stop Switch
Indicator
4 - Slow Travel Mode Indicator 19 - Pump Transmission Oil 32 - Ladder Position Indicator 45 - Dimmer Switch
Pressure Indicator
(For Rear Engine)
5 - Auto Idle Indicator 20 - Fuel Level Indicator 33 - Engine Oil Level Indicator 46 - Engine Speed Control
(For Rear Engine) Lever
6 - Engine Room Light 21 - Auto-Lubrication Indicator 34 - Coolant Level Indicator 47 - Work Light Switch
Indicator (Option) (For Rear Engine)
7 - Entrance Light Indicator 22 - Engine Stop Indicator 35 - Washer Switch 48 - Dome Light Switch
(For Front Engine)
8 - Work Light Indicator 23 - Engine Warning Indicator 36 - Cigar Lighter 49 - Engine Room Light
(For Front Engine) Switch
9 - Fast Travel Mode Indicator 24 - Engine Protection Indicator 37 - Wiper Delay Selector 50 - Entrance Light Switch
(For Front Engine)
10 - Coolant Temperature Gauge 25 - Engine Protection Indicator 38 - Wiper Switch 51 - Travel Mode Switch
(For Rear Engine) (For Rear Engine)
11 - Hydraulic Oil 26 - Engine Warning Indicator 39 - Air Conditioner Control 52 - Auto Idle Switch
Temperature Gauge (For Rear Engine) Panel (For Rear)
12 - Tachometer 27 - Engine Stop Indicator 40 - Air Conditioner Control 53 - Ether (Starting Aid)
(For Rear Engine) (For Rear Engine) Panel (For Side) Switch
13 - Tachometer 28 - Air Cleaner Restriction 41 - Air Conditioner Control 54 - Auxiliary Switch
(For Front Engine) Indicator Panel (For Front)
14 - Coolant Temperature Gauge (For Front Engine)
(For Front Engine)
15 - Fuel Gauge

T5-2-5
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
PUMP

T144-03-01-001

1 - Main Pump 4 3 - Center Gear Pump 4 - Main Pump 3 5 - Triple Gear Pump
(For Front Engine) (For Front Engine)
Main Pump 2 Main Pump 1
(For Rear Engine) (For Rear Engine)
2 - Swing Pump 2
(For Front Engine)
Swing Pump 1
(For Rear Engine)

T5-2-6
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
ENGINE

1 2 3

7 6 5 T144-01-02-003

1 - Coolant Temperature 3 - Intake Manifold 5 - ECM (Electrical Control 7 - Engine Oil Pressure
Sensor (For ECM) Temperature Sensor Module) Sensor (For ECM)
(For ECM)
2 - Intake Manifold Pressure 4 - Engine Speed Sensor 6 - Air Pressure Sensor
Sensor (For ECM) (For ECM) (For ECM)

T5-2-7
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT BOX
1

2
3

28 4

5
25, 26, 27
6

7
24
8

21, 22, 23 9

10

20 11

12
19

13

18 14

15
16
17
T144-01-02-004

1 - Limit Switch 8 - Work Light Relay (On the 15 - Auto-Lubrication Relay 22 - Side Air Conditioner
left side of base machine) Controller (Middle Shelf)
2 - Lower Wiper Slow Relay 9 - Work Light Relay (On the 16 - Auto-Lubrication Interval 23 - Front Air Conditioner
right side of base machine) Switch Controller (Lower Shelf)
3 - Upper Wiper Fast Relay 10 - Work Light Relay 17 - Fuse Box 1 24 - Resister (R2:27 Ω)
(On the cab)
4 - Upper Wiper Slow Relay 11 - Slow Wiper Relay 18 - Ether Relay 25 - Contamination Amplifier
(For Rear Engine) (Upper Shelf)
5 - Upper Wiper Main Relay 12 - Hour Meter Relay 19 - Ether Relay 26 - MC (B) (Middle Shelf)
(For Front Engine)
6 - Lower Wiper Main Relay 13 - Swing Inter Lock Relay 20 - Resister (R3:5.6 Ω) 27 - MC (A) (Lower Shelf)
7 - Load Dump Relay 14 - Fluorescent Illumination 21 - Rear Air Conditioner 28 - Resister (R1:27 Ω)
Light Controller (Upper Shelf)

T5-2-8
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout

29
30
31

45 32

33
44
34

35
43
36

42
37

38

41 39

40

T144-01-02-004

29 - Illumination Relay 34 - Engine Room Light Relay 38 - Air Conditioner Relay 42 - Air Conditioner Relay
39 - (For Side) (For Front)
30 - Indicator Light Check Relay 35 - Emergency Relay 40 - Air Conditioner Relay 43 - Fan Motor Relay
(For Front Engine) (For Rear) (For Front)
31 - Washer Motor Relay 36 - Fan Motor Relay (For Side) 41 - Lower Wiper Fast Relay 44 - Entrance Light Relay
32 - Travel Speed Change 37 - Fan Motor Relay 42 - Dome Light Relay 45 - Horn Relay
Relay (For Rear)
33 - Emergency Relay
(For Rear Engine)

T5-2-9
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
BATTERY COMPARTMENT
1 2 3

10
4

9 7

T144-01-02-005

1 - Starter Relay 2 4 - Grease Pressure Switch 7 - Breaker 9 - Battery Relay


(For Auto-Lubrication)
2 - Junction Box 5 - Lubrication Mode Switch 8 - Battery 10 - Starter Relay 1
3 - Slow Blow Fuse 6 - Grease Pressure Switch
(For Manual-Lubrication)

T5-2-10
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout

PILOT PIPING
(LOADING SHOVEL) 1
2
3
4
5
6

22 7
8
21
20
19
18

17

16
23 24 25 26
15
14
13
12
11
10
9

29

T144-05-02-032
27
30

31
28
32

T144-05-02-034

1 - Left Pilot Valve 9 - Manifold 7 17 - Pilot Shut-Off Valve 25 - Pi Pressure Change Valve
2 - Right Pilot Valve 10 - Swing Pump 18 - Shuttle Valve 1 26 - Travel Speed Change
Solenoid Valve
3 - Manifold 4 11 - Manifold 6 19 - Travel Cut-Off Valve 27 - Manifold 2
4 - Swing Motor 12 - Swing Pump 20 - Manifold 1 28 - Manifold 3
5 - Swing Inter Lock Solenoid 13 - Manifold 5 21 - Bucket Open-Close Pilot 29 - Multi Shuttle Valve
Valve Valve
6 - Control Valve 14 - EHC Valve 22 - Travel Pilot Valve 30 - Shuttle Valve 2
7 - Main Pump 15 - Center Joint 23 - Swing Pi Pressure Control 31 - Shuttle Valve 3
Solenoid Valve
8 - Main Pump 16 - Swing Control Valve 24 - Flow Combiner Valve 32 - Shuttle Valve 4
Change Valve

T5-2-11
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
NOTE: Parenthesized numbers after component
names in the following table correspond to
the location shown with same number in
each component illustration.

Pilot Shut-Off Valve


The valve opens and closes the pilot pressure oil
circuit to each pilot valves.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Right pilot valve(1) Primary pilot pressure
2 Manifold 1(4) Primary pilot pressure
3 Left pilot valve(4) Primary pilot pressure
4 Left pilot valve(1) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
5 Pilot filter primary Pilot pressure
6 Accumulator Primary pilot pressure
7 Hydraulic oil tank Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
6 Manifold 1(3) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
9 Right pilot valve(4) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank

1 2 3

Front

9 Right Left

4
Rear

8 7 6 5
T144-05-02-001
Left Pilot Valve
The valve controls the pilot pressure to the arm and
swing control valves.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Pilot shut-off valve(4) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
2 Multi shuttle valve(5) Pilot pressure for right swing
3 Multi shuttle valve(14) Pilot pressure for arm retract
4 Pilot shut-off valve(3) Primary pilot pressure
5 Multi shuttle valve(6) Pilot pressure for left swing
6 Multi shuttle valve(15) Pilot pressure for arm extend

1 2

Front

6 3
Right Left

Rear

5 4
T144-05-02-002

T5-2-12
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Right Pilot Valve
The valve controls the pilot pressure to the boom and
bucket control valves.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Pilot shut-off valve(1) Primary pilot pressure
2 Multi shuttle valve(17) Pilot pressure for boom raise
3 Multi shuttle valve(16) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-out
4 Pilot shut-off valve(9) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
5 Multi shuttle valve(18) Pilot pressure for bucket boom lower
6 Multi shuttle valve(2) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-in

1 2 Front

6 3
Right Left

5 4 Rear
T144-05-02-002
Travel Pilot Valve
The valve controls the pilot pressure to the travel
control valves.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Travel cut-off valve(13) Pilot pressure for travel forward left
2 Manifold l(7), bucket open-close pilot valve(2) Primary pilot pressure
3 Travel cut-off valve(12) Pilot pressure for travel reverse left
4 Travel cut-off valve(11) Pilot pressure for travel reverse right
5 Manifold 1(1), bucket open-close pilot valve(3) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
6 Travel cut-off valve(14) Pilot pressure for travel forward right

Front
1
6

5 2
Right Left
4 3

Rear

T117-06-02-004
Bucket Open-Close Pilot Valve
The valve controls the pilot pressure to the bucket
open-close control valves.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Multi shuttle valve(3) Pilot pressure for bucket close
2 Travel pilot valve(2) Primary pilot pressure
3 Travel pilot valve(5) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
4 Multi shuttle valve(4) Pilot pressure for bucket open

1 Front
4

3 2 Left
Right

Rear

T117-06-02-004

T5-2-13
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Multi Shuttle Valve

Multi-shuttle valve divides and/or combines pressure


oil from each pilot valve and supplies pressure oil to
the control valve pilot ports or the switch valve.

No. Connecting point Remarks


1 Right control valve(4) Pilot pressure for arm retract
2 Right pilot valve(6) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-in
3 Bucket open-close pilot valve(l) Pilot pressure for bucket close
4 Bucket open-close pilot valve(4) Pilot pressure for bucket open
5 Left pilot valve(2) Pilot pressure for right swing
6 Left pilot valve(5) Pilot pressure for left swing
7 Manifold 2(2) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
8 Flow combiner valve change valve(1) Change pressure for flow combiner valve change valve
(Travel pressure)
9 Flow combiner valve change valve(8) Change pressure for flow combiner valve (Boom, arm,
bucket, bucket open-close pilot pressure)
10 Swing Pi pressure control solenoid valve(11) Swing Pi pressure
11 Manifold 2(1) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
12 Shuttle Valve 2(1) Boom, arm, bucket, bucket open-close pilot pressure
13 Shuttle Valve 1 (5) Travel pressure
14 Left pilot valve(3) Pilot pressure for arm retract
15 Left pilot valve(6) Pilot pressure for arm extend
16 Right pilot valve(3) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-out
17 Right pilot valve(2) Pilot pressure for boom raise
18 Right pilot valve(5) Pilot pressure for bucket boom lower
19 Manifold 3(8) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
20 Left control valve(7) Pilot pressure for boom raise
21 Left control valve(5) Pilot pressure for arm retract
22 Right control valve(18) Pilot pressure for bucket boom lower
23 Left control valve(12) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-in
24 Right control valve(3) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-in
25 Right control valve(2) Pilot pressure for boom raise
26 Left control valve(6) Pilot pressure for bucket close
27 Right control valve(17) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-out
28 Left control valve(13) Pilot pressure for bucket open
29 Left control valve(14) Pilot pressure for arm extend
30 Manifold 4(7) Pilot pressure for right swing
31 Manifold 4(6) Pilot pressure for left swing
32 Shuttle Valve 3(6) Travel pressure
33 Manifold 3(1) Travel pressure
34 Shuttle Valve 4(1) Pilot pressure for arm retract
35 Shuttle Valve 3(4) Travel pressure, pilot pressure for boom raise
36 Pi pressure change valve(9) Change pressure (Pilot pressure for arm extend)
37 Shuttle Valve 3(2) Pilot pressure for boom raise
38 Shuttle Valve 3(1) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-in

T5-2-14
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

21
9 Upper
20

10 Right Left
19

Lower

11

18 17 16 15 14 13 12
T144-05-02-003

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Upper

Right Left

Lower

38 37 36 35 34 33 32

T144-05-02-003

T5-2-15
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Travel Cut-Off Valve
When the traveling signal pressure from the adjuster
cylinder, the spool is shifted, blocking the travel pilot
pressure to stop machine movement.

No. Connecting point Remarks


1 Manifold 4(9) Traveling stop signal pressure
2 Manifold 1(2) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
3 Left control valve(8) Pilot pressure for travel forward left
4 Right control valve(1) Pilot pressure for travel forward right
5 Left control valve(11) Pilot pressure for travel reverse left
6 Right control valve(19) Pilot pressure for travel reverse right
7 Shuttle valve 1(1) Pilot pressure for travel reverse right
8 Shuttle valve 1(2) Pilot pressure for travel reverse left
9 Shuttle valve 1(3) Pilot pressure for travel forward right
10 Shuttle valve 1(4) Pilot pressure for travel forward left
11 Travel pilot valve(4) Pilot pressure for travel reverse right
12 Travel pilot valve(3) Pilot pressure for travel reverse left
13 Travel pilot valve(1) Pilot pressure for travel forward left
14 Travel pilot valve(6) Pilot pressure for travel forward right

6
5
4
3
2
1 Left Rear

Front Right
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
T144-05-02-004
Swing Inter Lock Solenoid Valve
This valve stops swing function while the ladder is lowered.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Manifold 4(4) Pilot pressure for right swing
2 Swing control valve: Right(7) Pilot pressure for left swing
3 Swing control valve: Right(9) Pilot pressure for right swing
4 Manifold 4(5) Pilot pressure for left swing
4

Upper

Right Left

Lower

1
2
3 T144-05-02-005

T5-2-16
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Swing Pi Pressure Control Solenoid Valve, Flow
Combiner Valve Change Valve, Pi Pressure
Change Valve change valve regulates the flow combiner valve
Swing Pi pressure control solenoid valve regulates Pi control pressure. Pi pressure change valve regulates
pressure to the swing pump. Flow combiner valve PI pressure to the main pump.

No. Connecting point Remarks


1 Multi shuttle valve(8) Change pressure for flow combiner valve change
valve(Travel pressure)
2 Manifold 1(5) Primary pilot pressure
3 Left control valve(10) Change pressure for flow combiner valve
4 Travel speed change solenoid valve(3) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
5 Manifold 2(3) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
6 Shuttle valve 3(8) Boom, arm extend, bucket, bucket open-close pilot
pressure
7 Shuttle valve 2(2) Boom, arm, bucket, bucket open-close pilot pressure
8 Multi shuttle valve(9) Change pressure for flow combiner valve(Boom, arm,
bucket, bucket open-close pilot pressure)
9 Multi shuttle valve(36) Change pressure (Pilot pressure for arm extend)
10 Manifold 3(2) Swing Pi pressure
11 Multi shuttle valve(10) Swing Pi pressure

1 2 3

Upper
5

Left Right

Lower

7 6
11 10 9 8
T144-05-02-006
Travel Speed Change Solenoid Valve
This valve controls the travel speed change pressure
in two stage.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Manifold 1(6) Primary pilot pressure
2 Manifold 4(10) Travel speed change pressure
3 Swing Pi pressure control solenoid valve, flow combiner Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
valve change valve, Pi pressure change valve(4)
4 Manifold 4(8) Swing parking brake release pressure

1 2

Upper

Left Right

4
3 Lower

T144-05-02-007

T5-2-17
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Manifold 1
This manifold is connection block for travel pilot valve,
travel cut-off valve, travel speed change solenoid
valve, swing Pi pressure control solenoid valve.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Travel pilot valve(5) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
2 Travel cut-off valve(2) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
3 Pilot shut-off valve(8) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
4 Pilot shut-off valve(2) Primary pilot pressure
5 Swing Pi pressure control solenoid valve(2) Primary pilot pressure
6 Travel speed change solenoid valve(1) Primary pilot pressure
7 Travel pilot valve(2) Primary pilot pressure

7
1
Front
6

Right Left
2

5 Rear

4
T144-05-02-008
Manifold 2
Manifold 2 functions as the drain oil junction block to the
hydraulic oil tank from each valve.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Multi shuttle valve(11) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
2 Multi shuttle valve(7) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
3 Swing Pi pressure control solenoid valve, flow combiner Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
valve change valve, Pi pressure change valve(5)
4 Pilot shut-off valve Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
5 Manifold 3(6) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank

3
2

Upper
1
4

Right Left

Lower

T144-05-02-009

T5-2-18
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Manifold 3
Manifold 3 functions as the pump control pressure oil
junction block.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Multi shuttle valve(33) Travel pressure
2 Swing Pi pressure control solenoid valve(l0) Swing Pi pressure
3 Shuttle valve 4(2) Travel pressure, pilot pressure for arm retract
4 Shuttle valve 3(3) Boom, arm extend, bucket, bucket open-close pilot
pressure
5 Shuttle valve 2(3) Boom, arm, bucket, bucket open-close pilot pressure
6 Manifold 2(5) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
7 Hydraulic oil tank Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
8 Multi shuttle valve(19) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
9 Manifold 5(19) Pi pressure(Main pump 1,2 and 4)
10 Manifold 5(20) Pi pressure(Main pump 3)
11 Manifold 5(22) Pit pressure(Main pump 1)
12 Manifold 5(23) Swing Pi pressure(Swing pump 1 and 2)
13 Manifold 5(21) Pic pressure(Main pump 2,3 and 4)
Pe pressure(Main pump 1,2,3 and 4)
1 2 3 4 5 6

Upper

Right Left

7
Lower
8
13 12 11 10 9
T144-05-02-010
Manifold 4
This manifold is connection block for swing pilot
pressure, travel speed change pressure, traveling
stop signal pressure and swing parking brake release
pressure.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Center joint(2) Travel speed change pressure
2 Center joint(3) Traveling stop signal pressure
3 Swing motor: Front(5) Swing parking brake release pressure
4 Swing inter lock solenoid valve(1) Pilot pressure for right swing
5 Swing inter lock solenoid valve(4) Pilot pressure for left swing
6 Multi shuttle valve(31) Pilot pressure for left swing
7 Multi shuttle valve(30) Pilot pressure for right swing
8 Travel speed change solenoid valve(4) Swing parking brake release pressure
9 Travel cut-off valve(1) Traveling stop signal pressure
10 Travel speed change solenoid valve(2) Travel speed change pressure

5 6
Upper
7
4

3 8
Front Rear
2 9
1
10 Lower

T144-05-02-011

T5-2-19
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Manifold 5
Manifold 5 functions as the pump control pressure oil
junction block.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Main pump 3(7) Pi pressure(Main pump 3)
2 Main pump 4(5) Pic pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
3 Main pump 4(3) Psv pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
4 Swing pump 2(1) Psv pressure(Swing pump 2)
5 Swing pump 2(2) Pi pressure(Swing pump 2)
6 Main pump 4(2) Pe pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
7 Manifold 6(14) Psv pressure(Main pump 1 and 2, swing pump 1)
8 Manifold 6(15) Pi pressure(Swing pump 1)
9 Manifold 6(13) Pic pressure(Main pump 1)
10 Manifold 6(12) Pic pressure(Main pump 2)
Pe pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
11 Manifold 6(11) P2 pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
12 Manifold 6(10) Pi pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
13 Manifold 6(9) Pz pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
14 Main pump 4(4) P2 pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
15 Main pump 4(1) Pz pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
16 Main pump 4(6) Pi pressure(Main pump 4)
17 EHC valve (3) Pz pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
18 EHC valve (2) Pz pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
19 Manifold 3(9) Pi pressure(Main pump 1, 2 and 4)
20 Manifold 3(10) Pi pressure(Main pump 3)
21 Manifold 3(11) Pic pressure(Main pump 2, 3 and 4)
Pe pressure(Main pump 1, 2, 3 and 4)
22 Manifold 3(12) Pic pressure(Main pump 1)
23 Manifold 3(13) Swing Pi pressure(Swing pump 1 and 2)
24 EHC valve (5) Psv pressure(Main pump 1,2,3 and 4, swing pump 1 and 2)

1 2 3 4 5 6

24 7
23 8

9
22
Right
21 10

11
20 Front Rear

19 12

18 Left
13
17

14
16 15

T144-05-02-012

T5-2-20
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Manifold 6
Manifold 6 functions as the pump control pressure oil
junction block.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Swing pump 1(4) Pi pressure(Swing pump 1)
2 Swing pump 1(5) Psv pressure(Swing pump 1)
3 Manifold 7(13) Psv pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
4 Manifold 7(12) Pic pressure(Main pump 1)
5 Manifold 7(11) Pic pressure(Main pump 2)
6 Manifold 7(10) P2 pressure(Main pump 1 and 2
7 Manifold 7(9) Pi pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
8 Manifold 7(8) Pz pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
9 Manifold 5(13) Pz pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
10 Manifold 5(12) Pi pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
11 Manifold 5(11) P2 pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
12 Manifold 5(10) Pic pressure(Main pump 2)
13 Manifold 5(9) Pic pressure(Main pump 1)
14 Manifold 5(7) Psv pressure(Main pump 1 and 2, swing pump 1)
15 Manifold 5(8) Pi pressure(Swing pump 1)

15
2
14 3

13 4 Right

12 5
Front Rear
11 6

10 7 Left

9 8

T144-05-02-013

T5-2-21
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Manifold 7
Manifold 7 functions as the pump control pressure oil
junction block.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Main pump 1(12) Psv pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
2 Main pump 1(11) Pic pressure(Main pump 1)
3 Main pump 2(8) Pic pressure(Main pump 2)
4 Main pump 1(13) Pe pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
5 Main pump 1(9) P2 pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
6 Main pump 1(10) Pi pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
7 Main pump 1(14) Pz pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
8 Manifold 6(8) Pz pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
9 Manifold 6(7) Pi pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
10 Manifold 6(6) P2 pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
11 Manifold 6(5) Pic pressure(Main pump 2)
12 Manifold 6(4) Pic pressure(Main pump 1)
13 Manifold 6(3) Psv pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Right

Front Rear

Left

13 12 11 10 9 8
T144-05-02-014

T5-2-22
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Shuttle Valve 1
During travel operations, shuttle valve 1 supplies the
travel pilot pressure to the multi-shuttle valve.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Travel cut-off valve(7) Pilot pressure for travel reverse right
2 Travel cut-off valve(8) Pilot pressure for travel reverse left
3 Travel cut-off valve(9) Pilot pressure for travel forward left
4 Travel cut-off valve(10) Pilot pressure for travel forward right
5 Multi shuttle valve(13) Travel pressure

1 2

3
4
Left Rear

Front Right

T144-05-02-015

Shuttle Valve 2
During operations other than swing, shuttle valve 2
supplies flow control pressure (Pi pressure) to main
pumps 1, 2, and 4.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Multi shuttle valve(12) Boom, arm, bucket, bucket open-close pilot pressure
2 Pi pressure change valve(7) Boom, arm, bucket, bucket open-close pilot pressure
3 Manifold 3(5) Boom, arm, bucket, bucket open-close pilot pressure
4 Shuttle valve 3(5) Travel pressure, boom raise pilot pressure

1
Upper

Right Left

Lower

4 3
T144-05-02-016

T5-2-23
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Shuttle Valve 3
During operations other than swing and arm extend,
shuttle valve 3 supplies flow control pressure (Pi
pressure) to main pump 3.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Multi shuttle valve(38) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-in
2 Multi shuttle valve(37) Pilot pressure for boom raise
3 Manifold 3(4) Boom, arm extend, bucket, bucket open-close pilot
pressure
4 Multi shuttle valve(35) Travel pressure, pilot pressure for boom raise
5 Shuttle valve 2(4) Travel pressure, pilot pressure for boom raise
6 Multi shuttle valve(32) Travel pressure
7 Shuttle valve 4(3) Travel pressure
8 Pi pressure change valve(6) Boom, arm extend, bucket, bucket open-close pilot
pressure

1 2 3 4

Upper

Right Left

Lower

8 7 6 5
T144-05-02-017

Shuttle Valve 4
During travel and arm retract operations, shuttle valve
4 supplies maximum flow rate cut pressure (Pic
pressure) to main pump 1.

No. Connecting point Remarks


1 Multi shuttle valve(34) Pilot pressure for arm retract
2 Manifold 3(3) Travel pressure, pilot pressure for arm retract
3 Shuttle valve 3(7) Travel pressure

2 Upper

Right Left

Lower

T144-05-02-018

T5-2-24
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
EHC Valve
EHC valve supplies power increase control pressure
Pz to main pumps 1, 2, 3, and 4.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Hydraulic oil tank Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
2 Manifold 5(18) Pz pressure(Main pump 3,4)
3 Manifold 5(17) Pz pressure(Main pump 1,2)
4 Pilot shut-off valve Primary pilot pressure
5 Manifold 5(24) Psv pressure(Main pump 1,2,3,4)

2 3 4
1

Upper

Left Right

5
Lower

T144-05-02-019

Horsepower Reducing Valve


Horsepower reducing valve supplies power reduction
control pressure P2 to main pumps 1,2, 3, and 4.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 High pressure strainer Main pressure
2 High pressure strainer Main pressure
3 Swing pump 2(3) Main pressure
4 Swing pump 1(6) Main pressure

Upper
1 3

Front Rear

Lower
2
4
T144-05-02-020

T5-2-25
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Main Pump

No. Connecting point Remarks


1 Manifold 5(15) Pz pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
2 Manifold 5(6) Pe pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
3 Manifold 5(3) Psv pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
4 Manifold 5(14) P2 pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
5 Manifold 5(2) Pic pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
6 Manifold 5(16) Pi pressure(Main pump 4)
7 Manifold 5(1) Pi pressure(Main pump 3)
8 Manifold 7(3) Pic pressure(Main pump 2)
9 Manifold 7(5) P2 pressure(Main pump 2)
10 Manifold 7(6) Pi pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
11 Manifold 7(2) Pic pressure(Main pump 1)
12 Manifold 7(1) Psv pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
13 Manifold 7(4) Pe pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
14 Manifold 7(7) Pz pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)

Main Pump 4 Main Pump 3 Main Pump 2 Main Pump 1

14

1
13
2
12
11
3

4 10

T144-05-02-021
5 6 7 8 9

Right

Front Rear

Left

T5-2-26
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Swing Pump
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Manifold 5(4) Psv pressure(Swing pump 2)
2 Manifold 5(5) Pi pressure(Swing pump 2)
3 Horsepower reducing valve (3) Main pressure
4 Manifold 6(1) Pi pressure(Swing pump 1)
5 Manifold 6(2) Psv pressure(Swing pump 1)
6 Horsepower reducing valve (4) Main pressure

Swing Pump 2 Swing Pump 1

1
4

3
6

T144-05-02-022

Upper

Front Rear

Lower

T5-2-27
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Control Valve
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Travel cut-off valve(4) Pilot pressure for travel forward right
2 Multi shuttle valve(25) Pilot pressure for boom raise
3 Multi shuttle valve(24) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-in
4 Multi shuttle valve(1) Pilot pressure for arm retract
5 Multi shuttle valve(21) Pilot pressure for arm retract
6 Multi shuttle valve(26) Pilot pressure for bucket close
7 Multi shuttle valve(20) Pilot pressure for boom raise
8 Travel cut-off valve(3) Pilot pressure for travel forward left
9 Hydraulic oil tank Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
10 Flow combiner valve change valve(3) Change pressure for flow combiner valve
11 Travel cut-off valve(5) Pilot pressure for travel reverse left
12 Multi shuttle valve(23) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-in
13 Multi shuttle valve(28) Pilot pressure for bucket open
14 Multi shuttle valve(29) Pilot pressure for arm extend
15 Right control valve(16) Pilot pressure for arm extend
16 Left control valve(15) Pilot pressure for arm extend
17 Multi shuttle valve(27) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-out
18 Multi shuttle valve(22) Pilot pressure for bucket boom lower
19 Travel cut-off valve(6) Pilot pressure for travel reverse right

Right Control Valve Left Control Valve

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10

19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 T144-03-03-001

Upper

Right Left

Lower

T5-2-28
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Swing Control Valve, Swing Motor, Center Joint
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Swing control valve: Right(8) Pilot pressure for left swing
2 Manifold 4(1) Travel speed change pressure
3 Manifold 4(2) Traveling stop signal pressure
4 Swing control valve: Right(10) Pilot pressure for right swing
5 Manifold 4(3) Swing parking brake release pressure
6 Swing motor: Rear(11) Swing parking brake release pressure
7 Swing inter lock solenoid valve(2) Pilot pressure for left swing
8 Swing control valve: Left(1) Pilot pressure for left swing
9 Swing inter lock solenoid valve(3) Pilot pressure for right swing
10 Swing control valve: Left(4) Pilot pressure for right swing
11 Swing motor: Front(6) Swing parking brake release pressure

Swing Control Valve (L)

1 2 3 4 5
Center Joint

Swing Motor (F)


Swing Motor (R)

T144-05-02-023

11 10 9 8 7 6

Swing Control Valve (R)

Left

Rear Front

Right

T5-2-29
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
(Blank)

T5-2-30
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
PILOT PIPING
(BACKHOE) 1
2
3
4
5
6

22 7
8

20
19
18

17

23 16
24
26
15
14
13
12
11
10
9

29

T144-05-02-032
33 27

30

31
32

28

T144-05-02-033

1- Left Pilot Valve 9- Manifold 7 17 - Pilot Shut-Off Valve 27 - Manifold 2


2- Right Pilot Valve 10 - Swing Pump 18 - Shuttle Valve 1 28 - Manifold 3
3- Manifold 4 11 - Manifold 6 19 - Travel Cut-Off Valve 29 - Multi Shuttle Valve
4- Swing Motor 12 - Swing Pump 20 - Manifold 1 30 - Shuttle Valve 2
5- Swing Inter Lock Solenoid 13 - Manifold 5 22 - Travel Pilot Valve 31 - Shuttle Valve 3
Valve
6 - Control Valve 14 - EHC Valve 23 - Swing Pi Pressure Control 32 - Shuttle Valve 4
Solenoid Valve
7 - Main Pump 15 - Center Joint 24 - Flow Combiner Valve 33 - Shuttle Valve 5
Change Valve
8 - Main Pump 16 - Swing Control Valve 26 - Travel Speed Change
Solenoid Valve

T5-2-31
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
NOTE: Parenthesized numbers after component
names in the following table correspond to
the location shown with same number in
each component illustration.

Pilot Shut-Off Valve


The valve opens and closes the pilot pressure oil
circuit to each pilot valves.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Right pilot valve(1) Primary pilot pressure
2 Manifold 1(4) Primary pilot pressure
3 Left pilot valve(4) Primary pilot pressure
4 Left pilot valve(1) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
5 Pilot filter Primary pilot pressure
6 Accumulator Primary pilot pressure
7 Hydraulic oil tank Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
6 Manifold 1(3) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
9 Right pilot valve(4) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank

1 2 3

Front

9 Right Left

4
Rear

8 7 6 5
T144-05-02-001
Left Pilot Valve
The valve controls the pilot pressure to the arm and
swing control valves.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Pilot shut-off valve(4) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
2 Multi shuttle valve(4) Pilot pressure for right swing
3 Multi shuttle valve(13) Pilot pressure for arm roll-out
4 Pilot shut-off valve(3) Primary pilot pressure
5 Multi shuttle valve(5) Pilot pressure for left swing
6 Multi shuttle valve(14) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in

1 2

Front

6 3
Right Left

Rear

4
5
T144-05-02-002

T5-2-32
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout

Right Pilot Valve


The valve controls the pilot pressure to the boom and
bucket control valves.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Pilot shut-off valve(1) Primary pilot pressure
2 Multi shuttle valve(15) Pilot pressure for boom raise
3 Multi shuttle valve(2) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-oin
4 Pilot shut-off valve(9) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
5 Multi shuttle valve(16) Pilot pressure for bucket boom lower
6 Multi shuttle valve(3) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-out

1 2 Front

6 3
Right Left

5 4 Rear
T144-05-02-002

Travel Pilot Valve


The valve controls the pilot pressure to the travel
control valves.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Travel cut-off valve(13) Pilot pressure for travel forward left
2 Manifold 1(7) Primary pilot pressure
3 Travel cut-off valve(12) Pilot pressure for travel reverse left
4 Travel cut-off valve(11) Pilot pressure for travel reverse right
5 Manifold 1(1) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
6 Travel cut-off valve(14) Pilot pressure for travel forward right

1
6 Front

5 2

4 Right Left
3

Rear
T 117-06-02-004

T5-2-33
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Multi Shuttle Valve
Multi-shuttle valve divides and / or combines pressure
oil from each pilot valve and supplies pressure oil to
the control valve pilot ports or the switch valve.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 − Plug
2 Right control valve(6) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-in
3 Right pilot valve(3) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-out
4 Left pilot valve(2) Pilot pressure for right swing
5 Left pilot valve(5) Pilot pressure for left swing
6 Manifold 2(2) Return to hydraulic oil tank
7 Flow combiner valve change valve(1) Change pressure for flow combiner valve change valve
(Travel pilot pressure)
8 Flow combiner valve change valve(8) Change pressure for flow combiner valve (Boom, arm,
bucket pilot pressure)
9 Swing Pi pressure control solenoid valve(8) Swing Pi pressure
10 Manifold 2(1) Return to hydraulic oil tank
11 Shuttle Valve 2(1) Boom, arm, bucket pilot pressure
12 Shuttle Valve 1(5) Travel pilot pressure
13 Left pilot valve(3) Pilot pressure for arm roll-out
14 Left pilot valve(6) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in
15 Right pilot valve(2) Pilot pressure for boom raise
16 Right pilot valve(5) Pilot pressure for boom lower
17 Manifold 3(7) Return to hydraulic oil tank
18 Left control valve(11) Pilot pressure for boom raise (The pilot pressure is blocked
at the joint section at the control valve.)
19 Left control valve(8) Pilot pressure for arm roll-out (The pilot pressure is blocked
at the joint section at the control valve.)
20 Right control valve(22) Pilot pressure for boom lower
21 Right control valve(4) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in and bucket roll-in(During
operations other than arm roll-out combined operations, the
bucket roll-in pressure is routed.)
22 Right control valve(3) Pilot pressure for boom raise
23 Left control valve(9) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-in
24 Right control valve(21) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in
25 Left control valve(17) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-out
26 Right control valve(6) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in
27 Left control valve(18) Pilot pressure for arm roll-out
28 Manifold 4(7) Pilot pressure for right swing
29 Manifold 4(6) Pilot pressure for left swing
30 Shuttle Valve 3(6) Pilot pressure for travel
31 Shuttle Valve 3(4) Pilot pressure for travel and boom raise
32 Shuttle Valve 5(3) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in
33 Shuttle Valve 3(1) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-out
34 Shuttle Valve 4(3) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in
35 Shuttle Valve 5(1) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-in
36 Shuttle Valve 3(2) Pilot pressure for boom raise
37 Shuttle Valve 5(2) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in and bucket roll-in
38 Shuttle Valve 4(1) Pilot pressure for boom lower

T5-2-34
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Upper
19

18 8 Right Left
9
17

Lower

10

16 15 14 13 12 11

T144-05-02-024

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Upper

Right Left

Lower

38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30
T144-05-02-024

T5-2-35
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Travel Cut-Off Valve
When the traveling signal pressure from the adjuster
cylinder, the spool is shifted, blocking the travel pilot
pressure to stop machine movement.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Manifold 4(9) Traveling stop signal pressure
2 Manifold 1(2) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
3 Left control valve(12) Pilot pressure for travel forward left
4 Right control valve(1) Pilot pressure for travel forward right
5 Left control valve(15) Pilot pressure for travel reverse left
6 Right control valve(23) Pilot pressure for travel reverse right
7 Shuttle valve 1(1) Pilot pressure for travel reverse right
8 Shuttle valve 1(2) Pilot pressure for travel reverse left
9 Shuttle valve 1(3) Pilot pressure for travel forward right
10 Shuttle valve 1(4) Pilot pressure for travel forward left
11 Travel pilot valve(4) Pilot pressure for travel reverse right
12 Travel pilot valve(3) Pilot pressure for travel reverse left
13 Travel pilot valve(1) Pilot pressure for travel forward left
14 Travel pilot valve(6) Pilot pressure for travel forward right

6
5
4
3
2
1 Left Rear

Front Right
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
T144-05-02-004
Swing Inter Lock Solenoid Valve
This valve stops swing function while the ladder is lowered.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Manifold 4(4) Pilot pressure for right swing
2 Swing control valve: Right(7) Pilot pressure for left swing
3 Swing control valve: Right(9) Pilot pressure for right swing
4 Manifold 4(5) Pilot pressure for left swing
4

Upper

Right Left

Lower

2 1
3 T144-05-02-005

T5-2-36
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Swing Pi Pressure Control Solenoid Valve, Flow
Combiner Valve Change Valve
Swing Pi pressure control solenoid valve regulates Pi
pressure to the swing pump. Flow combiner valve
change valve regulates the flow combiner valve
control pressure.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Multi shuttle valve(7) Change pressure for flow combiner valve change
valve(Travel pressure)
2 Manifold 1(5) Primary pilot pressure
3 Left control valve(14) Change pressure for flow combiner valve
4 Travel speed change solenoid valve(3) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
5 Manifold 2(3) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
6 Multi shuttle valve(8) Change pressure for flow combiner valve(Boom, arm,
bucket pilot pressure)
7 Manifold 3(2) Swing Pi pressure
8 Multi shuttle valve(9) Swing Pi pressure

2 3
1

Upper

Right Left

Lower

8 7 6
T144-05-02-025
Travel Speed Change Solenoid Valve
This valve controls the travel speed change pressure
in two stage.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Manifold 1(6) Primary pilot pressure
2 Manifold 4(10) Travel speed change pressure
3 Swing Pi pressure control solenoid valve, flow combiner Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
valve change valve(4)
4 Manifold 4(8) Swing parking brake release pressure

1 2

Upper

Right Left

3 Lower

T144-05-02-007

T5-2-37
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Manifold 1
This manifold is connection block for travel pilot valve,
travel cut-off valve, travel speed change solenoid
valve, swing Pi pressure control solenoid valve.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Travel pilot valve(5) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
2 Travel cut-off valve(2) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
3 Pilot shut-off valve(8) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
4 Pilot shut-off valve(2) Primary pilot pressure
5 Swing Pi pressure control solenoid valve(2) Primary pilot pressure
6 Travel speed change solenoid valve(1) Primary pilot pressure
7 Travel pilot valve(2) Primary pilot pressure

7
1
6 Front

Right Left
2

5 Rear

4 T144-05-02-008
Manifold 2
Manifold 2 functions as the drain oil junction block to the
hydraulic oil tank from each valve.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Multi shuttle valve(10) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
2 Multi shuttle valve(6) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
3 Swing Pi pressure control solenoid valve, flow combiner Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
valve change valve(5)
4 Pilot shut-off valve Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
5 Manifold 3(5) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank

3
2

1
4 Upper

Right Left
5

Lower

T144-05-02-009

T5-2-38
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Manifold 3
Manifold 3 function as the pump control pressure oil
junction block.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Shuttle valve 3(7) Travel pressure
2 Swing Pi pressure control solenoid valve(7) Swing Pi pressure
3 Shuttle valve 3(3) Boom, arm roll-out, bucket pilot pressure
4 Shuttle valve 2(2) Boom, arm, bucket pilot pressure
5 Manifold 2(5) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
6 Hydraulic oil tank Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
7 Multi shuttle valve(17) Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
8 Manifold 5(19) Pi pressure(Main pump 1,2 and 4)
9 Manifold 5(20) Pi pressure(Main pump 3)
10 Manifold 5(23) Swing Pi pressure(Swing pump 1 and 2)
11 Manifold 5(21) Pic pressure(Main pump 2,3 and 4)
Pe pressure(Main pump 1,2,3 and 4)
12 Manifold 5(22) Pic pressure(Main pump 1)

1 2 3 4 5
Upper

Right Left

Lower

12 7 6
11 10 9 8
T144-05-02-026
Manifold 4
This manifold is connection block for swing pilot
pressure, travel speed change pressure, traveling
stop signal pressure and swing parking brake release
pressure.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Center joint(2) Travel speed change pressure
2 Center joint(3) Traveling stop signal pressure
3 Swing motor: Front(5) Swing parking brake release pressure
4 Swing inter lock solenoid valve(1) Pilot pressure for right swing
5 Swing inter lock solenoid valve(4) Pilot pressure for left swing
6 Multi shuttle valve(29) Pilot pressure for left swing
7 Multi shuttle valve(28) Pilot pressure for right swing
8 Travel speed change solenoid valve(4) Swing parking brake release pressure
9 Travel cut-off valve(1) Traveling stop signal pressure
10 Travel speed change solenoid valve(2) Travel speed change pressure

5 6
7 Upper
4

3 8
Front Rear
2 9
1
10 Lower

T144-05-02-011

T5-2-39
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Manifold 5
Manifold 5 functions as the pump control pressure oil
junction block.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Main pump 3(7) Pi pressure(Main pump 3)
2 Main pump 4(5) Pic pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
3 Main pump 4(3) Psv pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
4 Swing pump 2(1) Psv pressure(Swing pump 2)
5 Swing pump 2(2) Pi pressure(Swing pump 2)
6 Main pump 4(2) Pe pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
7 Manifold 6(14) Psv pressure(Main pump 1 and 2, swing pump 1)
8 Manifold 6(15) Pi pressure(Swing pump 1)
9 Manifold 6(13) Pic pressure(Main pump 1)
10 Manifold 6(12) Pic pressure(Main pump 2)
Pe pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
11 Manifold 6(11) P2 pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
12 Manifold 6(10) Pi pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
13 Manifold 6(9) Pz pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
14 Main pump 4(4) P2 pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
15 Main pump 4(1) Pz pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
16 Main pump 4(6) Pi pressure(Main pump 4)
17 EHC valve (3) Pz pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
18 EHC valve (2) Pz pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
19 Manifold 3(8) Pi pressure(Main pump 1, 2 and 4)
20 Manifold 3(9) Pi pressure(Main pump 3)
21 Manifold 3(11) Pic pressure(Main pump 2, 3 and 4)
Pe pressure(Main pump 1, 2, 3 and 4)
22 Manifold 3(12) Pic pressure(Main pump 1)
23 Manifold 3(10) Swing Pi pressure(Swing pump 1 and 2)
24 EHC valve (5) Psv pressure(Main pump 1,2,3 and 4, swing pump 1 and 2)

1 2 3 4 5 6

24 7
23 8

9
22
Right
21 10

11
20 Front Rear

19 12

18 Left
13
17

14
16 15
T144-05-02-012

T5-2-40
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Manifold 6
Manifold 6 functions as the pump control pressure oil
junction block.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Swing pump 1(4) Pi pressure(Swing pump 1)
2 Swing pump 1(5) Psv pressure(Swing pump 1)
3 Manifold 7(13) Psv pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
4 Manifold 7(12) Pic pressure(Main pump 1)
5 Manifold 7(11) Pic pressure(Main pump 2)
6 Manifold 7(10) P2 pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
7 Manifold 7(9) Pi pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
8 Manifold 7(8) Pz pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
9 Manifold 5(13) Pz pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
10 Manifold 5(12) Pi pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
11 Manifold 5(11) P2 pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
12 Manifold 5(10) Pic pressure(Main pump 2)
13 Manifold 5(9) Pic pressure(Main pump 1)
14 Manifold 5(7) Psv pressure(Main pump 1 and 2, swing pump 1)
15 Manifold 5(8) Pi pressure(Swing pump 1)

15
2
14 3

13 4 Upper

12 5
Front Rear
11 6

10 7 Lower

9 8

T144-05-02-013

T5-2-41
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Manifold 7
Manifold 7 functions as the pump control pressure oil
junction block.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Main pump 1(12) Psv pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
2 Main pump 1(11) Pic pressure(Main pump 1)
3 Main pump 2(8) Pic pressure(Main pump 2)
4 Main pump 1(13) Pe pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
5 Main pump 1(9) P2 pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
6 Main pump 1(10) Pi pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
7 Main pump 1(14) Pz pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
8 Manifold 6(8) Pz pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
9 Manifold 6(7) Pi pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
10 Manifold 6(6) P2 pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
11 Manifold 6(5) Pic pressure(Main pump 2)
12 Manifold 6(4) Pic pressure(Main pump 1)
13 Manifold 6(3) Psv pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Right

Front Rear

Left

13 12 11 10 9 8
T144-05-02-014

T5-2-42
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Shuttle Valve ȑ
During travel operations, shuttle valve 1 supplies the
travel pilot pressure to the multi-shuttle valve.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Travel cut-off valve(7) Pilot pressure for travel reverse right
2 Travel cut-off valve(8) Pilot pressure for travel reverse left
3 Travel cut-off valve(9) Pilot pressure for travel forward left
4 Travel cut-off valve(10) Pilot pressure for travel forward right
5 Multi shuttle valve(12) Travel pressure

1 2

3
4
Left Rear

Front Right

T144-05-02-015

Shuttle Valve 2
During operations other than swing, shuttle valve 2
supplies flow control pressure (Pi pressure) to main
pumps 1, 2, and 4.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Multi shuttle valve(11) Boom, arm, bucket pilot pressure
2 Manifold 3(5) Boom, arm, bucket, travel pilot pressure
3 Shuttle valve 3(5) Travel pressure, boom raise pilot pressure

1
2

Upper

Right Left

Lower

T144-05-02-027

T5-2-43
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Shuttle Valve 3
During operations other than swing and arm roll-out,
shuttle valve 3 supplies flow control pressure (Pi
pressure) to main pump 3.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Multi shuttle valve(33) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-out
2 Multi shuttle valve(36) Pilot pressure for boom raise
3 Manifold 3(3) Boom, arm roll-out, bucket pilot pressure
4 Multi shuttle valve(31) Pilot pressure for travel and boom raise
5 Shuttle valve 2(3) Pilot pressure for travel and boom raise
6 Multi shuttle valve(30) Travel pressure
7 Manifold 3(1) Travel pressure
8 Shuttle valve 4(2) Pilot pressure for boom lower and arm roll-in

1 2 3 4

Upper

Right Left

Lower

8 7 6 5

T144-05-02-028

Shuttle Valve 4
During operations other than boom lower and arm
roll-in, shuttle valve 4 supplies pilot pressure to shuttle
valve 3.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Multi shuttle valve(38) Pilot pressure for boom lower
2 Manifold 3(8) Pilot pressure for boom lower and arm roll-in
3 Multi shuttle valve(34) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in
4 Shuttle valve 5(4) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in

1
Upper

Right Left
3

Lower

4
T144-05-02-029

T5-2-44
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Shuttle Valve 5
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Multi shuttle valve(35) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-in
2 Multi shuttle valve(37) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in and bucket roll-in
3 Multi shuttle valve(32) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in
4 Shuttle valve 4(4) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in

1 2

Upper

Right Left

Lower

4 3

T144-05-02-030

T5-2-45
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
EHC Valve
EHC valve supplies power increase control pressure
Pz to main pumps 1, 2, 3, and 4.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Hydraulic oil tank Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
2 Manifold 5(18) Pz pressure(Main pump 3,4)
3 Manifold 5(17) Pz pressure(Main pump 1,2)
4 Pilot shut-off valve Primary pilot pressure
5 Manifold 5(24) Psv pressure(Main pump 1,2,3,4)

2 3 4
1

Upper

Left Right

5
Lower

T144-05-02-019

Horsepower Reducing Valve


Horsepower reducing valve supplies power reduction
control pressure P2 to main pumps 1,2, 3, and 4.
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 High pressure strainer Main pressure
2 High pressure strainer Main pressure
3 Swing pump 2(3) Main pressure
4 Swing pump 1(6) Main pressure

Upper
1 3

Front Rear

Lower
2
4
T144-05-02-020

T5-2-46
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Main Pump
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Manifold 5(15) Pz pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
2 Manifold 5(6) Pe pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
3 Manifold 5(3) Psv pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
4 Manifold 5(14) P2 pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
5 Manifold 5(2) Pic pressure(Main pump 3 and 4)
6 Manifold 5(16) Pi pressure(Main pump 4)
7 Manifold 5(1) Pi pressure(Main pump 3)
8 Manifold 7(3) Pic pressure(Main pump 2)
9 Manifold 7(5) P2 pressure(Main pump 2)
10 Manifold 7(6) Pi pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
11 Manifold 7(2) Pic pressure(Main pump 1)
12 Manifold 7(1) Psv pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
13 Manifold 7(4) Pe pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)
14 Manifold 7(7) Pz pressure(Main pump 1 and 2)

Main Pump 4 Main Pump 3 Main Pump 2 Main Pump 1

14

1
13
2
12
11
3

4 10

T144-05-02-021
5 6 7 8 9

Right

Front Rear

Left

T5-2-47
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Swing Pump
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Manifold 5(4) Psv pressure(Swing pump 2)
2 Manifold 5(5) Pi pressure(Swing pump 2)
3 Horsepower reducing valve (3) Main pressure
4 Manifold 6(1) Pi pressure(Swing pump 1)
5 Manifold 6(2) Psv pressure(Swing pump 1)
6 Horsepower reducing valve (4) Main pressure

Swing Pump 2 Swing Pump 1

1
4

3
6

T144-05-02-022

Upper

Front Rear

Lower

T5-2-48
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Control Valve
(Serial Number from 000501 to 000547)
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Travel cut-off valve(4) Pilot pressure for travel forward right
2 Left control valve(10) Pilot pressure for boom raise
3 Multi shuttle valve(22) Pilot pressure for boom raise
4 Multi shuttle valve(21) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in and bucket roll-in(During
operations other than arm roll-out combined operations, the
bucket roll-in pressure is routed.)
5 Left control valve(7) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in
6 Multi shuttle valve(26) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in
7 Right control valve(5) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in
8 Multi shuttle valve(19) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in(The pilot pressure is blocked at
the joint section at the control valve.)
9 Multi shuttle valve(23) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-in
10 Right control valve(2) Pilot pressure for boom raise
11 Multi shuttle valve(28) Pilot pressure for boom raise(The pilot pressure is blocked
at the joint section at the control valve.)
12 Travel cut-off valve(3) Pilot pressure for travel forward left
13 Hydraulic oil tank Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
14 Flow combiner valve change valve(5) Change pressure for flow combiner valve
15 Travel cut-off valve(5) Pilot pressure for travel reverse left
16 Hydraulic oil tank Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
17 Multi shuttle valve(25) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-out
18 Multi shuttle valve(27) Pilot pressure for arm roll-out
19 Right control valve(20) Pilot pressure for arm roll-out
20 Left control valve(19) Pilot pressure for arm roll-out
21 Multi shuttle valve(24) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in
22 Multi shuttle valve(20) Pilot pressure for boom lower
23 Travel cut-off valve(6) Pilot pressure for travel reverse right

Right Control Valve Left Control Valve


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

13

14

23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15
Upper
T144-05-02-031

Right Left

Lower

T5-2-49
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Control Valve
(Serial Number from 000548 and later)
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Travel cut-off valve(4) Pilot pressure for travel forward right
2 Left control valve(10) Pilot pressure for boom raise
3 Multi shuttle valve(22) Pilot pressure for boom raise
4 Multi shuttle valve(21) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in and bucket roll-in(During
operations other than arm roll-out combined operations, the
bucket roll-in pressure is routed.)
5 Left control valve(7) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in
6 Multi shuttle valve(26) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in
7 Right control valve(5) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in
8 Multi shuttle valve(19) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in(The pilot pressure is blocked at
the joint section at the control valve.)
9 Multi shuttle valve(23) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-in
10 Right control valve(2) Pilot pressure for boom raise
11 Multi shuttle valve(28) Pilot pressure for boom raise(The pilot pressure is blocked
at the joint section at the control valve.)
12 Travel cut-off valve(3) Pilot pressure for travel forward left
13 Hydraulic oil tank Return oil to hydraulic oil tank
14 Flow combiner valve change valve(5) Change pressure for flow combiner valve
15 Travel cut-off valve(5) Pilot pressure for travel reverse left
16 Right control valve (23) Pilot pressure for boom lower
17 Multi shuttle valve(25) Pilot pressure for bucket roll-out
18 Multi shuttle valve(27) Pilot pressure for arm roll-out
19 Right control valve(20) Pilot pressure for arm roll-out
20 Left control valve(19) Pilot pressure for arm roll-out
21 Multi shuttle valve(24) Pilot pressure for arm roll-in
22 Multi shuttle valve(20) Pilot pressure for boom lower
23 Left control valve (16) Pilot pressure for boom lower
24 Travel cut-off valve(6) Pilot pressure for travel reverse right

Right Control Valve Left Control Valve


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

13

14

24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 A 15
Upper
T144-05-02-035

NOTE: Adapter with key No. (A) is used to interrupt Right Left
the circuit and has no hole
Lower

T5-2-50
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
Swing Control Valve, Swing Motor, Center Joint
No. Connecting point Remarks
1 Swing control valve: Right(8) Pilot pressure for left swing
2 Manifold 4(1) Travel speed change pressure
3 Manifold 4(2) Traveling stop signal pressure
4 Swing control valve: Right(10) Pilot pressure for right swing
5 Manifold 4(3) Swing parking brake release pressure
6 Swing motor: Rear(11) Swing parking brake release pressure
7 Swing inter lock solenoid valve(2) Pilot pressure for left swing
8 Swing control valve: Left(1) Pilot pressure for left swing
9 Swing inter lock solenoid valve(3) Pilot pressure for right swing
10 Swing control valve: Left(4) Pilot pressure for right swing
11 Swing motor: Front(6) Swing parking brake release pressure

Swing Control Valve (L)

1 2 3 4 5
Center Joint

Swing Motor (F)


Swing Motor (R)

T144-05-02-023

11 10 9 8 7 6

Swing Control Valve (R)

Left

Rear Front

Right

T5-2-51
TROUBLESHOOTING / Component Layout
(Blank)

T5-2-52
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting A
INTRODUCTION

The troubleshooting A is used to trace the cause of the


trouble in the engine control system.
If any trouble occurs in the engine control system, the
engine warning indicator, either engine stop indicator
or engine protection indicator comes ON. At this time,
ECM (Electronic Control Module) stores the faulty
status in the engine in the form of the fault code. The
fault codes are displayed by the flashing patters of the
engine warning indicator and the engine stop indicator.

If a fault code is displayed, record the fault code (three


digit number) and contact CUMMINS informing the
displayed fault code.

NOTE: The same fault codes are also displayed on


TM TM
Echek and INSITE troubleshooting
tools of CUMMINS make.

T5-3-1
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting A
HOW TO READ CUMMINS ENGINE FAULT
CODES

The fault code is displayed as flashing the engine


warning indicator or the engine stop indicator when
either the engine troubleshooting switch A or B is op-
erated.

NOTE: Two engines are mounted on the machine.


Operate the key switch and the engine
troubleshooting switch corresponding the
engine which the fault code is to be dis-
played. Then, check the fault code on the
corresponding indicator.

IMPORTANT: Record all displayed fault codes.


Then,Ȁcheck that all fault codes are
correctly read by referring to the
fault code list on page T5-3-4.

1. Turn the key switch OFF. Turn the troubleshoot- 6. After approx. one second, the engine stop indica-
ing side key switch ON (with the engine stopped). tor starts to flash. This flashing number indicates
the third number.
In case the fault code is stored:
The engine warning indicator, engine stop indica- 7. Finally, the engine warning indicator flashes once.
tor, and engine protection indicator come ON in
consecutive order. Then, all indicators go OFF 8. The fault code is repeatedly displayed in the order
once. After that, the indicator corresponding to the of step 4 to 8 described above.
trouble continues flashing.
In case more than one fault codes are stored:
In case no fault code is stored: While a fault code is displayed as described above,
The engine warning indicator, engine stop indica- when the engine troubleshooting switch B is turned to
tor, and engine protection indicator come ON in the upper side once, the next fault code is displayed.
consecutive order. Then, all indicators go OFF. Turn the engine troubleshooting switch B to the lower
side to display the previous fault code.
2. When engine troubleshooting switch A is turned
ONȌȀthe engine warning indicator and engine stop NOTE: In case only one fault code is stored, the
indicator come ON in order. (when no fault code is displayed fault code does not change even
stored, the three indicators stay ON.) if the engine troubleshooting switch B is
operated.
3. The engine warning indicator flashes once.

4. After approx. one second, the engine stop indica-


tor starts to flash. This flashing number indicates
the first number.

5. After approx. one second, the engine stop indica-


tor starts to flash. This flashing number indicates
the second number.

T5-3-2
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting A

Engine Stop Indicator


Engine Stop Indicator (Front Engine)
(Rear Engine)

Engine Warning Indicator


Engine Warning Indicator (Front Engine)
(Rear Engine)

Engine Protection Indicator Engine Protection Indicator


(Rear Engine) (Front Engine)

T144-05-03-001

Troubleshooting Switch A
Troubleshooting Switch A (Front Engine)
(Rear Engine)

Troubleshooting Switch B
(Front Engine)
Troubleshooting Switch B
(Rear Engine)

M144-07-096

Example: Fault Code 222

First Second Third


digit is 2. digit is 2. digit is 2.

ON

OFF
One second One second

Fault code 222

T5-3-3
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting A
CUMMINS ENGINE FAULT CODE INFOR-
MATION
FAULT
CODE REASON EFFECT (Only when fault code is active)
INDICATOR
111 Error internal to the ECM related to memory No action by the ECM taken.
Red hardware failures or internal processor
communication failures.
* 112 The error between estimated timing fueling and Depending on the calibration the engine will shut
Red desired timing fueling is outside of acceptable down or speed derate or no action by the ECM is
limits. taken.
* 113 High voltage detected at pin 20 of the engine No action by the ECM is taken. Actuator is open or
Yellow harness connector. closed, or partially closed. Engine power output
will vary. Fault code 112 will be logged.
116 More than 4.78 volts DC detected at the timing Depending on the calibration the engine will shut
Red pressure sensor signal pin No.33 of the engine down or speed derate or no action by the ECM is
harness. taken.
117 Less than 0.15 volts DC detected at the timing Depending on the calibration the engine will shut
Red pressure sensor signal pin No.33 of the engine down or speed derate or no action by the ECM is
harness. taken.
* 121 No engine speed signal detected at one pair of No action by the ECM is taken.
Yellow pins, either pins No.27, 28 or pins No.37, 38 of the
engine harness.
* 122 More than 4.72 volts DC detected at the intake Engine power derate to no-air setting.
Off manifold air pressure sensor signal pin No.35 of
the engine harness.
* 123 Less than 0.33 volts DC detected at the intake Engine power derate to no-air setting.
Off manifold air pressure sensor signal pin No.35 of
the engine harness.
131 More than 4.20 volts DC detected at the throttle Calibration dependent power and speed derate.
Red position signal pin No.29 of the OEM interface
harness.
132 Less than 0.13 volts DC detected at throttle Calibration dependent power and speed derate.
Red position signal pin No.29 of the OEM interface
harness.
135 More than 4.88 volts DC detected at oil pressure No engine protection for oil pressure.
Yellow sensor signal pin No.24 of the engine harness.
141 Less than 0.31 volts DC detected at the oil No engine protection for oil pressure.
Yellow pressure sensor signal pin No.24 of the engine
harness.
* 143 Low oil pressure has been detected. Voltage Calibration dependent progressive power derate
Engine signal at oil pressure signal pin No.24 of the and engine shutdown with increasing time after
Protection engine harness indicates oil pressure lower than alert.
-1
103 kPa [15 psi] at 600 min (rpm); 131 kPa [19
-1
psi] at 800 min (rpm); 165 kPa [24 psi] at 1500
-1
min (rpm); and 207 kPa [30 psi] above 2100
-1
min (rpm).
144 More than 4.95 volts DC detected at the coolant Possible white smoke. No engine protection for
Yellow temperature signal pin No.22 of the engine coolant temperature.
harness.
145 Less than 0.21 volts DC detected at the coolant Possible white smoke. No engine protection for
Yellow temperature signal pin No.22 of the engine coolant temperature.
harness.
TM
NOTE: * Can be detected by Echek only.

T5-3-4
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting A

FAULT
CODE REASON EFFECT (Only when fault code is active)
INDICATOR
151 High coolant temperature has been detected. Calibration dependent progressive power and
Engine Voltage signal at coolant temperature signal pin speed derate and engine shut down as
Protection No.22 indicates coolant temperature above 100 temperature increases over thresholds.
°C [212 °F].
153 More than 4.88 volts DC detected at intake No engine protection for intake manifold air
Yellow manifold air temperature signal pin No.23 of the temperature.
engine harness.
154 Less than 0.08 volts DC detected at intake No engine protection for intake manifold air
Yellow manifold air temperature signal pin No.23 engine temperature.
harness.
* 155 High intake air manifold temperature has been Calibration dependent progressive power and
Engine detected. Voltage signal at intake manifold sir speed derate and engine shutdown as
Protection temperature signal pin No.23 indicates intake temperature increases over thresholds.
manifold air temperature above 104 °C [220 °F].
221 More than 4.78 volts DC detected at the ambient No action by the ECM is taken.
Yellow air temperature signal pin No.34 of the engine
harness.
* 234 Engine speed signals on No.27 and 28 and/or 37 Fuel shutoff valve de-energizes ( valve closes).
Red and 38 of engine harness indicate an engine Re-energizes (FSO valve opens) when engine
-1 -1
speed greater than 2650 min (rpm). speed falls below 2130 min (rpm).
235 Low coolant level has been detected. Voltage Calibration dependent progressive power and
Engine signal on the coolant level signal pin No.23 of the speed derate and engine shut down with
Protection OEM interface harness indicates low radiator increasing time after alert.
coolant level on the vehicle.
343 Microprocessor communication error internal to Variable; Performance will or will not be affected.
Yellow the ECM.
* 346 ECM Powerdown internal data store error. Powerdown data (which includes maintenance
Off monitoring, current ECM/engine delta times, past
fault data) are lost.
* 415 Very low oil pressure has been detected. Voltage Calibration dependent progressive power and
Engine signal at oil pressure signal pin 24 of the engine speed derate and engine shutdown with
Protection harness indicates oil pressure lower than 83 kPa increasing time after alert.
-1
[12 psi] at 600 min (rpm); 110 kPa [16 psi] at 800
-1 -1
min (rpm); 138 kPa [20 psi] at 1500 min (rpm);
-1
and 172 kPa [25 psi] above 2000 min (rpm).
422 Voltage detected simultaneously on both the No engine protection for coolant level.
Yellow coolant level high and low signal pin No.14 and 23
of the OEM interface harness - or - no voltage
detected on either pin.
* 441 Less than 12.0 volts DC battery voltage detected ECM voltage supply approaching level at which
Off at ECM. unpredictable operation will occur.
442 More than 38.0 volts DC battery voltage detected ECM damage will occur.
Yellow at ECM.
451 More than 4.78 volts DC detected at the rail Depending on the calibration the engine will
Red pressure sensor signal pin No.31 of the engine shutdown or power derate or no action by the ECM
harness. is taken.
TM
NOTE: * Can be detected by Echek only.

T5-3-5
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting A

FAULT
CODE REASON EFFECT (Only when fault code is active)
INDICATOR
452 Less than 0.15 volts DC detected at the rail Depending on the calibration the engine signal will
Red pressure sensor signal pin No.31 of the engine shutdown or power derate or no action by the ECM
harness. is taken.
* 455 Rail Actuator circuit is open, or supply pin No.3 is No action by the ECM is taken. Actuator is closed,
Red shorted to battery voltage or ground, or return pin or partially closed. Engine will not run, or runs at
No.10 is shorted to battery voltage or ground in one speed. Fault code 514 will also be logged.
the engine harness.
* 514 The error between estimated rail fueling and Depending on the calibration the engine will speed
Red desired rail fueling is outside of acceptable limits. derate or no action by the ECM is taken. Engine
will overspeed, or run at one speed, or not run.
* 553 Fuel rail pressure exceeds a normal limit. Fuel shutoff valve de-energized (valve closes).
Red Reenergizes (FSO valve opens) when fuel rail
pressure falls below acceptable limit for current
engine speed.
554 More than 1.83 volts DC or less than 0.50 volts DC Engine power derate of 25 percent.
Yellow detected at the rail pressure signal pin No.31 of
the engine harness at engine key on.
TM
NOTE: * Can be detected by Echek only.

T5-3-6
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting A
(Blank)

T5-3-7
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
TROUBLESHOOTING B PROCEDURE

Troubleshooting is described symptom by symptom of


machine trouble in this section.

On the next page, correlation between malfunctions


and possible causes are shown on charts. Start trou-
bleshooting after estimating potential causes of the
trouble by referring to the charts.

• How to Read the Troubleshooting Flow Charts

YES (OK)
(2)

ѕ (1) After checking or measuring item (1), select either YES (OK) or NO
(NOT OK) and proceed to item (2) or (3).
(3)
NO (NOT OK)

Special instructions or reference item are indicated in the spaces under the box. Incorrect
ѕ measuring or checking methods will render troubleshooting impossible, and may damage
components as well.
·Key switch: ON

ѕ Causes are stated in a thick-line box. Scanning through thick-lined boxes, possible causes
can be seen without going through the flow chart.

NOTE: If “Contact CUMMINS.” is indicated, be sure


to inform them of the fault codes if any are
indicated. (Refer to “Troubleshooting A” for
how to read fault codes.)

For all connector drawings illustrated in this


group, harness end connector terminals
seen from the open end side are shown.

Wire Harness Side

Open End
Side Harness End Connector
T158-05-03-001

T5-4-1
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
CORRELATION BETWEEN TROUBLE
SYMPTOMS AND PART FAILURES

Engine System
Possible Causes Controller Engine Control System
MC (B) EMC Accel- Auto- Auto- Start- Start- Start- Ther-
erator Idle Idle ing ing ing mo
Sensor Switch Pres- Aid Aid Aid Guard
sure Sole- Relay Switch Switch
Switch noid
Malfunctions Valve
E-1 Engine Speed does not
change even if the engine
z z
speed control lever is
operated.
E-2 In auto-idle mode, engine
speed does not increase
z z
even if a control lever is
operated.
E-3 Engine speed does not
decrease even if the auto-idle z z z z
switch is pushed.
E-4 Starting aid mechanism does
z z z z
not work.

Actuator Operating System


Hydraulic Control
Possible Causes Components Pump Valve
Pilot Pilot Main Triplet Spool
Valve Relief Pump/ Pump
Valve Regu-
lator
Malfunctions
A-1 All actuators are slow, or do
z z z
not operate.
A-2 Actuators do not stop after
control levers are returned to z z
neutral.

Front Attachment System


Possible Causes Hydraulic Components Pump Control Valve
Pilot Cyl- Bucket Arm Switch Slow Main Spool Over- Load
Valve inder Priority Retrac- Valve 3 Return Pump/ load Check
Switch tion Valve Regu- Relief Valve
Valve Switch lator Valve
Valve
Malfunctions
F-1 One or more front cylinders
z z z z z
move slowly.
F-2 Front attachment drifts
z z z z
excessively.
F-3 Front attachment briefly
drops, then begins to move
z z z
when the control lever is
operated.
F-4 Bucket digging force is weak
in boom raise/bucket digging
z
combined operation (Loading
Shovel).
F-5 Arm does not move in arm
retraction/Other functions
z z
combined operation (Loading
Shovel).

T5-4-2
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
Swing System
Hydraulic
Pump Control Valve Swing Function System
Possible Causes Components
Pilot Valve Swing Spool Main Over- Swing Swing Swing Swing
Pump/ Relief load Motor Relief Reduc Inter
Regu- Valve Relief Valve -tion Lock
lator Valve Gear Sole-
Malfunctions noid
Valve
S-1 Swing function does not
operater or operates slowly,or z z z z z z z z
swing power is weak.
S-2 Swing function excessively
drifts after the control lever is z z z z z z z
returned to neutral.

Travel System
Hydraulic Control
Travel Function System
Possible Causes Components Valve
Center Joint Flow Travel Travel Travel Travel Travel Travel Travel
Combi- Motor/ Brake Reduc- Cut-off Speed Speed Speed
ner Parking Valve tion Valve Change Change Change
Valve Brake Gear Sole- Relay Switch
noid
Malfunctions Valve
T-1 Travel function does not
operate or operates slowly, or z z z
travel power is weak.
T-2 Travel mode does not shift to
z z z
the fast speed mode.
T-3 Travel mode does not shift to
z z z
the slow speed mode.
T-4 Machine mistracks z z z z z

Auto-Lubrication System
Cont- Hydraulic Travel Func-
Automatic Lubrication System
Possible Causes roller Components tion System
MC Pilot Pilot Travel Speed Grease Auto- Auto- Auto- Auto- Auto-
(A) Valve Relief Change Pump Lubri- Lubri- Lubri- Lubri- Lubri-
Valve Switch cation cation cation cation cation
Sole- Sole- Switch Relay Grease
noid noid Pressure
Malfunctions Valve 1 Valve 2 Switch
G-1 Grease pump does not
operate (both automatically z z z z z z z z
and manually)
G-2 Auto-lubrication switch does
z z z
not operated.
G-3 Indicator comes ON when
z
auto-lubrication is selected.

T5-4-3
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
ENGINE SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING
E-1 Engine Speed does not change even if the
engine speed control lever is operated.

Checking Instructions
• If the engine stop indicator is ON, refer to Trou-
bleshooting A.

YES ECM failure. Contact CUM-


MINS.

YES Switch front and rear engine


ECMs. Check if trouble phe-
nomena changes engines.
Faulty harness between
accelerator sensor and
Connect the measurement NO ECM or engine failure.
harness to the accelerator
sensor. With the engine speed
control lever fully stroked,
check if the voltage between
terminal #1 and #2 varies in
the range of 0.4 to 4.4 V.

·Measurement harness
ȀFront : Parts Number 3046248 Faulty accelerator sensor
ȀRear : Parts Number 3046249
NO

Connectors (Harness end connector terminals seen from the open end side)

Accelerator Sensor (Front Engine) Accelerator Sensor (Rear Engine)

Seen from open end side.


Mark Position

2 1
2
3 1
3
4

T5-4-4
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
E-2 In auto-idle mode, engine speed does not in-
crease even if a control lever is operated.

YES Faulty auto-idle pressure


switch.

Disconnect auto-idle pres-


sure switch. Check if engine
speed increases when har-
ness side connector terminal
No. 1 and No. 2 are con- Breakage of harness be-
YES tween auto-idle pressure
nected.
switch and MC (B).

Check if engine speed in-


creases when terminal No.27
and No.37 on MC (B) con-
NO
nector A are connected.

·Without disconnecting the MC (B) failure.


connector, connect termi-
nals using a clip or similar NO
item.

Connectors
(Harness end connector terminals seen from the open end side)

Auto-Idle Pressure Switch.

1 2

MC (B) Connector A

66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

T5-4-5
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
E-3 Engine speed does not decrease even if the
auto-idle switch is pushed.

YES Faulty auto-idle pressure


switch.

NO Check if engine speed in-


creases when auto-idle pres-
sure switch is disconnected. Reconnect auto-idle pressure
switch. Disconnect MC (B)
connector A. Check continuity
between terminal No. 27 and
NO
No. 37 on harness end con-
nector.

Check if auto-idle mode func-


tions on either engine

YES ECM failure. Contact CUM-


MINS.

Switch front and rear engine


ECMs. Check if trouble phe-
YES nomena changes engines. Check continuity between
A ECM terminal No. 20 front
and rear, and MC (B) connec-
tor B terminal No. 33 (rear) or
NO
No. 35 (front).

Connectors (Harness end connector terminals seen from the open end side)

Auto-Idle Pressure Switch. ECM (Front and Rear)

d b a 20 31
21 8 30
e c 9 19
10 2 18
22 3 7 29
11 1 17
23 4 6 28
12 5 16
13 15
24 14 27
25 26

MC (B) Connector A

66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

MC (B) Connector B

35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 4 3 2 1

48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 8 7 6 5

T5-4-6
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B

Short circuit of harness be-


Continuity tween auto-idle pressure
switch and MC (B).

YES Faulty auto-idle switch.

Disconnect auto-idle switch.


Check if engine speed de-
Breakage of harness between
creases when harness end YES
Reconnect auto-idle switch. auto-idle switch and MC (B).
No continuity connector terminal C is con-
nected to vehicle ground. Check if engine speed de-
creases when MC (B) con-
nector A terminal No. 17 is
NO connected to vehicle
ground.
A
·Without disconnecting the NO
connector, connect termi-
nals using a clip or similar
Continuity item. MC (B) failure.

Breakage of harness between


No continuity ECM and MC (B).

T5-4-7
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
E-5 Starting Aid Mechanism does not work.

NOTE: When the coolant temperature is 38 °C


(100°F) or higher, the starting aid is inoper-
able with the thermo guard switch.

YES Thermo guard


switch failure
Disconnect con-
nector (the one
with white line with Harness breakage
a black stripe) from between thermo
YES
YES thermo guard guard switch and
switch. Ground Reconnect thermo starting aid sole-
harness end con- guard switch con- noid valve.
nector. Does start- nector. Disconnect
ing aid mechanism plug receptacle
work? (white line with a
black strip) from
starting aid sole-
·Key switch: START NO
noid valve. Ground
plug on solenoid Reconnect plug
Check if ether bot- valve side to vehi- receptacle (white
tle is securely in- cle frame. Does line with a black
stalled. starting aid stripe). Disconnect
mechanism work? brown line harness
NO from starting aid
·Also, check if the
·Key switch: START solenoid valve.
bottle contains suf-
Measure voltage at
ficient amount of
disconnected har-
ether.
ness end.

Incorrect ether bot-


NO tle installation.

T5-4-8
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B

24 V Starting aid sole-


noid valve failure

YES Starting aid switch


faifure
Reconnect brown
line harness. Dis-
connect starting
aid switch. Check if
starting aid Harness breakage
mechanism works 0V between fuse box
0V when harness end and starting aid re-
connector terminal lay, or fuse failure.
“c” and “a” are Reconnect starting
connected with a aid switch. Discon-
clip or similar item. nect 2P connector Harness breakage
from starting aid 0V between starting
NO relay. Measure
·Key switch: START Reconnect discon- aid relay and start-
voltage at red line ing aid switch.
nected connector.
harness end.
Disconnect 1P
·Key switch: START connector from
24 V starting aid relay. Faulty starting aid
Measure voltage at relay or breakage
harness end con- of harness be-
nector. tween starting aid
24 V
solenoid valve and
starting aid relay.

NOTE: Also, check grounding.

Connectors (Harness end connector terminals seen


from the open end side)

Starting Aid Switch

d b a
e c

T5-4-9
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
ACTUATOR OPERATING SYSTEM TROU-
BLESHOOTING
A-1 All actuators are slow, or do not operate.

Checking Instructions
• The main hydraulic circuit is grouped into the front
attachment, travel, and swing systems. In case
both systems begin malfunctioning at the same
time, the pilot system or engine system may be
the cause.
• When a load is applied, if engine speed decrease
remarkably, the engine may be the cause.

Trace the cause of


YES the trouble by
checking other
types of trouble.
YES Check if pilot pri-
mary pressure is
normal. Check if the same YES Faulty pilot pump.
trouble still exists
Check if pilot con- after disassem-
trol shut-off lever is NO bling and cleaning
End (Faulty pilot
unlocked. pilot relief valve.
NO relief valve)

Unlock pilot control


NO shut-off lever.

A-2 Actuators do not stop after control levers are


returned to neutral.

Checking Instruction
• Seizure of pilot valve spool or control valve spool
may be the cause of the trouble.

YES Faulty pilot valve.

·When control lever is in neu-


Check if actuator stops when tral, pilot pressure is guided to
pilot control shut-off lever is control valve spool end.
raised.

Faulty control valve.


NO
·Pilot pressure is not guided to
control valve spool end. How-
ever, control valve is kept
open as spool is stuck.

T5-4-10
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
FRONT ATTACHMENT SYSTEM TROU-
BLESHOOTING
F-1 One or more front cylinders move slowly.
YES Faulty relevant cyl-
inder.
Check if relevant
YES
cylinder has inter-
nal leakage.
Spool is stuck in
Check if relevant relevant control
YES NO
overload relief valve.
valve is normal.
·Refer to the OP- Faulty relevant
ERATIONAL PER- overload relief
Check if relevant pi- FORMANCE TEST NO valve.
lot secondary pres- section for the
sure is normal. measurement pro-
cedure. YES Faulty multi-shuttle
·Refer to the OPERA- valve
TIONAL PERFORM- Check if pilot sec-
ANCE TEST section for ondary pressure at
the measurement pro- multi-shuttle valve
cedure. NO inlet port (pilot
valve side) is nor- Faulty pilot valve.
mal. NO

Multi-Shuttle Valve Pilot Port Location 6 2


10 8 1

T144-05-04-001
11 9 7 5 4 2

Loading Shovel:
1 - Swing Left 4 - Arm Retract 7 - Bucket Roll-Out 10 - Bucket Roll-In
2 - Travel (Pilot Pressure) 5 - Arm Extend 8 - Bucket Close 11 - Boom Lower
3 - Swing Right 6 - Bucket Open 9 - Boom Raise

Backhoe:
1 - Swing Left 4 - Arm Roll-Out 6 - Bucket Roll-Out 9 - Boom Raise
2 - Travel (Pilot Pressure) 5 - Arm Roll-In 8 - Bucket Roll-In 11 - Boom Lower
3 - Swing Right

T5-4-11
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
F-2 Front attachment drifts excessively.

YES Faulty pilot valve.

Check if front at-


YES Faulty relevant cyl-
tachment drift de-
creases when pilot inder.
YES Check if relevant
control shut-off lever
cylinder has inter-
is placed in LOCK Faulty spool in
nal leakage.
position. relevant control
valve (broken
NO spring, loose spool
Check if relevant end, etc.)
overload relief
NO valve is normal.

·Refer to the
OPERATIONAL Faulty relevant
PERFORMANCE overload relief
TEST section for NO valve.
the measurement
procedure.

T5-4-12
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
F-3 Front attachment briefly drops, then begins
to move when the control lever is operated

NOTE: Backhoe : boom raise, arm roll-out,


or bucket roll-out
Loading Shovel : boom raise
YES Internal leakage in cylinder.

YES Check if relevant load check


valve in cotnrol valve operates
correctly.
·Visually check after disas- Faulty load check valve.
Check if relevant cylinder sembling. NO
show return valve operates
correctly.

·Visually check after disas-


sembling. Faulty relevant slow return
NO valve.

NOTE: 1. During the initial stage of operation, oil


pressure and flow rate from the pump is
low. Therefore, if the load check valve or Oil flow when the load
slow return valve is malfunctioning, the check valve failed. (AЂ
oil in the bottom side of the cylinder
flows back into the circuit through the (BЂ
slow return valve and the load check
valve, causing the cylinder to temporar-
ily retract.
2. If the clearance between the piston and
the cylinder barrel is loose, pressure oil
in bottom side (B) leaks to rod side (A).
As oil pressure and flow rate from the
pump is low during the initial stage of Oil flow when the slow
operation, the cylinder cannot support return valve failed.
the load and is temporarily retracted,
reducing cylinder force. In this case, the
cylinder drift increases. T117-06-04-001

T5-4-13
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
F-4 Bucket digging force is weak in boom
raise/bucket digging combined operation
(Loading Shovel).

Checking Instruction
• In boom raise/bucket digging combined operation,
bucket priority valve is switched to move the boom
raise/ bucket digging spool, in the left control valve,
to the bucket digging side. (Refer to the Hydraulic
System group in the SYSTEM section.)

YES Clean or replace bucket prior-


ity valve.
Check if bucket priority valve is
stuck or galling.
Trace the cause of the trouble
by checking other types of
NO trouble.

F-5 Arm does not move in arm retraction /other


functions combined operation (Loading
Shovel).

Checking Instruction
• In arm retraction/other functions (travel, boom
raise/bucket digging, or bucket open-close) com-
bined operation, the arm retraction switch valve is
switched. Thereby, the arm retraction pilot pres-
sure is guided from the left control valve to the
arm spool in the right control valve. (Refer to the
Hydraulic System group in the SYSTEM section.)

YES Clean after disassembling or


replace arm retraction switch
valve.

Check if arm retraction switch


valve is stuck or galling. YES Clean after disassembling or
replace switch valve 3.
Check if switch valve 3 is
NO stuck or galling.
Trace the cause of the trouble
by checking other types of
NO trouble.

T5-4-14
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
(Blank)

T5-4-15
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
SWING SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING

S-1 Swing function does not operate or operates


slowly, or swing power is weak.

Checking Instruction
• Be sure to check that the ladder indicator is OFF
(the ladder is raised.).

YES Faulty swing parking brake.

Check if trouble is corrected


when swing parking brake is
Check if pilot secondary pres-
manually released. YES
sure from swing pilot valve is
normal.
Check if trouble is corrected
when swing inter lock solenoid
NO valve is disconnected.
Short circuit of harness in
swing inter lock solenoid valve
NO ground circuit.

Manual-Release Method of Swing Parking Brake


• Remove plug (1). Install bolt (M16, Pitch 2.0,
Length 70 mm) to pull up the brake piston.

M16 Bolt: : 8 mm
Plug (1): PT 1/2

T117-06-04-002

T5-4-16
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B

YES End (Faulty spool


Check if trouble is
corrected after dis- in control valve).
YES assembling and
cleaning spool in
swing control
Check if drain valve. Faulty swing re-
YES duction gear.
quantity from swing NO
motor is normal.

·Refer to the OPERA- Faulty swing mo-


TIONAL PERFORM- NO tor.
YES Check if swing re- ANCE TEST section
lief pressure is cor- for the measurement
rect. procedure. YES Faulty swing mo-
·Refer to the OPERA- tor.
TIONAL PERFORM-
ANCE TEST section Check if overload
for the measurement relief valve in swing
procedure. NO control valve is
normal.
Faulty overload re-
·Refer to the OPERA- NO lief valve.
TIONAL PERFORM-
ANCE TEST section
for the measurement
procedure.
Faulty pilot valve
or swing inter lock
NO solenoid valve.

T5-4-17
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
S-2 Swing function excessively drifts after the
control lever is returned to neutral.

Checking instruction
• If the upperstructure jerks, the cause may be
valve related; without jerking, it may be spool re-
lated.

2
NOTE: 1 kgf/cm = 98.07 kPa

NO Failure of swing
motor or swing re-
Inspect if any ab- duction gear.
YES normalities are
found on control
valve swing spool. Swing spool fail-
Check if secondary ure. Replace swing
YES pilot pressure
2
is 0 ·Disassemble to spool or control
kgf/cm with swing inspect. YES valve.
control lever in
neutral position.
·Refer to the OP- Pilot valve failure.
ERATIONAL NO
PERFORMANCE
Check if swing re- TEST section for
lief pressure is the measurement
normal. procedure.

·Refer to the OP- Switch overload re- YES Swing relief valve
ERATIONAL lief valve on swing failure.
PERFORMANCE control valve with
TEST section for overload relief
the measurement valve on main con-
procedure. NO trol valve (except
bucket close sec- Swing overload re-
tion). Check if trou- NO lief valve failure.
ble still appears.

T5-4-18
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
TRAVEL SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING
T-1 Travel function does not operate or operates
slowly, or travel power is weak.

Checking Instructions
• It is unlikely for both sides of the same function to
fail, such as the left and right travel pilot valves,
travel motors, and travel control valve spools, at
the same time.
• If both tracks do not move, the cause may be in
the pilot system which is used commonly for both
tracks. However, it should be noted that not only
the travel function but other functions should be
effected asȀ Ȁwell if the cause is primary pilot pres-
sure failure. The flow chart in this section is pro-
vided for failure of both tracks. If only one track
has failed, refer to the troubleshooting chart T-4.

YES Faulty travel cut-off valve or


pilot pressure switch valve.
Check if reverse travel func-
tion operates normally.
Trace the cause of the trouble
by checking other types of
NO trouble.

Manual-Release Method of Travel Parking Brake

• Remove plug (1). Install bolt (M16, Pitch 2.0,


Length 70 mm) to pull up the brake piston.

M16 Bolt: : 8 mm
Plug (1): PT 1/2 1

T117-06-03-003

T5-4-19
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
T-2 Travel mode does not shift to the fast speed
mode.

Checking instruction
• Check the fuse if other solenoid valves are not
l

working as well.
2
NOTE: 1 kg/cm =98.07 kPa

2 Failure of travel
37 kgf/cm or more motor displace-
ment control
mechanism.

Disconnect line
end from output
port of travel speed
change solenoid Faulty travel mode
valve. Install a Switch travel switch or breakage
speed change re- NO
pressure gauge on of harness be-
the port. Measure lay with a general tween travel mode
Disconnect travel purpose relay. switch and relay.
output pressure. speed change re- YES
Check if pressure
lay. Connect termi- reducing valve con-
·Travel mode nal No.3 and No.5
switch: ON trol pressure be- Faulty travel speed
on harness end comes 37 kgf/cm
2
change relay.
connector with a YES
or more.
2
28±2 kgf/cm clip. Check of
pressure reducing Faulty travel speed
valve control pres- change solenoid
sure becomes 37 valve or breakage
2
kgf/cm or more. of harness be-
NO tween travel speed
change solenoid
valve and relay.

Travel Speed Change Solenoid Valve.


Connectors
Output Port. (Harness end connector terminals seen from the open
end side).

Travel Speed Change Relay.

1 2

3 5

T144-04-04-001

T5-4-20
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
T-3 Travel mode does not shift to the slow speed
mode.

2
NOTE: 1 kg/cm =98.07 kPa

Faulty travel mode


Switch travel switch or harness
speed change re- NO
between travel
lay with a general mode switch and
YES purpose relay. relay.
Check if pressure
Disconnect travel reducing valve con-
2
37 kgf/cm speed change re- trol pressure be- Faulty travel speed
or more lay. Check of pres- comes 28±2 change relay.
sure reducing 2 YES
kgf/cm .
valve control pres-
sure becomes ·Travel mode
2
28±2 kgf/cm . switch: OFF
Disconnect line Faulty travel speed
end from output ·Travel mode change solenoid
port of travel speed switch: OFF NO valve.
change solenoid
valve. Install a
pressure gauge on
the port. Measure
output pressure.
·Travel mode
switch: OFF Failure of travel
motor displace-
28±2 kgf/cm
2 ment control
mechanism.

Travel Speed Change Solenoid Valve.

Output Port.

T144-04-04-001

T5-4-21
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
T-4 Machine mistracks.

Checking instruction
• Main relief pressure should be normal.

Stuck control valve


YES spool or control
Switch right and left valve internal leak-
travel hose connec- age.
NO tions on center
joint. Check if mis-
track direction Check if travel cir-
switches. cuit relief pressure
NO on trouble side is
Check if trouble is ·After checking, correct.
reconnect hoses
YES corrected when to their original ·Refer to the OP-
parking brake on
slower speed travel positions. ERATIONAL
motor is manually PERFORMANCE
released. TEST section for
Check if secondary the measurement
travel pilot pressure procedure.
is normal. Faulty parking
YES brake.

Faulty travel pilot


NO valve.

Center joint sealing failure and related


abnormalities that may occur in travel 1
Seal No Abnormalities in Travel Function
2
1 Oil leakage (Drain oil) Left Forward
Right Forward
Mistracks to the left when traveling for- Travel
2 Travel 3
ward.
Forward travel speed is slow when mak- 4
3
ing a pivot turn. Right Reverse Left Reverse
Mistracks to the right when traveling for- Travel 5 Travel
4 ward. Mistracks to the left when traveling 6
in reverse. 7
Reverse travel speed is slow when mak-
5
ing a pivot turn.
Mistracks to the right when traveling in re-
verse.
During the reverse travel operation, the
6
machine alternately travels and stops.
(This is caused by the pressure oil routed
to the travel stop pilot port.
T145-03-02-001
7 Oil leakage.

T5-4-22
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B

YES End (Faulty coun-


terbalance valve).
Disassemble and
clean counterbal-
YES ance valve for
travel brake valve. YES Faulty travel motor
Check if trouble is Disassemble travel servo piston.
corrected. motor servo piston.
Check if drain Check if abnormal
YES quantity from travel NO
part is present. Faulty travel reduc-
motor is normal. tion gear.
NO
·Refer to the OP-
ERATIONAL PER- Faulty travel motor.
FORMANCE TEST NO
section for the
·After disassembling,
measurement pro-
if travel parking
cedure.
brake is found to be
abnormal, check the
brake release pres-
sure control valve.

YES Faulty relief valve


Switch left and for travel brake
right, or forward valve.
and reverse travel
relief valves with
NO each other. Check
if mistrack direction Faulty center joint.
switches. NO

T5-4-23
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
AUTO-LUBRICATION SYSTEM TROUBLE-
SHOOTING
G-1 Grease pump does not operate (both auto-
matically and manually).

Checking Instruction
• The auto-lubrication switch should be placed in 2
NOTE: 1 kgf/cm =98.07 kPa
the AUTO LUB or MANUAL position.
Reconnect auto-
lubrication switch. YES MC (A) failure.
Disconnect con-
nector “B” from MC
NO (A). Check if
grease pump op-
erates when har- Switch auto-
Disconnect auto- ness end connec- lubrication solenoid
lubrication switch. tor terminal No.32 valve relay with
Check if grease is grounded to ve- NO dome light relay.
YES pump operates Check if grease
hicle.
when harness end pump operates.
connector terminal
NOTE: Check if dome
No.1 is grounded light comes on
to vehicle. before switching
relays.
Faulty auto-
Check if primary YES lubrication switch.
pilot pressure is
correct.
YES Faulty pilot relief
·Primary pilot pressure:
2 valve.
44±5 kgf/cm
Disassemble and
clean pilot relief
valve. Check if
NO pressure is cor-
rected. Faulty pilot pump.

NO

T5-4-24
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B

YES Faulty auto-lubrication sole-


noid valve.

Breakage of harness between


0V auto-lubrication solenoid relay
and auto-lubrication solenoid
valve 1.
Disconnect auto-lubrication
solenoid valve 1. Measure
voltage at harness end con- 0 kgf/cm
2
NO Faulty auto-lubrication sole-
nector terminal A.
noid valve 1.
What pressure does grease
24 V pump indicate?
Faulty auto-lubrication sole-
noid valve 2 (including cycle
2
15.5 kgf/cm timer) or faulty grease pump.

Connectors (Harness end connector terminals seen from the open end side)

Auto-Lubrication Switch Auto-Lubrication Solenoid Valve 1

A
1 2 3
4 5 6
B C

MC (A) Connector B

35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 4 3 2 1
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 8 7 6 5

T5-4-25
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
G-2 Auto-lubrication switch does not operate.

YES Faulty auto-lubrication sole-


Automatic sys- noid valve relay.
tem does not Switch auto-lubrication sole-
operate. noid valve relay with dome
light relay. Check if auto- Disconnect auto-lubrication
lubrication operates. switch. Check if auto-
lubrication system operates
·Check if dome light comes NO when harness end connector
on before switching relays. terminal No.1 and No.6 are
grounded to vehicle.
Check which system, auto-
matic or manual, does not op-
erate.

YES Faulty auto-lubrication switch.

Check if manual lubrication


system operates when auto-
Manual system lubrication switch is discon- Reconnect auto-lubrication
does not oper- nected. switch. Disconnect connector
ate. A from MC (A). With auto-
lubrication switch selected to
NO the MANUAL position, check
continuity between harness
end connector terminal No.4
and vehicle ground.

T5-4-26
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B

YES Faulty auto-lubrication switch.

Continuity MC (A) failure.


Reconnect auto-lubrication
switch. Disconnect connector
A from MC (A). With auto-
lubrication switch selected to
NO the AUTO LUB position, check
continuity between harness Breakage of harness between
end connector terminal No.4 MC (A) and auto lubrication
and vehicle ground. No continuity switch.

Continuity Short circuit of harness be-


tween MC (A) and auto-
lubrication switch.

MC (A) failure.
No continuity

Connectors (Harness end connector terminals seen from the open end side)

Auto-Lubrication Switch.

1 2 3
4 5 6

MC (A) Connector A.

66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

T5-4-27
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
G-3 Indicator comes ON when auto-lubrication is
selected.

Refer to troubleshooting for G-


NO 2 Auto-lubrication switch does
not operate.

Check if indicator goes off for


a moment when switch is
turned from the MANUAL to Refer to troubleshooting for G-
AUTO LUB position. NO 1 Grease pump does not op-
erate (both auto-matically and
manually).
Is grease pump operating ?
YES
Check if injector indicator rod
is lowered within 150 seconds
YES after manually greasing.

NOTE: Avoid greasing manu-


ally for longer than
150 seconds. Discon-
nect the manual
grease hose.

T5-4-28
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B

NO Refill grease.

NO Is grease remain-
YES Faulty injector or
ing sufficiently ?
grease piping.
Check if grease
leaks from any in-
jectors or grease Is pressure be- YES Clogged orifice.
YES
piping. tween vent valve
and orifice 0
2
kgf/cm while
NO grease pump is Faulty vent valve.
operating ?
NO

NO Faulty auto-
lubrication grease
pressure switch.

With injector indi- NO Clogged orifice.


cator rod lowered, Is pressure be-
check if auto- NO tween vent valve
YES lubrication grease and orifice 0
pressure switch is 2
kgf/cm ?
ON. Faulty vent valve.
Check if injector Engine: Stop YES
·Disconnect plug indicator rod rises
connector of pres- when engine is
YES Faulty auto-
sure switch. Check stopped. NO lubrication grease
continuity of switch
Check if auto- pressure switch.
side harness. If
continuity, pres- lubrication grease
sure switch is nor- pressure switch is
mal. OFF. MC (A) or harness
NO YES failure.
Engine: Stop

T5-4-29
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
AIR-CONDITIONER SYSTEM TROUBLE-
SHOOTING
Cooling Circuit
Refrigerant pressure is Air bubbles can be seen through Oil is blurred on pipe joint or part Gas
lower than specifica- sight glass. detector reacts.
tion at both high and
lower pressure sides. No oil blur and no gas detector reac-
tion are recognized. Gas has been not
refilled for longer than one season.
No air bubbles can be seen
through sight glass.

Cooling performance is reduced when


high speed operation continues.
Wind volume is unchanged.

Wind volume is reduced.


Refrigerant pressure is
higher than specifica- Air bubbles can be seen through Compressor cylinder is not heated
tion at low pressure sight glass. (liquid bag).
side.

Insufficient Refrigerant pressure is lower than Compressor cylinder is excessively


cooling specification at high pressure side. heated. Abnormal smell is present.
perfor-
mance.
Heater unit is hot.

Refrigerant pressure is
lower than specifica- Air bubbles can be seen through
sight glass. Low pressure is reduced.
tion at high pressure
side.
Condenser stains and/or is clogged.

Air bubbles are not formed even if condenser is splashed with water. Receiver
drier temperature is low.

Cooling performance is reduced when


high speed operation continues. Wind Frost Thermistor is not cooled.
volume is reduced.

Thermistor is cooled.

T5-4-30
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B

Gas is leaking from piping joint or part. Tighten further or replace parts.

Normal refrigerant leak from hoses. Change refrigerant.

Faulty adjustment of expansion valve (excessive tightening). Readjust or replace.

Clogged expansion valve. Remove clog. Replace receiver and expansion


valve.

Clogged evaporator in low pressure circuit. Remove clog or replace parts.

After removing air, recharge refrigerant. Replace


Frozen expansion valve. Water is present.
receiver drier.

Faulty air-tightness of case. Seal with venyl tape or packing agents.

Faulty contact of expansion valve thermistor. Improve contact. Replace thermistor stay.

Faulty adjustment of expansion valve (excessive opening). Readjust or replace.

Insufficient discharge from compressor (faulty gasket and/or Replace.


valve).

Faulty adjustment of water cock wire. Faulty cock. Check and readjust. Replace.

Faulty air-tightness of outside air damper (outside air circulation Repair.


type).

Clogged high pressure circuit before receiver drier. Remove clog or replace parts.

Clean condenser.

Excess of refrigerant charge. Remove excessive refrigerant.

Mixing of air. After removing air, recharge refrigerant. Replace


receiver drier.

Faulty thermistor location. Relocate thermistor.

Faulty air-tightness of case. Seal with vinyl tape or packing agents.

Faulty thermistor (does not turn OFF). Disconnection of thermistor.

Even if function and performance are normal, if air-conditioner is Sufficiently instruct operator with correct operation
operated for a long time with wind volume at middle or low while method. (Either cooling thermistor at low to middle
thermistor is excessively cooled, frost may occur. range or increasing wind volume.)

T5-4-31
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
Refrigerant Circuit

Case or related parts. Vibration of louver or related parts.

Interference of fan with case. Entrance of foreign matter into


case.
Blower motor fan or related parts.
Contact sound of brush, bearing metal, and thrust washer.

Refrigerant flow sound (roaring Gas vibration sound (compressor intake and discharge gas
sound). sound).

Noisy Expansion valve relatives, piping Abnormal sound from expansion valve.
sound, refrigerant flow sound.

Faulty clutch bearing and/or idle pulley bearing.

Sound heard only when clutch is


OFF.
Interference due to clutch vibration, loose belt tension, and/or
loose screws.

Faulty compressor.
Sound heard when compressor
operates.
Vibration due to loose v-belt tension and/or loose screws.

Broken heater core and/or burst hose.

Water leakage and/or sprays.


Clogged case drain port and/or drain hose.
Others

Unusual smell. Adsorption and accumulation of cigarette smoke, dust, and cab
inside smell on evaporator fins.

T5-4-32
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B

Repair or replace.

Remove foreign matter. Readjust fan motor position.

Small sound may be normal. Replace if noisy.

The system is normal. Install a silencer as required.

Replace expansion valve if piping sound is heard. Small refrigerant flow sound may normally be
heard.

Replace.

Repair or replace clutch. Retighten screws.

Repair or replace if compressor is failed.

Tighten belt tension. Retighten screws.

Replace.

Clean drain port and hose.

Clean evaporator. Or, when humidity is high, run engine at 1500 min− for 10 minutes or more
1

with cab door opened to clean fins with condensed dew on fins.

T5-4-33
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
Air Conditioner Electrical System

Both clutch and Not blown.


blower do not op- Check fuses.
① erate.
Blown.

Does not engage.


Blower operates Connect clutch
but clutch does not terminal directly to
② engage. battery.
Bypass thermo switch and relay. Check
Engages.
if clutch engages.

Does not rotate.


Clutch engages Connect blower
but blower does motor positive ter-
③ not operate. minal directly to
battery. Connect blower speed selection switch
Rotates. terminal L, M, and H directly to terminal
B.

Does not rotate.


Electric fan does Connect fan motor
not rotate. positive terminal Check voltage between fan motor relay
④ directly to battery. connector terminal No.1 and No.2.
Rotates.
24 V

Connect relay connector terminal No.3


to No.5.

Check air gap.

Clutch slips.
⑤ Measure clutch engagement coil voltage (24V).

Check if compressor shaft rotates smoothly.

T5-4-34
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B

Go to step ② and
③.
Short circuit in clutch/blower circuit. Repair.
(Inappropriate power source outlet)
Perform as in-
structed.

Faulty clutch. Replace.

Engages. Faulty component (thermo switch or relay). Replace.

Does not engage. Breakage of clutch circuit. Repair.

Faulty blower motor. Replace.

Rotates. Faulty blower speed selection switch. Replace.

Breakage of blower circuit. Repair.


Does not rotate.
Faulty resister. Replace.

Faulty motor. Replace.

0V Breakage of signal circuit. Repair.

Rotates. Faulty relay. Replace.

Does not rotate. Breakage of fan motor power circuit. Repair.

T5-4-35
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
Electric Thermo System

Clutch does not disen- Measure resistance of thermistor connector.


Thermistor short circuit.
gage.

Thermo volume short circuit. Turn off thermo volume.

Faulty relay contact or amplifier. Disconnect thermistor connector.

Clutch does not engage. Measure resistance of thermistor connector.


Faulty thermistor.

Breakage of thermo volume line. Measure resistance of thermo volume terminal.

Faulty thermo switch, or faulty Turn switch ON. Measure resistance of thermo vol-
thermo volume harness. ume (Continuity check).

Disconnect thermistor. Short-circuit amplifier side


Faulty relay contact or amplifier.
connector.

Clutch is chattering. Check continuity between terminals on thermo vol-


Faulty thermo switch contact.
ume switch (Continuity check).

Faulty soldering in amplifier. Disconnect thermistor. Short-circuit amplifier side


connector.

Faulty connector contact. Shake connector to check contact.

Cooling function de-


creases. (Clutch repeat- Deterioration of thermistor. Replace thermistor.
edly turns ON and OFF.)
Inappropriate thermistor installation Relocate thermistor to evaporator center side.
location.

Failure in amplifier. Replace thermistor.

Go to the first flow chart (Clutch


NOTE: When the thermistor temperature char-
Cooling function de-
creases. (Clutch is ON.) does not disengage.) on this page. acteristics are 7.2 kΩ and 2.2 kΩ at 0 °C
(32 °F) and 25 °C (77 °F) respectively,
the thermistor is normal.
Relay is noisy (Chatter- Measure resistance of thermistor connector.
Faulty ground line connection.
ing).

T5-4-36
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B

Resistance is low. Replace thermistor.

When resistance is approx. 2 kΩ at 25 °C, thermistor is normal.

Clutch disengages. Replace thermo volume.

Clutch does not disengage. Replace amplifier.

Resistance is greater than 7 kΩ. Replace thermistor. Check amplifier.

Resistance is infinite (∞). Replace thermo volume.

When resistance is zero, thermo switch is normal. Replace thermo volume.

If resistance is infinite (∞), thermo switch has failed.

Clutch does not engage. Amplifier

Tester needle moves when thermo volume is tapped. Replace thermo volume.

Thermo volume is normal if tester needle does not move when thermo volume is tapped.

Chattering occurs when amplifier is tapped. Replace amplifier.

Chattering occurs. Faulty connector. Repair connector.

Cools sufficiently. Faulty thermistor. Replace thermistor.

Does not cool. Faulty thermistor. Replace thermistor.

Amplifier is normal when cooling Insufficient cooling capacity.


function is restored.

Does not cool. Faulty amplifier. Replace amplifier.

Securely connected. Faulty amplifier. Replace amplifier.

Faulty connection. Repair.

T5-4-37
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
Compressor
Compressor
does not ro- Clutch terminal voltage: Normal (24 V)
tate.

Low clutch terminal voltage.

Clutch terminal voltage is zero.

After refilling refrigerant, air bubbles do not disappear.


Refrigerant pressure is
lower than specification Check for oil and/or refrigerant leaks from compo-
at both high and lower nents other than compressor or line joints using gas
pressure sides. detector.

Check for oil


and/or refrigerant (Refer to note 1 and note 2 on page
Does not leaks from com- T5-4-41.)
cool suffi- pressor (no oil
and/or refrigerant Check exterior of components for
ciently. stains.
leak from compo-
nents other than
Refrigerant has not been re-
compressor) using
charged for more than one year.
gas detector.
Refrigerant discharges in one or
two months after recharging.
Both com- Check with gas detector.
pressor and
blower motor Refrigerant does not discharge for
rotate. more than two years after recharg-
ing.

Compressor cylinder section does not become hot.


(Refrigerant returns to compressor in liquid form.)
Refrigerant pressure on
high pressure side is Refrigerant pressure on high pressure side is low. Refriger-
slightly low and on low ant returns to compressor in gaseous form.
pressure side is high.

Air bubbles can be seen Others.


through sight glass. Go to the cooling circuit
troubleshooting flow
Refrigerant pressure on high pressure side is high.
chart on page T5-4-30.
During high speed operation, cooling efficiency decreases.

Blower air volume is low.

Compressor rotates sluggishly.

Does not
cool suffi-
ciently.
Go to the cooling circuit
Compressor is normal. Trouble cause is other than com- troubleshooting flow
pressor. chart on page T5-4-30.

T5-4-38
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B

Clutch seizure. Replace.

Faulty clearance between amateur and rotor (incorrect gap).


Replace.
Breakage or short circuit in core.

Shaft does not rotate (internally seized). Replace.

Go to the Air Conditioner Electrical System troubleshooting flow chart on page T5-4-34.

Go to the Cooling Circuit troubleshooting flow chart on page T5-4-30.

Refrigerant gas leaks from mechanical seal, gasket, or charge valve.


Replace.
Refrigerant gas leaks from oil plug.

Refrigerant gas leaks from joint sections of front housing or cylinder block. Replace.

Normal gas leakage through hoses. Charge refriger-


ant.

No leakage
(normal).

Go to the cooling circuit troubleshooting flow chart on page T5-4-30.

Damaged valve (Refer to NOTE 3 on page T5-4-41.)


Replace.
Damaged gasket (Refer to NOTE 3 on page T5-4-41.)

Excessive oil. Check and adjust


oil level.

Damaged bearing due to excessively tight belt tension. Replace.

Shaft does not rotate.


Replace.
Shaft rotates sluggishly.

T5-4-39
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
Compressor

Abnormal noise is heard while clutch is OFF.

Abnormally noisy.

Abnormal noise is heard while clutch is ON.

T5-4-40
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B

Damaged clutch bearing.


Replace.
Faulty contact or slippage due to incorrect gap.

Faulty idle pulley bearing.

Loose belt. Go to the cooling circuit


troubleshooting flow chart
on page T5-4-30.
Loose screw.

Engine System.
Replace.
Damaged Valve.

Damaged gasket. Replace.

Internal noise.
Go to the cooling circuit
troubleshooting flow chart
on page T5-4-30.
Vibration due to loose V belt.

NOTE: 1. Avoid making premature judgment that


refrigerant gas is leaking only when
stains around the clutch and gasket are
found. Normal seal performance may al-
low oil to ooze, causing no malfunction
of air-conditioner. Accordingly, check if it
is refrigerant leaking or oil alone is ooz-
ing.
2. High sensitive gas detector may detect
normal leakage through hoses under
certain conditions. As long as the speci-
fied rubber hoses are used, this type of
leakage may not cause any problem.
However, if abnormal leakage is de-
tected, problem may exist in faulty hose
quality.
3. After the compressor is operated at
idling speed for 10 to 15 minutes, pres-
sure difference between high and low
2
pressure should be less than 5 kgf/cm .
In addition, after the clutch is OFF, pres-
sure on both sides should balance within
10 seconds.
2
4. 1 kgf/cm = 98.07 kPa

T5-4-41
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting B
(Blank)

T5-4-42
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
TROUBLESHOOTING C (TROUBLE-
SHOOTING FOR MONITOR) PROCEDURE

Use troubleshooting C when any monitors, such as


gauges or indicators malfunction.

• How to Read Troubleshooting Flow Charts

YES (OK)
(2)

ѕ (1) After checking or measuring item (1), select either YES (OK) or NO
(NOT OK) and proceed to item (2) or (3).
(3)
NO (NOT OK)

Special instructions or reference item are indicated in the spaces under the box. Incorrect
ѕ measuring or checking methods will render troubleshooting impossible, and may damage
components as well.
·Key switch: ON

ѕ Causes are stated in a thick-line box. Scanning through thick-lined boxes, possible causes
can be seen without going through the flow chart.

NOTE: If “Contact CUMMINS.” is indicated, be sure


to inform them of the fault codes if any are
indicated. (Refer to “Troubleshooting A” for
how to read fault codes.)

For all connector drawings illustrated in this


group, harness end connector terminals
seen from the open end side are shown.

Wire Harness Side


Open End
Side
Harness End Connector

T158-05-03-001

T5-5-1
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF TACHOMETER

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Tachometer indicates abnormal speed.

0V

Disconnect tachometer.
NO Measure voltage between
harness end connector termi-
nal #1 (black) and #3 (red and
Re-connect engine speed me-
blue).
ter. Swing front and rear ta-
chometer. Check if abnormal
·Key switch: ON
24 V indication is moved to the op-
Switch front and rear engine posite speed meter.
speed sensors. Check if ab-
normal indication is moved to
the opposite speed meter.

Faulty engine speed sensor.


YES

T5-5-2
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C

Faulty harness between MC Connectors


and tachometer.
Tachometer

3
YES Faulty tachometer.
1 2

Engine Speed Sensor

MC failure or faulty harness 1 2


between MC and tachometer.
NO

T5-5-3
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF COOLANT TEMPERA-
TURE GAUGE

Checking Instructions:
• Check that other gauges operate normally.
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Coolant temperature gauge needle does not move


at all.
YES

Disconnect harness from


coolant temperature sensor.
Connect harness end connec-
tor to vehicle ground. Check if
needle swings fully to the right
side. Re-connect sensor harness.
Connect coolant temperature
·Key switch: ON gauge connector terminal #3
NO to vehicle ground. Check if
needle swings fully to the
right..
·Key switch: ON
·Without disconnecting con-
nector, connect terminal from
connector reverse side to
vehicle ground using a clip.

Coolant temperature gauge needle swings over


scale.
YES

Disconnect harness from


coolant temperature sensor.
Check if needle returns to YES
zero.
Re-connect sensor harness.
Disconnect harness from
·Key switch: ON
coolant temperature gauge.
NO Check if needle returns to
zero.

NO

Coolant temperature gauge needle swings unsta-


bly.
YES

Disconnect harness from


coolant temperature sensor.
Connect harness end terminal
to vehicle ground. Check if
needle swings to the right side
and stays stably.
·Key switch: ON
NO

T5-5-4
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C

Coolant Temperature Gauge

White : 70 °C (158 °F) or lower


Green : 70 to 100 °C (158 to 212 °)
Red : 100 °C (212 °F) or higher

Faulty coolant tempera-


ture sensor.

NO Faulty coolant tempera-


ture gauge.

Breakage of harness M117-01-032

between coolant tem-


YES perature gauge and
sensor.
Resistance of Coolant Temperature Sensor

50 °C (122 °F) : R=(154 Ω)


80 °C (176 °F) : R=51.9±10 Ω
90 °C (194 °F) : R=(32.3 Ω)
100 °C (212 °F) : R=27.4±4 Ω
120 °C (248 °F) : R=16.1 Ω
Faulty coolant tempera-
ture sensor. Connectors

Coolant Temperature Gauge


Short circuit of harness
between coolant tem-
perature gauge and 1 2 3
sensor.

Faulty coolant tempera-


ture gauge.

Faulty coolant tempera-


ture sensor.

Faulty coolant tempera-


ture gauge.

T5-5-5
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF HYDRAULIC OIL TEM-
PERATURE GAUGE

Checking Instructions:
• Check that other gauges operate normally.
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Gauge needle does not move at all.

YES

Disconnect harness from hy-


draulic oil temperature sensor.
Connect harness end terminal
to vehicle ground. Check if
gauge needle swings fully to
the right. Re-connect sensor harness.
Connect hydraulic oil tempera-
·Key switch: ON ture gauge connector terminal
NO #3 to vehicle ground. Check if
needle swings fully to the right.

·Key switch: ON
·Without disconnecting con-
nector, connect terminal from
the connector reverse side to
vehicle ground using a clip.
Gauge needle swings over scale.

YES

Disconnect harness from hy-


draulic oil temperature sensor.
Check if needle returns to YES
zero.
Re-connect sensor harness.
Disconnect harness from hy-
·Key switch: ON
draulic oil temperature gauge.
NO Check if needle returns to
zero.

Gauge needle swings unstably. NO

YES

Disconnect harness from hy-


draulic oil temperature sensor.
Connect harness end terminal
to vehicle ground. Check if
needle swings to the right side
and stays stably.
·Key switch: ON
NO

T5-5-6
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C

Coolant Temperature Gauge

White : 50 °C (122 °F) or lower


Green : 50 to 95 °C (122 to 203 °F)
Red : 95 °C (203 °F) or higher

Faulty hydraulic oil tem-


perature sensor.

NO Faulty hydraulic oil tem-


perature gauge.

Breakage of harness M117-01-031

between hydraulic oil


YES temperature gauge and
sensor.
Resistance of Hydraulic Oil Temperature Sensor

50 °C (122 °F) : R=(154 Ω)


80 °C (176 °F) : R=51.9±10 Ω
90 °C (194 °F) : R=(32.3 Ω)
100 °C (212 °F) : R=27.4±4 Ω
120 °C (248 °F) : R=16.1 Ω
Faulty hydraulic oil tem-
perature sensor. Connectors

Hydraulic Oil Temperature Gauge


Short circuit of harness
between hydraulic oil
temperature gauge and 1 2 3
sensor.

Faulty hydraulic oil tem-


perature gauge.

Faulty hydraulic oil tem-


perature sensor.

Faulty hydraulic oil tem-


perature gauge.

T5-5-7
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF FUEL GAUGE

Checking Instructions:
• Check that other gauges operate normally.
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Gauge needle does not move at all.

YES

Disconnect harness plug re-


ceptacle (green and black)
from fuel sensor. Connect
harness end plug receptacle
to vehicle ground. Check if
gauge needle swings fully to Re-connect sensor harness.
the right. Connect fuel gauge terminal
#3 (green and red) to vehicle
·Key switch: ON NO ground. Check if needle
swings fully to the right.

·Key switch: ON
·Without disconnecting con-
nector, connect terminal from
connector reverse side to
vehicle ground using a clip.
Gauge needle swings over scale.

YES

Disconnect harness plug re-


ceptacle fuel sensor. Check if
needle returns to zero. YES

Re-connect sensor harness


plug receptacle. Disconnect
·Key switch: ON
harness from fuel gauge.
NO Check if needle returns to
zero.

NO

Gauge needle swings unstably.

YES
Disconnect harness plug re-
ceptacle (green and black)
from fuel sensor. Connect
harness end plug receptacle
to vehicle ground. Check if
needle swings to the right side
and stays stably.

·Key switch: ON NO

T5-5-8
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C

Fuel Gauge

Faulty fuel sensor.

NO Faulty fuel gauge.


M117-01-055

Resistance of Fuel Sensor


Breakage of harness
between fuel gauge and E Point : R=10 Ω
YES sensor.
1/2 Point : R=32.5 Ω
F Point : R=90 Ω

Connectors

Fuel Gauge

Faulty fuel sensor.


1 2 3

Short circuit of harness


between fuel gauge and
sensor.

Faulty fuel gauge.

Faulty fuel sensor.

Faulty fuel gauge.

T5-5-9
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF HYDRAULIC OIL
LEVEL INDICATOR (WARNING)

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Reference:
Hydraulic Oil Level Switch Activation Level: 600 L (159
US gal) or lower

Hydraulic oil level indicator does not come ON


even if hydraulic oil level is lower than the speci-
fied lower limit.
Disconnect har- YES Faulty hydraulic oil
ness from hydrau- level switch 2.
lic oil level switch 2.
Breakage of har-
YES Connect harness ness between hy-
end connector YES
Connect terminal draulic oil level
terminal #2 to ve-
#11 on MC (B) switch 2 and MC
hicle ground.
connector A to ve- (B).
Check if indicator
NO hicle ground.
Turn indicator light comes ON.
Check if indicator
check switch ON. ·Key switch: ON comes ON. MC (B) failure.
Check if indicator NO
comes ON. ·Key switch: ON
YES Burned out indica-
·Key switch: ON Replace indicator
bulb with normal tor light.
one. Check if indi-
cator comes ON Continuity
NO when indicator light Check continuity MC (B) failure.
check switch is between terminal
turned ON. #20 and #37 on
NO MC (B) connector Short circuit of
·Key switch: ON B. harness between
MC (B) and indica-
No continuity tor.
Although hydraulic oil level is normal, indicator
comes ON.
YES Faulty hydraulic oil level
switch 2.

Disconnect hydraulic oil level


Continuity Short circuit of harness be-
switch 2. Check if indicator Re-connect hydraulic oil level
tween hydraulic oil level
comes ON. switch. After disconnecting
switch 2 and MC (B).
connector A from MC (B),
·Key switch: ON check continuity between har-
NO MC (B) failure.
ness end connector terminal
#11 and vehicle ground. No continuity

Connectors
Hydraulic Oil Level Switch 2
MC (B) Connector A
66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1 2
76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

MC (B) Connector B
35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 4 3 2 1
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 8 7 6 5

T5-5-10
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF FUEL LEVEL INDICA-
TOR

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Reference:
Fuel Level Switch Activation Level: 250 L (66 US gal)
or lower

Fuel level indicator does not come ON even if fuel


gauge needle reaches E position.
YES Faulty fuel level
switch.
Disconnect har-
ness from fuel level Breakage of har-
YES switch. Connect
Connect terminal YES ness between fuel
harness end con- level switch and
#9 on MC (A) con-
nector terminal #2 MC (A).
nector A to vehicle
to vehicle ground.
NO ground. Check if
Turn indicator light Check if indicator
indicator comes
check switch ON. comes ON.
ON. MC (A) failure.
Check if indicator ·Key switch: ON ·Key switch: ON NO
comes ON. ·Without disconnecting connector, con-
·Key switch: ON nect terminal from connector reverse
side to vehicle ground using a clip.
Replace indicator YES
bulb with normal Burned out indica-
one. Check if indi- tor light.
cator comes ON Continuity
NO when indicator light Check continuity MC (A) failure.
check switch is between terminal
turned ON. #41 on MC (A)
NO connector B and Short circuit of
vehicle ground. harness between
MC (A) and indica-
No continuity tor.
Although fuel is sufficient, indicator comes ON.
YES Faulty fuel level switch.

Disconnect fuel level switch.


Continuity Short circuit of harness be-
Check if indicator goes OFF. Re-connect fuel level switch.
tween fuel level switch and
After disconnecting connector
MC (A).
A from MC (A), check continu-
·Key switch: ON ity between harness end con-
NO MC (A) failure.
nector terminal #9 and vehicle
ground. No continuity

Connectors
Fuel Level Switch
MC (A) Connector A
66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1 2
76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

MC (A) Connector B
35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 4 3 2 1
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 8 7 6 5

T5-5-11
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF AUTO-LUBRICATION
INDICATOR

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Auto-lubrication indicator does not come ON when


auto-lubrication switch is turned to the manual-
lubrication position.

YES Faulty auto-


Disconnect har- lubrication switch.
ness from auto-
Auto lubrication switch.
Check if indicator
Turn auto- comes ON. Short circuit of
lubrication switch harness between
YES to either auto or MC (A) and auto-
·Key switch: ON NO
manual-lubrication lubrication switch.
position.
MC (A) failure.
Turn indicator light Manual
check switch ON.
Check if indicator
comes ON.
YES Burned out indica-
·Key switch: ON Replace indicator
bulb with normal tor light.
one. Check if indi-
cator comes ON Disconnect con-
nector B from MC Continuity MC (A) failure.
NO when indicator light
check switch is (A). Check continu-
turned ON. ity between har-
NO ness end connec- Breakage of har-
·Key switch: ON tor terminal #36 ness between in-
and vehicle No dicator and MC
ground. continuity (A).

Connectors

MC (A) Connector B
35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 4 3 2 1
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 8 7 6 5

T5-5-12
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF PUMP TRANSMISSION
OIL PRESSURE INDICATOR

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Reference:
Pump Transmission Oil Pressure Switch Activation
2
Pressure: 49±10 kPa (0.5±0.1 kgf/cm , 7±1 psi) or
lower

Indicator does not come ON when key switch is YES Faulty pump
turned ON. transmission oil
Disconnect har- pressure switch.
YES ness from pump
transmission oil Breakage of har-
pressure switch. Connect the following YES ness between MC
Connect harness terminals on MC (A) (A) and pump
end connector to connector A to vehicle transmission oil
vehicle ground. NO ground. Check if indi- pressure switch.
Check if indicator cator comes ON.
Turn indicator light comes ON. ·Front engine: #11 MC (A) failure.
check switch ON. Rear engine: #12 NO
·Key switch: ON
Check if indicator ·Key switch: ON
comes ON. ·Without disconnecting connec-
tor, connect terminal from con-
·Key switch: ON
nector reverse side to vehicle
Replace indicator
bulb with normal YES ground using a clip. Burned out indica-
one. Check if indi- tor light.
cator comes ON
NO when indicator light Check continuity Continuity MC (A) failure.
check switch is between the follow-
turned ON. ing terminals on
MC (A) connector Breakage of har-
·Key switch: ON NO ness between MC
B and vehicle
ground. (A) and pump
No con- transmission oil
·Front engine: #8, #15 tinuity pressure switch.
Rear engine: #20, #37
Indicator comes ON even if oil pressure is high.
YES Faulty pump transmission oil
pressure switch.

Disconnect pump transmis-


sion oil pressure switch. Re-connect pump transmis- Continuity MC (A) failure.
Check if indicator goes OFF. sion oil pressure switch.
Check continuity between MC
·Key switch: ON (A) connector A and vehicle Breakage of harness between
NO ground. pump transmission oil pres-
No continuity sure switch and MC (A).
Connectors ·Front engine: #11
Rear engine: #12
MC (A) Connector A
66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

MC (A) Connector B
35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 4 3 2 1
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 8 7 6 5

T5-5-13
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF PUMP CONTAMINA-
TION INDICATOR

Checking Instruction: YES


Disconnect harness from
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect. contamination sensor
YES amplifier. Check if indica-
tor comes ON when har-
Reference: ness end connector ter- Re-connect harness.
Pump Contamination Activation Resistance: 15±1.5 minal #21 (yellow) is Check if indicator comes
grounded to the vehicle. ON when MC (A) con-
MΩ or less
NO nector terminal #15 is
·Key switch: ON grounded to the vehicle.
Indicator does not come ON even if hydraulic oil in
the main pump is contaminated. ·Key switch: ON
·Without disconnecting connec-
tor, connect terminal from con-
YES Check if any contamina- nector reverse side to vehicle
tion sensor amplifier indi- ground using a clip.
cators are ON. Ω or less
15±5 MΩ
Disconnect contamina-
·Key switch: ON tion sensor. Measure re-
sistance between con- Disconnect contamina-
tamination sensor side tion sensor connector
NO connector terminal #2 and short-circuit termi-
Turn indicator light (white) and #3 (black). nals #2 (white) and #3
check switch ON. (black). Then, Discon-
Check if indicator nect Contamination sen-
15±5 MΩΩ sor amplifier connector.
comes ON. or more Check continuity be-
·Key switch: ON tween corresponding
terminals on harness
end connector.

Replace indicator bulb YES Burned out indicator


with normal one. Check if light.
indicator comes ON Continuity
NO when indicator light Disconnect connector B MC (A) failure.
check switch is turned from MC (A). Check con-
ON. tinuity between harness Breakage of harness be-
NO end connector terminal
·Key switch: ON tween MC (A) and indi-
#18 and #40. cator.
No con-
Indicator comes ON even if hydraulic oil is not con- tinuity
taminated. NO Normal.

YES Clean sensor. Then, Ω or less


15±5 MΩ
check if indicator comes Disconnect contamina-
ON. tion sensor. Measure re-
sistance between con- Disconnect contamina-
tamination sensor side tion sensor and contami-
YES connector terminal #2 nation sensor amplifier.
(white) and #3 (black). Check continuity be-
tween contamination
Check if any con- sensor side harness end
tamination sensor 15±5 MΩΩ connector terminal #2
amplifier indicators or more (white) and vehicle
are ON ground, and terminal #3
(black) and vehicle
·Key switch: ON ground.

YES Faulty contamination


Disconnect contamina- sensor amplifier.
tion sensor amplifier.
NO Check if indicator Comes
ON. MC (A) failure.
NO
·Key switch: ON

T5-5-14
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C

Connection between Contamination Sensor and


Contamination Sensor Amplifier
Faulty contamination Contamination Contamination Sensor Amplifier
sensor amplifier. Sensor No. Terminal No.
#1 Left connector terminal #1 and #2
NO MC (A) failure. #2 Left connector terminal #3 and #4
#3 Left connector terminal #5 and #6
#4 Left connector terminal #7 and #8
Breakage of harness be-
#5 Right connector terminal #1 and
tween contamination
sensor amplifier and MC #2
YES (A). #6 Right connector terminal #3 and
#4

Faulty contamination
sensor.

Continuity Faulty contamination


sensor amplifier.

Breakage of harness be-


tween contamination
sensor and contamina-
No continuity tion sensor amplifier.

Connectors
Sensor

3 2 1

Contamination Sensor Amplifier

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Faulty contamination Indicator


sensor.
5 4 3 2 1
12 11 10 9 8 7 6
Short circuit of harness
Continuity between contamination
sensor and contamina-
tion sensor amplifier.

Faulty contamination
No continuity sensor amplifier.

MC (A) Connector A

66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

MC (A) Connector B
35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 4 3 2 1
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 8 7 6 5

T5-5-15
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF LADDER INDICATOR

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Indicator does not come ON when ladder is low-


ered.
Disconnect har- YES Faulty ladder limit
ness from ladder switch.
limit switch. Con-
YES nect harness end Breakage of har-
connector terminal Re-connect har- YES ness between MC
#3 to vehicle ness. Connect MC (B) and ladder limit
ground. Check if (B) connector A switch.
indicator comes terminal #9 to ve-
ON. NO hicle ground.
Turn indicator light
check switch ON. ·Key switch: ON Check if indicator
MC (B) failure.
Check if indicator comes ON.
NO
comes ON. ·Key switch: ON
YES Burned out indica-
·Key switch: ON Replace indicator
bulb with normal tor light.
one. Check if indi-
cator comes ON Continuity
NO when indicator light Check continuity MC (B) failure.
check switch is between MC (B)
turned ON. connector B termi-
NO nal #41 and vehicle Breakage of har-
·Key switch: ON ground. ness between MC
No continuity (B) and indicator.

Indicator comes ON even if ladder is raised.

YES Faulty ladder limit switch.

Disconnect ladder limit switch.


Continuity Short circuit of harness be-
Check if indicator goes OFF.
tween ladder limit switch and
Re-connect ladder limit switch.
MC (B).
Check continuity between MC
NO (B) connector A terminal #9
and vehicle ground. MC (B) failure.
No continuity

Connectors
Ladder Limit Switch
MC (B) Connector A
66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1 2 3
76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

MC (B) Connector B
35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 4 3 2 1
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 8 7 6 5

T5-5-16
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF AIR FILTER RESTRIC-
TION INDICATOR

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.
• Check that the air cleaner is not damp.

Reference:
Air Filter Restriction Switch Activation Pressure:
6.2±0.6 kPa (635±58 mmH2O)

Although air cleaner is restricted, air filter restric- YES Faulty air filter re-
tion indicator does not come ON. striction switch.

YES Disconnect air filter


restriction switch. Breakage of har-
Connect harness Connect the following YES ness between MC
end plug receptacle terminals on MC (A or and air filter restric-
to vehicle ground. B) connector A to ve- tion switch.
Check if indicator NO hicle ground. Check if
comes ON. indicator comes ON.
Turn indicator light ·Front engine: MC (A) #16 MC (A) failure.
·Key switch: ON
check switch ON. Rear engine: MC (B) #8 NO
Check if indicator ·Key switch: ON
comes ON. ·Without disconnecting connec-
tor, connect terminal from con-
·Key switch: ON
nector reverse side to vehicle
Replace indicator
bulb with normal YES ground using a clip. Burned out indica-
one. Check if indi- tor light.
cator comes ON
NO when indicator light Check continuity Continuity MC (A) failure.
check switch is between the follow-
turned ON. ing terminals on
·Key switch: ON NO MC (A or B) con- Breakage of har-
nector B and vehi- ness between MC
cle ground.
No con- and air filter restric-
Indicator comes ON even if air cleaner is not re- ·Front engine: MC (A)#12, tinuity tion indicator.
stricted. and #14
Ȁ Rear engine: MC (B) #36

YES Faulty air filter restriction


switch.

Disconnect air filter restriction


switch. Check if indicator goes Re-connect air filter restriction Continuity MC failure.
OFF. switch. Check continuity be-
tween the following terminals
·Key switch: ON on MC (A or B) connector A Short circuit of harness be-
NO and vehicle ground. tween air filter restriction
No continuity switch and MC.
·Front engine: MC (A) #16
Rear engine: MC (B) #6
Connectors
MC (A) Connector A
66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

MC (A) Connector B
35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 4 3 2 1
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 8 7 6 5

T5-5-17
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF ENGINE STOP, EN-
GINE WARNING, OR ENGINE PROTEC-
TION INDICATOR

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Although engine is malfunctioning, indicator does


not come ON.

YES ECM failure. Contact CUM-


MINS.

Disconnect 31P connector


from ECM. Check if indicator
comes ON when the following
terminals are connected to
vehicle ground. YES Breakage of harness between
ECM and indicator.
Check if engine starts nor-
·Key switch : ON
mally.
·Stop : #16 NO
Warning : #17 Faulty emergency relay.
Protection : #18 NO

Although engine is functioning normally, indicator


comes ON.

YES ECM failure. Contact CUM-


MINS.

Disconnect 31P connector


from ECM. Check if indicator
goes OFF.

·Key switch: ON
Short circuit of harness be-
NO tween ECM and indicator.

Connector

ECM

20 31
21 8 30
9 19
10 2 18
22 3 7 29
11 1 17
23 4 6 28
12 5 16
13 15
24 14 27
25 26

T5-5-18
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF HYDRAULIC OIL
LEVEL INDICATOR

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Reference:
Hydraulic Oil Level Switch Deactivation Level: when
hydraulic oil level is reduced 35 mm (1.38 in) lower
than the LOW mark on level gauge.

Although hydraulic oil level is higher than the LOW


level, indicator does not come ON.
YES Faulty hydraulic oil
Disconnect hydrau- level switch 1.
lic oil level switch 1. Re-connect hy- Breakage of har-
YES Connect harness draulic oil level ness between MC
end connector YES
switch 1. Connect (B) and hydraulic
terminal #2 to ve- MC (B) connector
hicle ground. oil level switch 1.
A terminal #11 to
Check if indicator vehicle ground.
comes ON. NO
Turn indicator light Check if indicator
check switch ON. ·Key switch: ON comes ON. MC (B) failure.
Check if indicator NO
comes ON. ·Key switch: ON
YES Burned out indica-
·Key switch: ON Replace indicator
bulb with normal tor light.
one. Check if indi-
cator comes ON Continuity
NO when indicator light Disconnect con- MC (B) failure.
check switch is nector B from MC
turned ON. (B). Check continu-
NO ity between har- Breakage of har-
·Key switch: ON ness end connec- ness between MC
tor #20 and #37. No (B) and hydraulic
continuity oil level indicator.
Indicator comes ON even if hydraulic oil level is
lower than Low mark.
YES Faulty hydraulic oil level
switch 1.

Disconnect hydraulic oil level


Continuity Short circuit of harness be-
switch 1. Check if indicator Re-connect hydraulic oil level tween hydraulic oil level
goes OFF. switch 1. Check continuity be- switch 1 and MC (B).
tween MC (B) connector A
·Key switch: ON
NO terminal #11 and vehicle MC (B) failure.
ground.
No continuity

Connectors
Hydraulic Oil Level Switch 1
MC (B) Connector A
66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1 2
76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

MC (B) Connector B
35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 4 3 2 1
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 8 7 6 5

T5-5-19
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF COOLANT LEVEL IN-
DICATOR

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Reference:
Coolant Level Switch Deactivation Level: when coolant
level is reduced lower than the LOW mark on reservoir.

Although coolant level is higher than the LOW


level, indicator does not come ON.

YES Faulty coolant


Disconnect coolant level switch.
level switch. Con-
Re-connect coolant Breakage of har-
YES nect harness end
connector terminal level switch 1. Con- YES ness between MC
#1 and #2. Check if nect the following (B) and coolant oil
indicator comes terminals on MC (B) level switch.
ON. Connector A to vehi-
NO cle ground. Check if
Turn indicator light ·Key switch: ON indicator comes ON.
check switch ON. MC (B) failure.
Check if indicator ·Front engine: #12 NO
comes ON. Rear engine: #13
YES ·Key switch: ON Burned out indica-
·Key switch: ON Replace indicator
bulb with normal tor light.
one. Check if indi-
cator comes ON Disconnect con- Continuity
NO when indicator light nector B from MC MC (B) failure.
check switch is (B). Check continu-
turned ON. ity between the fol-
NO lowing terminals on Breakage of har-
·Key switch: ON harness end con- ness between MC
nector. No (B) and coolant
·Front engine: #19 and #38 continuity level indicator.
Rear engine: #17 and #39
Indicator comes ON even if coolant level is lower
than LOW mark.
YES Faulty coolant level switch.

Disconnect coolant level


Continuity Short circuit of harness be-
switch. Check if indicator goes Re-connect coolant level
tween coolant level switch and
OFF. switch. Check continuity be-
MC (B).
tween the following terminals
·Key switch: ON on MC (B) connector A and
NO MC (B) failure.
vehicle ground.
No continuity
·Front engine: #12
Rear engine: #13
Connectors
Coolant Level Switch
MC (B) Connector A
66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1 2
76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

MC (B) Connector B
35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 4 3 2 1
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 8 7 6 5

T5-5-20
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF ENGINE OIL LEVEL
INDICATOR

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Although engine oil level is higher than the LOW


level, indicator does not come ON. YES Faulty engine oil
level switch.
Disconnect engine
oil level switch. Breakage of har-
YES Connect harness YES ness between MC
end connector Re-connect engine oil (B) and engine oil
terminal #1 and #2. level switch. Connect level switch.
Check if indicator the following terminals
comes ON. on MC (B) connector A
NO to vehicle ground.
Turn indicator light ·Key switch: ON
Check if indicator MC (B) failure.
check switch ON. comes ON. NO
Check if indicator
comes ON. ·Front engine: #14
Rear engine: #15
·Key switch: ON YES ·Key switch: ON
Replace indicator Burned out indica-
bulb with normal tor light.
one. Check if indi-
cator comes ON Continuity
NO Disconnect connec- MC (B) failure.
when indicator light
tor B from MC (B).
check switch is
Check continuity be-
turned ON.
NO tween the following Breakage of har-
·Key switch: ON terminals on harness ness between MC
end connector. (B) and engine oil
No
·Front engine: #18 and #40 continuity level indicator.
Rear engine: #12 and #14

Indicator comes ON even if engine oil level is


lower than LOW mark.
YES Faulty engine oil level switch.

Disconnect engine oil level


Continuity Short circuit of harness be-
switch. Check if indicator goes Re-connect engine oil level tween engine oil level switch
OFF. switch. Check continuity be- and MC (B).
tween the following terminals
·Key switch: ON
NO on MC (B) connector A and MC (B) failure.
vehicle ground.
No continuity
·Front engine: #14
Rear engine: #15
Connectors
Engine Oil Level Switch
MC (B) Connector A
66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1 2
76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

MC (B) Connector B
35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 4 3 2 1
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 8 7 6 5

T5-5-21
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF EMERGENCY ENGINE
STOP INDICATOR

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Although emergency engine stop switch is in the


EMERG. STOP position, indicator does not come
ON.
Disconnect emer- YES Faulty emergency
gency engine stop engine stop switch.
switch. Connect
YES harness end
conector terminal YES MC (B) failure.
Connect terminal
#1 and #3. Check if
#10 on MC (B)
indicator comes
connector A to ve-
ON.
NO hicle ground. Breakage of har-
Turn indicator light ·Key switch: ON Check if indicator ness between MC
check switch ON. comes ON. (B) and emergency
Check if indicator NO engine stop switch.
comes ON. ·Key switch: ON
YES Burned out indica-
·Key switch: ON Replace indicator
bulb with normal tor light.
one. Check if indi-
cator comes ON Disconnect con- Continuity
NO when indicator light nector B from MC MC (B) failure.
check switch is (B). Check continu-
turned ON. ity between termi-
NO nal #23 on harness Breakage of har-
·Key switch: ON end connector and ness between MC
vehicle ground. No continuity (B) and emer-
gency engine stop
Indicator comes ON even if engine emergency en- indicator.
gine stop switch is in the NORMAL position.

YES Faulty emergency engine stop


switch.

Disconnect emergency engine


Continuity Short circuit of harness be-
stop switch. Check if indicator
Disconnect connector A from tween emergency engine stop
goes OFF.
MC (B). Check continuity be- switch and MC (B).
·Key switch: ON tween harness end connector
NO terminal #10 and vehicle MC (B) failure.
ground. No continuity

Connectors
Emergency Engine Stop Switch

MC (B) Connector A

1 2 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
3 4 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

MC (B) Connector B
35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 4 3 2 1
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 8 7 6 5

T5-5-22
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF ENTRANCE LIGHT IN-
DICATOR

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

When entrance light switch is turned ON, indicator


does not come ON.

YES Faulty entrance light switch.


Disconnect entrance light
switch. Connect harness end
YES
connector terminal (a) and (c). Breakage of harness between
Check if indicator comes ON. entrance light switch and di-
NO ode.
Turn indicator light check
switch ON. Check if indicator
comes ON.
YES Burned out indicator light.
·Key switch: ON Replace indicator bulb with
normal one. Check if indicator
comes ON when indicator light
NO check switch is turned ON. Breakage of harness between
NO entrance light switch and indi-
·Key switch: ON cator.

Indicator comes ON even if entrance light switch is


turned OFF.

YES Faulty entrance light switch.

Check if indicator goes OFF


when entrance light switch is
disconnected.

Short circuit of harness be-


NO tween entrance light switch
and indicator.

Connector

Entrance Light Switch

d b a
e c

T5-5-23
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF ENGINE ROOM LIGHT
INDICATOR

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

When engine room light switch is turned ON, indi-


cator does not come ON.

YES Faulty engine room light


Disconnect engine room light switch.
switch. Connect harness end
YES
connector terminal (a) and (c). Breakage of harness between
Check if indicator comes ON. engine room light switch and
NO diode.
Turn indicator light check
switch ON. Check if indicator
comes ON.
YES Burned out indicator light.
·Key switch: ON Replace indicator bulb with
normal one. Check if indicator
comes ON when indicator light
NO check switch is turned ON. Breakage of harness between
NO engine room light switch and
·Key switch: ON indicator.

Indicator comes ON even if engine room light


switch is turned OFF.

YES Faulty engine room light


switch.

Check if indicator goes OFF


when engine room light switch
is disconnected.

Short circuit of harness be-


NO tween engine room light switch
and indicator.

Connector

Engine Room Light Switch

d b a
e c

T5-5-24
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF AUTO-IDLE INDICA-
TOR

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Reference:
Auto-Idle Pressure Switch Activation Pressure:
2
490 kPa (5 kgf/cm , 71 psi) or higher
Auto-Idle Pressure Switch Deactivation Pressure:
2
290 kPa (3 kgf/cm , 43 psi) or lower

When auto-idle switch is turned ON, indicator does


not come ON.
YES Faulty auto-idle switch.
Disconnect auto-idle switch.
Connect harness end connec-
YES
tor terminal (a) and (c). Check Breakage of harness between
if indicator comes ON. auto-idle switch and diode.
NO
·Key switch: ON
Turn indicator light check
switch ON. Check if indicator
comes ON.
YES Burned out indicator light.
·Key switch: ON Replace indicator bulb with
normal one. Check if indicator
comes ON when indicator light
NO check switch is turned ON. Breakage of harness between
NO auto-idle switch and indicator.
·Key switch: ON

Indicator comes ON even if auto-idle switch is


turned OFF.

YES Faulty auto-idle switch.

Check if indicator goes OFF


when auto-idle switch is dis-
connected.

Short circuit of harness be-


NO tween auto-idle switch and in-
dicator.

Connector

Auto-Idle Switch

d b a
e c

T5-5-25
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF FAST SPEED TRAVEL
INDICATOR

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

When travel mode switch is turned ON (fast speed),


indicator does not come ON.

YES Faulty travel mode switch.


Disconnect travel mode switch.
Connect harness end connec-
YES
tor terminal (a) and (c). Check Breakage of harness between
if indicator comes ON. travel mode switch and diode.
NO
Turn indicator light check
switch ON. Check if indicator
comes ON.
YES Burned out indicator light.
·Key switch: ON Replace indicator bulb with
normal one. Check if indicator
comes ON when indicator light
NO check switch is turned ON. Breakage of harness between
NO travel mode switch and indica-
·Key switch: ON tor.

Indicator comes ON even if travel mode switch is


turned OFF (slow speed).

YES Faulty travel mode switch.

Check if indicator goes OFF


when travel mode switch is
disconnected.

Short circuit of harness be-


NO tween travel mode switch and
indicator.

Connector

Travel Mode Switch

d b a
e c

T5-5-26
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF SLOW SPEED TRAVEL
INDICATOR

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

When travel mode switch is turned OFF (slow


speed), indicator does not come ON.

Disconnect travel speed YES Faulty travel speed change re-


change relay. Connect har- lay
YES ness end connector terminal
#4 to vehicle ground. Check if Breakage of harness between
indicator comes ON. travel speed change relay and
NO diode.
Turn indicator light check ·Key switch: ON
switch ON. Check if indicator
comes ON.
YES Burned out indicator light.
·Key switch: ON Replace indicator bulb with
normal one. Check if indicator
comes ON when indicator light
NO check switch is turned ON. Breakage of harness between
NO indicator and diode.
·Key switch: ON

Indicator comes ON even if travel mode switch is


turned ON (fast speed).

YES Faulty travel mode switch.

Check if indicator goes OFF


when travel mode switch is
disconnected.
YES Faulty travel speed change re-
·Key switch: ON lay.
Check if indicator goes OFF
when travel speed change re-
Short circuit of harness be-
NO lay is disconnected.
tween travel speed change re-
NO lay and indicator.

Connector

Travel Speed Change Relay

1 2

3 5

T5-5-27
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF ALTERNATOR INDICA-
TOR

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Reference:
Starter Relay Deactivation Voltage: 7 V

When key switch is turned ON, indicator does not


come ON.
Disconnect con- Short circuit of
nector A from MC Continuity harness between
(A). Check continu- MC (A) and starter
ity between har- relay 2.
YES ness end connec-
tor terminal #17
and vehicle
ground, and termi- MC (A) failure.
nal #14 and vehicle No continuity
Turn indicator light ground.
check switch ON.
Check if indicator
comes ON.
·Key switch: ON
Replace indicator
bulb with normal YES Burned out indica-
one. Check if indi- tor light.
cator comes ON Disconnect con-
NO when indicator light Continuity MC (A) failure.
nector B from MC
check switch is (A). Check continu-
turned ON. ity between har-
·Key switch: ON NO ness end connec-
tor terminal #17 Breakage of har-
and #39. ness between MC
No con- (A) and indicator.
Indicator does not go OFF after engine is started. tinuity

YES Breakage of harness between


MC (A) and starter relay 2.
Check if indicator goes OFF
when MC (A) connector A
terminal #14 and #17 is con-
nected to vehicle ground.
MC (A) failure.
·Key switch: ON
·Without disconnecting connector, NO
connect terminal from connector
reverse side to vehicle ground us-
ing a clip

Connectors
MC (A) Connector A
66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

MC (A) Connector B
35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 4 3 2 1
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 8 7 6 5

T5-5-28
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF LEVEL CHECK
SWITCH

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.
• Check that all liquid levels are correct prior to trou-
bleshooting.

Although all liquid levels are correct, indicator


does not come ON.

Disconnect level YES Faulty level check


check switch. switch.
Check if indicators
YES come ON when
both ends of dis- Breakage of har-
connected plug re- Connect Terminal YES ness between MC
ceptacles are con- #16 on MC (B) con- (B) and level check
nected. nector A to vehicle switch.
NO ground. Check if indi-
·Key switch: ON cators come ON.
Check if all indica- ·Key switch: ON MC (B) failure.
tors do not come ·Without disconnecting NO
ON. connector, connect ter-
minal from connector re-
verse side to vehicle
·Key switch: ON ground using a clip.

Refer to the trou-


bleshooting pages
corresponding to
NO
faulty indicator.

Level indicators are ON when level check switch is


OFF.
YES Faulty level check switch.

Disconnect harness (black


and yellow) from level check Short circuit of harness be-
Disconnect connector A from Continuity tween MC (B) and level check
switch. Check if indicators go
MC (B). Check continuity be- switch.
OFF.
tween harness end connector
·Key switch: ON terminal #16 and vehicle
NO ground. MC (B) failure.
No continuity

Connector
MC (B) Connector A
66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

T5-5-29
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF INDICATOR LIGHT
CHECK SWITCH

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Indicators do not come ON when indicator light


check switch is depressed.

YES Faulty indicator light check


switch.
Disconnect indicator light
check switch. Check if indica-
YES tors come ON when both ends
of disconnected plug recepta- Breakage of harness between
cles are connected. indicator light check switch
NO and MC (A), MC (B), or check
relay.
Check if all indicators do not
come ON.

Faulty MC (A), MC (B) ,or


check relay corresponding to
NO faulty indicator.

T5-5-30
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MALFUNCTION OF HOUR METER

Checking Instruction:
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Hour meter does not operate while engine is run-


ning.

YES Faulty hour meter relay.

Replace hour meter relay with


NO dome light relay. Check if hour
meter operates.
Breakage of hour meter relay
and hour meter.
NOTE: Before replacing relays, NO
Check if alternator indicator is check that dome light
ON.
comes ON.
·Engine: Running
·Engine: Running
Faulty alternator indicator
(Refer to the troubleshooting
YES for “Indicator does not go OFF
after engine is started.”)

T5-5-31
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
MULFUNCTION OF BUZZER

Checking Instructions
• Check first that the circuit connections are all cor-
rect.

Buzzer continues to sound when engine is started.

Remove the indicator light up


YES cause. Or refer to trouble-
shooting for the lighting indica-
tor.
Check if any indicators for hy-
draulic oil level, pump trans-
mission oil pressure, or engine
protection are ON.

MC (A) failure.
NO

Buzzer does not sound even if one or more than


one of indicators for hydraulic oil level, pump
transmission oil pressure, and/or engine protec-
tion are ON.

24 V
Faulty buzzer.

Disconnect buzzer. Measure


voltage at harness end connec- Continuity MC (A) failure.
tor terminal #2.
·Key switch: ON Check continuity between
buzzer connector terminal #2
0V and MC (A) connector B ter-
minal #24. Breakage of harness between
MC (A) and buzzer.
No
continuity

Connectors

Buzzer MC (A) Connector B

35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 4 3 2 1
2 1 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 8 7 6 5

T5-5-32
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
TROUBLESHOOTING PUMP CONTAMINA- Electrical
TION INDICATORS Equipment Box Cover

1. Open the electrical equipment box cover.


Contamination
Sensor
2. The contamination sensor amplifier has 8 indica- Amplifier
tors. Each indicator corresponds to one pump.

NOTE: This machine is equipped with 6 pump units.


Therefore, indicators for pumps No. 7 and 8
are not used.

Check if any indicator is ON. The indicator corre-


sponding to an abnormal pump will be ON.

NOTE: The identification No. for each contamina-


tion sensor indicator (shown in the right fig- Contamination T144-01-02-004
ure) corresponds to the pump No. shown in Sensor
Amplifier
the pump layout illustration.

3. Stop the engine. Bleed air from the hydraulic oil


tank.

4. Disconnect the contamination sensor connector.


Remove the contamination sensor from the pump.
Indicator
5. Check if metal particles can be found on the con-
tamination sensor magnet. In case the stuck are
small, remove the metal particles and reinstall the
contamination sensor. Then operate the machine.
Pump Layout T144-05-05-001

: 36 mm
: 118 N⋅m (12 kgf⋅m, 87 lbf⋅ft)

6. In case a pump contamination sensor comes ON


frequently, disconnect the drain hose and check
the hydraulic drain oil for any metal particles. If
any metal particles are found replace the pump.

Front Engine Rear Engine

Contamination Sensor T144-05-05-002

Connector

Drain
Hose

M144-07-089

T5-5-33
TROUBLESHOOTING / Troubleshooting C
(Blank)

T5-5-34
TRUBLESHOOTING / Electrical System Inspection
PRECAUTIONS FOR INSPECTION AND Ȁ
MAINTENANCE
Ȁ
1. Disconnect the power source. Ȁ
Be sure to remove the negative terminals from the Ȁ
batteries first when taking wire harnesses and
connectors off for repair or replacement work. Ȁ
Failure to do so can result in damage to the wire Ȁ
harnesses, fuses, and fusible links and, in some Ȁ
cases, cause fire due to short circuiting.
Codes Color Codes Color
2. Color coding of wire harnesses. R Red G Green
The color codes of the wire harnesses in the
L Light Blue Lg Light Green
electrical system are shown below.
In cases where two color codes are indicated for Or Orange B Black
one wire, the left initial stands for the base color, Y Yellow P Pink
while the right initial stands for the marking color.
Br Brown V Violet
Gr Gray Sb Sky blue
NOTE: 1) Initials “O” and “Or” both stand for the
color orange.. W White
2) Wires with longitudinal stripes printed on Ȁ
them are not color coded. Be sure not to
confuse them with color coded wires. Right Wrong
3) Color code BW stands for the harness
with white fine line marking on black
base color.

3. Precautions for connecting and disconnecting


terminal connectors. T107-07-06-001
1) When disconnecting harnesses, grasp them
by their connectors. Do not pull on the wire
itself. Be sure to release the lock first before
attempting to separate connectors, if a lock is
provided. Right
2) Handling waterproof connectors. Rust
Because waterproof connectors are designed Wrong
to keep water out, it is very difficult to remove (Bent)
water once it gets inside these connectors.
Wrong
Be extra careful not to allow water to enter
(Coming off, Separation)
waterproof connectors.
T107-07-06-002
If water should enter the connector, use it only
after it is completely dried out.
3) Most connectors are made of brass. Before
connecting connectors, check that the
connector terminals are straight, intact and
free from rust.
4) When connecting terminal connectors
provided with a lock, be sure to insert them
together until you hear the lock go “click”.
Ȁ
Ȁ
Ȁ
Ȁ
Ȁ

T5-6-1
TRUBLESHOOTING / Electrical System Inspection
4. Precautions for Using A Circuit Tester
1) Before using a circuit tester, refer to the Tester Probe
Wind a Piece of Wire
instructions in the circuit tester manual.
Then, set the circuit tester to meet the object
to be measured, voltage range and current
polarity.
Sharpen End of Wire
2) Before starting the connector test, always T107-07-06-003

check the connector terminal numbers,


referring to the circuit diagram.
When the connector size is very small, and the
standard probe size is too large to be used for
testing, wind a fine piece of sharpened wire or
a pin around the probe to make the test easier.

T5-6-2
TRUBLESHOOTING / Electrical System Inspection
BATTERY VOLTAGE CHECK

1. Turn the key switch OFF. Measure voltage


between the positive terminal of the battery and
the machine body, as shown.

Normal value: 24 V

NOTE: If measured voltage is excessively out of


the normal value, recharge or replace the
batteries.

2. Start the engine. Measure voltage between the


positive terminal of the battery and the machine
body.

Normal value: 26 to 28 V

NOTE: If measured voltage is out of normal value


range, check the charging circuit. T107-04-05-006

T105-07-01-006

T5-6-3
TRUBLESHOOTING / Electrical System Inspection
FUSE CONTINUITY CHECK

Fuse failure is often caused by a fine crack in the fuse,


and such fine cracks are very hard to detect by visual
inspection.
Checking fuse continuity with a tester is far superior to
sight inspection.

1. Turn the key switch ON NOTE: 1. All the inside terminals of the fuses in the
In doing so, the battery relay is activated by the fuse box 1 are connected to the power
current from terminal M of the key switch, and source, while the outside terminals are
electric power is supplied to all circuits. connected to the accessory (down-
stream) side.
NOTE: When the key switch is in the START posi-
tion, electric power is supplied to terminals NOTE: 2. All the upper side terminals of the fuses
#24, #25, #26, #27 in fuse box 1. in the fuse box 2 are connected to the
power source, while the lower side ter-
2. Remove the fuse box cover and set the correct minals are connected to the accessory
voltage measurement range (0 to 30 V) of the (downstream) side.
tester.

3. Connect the negative probe to vehicle ground,


and touch the accessory (downstream) side ter-
minal of each fuse with the positive probe of the
tester. When the tester indicates the voltage
range of 20 to 25 V (battery voltage), the fuse is
not blown.

Fuse Box 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Accessory (Downstrem) Side

Power Source Side

Accessory (Downstrem) Side

M117-07-072

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

T5-6-4
TRUBLESHOOTING / Electrical System Inspection
Fuse Box 2
Power Source
Side

Accessory
(Downstream)
Side

1 2 3 4 5 6

T117-06-06-001
Fuse Box 1 Connections
Fuse No. Designation Capacity Connected to Remarks
1 LOAD DUMP RELAY 5A Load Dump Relay, Limit Switch
2 MAIN C/U (B) 5A MC (B)
3 E.C.M. (FRONT) 5A ECM (Front Engine)
4 E.C.M. (REAR) 5A ECM (Rear Engine)
5 E.C.M. ON SIG. (FRONT) 5A Emergency Relay (Front Engine)
6 E.C.M. ON SIG. (REAR) 5A Emergency Relay (Rear Engine)
7 MOT. ALARM 5A Travel Alarm
8 DC/DC 15 A Transformer (24 to 12 V)
9 10 A Monitor, Hour Meter
10 ETHER SOL. 30 A Starting Aid Relay
11 ENTRANCE LIGHT 10 A Entrance Light Relay
12 WORK LIGHT (UPPER) 10 A Work Light Relay (On Cab)
13 WORK LIGHT (RIGHT) 10 A Work Light Relay (Right Side of Base Machine)
14 WORK LIGHT (LEFT) 10 A Work Light Relay (Left Side of Base Machine)
15 ENG. ROOM LIGHT 15 A Engine Room Light Relay
16 ILLUMINATE 10 A Illumination Relay
17 MAIN C/U (A) 10 A MC (A), MC (B)
18 CONTAMI AMP 5A Contamination Sensor
19 HORN 5A Horn Relay
20 CAB DOME LIGHT 5A Dome light Relay
21 WIPER MOT. (LOWER) 10 A Wiper Motor (Lower)
22 WIPER MOT. (UPPER) 10 A Wiper Motor (Upper)
23 SOL. VALVE 10 A Travel Speed Change Solenoid Valve, Travel Speed Change Relay, Hydraulic
Oil Temperature Sensor,
Auto-Lubrication Solenoid Valve Relay,
Swing inter lock solenoid valve
24 STARTER RELAY (FRONT) 5A Starter Relay (Front Engine)
25 ETHER RELAY (FRONT) 5A Starting Aid Relay (Front Engine)
26 STARTER RELAY (REAR) 5A Starter Relay (Rear Engine)
27 ETHER RELAY (REAR) 5A Starting Aid Relay (Rear Engine)
28 BATTERY RELAY 5A Battery Relay
29 METER 5A Indicator Light Check Relay, Hour Meter Relay, Monitor, Hour Meter
30 MAIN C/U ON SIG. 5A MC (A), MC (B)
31 A/C MAIN (FRONT) 15 A Air-Conditioner Relay (Front)
32 A/C MAIN (SIDE) 15 A Air-Conditioner Relay (Side)
33 A/C MAIN (REAR) 15 A Air-Conditioner Relay (Rear)
34 A/C ON SIG. (FRONT) 5A Air-Conditioner Relay (Front), Air-Conditioner Controller (Front)
35 A/C ON SIG. (SIDE) 5A Air-Conditioner Relay (Side), Air-Conditioner Controller (Side)
36 A/C ON SIG. (REAR) 5A Air-Conditioner Relay (Rear), Air-Conditioner Controller (Rear)
37 A/C BACK UP 5A Air-Conditioner Controller (Front, Side, and Rear)
38 A/C C. (FRONT) 30 A Condenser Fan Relay (Front)
39 A/C C. (SIDE) 30 A Condenser Fan Relay (Side)
40 A/C C. (REAR) 30 A Condenser Fan Relay (Rear)

Fuse Box 2 Connections


Fuse No. Designation Capacity Connected to Remarks
1 RADIO (BACK UP) 5A Radio
2 RADIO 5A Radio
3 LIGHTER 10 A Cigar Lighter
4 POWER TERMINAL 5A Power Source Terminal
5 POWER TERMINAL 10 A Power Source Terminal
6 POWER TERMINAL 10 A Power Source Terminal

T5-6-5
TRUBLESHOOTING / Electrical System Inspection
SLOW BLOW FUSE INSPECTION
1 2 3 4 5
Disconnect slow blow fuse. Inspect visually.

T144-05-06-002

Slow Blow Fuse No. Capacity Connected to Remarks


1 75 A Fuse Box 1 (#7 to 10), Fuse Box 2 (#5)
2 75 A Fuse Box 1 (#11 to 18)
3 75 A Fuse Box 1 (#21 to 23)
4 75 A Fuse Box 1 (#31 to #33)
5 75 A Fuse Box 1 (#1 to #4, #37), Fuse Box 2 (#1)

T5-6-6
TRUBLESHOOTING / Electrical System Inspection
ALTERNATOR CHECK
Terminal B Terminal R
The alternator indicator should go off after the engine
is started.
If the alternator indicator stays (comes) on while the
engine is running, the alternator may be failed.

Measurement of Generating Voltage

1. Start the engine. Measure voltage at terminals R


and B.
Ȁ If the voltage at terminal R is 1.0 V or higher, and
if that at the terminal B is approximately 28 V, the
alternator is normal.

M117-07-077

T5-6-7
TRUBLESHOOTING / Electrical System Inspection
VOLTAGE CHECK

Turn switches ON so that the specified voltage


(current) is supplied to the check point. Measure volt-
age (cur-rent). Diagnose the circuit by checking if
specified voltage is supplied or not.

24 V Circuit

Check the circuit in either the upstream (from the


power source) order or downstream (from the acces-
sory) order to locate the failed section in the circuit.

Tester Negative (−) Probe : Vehicle Ground


Tester Positive (+) Probe : Each Measurement Point

Engine Key Switch Check Point Standard

Power Sourse Circuit


Stop OFF Between (1) and (2): Battery (1 piece) 10 to 12.5 V
Stop OFF Between (2) and (3): Battery (1 piece) 10 to 12.5 V
Stop OFF Between (1) and (3): Battery (2 piece) 20 to 25 V
Stop OFF Between (4) and (Ground): Power Source 20 to 25 V
Stop OFF Between (5) and (Ground): Slow Blow Fuse 20 to 25 V
Accessory Circuit
Stop ACC Between (6) and (Ground): Radio 20 to 25 V
Stop ACC Between (7) and (Ground): Cigar Lighter 20 to 25 V
Stop ACC Between (8) and (Ground): Horn 20 to 25 V
Stop ACC Between (9) and (Ground): Dome Light 20 to 25 V

Auxiliary Start Circuit


Starting START Between (10) and (Ground): Starting Aid Relay (Switch) 20 to 25 V
Starting START Between (11) and (Ground): Starting Aid Relay (Coil) 20 to 25 V
Starting START Between (12) and (Ground): Starting Aid Solenoid Valve 20 to 25 V
Starting Circuit
Starting START Between (21) and (Ground): Battery Relay 20 to 25 V
Starting START Between (22) and (Ground): Battery Relay (Coil) 20 to 25 V
Starting START Between (13) and (Ground): Starter (B) 20 to 25 V
Starting START Between (14) and (Ground): Starter (S) 20 to 25 V
Starting START Between (15) and (Ground): Starter Relay (Excitation Current) 0.37 A
Starting START Between (16) and (Ground): Starter Relay 20 to 25 V

Charging Circuit
Running ON Between (17) and (Ground): Starter Relay 2 10 V
Running ON Between (18) and (Ground): Alternator Generating Voltage (R) 10 V
Running ON Between (19) and (Ground): Alternator Generating Voltage (B) 26 to 30 V
Running ON Between (20) and (Ground): Breaker 26 to 30 V

Surge Voltage
Prevention Circuit
Running ON Between (23) and (Ground): Load Dump Relay 26 to 30 V

T5-6-8
TRUBLESHOOTING / Electrical System Inspection
12 11 Starting Aid 6 7
Relay

8
9 10
Starting Aid Solenoid Valve

Fuse Box 1

23

Key Switch Load Dump


Relay

5
Slow Blow
17 16 21 22 Fuse

Starter
Relay 2
15
Starter
Relay
18

13 17
4 3 2 1 20

Alternator

14 15 16
Starter Battery

19

T144-05-06-001

T5-6-9
TRUBLESHOOTING / Electrical System Inspection
CONTINUITY CHECK Harness
A a
Single-line continuity check
Disconnect both end connectors of the harness and
check continuity between both ends:
If the ohm-meter reading is: 0 Ω = Continuity
ҁ Ω = Discontinuity Ω

NOTE: When the one end connector is far apart


Connect to A a
from the other, connect one end of Machine
connector (A) to the vehicle frame using a Chassis.
clip. Then, check continuity of the harness
through the vehicle frame as illustrated.
Connect to Ω
If the ohm-meter reading is: 0 Ω = Continuity Machine
Chassis.
ҁ Ω = Discontinuity
A a
Single-line short-circuit check
Disconnect both end connectors of the harness and × Short-Circuit
check continuity between one end connector of the Between the
Harness and
harness and the vehicle frame: Machine
If the ohm-meter reading is: Ω Chassis.
0 Ω = Short circuit is present.
ҁ Ω = No short circuit is present.
T107-07-05-003
Multi-line continuity check
Disconnect both end connectors of the harness, and
First Terminal Connection
connect two terminals, (A) and (B), at one end
connector, as illustrated. Then, check continuity
between terminals (a) and (b) at the other connector. A a
If the ohm-meter reading is ҁ Ω, either line (A) - (a), B b
or (B) - (b) is in discontinuity. To find out which line is C c
discontinued, conduct the single line continuity check
Second Terminal Connection
on both lines individually, or, after changing the short-
circuit terminals from (A) - (B) to (A) - (C), check
continuity once more between terminals (a) and (c).

NOTE: By conducting the multi-line continuity
check twice, it is possible to find out which
line is discontinued. With terminals (A) and T107-07-05-004

(C) connected, check continuity between Short-Circuit Between Harnesses.


terminals (a) and (c).
If the ohm-meter reading is: A Ɂ
0 Ω = Line (B) - (b) has discontinuity. B ѱ ɂ
ҁ Ω = Line (A) - (a) has discontinuity. C Ƀ

Multi-line short-circuit check


Disconnect both end connectors of the harness, and
check continuity between terminals (A) and (B) or (C).
If the ohm-meter reading is: Ω
0 Ω = Short-circuit exists between the lines.
ҁȀΩ = No short-circuit exists between the lines.
T107-07-05-005

T5-6-10
TRUBLESHOOTING / Electrical System Inspection
5 VOLT CIRCUIT Signal or
Power Source Ground
Voltage between terminal No.1 and the vehicle 1 2
frame chassis (Ground)
With the key switch turned OFF, disconnect the
sensor connector. Two Polarities
Measure the voltage between terminal No.1 of the
harness side connector and the vehicle frame under
the following conditions. V

• Key switch position: ON


• Tester black probe (negative):
Connected to the vehicle frame (ground)
T107-07-05-006
• Tester red probe (positive): Power Source Signal Ground
Connected to terminal No.1 1 2 3

Evaluation:
If the measured voltage is within 5 ± 0.5 volts, the Three Polarities
circuit up to terminal No.1 is normal.

T107-07-05-007

1 2
Voltage between terminal No.1 and the ground Two Polarities
terminal
With the key switch turned OFF, disconnect the
sensor connector. V
Measure the voltage between terminal No.1 on the
harness side connector and the ground terminal
(terminal No.2 for two polarities, or terminal No.3 for
three polarities) under the following conditions.

• Key switch position: ON T107-07-05-008


• Tester black probe (negative):
Connected to the ground terminal 1 2 3
(terminal No.2 or 3)
• Tester red probe (positive): Three Polarities
Connected to terminal No.1
V
Evaluation:
If the measured voltage is within 5 ± 0.5 volts, the
circuit lines up to terminal No.1 and the ground
terminal are normal.

T107-07-05-009

T5-6-11
TRUBLESHOOTING / Electrical System Inspection
CIRCUIT CHECK WITH LAMP HARNESS

Connect a lamp harness kit between connectors.


Check if the lamp comes ON while the checking circuit
is activated.

Parts Number 4283594 (ST 7126)


Use to check a single line for breakage, or voltage. To check point
To ground
When activated: Lamp ON

Parts Number 4283594 (ST 7126)


T107-07-05-012

T5-6-12
THE ATTACHED DIAGRAM LIST

(The following diagrams are attached to this manual.)

1. EX1800-3 ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT 1/2

2. EX1800-3 ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT 2/2

3. EX1800-3 CONNECTOR

4. EX1800-3 MAIN HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT (Loading Shovel)

5. EX1800-3 MAIN HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT (Backhoe) (Serial No. 000547 or earlier)


EX1800-3 MAIN HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT (Backhoe) (Serial No. 000548 or after)

6. EX1800-3 PILOT HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT (Loading Shovel)

7. EX1800-3 PILOT HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT (Backhoe) (Serial No. 000547 or earlier)


EX1800-3 PILOT HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT (Backhoe) (Serial No. 000548 or after)
EX1800-3 ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT 1/2

1
2
3
4
5
A

10
6
7
8
9
A
K
6 1
A K 7 2
8 3
9 4
10 5

6 1
7 2
8 3
9 4

1
2
3
4
5
10 5

10
6
7
8
9
K A

K A
EX1800-3 ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT 2/2

1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
K

K
1
2
3
4
5

10

10
6
7
8
9

6
7
8
9
10
6
7
8
9

A
A

10
6
7
8
9

6 1
7 2
8 3
9 4
10 5

6 1
7 2
8 3
9 4
10 5
EX1800-3 CONNECTOR

Cab Harness (Monitor Etc.), Electrical Equipment Box (To Cab Harness) Air Conditioner Panel, Electrical Equipment Box Cab Harness (Wiper Etc.) Electrical Equipment Box Air Conditioner Unit (Front) Electrical Equipment Box
Engine Room Harness Electrical Equipment Box (To Engine Room Harness) Rear Engine Harness Rear Engine Harness Engine Harness Engine Harness
Engine Harness (Front) Engine Harness (Front)
Relay Panel Harness Electrical Equipment Box

Air Conditioner Unit (Rear) Electrical Equipment Box Air Conditioner Unit (Rear) Air Conditioner Unit (Rear) Thrmo Guard Switch ~2 ~2 Coolant Level Switch ~2 Cab Harness (Key Switch Etc.) Electrical Equipment Box To Cab Cab Harness Electrical Equipment Box Cab Harness Electrical Equipment Box Auto-Lubrication Solenoid Valve
Cab Harness Cab Harness ~2 To Cab Harness Cycle Timer ECM
Data Link ~2

ECM(F)
ECM(R)

Mc(A) Mc(A) Air conditioner Controller ~3 Air conditioner Controller ~3 Air conditioner Control Panel ~3 Contamination Sensor Amplifier ~2
Mc(B) Mc(B)

Idicator(Warning) ~3 Wiper Switch Switch ~8 Accelerator Sensor (F) Accelerator Sensor (R) Buzzer Fuel Gauge Tachometer ~2 Radio Speaker ~2 Diode ~10 Cab Harness ~2 Cab Harness ~2 Cab Harness ~2 ECM(F)
Idicator Wiper Delay Selector Hydraulic Oil Temperature Gauge Intake Unit ~3 Hour Mater Wiper Motor ~2 ECM(R)
Dimmer Switch Coolant Temperature Gauge Inc./Dec. Switch ~2 Starter Relay 1 ~2 Key Switch ~2
Auto-Lubrication Interval Switch Ether Relay ~2

Engin Diagnosing Switch ~2

Cab Harness ~2 Starter Relay 2 ~2 Emergency Engine Stop Switch Diode ~7 Slow Blow Fuse 75A ~4 Slow Blow Fuse Slow Blow Fuse Slow Blow Fuse Slow Blow Fuse Slow Blow Fuse Slow Blow Fuse Air Conditioner Unit ~3 Intake Unit ~3 Condenser Fan Motor ~6 Air Conditioner Pressure Switch ~3
Dome Light To Electrical Equipment Box ~2 To Electrical Equipment Box ~2 To Electrical Equipment Box ~2 To Electrical Equipment Box ~2 To Electrical Equipment Box ~2 To Electrical Equipment Box ~2

Slow Blow Fuse 45A

Relay ~30 Ether Relay ~2 ~2 Emergency Engine Stop Switch Pump Harness ~2 Auto-Lubrication Switch Relay Panel Harness Ladder Limit Switch Contamination Sensor ~6 Travel Speed Change
Solenoid Valve Fuel Level Switch Harness Fuel Level Switch Harness Ehc Valve ~2 Auto-Idle Pressure Switch Travel Alarm Dome Light Harness
Pump Harness ~2 Relay Panel Harness Relay Panel Harness Auto-Lubrication Switch Harness Auto-Lubrication Switch Harness Pump Control Solenoid Valve Engine Oil Level Switch ~2 Ladder Limit Switch Harness Pressure Switch (For Travel Alarm)

Relay Panel Harness Engine Speed Sensor ~2 Fuel Level Switch


Hydraulic Oil Level Switch 1 Swing Inter Lock Solenoid Valve
Hydraulic Oil Level Switch 2 Grease Pressure Switch
(Manual-Lub.)
Coolant Level Switch ~2 Ladder Limit Switch Harness
EX1800-3 MAIN HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT(Loading Shovel)
Hitachi Authorized Dealer Use Only
(Serial No. 000547 or earlier)
Hitachi Authorized Dealer Use Only
(Serial No. 000548 or after)
Hitachi Authorized Dealer Use Only

BOOM
LOWER
EX1800-3 PILOT HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT(Loading Shovel)
Hitachi Authorized Dealer Use Only
Main Hydraulic Oil Tank

Pilot Shut-Off
Valve
Auxiliary Hydraulic Oil Tank
Drain Filter
Pilot Filter
Horsepower Reducing Valve

Travel Pilot Valve Pilot Valve (L)


Reverse(L) Arm Retract

Travel Cut-Off Valve

Forward(L) Arm Extend

Swing Pi Reverse(R) Left Swing

EHC Valve

Forward(R) Right Swing

Bucket Open-Close Pilot Valve Pilot Valve (R)


Bucket Tilt-In

K3V280SH @Port(PUMP1 ‘4)

Symbol Pump Control Pressure


SWING PUMP

SWING PUMP
Servo Assist Open Bucket Tilt-Out

Flow Rate Control Boom Lower


Increased Horsepower
Pump Control
Reduced Horsepower
Pump Control
Maximum Flow
Rate Reducing
Relief Oil Minimizing
Control Override ENG. R ENG. F Close Boom Raise

Travel Mode Shift


Solenoid Valve

Rev.(L)
For.(R)
Auto-Idle
Press. SW

Adjuster
Raise Tilt-In Sw. Bk Release
Travel Speed Change

Swing (L)
Swing (R)

Close Open

Swing C/V (L)

Extend
Retract
Sw. (L)
Travel Press.
Sw. (R)
Left C/V
Swing Inter Lock Arm Retract
Solenoid Valve Travel + Boom Raise
Swing Motor (R) Swing Motor (F) Arm Extend
Bucket Open
Extend Swing C/V (R) Bucket Tilt-Out
Retract
Bucket Close
Boom Raise
Bucket Tilt-in
Tilt-Out
Tilt-In Boom Lower
Travel Alarm
Center Joint
Press. SW

Multi Shuttle Valve

Raise Lower Travel Motor (L)

Front + Travel

Pilot

Arm Retract + Travel

Swing Pi

Travel Pi
Rev.(L)
For.(R)

Adjuster Cylinder (L)

Right C/V

Adjuster Cylinder (R)

Travel Motor (R) Grease Pump


EX1800-3 PILOT HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT(Backhoe)
(Serial No. 000547 or earlier)
Hitachi Authorized Dealer Use Only
Main Hydraulic Oil Tank

Pilot Shut-Off
Valve
Auxiliary Hydraulic Oil Tank
Drain Filter
Pilot Filter
Horsepower Reducing Valve

Travel Pilot Valve Arm Pilot Valve (L)


Reverse(L) Roll-Out

Travel Cut-Off Valve

Arm
Forward(L) Roll-In

Swing Pi Reverse(R) Left Swing

EHC Valve

Forward(R) Right Swing

Pilot Valve (R)


Bucket Tilt-In

K3V280SH @Port(PUMP1 ‘4)

Symbol Pump Control Pressure


SWING PUMP

SWING PUMP
Servo Assist Bucket Tilt-Out

Flow Rate Control Boom Lower


Increased Horsepower
Pump Control
Reduced Horsepower
Pump Control
Maximum Flow
Rate Reducing
Relief Oil Minimizing
Control Override ENG. R ENG. F Boom Raise

Travel Mode Shift


Solenoid Valve

For.(R) Rev.(L)
Auto-Idle
Press. SW

Boom Adjuster
Raise Sw. Bk Release
Travel Speed Change

Swing (L)
Swing (R)
Bucket Bucket
Roll-In Roll-Out

Swing C/V (L)

Arm Roll-Out