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# STRUT AND TIE METHOD

ACRONYM
STM is the acronym for “Strut and Tie Models” or “Strut and Tie Methods“.
It is a design method of reinforced concrete structures by idealizing
structural components as truss models which are composed of axially
loaded members, including compression bearing members (strut) and
tension bearing members (tie).

B REGION
The word “B region” is short for “Bernoulli region” or “Beam region“.
According to Bernoulli hypothesis (Plane sections remain plane after
bending…), the strains in concrete structures follow a linear distribution.
This is the theoretical basis for flexural design of concrete components.
Those regions which follow Bernoulli hypotheses belong to B regions.
They could be designed by simple calculations.

CORBEL
Corbel is an example which does not follow the Bernoulli hypotheses. It is
discontinued in geometry. Or we can say the stress and strain in corbel is
disturbed.

D REGION

Examples of D regions

D region means “discontinued region” or “disturbed region“, such as
corbel. These D regions do not follow Bernoulli hypothesis. Thus, they
could not be designed or analyzed by simple calculations. The solution is
either empirical approximation or very complicated computations such as
FEA methods.

It is based on graphics of structures. there are many other types of D regions. CSA Standard. the failure modes of most of them are brittle shear failures. beams with opening holes. HISTORY STM was presented by Schlaich et al.EXAMPLES Besides corbels. pile caps. such as deep beams. Approximately. FIP Recommendations. FLEXURE Take the design of pile caps as an example. in the year 1987. in the ACI 318M-05. and beam-column joints. dimensions. GRAPHICAL PROCEDURE 2D and 3D graphic of STM Like Maxwell method for analyzing trusses. For example. such as AASHTO LRFD Specifications. the provision is “The angle . ACI 318. It has been adopted by many codes or standards. pile caps are designed by beam theory. Feasible inclined angle between strut and tie members is an important factor. the inclined angle is limited between 25° and 60°. Other research works include Collins and Mitchell (1991) and MacGregor (1992). They are assumed to fail in flexure. which is a ductile break and has warning cracks. and areas of struts and ties could be obtained by graphical methods. The angles. and European Code. STM is also a graphical procedure. In many cases. However. There are different provisions in different codes. either two-dimensional or three-dimensional. INCLINED ANGLE One of the definitions in these codes for STM is the geometric rules in creating a proper STM model. according to several research works.

Models which have unnecessarily complicated load paths are not good choices. It could perform well only when used correctly. . They could be analyzed by STM models. In order to use STM properly. Nevertheless. There are several possible load paths in reinforced concrete structures since there are several possible reinforcement arrangements. engineers should have a good understanding of structural behavior and an accurate judgment of design issues.” JOINT STM of beam-column joints The common beam-column joints in moment frame structures are examples of D regions. Load path should be as elegant as possible. STM is only a tool kit for structural engineers. It is not a cookbook procedure. LOAD PATH Good and poor load paths of the same deep beam One characteristic of a proper STM model is that the load path is simple and direct.between the axes of any strut and any tie entering a single node shall not be taken as less than 25 degrees. we should be meticulous when choosing the load path. KIT Nothing is elixir.

nodes are the connections of members. Fu. C. there are three members converging into one node.METHOD The basic method for STM is showed in this flow chart (C. Based on the internal . 2001). Flow chart of the method of STM NODE Different types of Nodes In STM truss models. Usually.

Pay attention to the anchorage. STRUT Basically. They have different calculation factors when checking node strengths. quantitative method is still required. A model with the minimum amount of reinforcement is usually the optimal model. The calculation of the amount of ties and the checking of nodes and struts all need quantitative procedures. Thus. Otherwise. It is also useful in the shear design of structural members. Generally. TIE Ties are tension members in the STM models. OPTIMAL MODEL Since there are several possible models. . we should use the most ideal model in our analysis. QUANTITATIVE Although STM is a graphical procedure. there are three types of struts: prism. and CTT. CCT. common nodes could be classified as CCC. and bottle. We can see the detailed procedure in the following example. the common criterion is the amount of reinforcement. POTENTIAL STM could provide relatively easy and accurate analysis for D regions in reinforced concrete. They should have adequate anchorage in the nodes. brittle anchorage failures might happen. REINFORCEMENT STM of joint and the corresponding reinforcement Detailed reinforcement could be arranged by following the location and distribution of idealized ties in the STM models. fan.force of members (Compression or Tension). They have different factors in the calculation of compression strengths. it has a great potential in the field of concrete structures.

Since STM considers all load effects simultaneously. The vertical reinforcement (stirrups) in beams could be decided by STM analysis. STM models of concrete structures could be regarded as the x-ray pictures of the structure members. WALL Like deep beams. such as this STM model of a pier cap. in the year 1987 is Toward a Consistent Design of Structural Concrete. it is a unified approach for concrete structures. X-RAY “X-ray” of pier cap Sometimes.UNIFIED APPROACH The tile of the paper of Schlaich et al. load bearing walls could also be analyzed by STM. VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT STM for shear design of beams One of the usages of STM is the shear design of concrete components. .

STM model based on ACI (metric unit) .YIELD In order to guarantee the safety of structural members. reinforcement should yield before the brittle crush of concrete. ZUM BEISPIEL (FOR EXAMPLE) STM and FEA analysis of a deep beam DESIGN EXAMPLE 1.

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Another version of STM model .2.

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Compared with former STM model. maybe a better solution is to make the height of the beam a little higher. However. . Thus. the angle could be a bit bigger and the amount of reinforcement will not increase significantly. Considering the decrease in the amount of reinforcement and the smaller inclined angle. The inclined angle is very small and is very near to the lower limit. but the vertical reinforcement in this model is much small. the longitudinal reinforcement is a bit larger. there are some issues.