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The large number of interactions around 200 MeV led Fermi to conclude that the

7r+ and proton combined momentarily to form a short-lived particle before coming
apart again, or at least that they resonated together for a short time. Indeed, the
large peak in Fig. 43-14 resembles a resonance curve (see Figs. 14-23,14-26, and
30-22), and this new “ particle” — now called the A— is referred to as a resonance.
Hundreds of other resonances have been found, and are regarded as excited states
of lighter mass particles such as the nucleon.
The width of a resonance— in Fig. 43-14 the fu ll width of the A peak at half the
peak height is on the order of 100 MeV— is an interesting application of the uncertainty
principle. If a particle lives only 10-23 s, then its mass (i.e., its rest energy) w ill be
uncertain by an amount

A E ra h /{ 2 ir A t)

tt (6.6 X 10-34 J -s )/(6 )(l0 _23s) « 10-n J « 100 MeV,

which is what is observed. Actually, the lifetimes of « 10_23s for such reso­
nances are inferred by the reverse process: from the measured width being
» 100 MeV.

4 3 - 8 Strange Particles? Charm?


Towards a New Model
In the early 1950s, the newly found particles K, A, and 2 were found to behave
rather strangely in two ways. First, they were always produced in pairs. For
example, the reaction

77“ + p K° + A°

occurred with high probability, but the similar reaction 7r“ + p \> K° + n, was
never observed to occur even though it did not violate any known conservation
law. The second feature of these strange particles, as they came to be called, was
that they were produced via the strong interaction (that is, at a high interaction
rate), but did not decay at a fast rate characteristic of the strong interaction (even
though they decayed into strongly interacting particles).
To explain these observations, a new quantum number, strangeness, and a new
conservation law, conservation of strangeness, were introduced. By assigning the
strangeness numbers (S ) indicated in Table 43-2, the production of strange parti­
cles in pairs was explained. Antiparticles were assigned opposite strangeness from
their particles. For example, in the reaction 7r“ + p — » K° + A0, the in itia l state
has strangeness S = 0 + 0 = 0, and the final state has S = + l — 1 = 0, so
strangeness is conserved. But for 7r“ + p \> K° + n, the initia l state has S = 0
and the final state has S ' = + l + 0 = + l , so strangeness would not be
conserved; and this reaction is not observed.
To explain the decay of strange particles, it is assumed that strangeness is A c a u t i o n ____________
conserved in the strong interaction but is not conserved in the w eak interaction. Partially conserved quantities
Thus, strange particles were forbidden by strangeness conservation to decay
to nonstrange particles of lower mass via the strong interaction, but could
decay by means of the weak interaction at the observed longer lifetimes of 10-10 to
10-8 s.
The conservation of strangeness was the first example of a partially conserved
quantity. In this case, the quantity strangeness is conserved by strong interactions
but not by weak.

SECTION 43-8 Strange Particles? Charm? Towards a New Model 1181


CONCEPTUAL EXAMPLE 45-8~| Guess the missing particle. Using the conser­
vation laws for particle interactions, determine the possibilities for the missing
particle in the reaction
7T~ + p K° + ?
in addition to K° + A0 mentioned above.
RESPONSE We write equations for the conserved numbers in this reaction, with
B, L e, S, and Q as unknowns whose determination w ill reveal what the possible
particle might be:
Baryon number: 0 + 1 = 0 + B
Lepton number: 0 + 0 = 0 + Le
Charge: -1 + 1 = 0 + Q
Strangeness: 0 + 0 = 1 + S.
The unknown product particle would have to have these characteristics:
B = +1 Le = 0 Q = 0 S = - 1.
In addition to A0, a neutral sigma particle, 2°, is also consistent with these numbers.

In the next Section we w ill discuss another partially conserved quantity which
was given the name charm. The discovery in 1974 of a particle with charm helped
solidify a new theory involving quarks, which we now discuss.

4 3 -9 Quarks
A ll particles, except the gauge bosons (Section 43-6), are either leptons or
hadrons. One difference between these two groups is that the hadrons interact
via the strong interaction, whereas the leptons do not.
There is another major difference. The six leptons (e“ , /jl~, t ~, v e, , vT) are
considered to be truly fundamental particles because they do not show any internal
structure, and have no measurable size. (Attempts to determine the size of leptons
have put an upper lim it of about 10-18 m.) On the other hand, there are hundreds of
hadrons, and experiments indicate they do have an internal structure.
In 1963, M. Gell-Mann and G. Zweig proposed that none of the hadrons,
not even the proton and neutron, are tru ly fundamental, but instead are made
up of combinations of three more fundamental pointlike entities called
(somewhat whimsically) quarks.1 Today, the quark theory is well-accepted,
and quarks are considered truly fundamental particles, like leptons. The
three quarks originally proposed were labeled u, d, s, and have the names up,
down, and strange. The theory today has six quarks, just as there are six leptons—
based on a presumed symmetry in nature. The other three quarks are called
charmed, bottom, and top. The names apply also to new properties of each
(quantum numbers c ,b ,t) that distinguish the new quarks from the old quarks (see
Table 43-3), and which (like strangeness) are conserved in strong, but not weak,
interactions.
tGell-Mann chose the word from a phrase in James Joyce’s Finnegans Wake.

TABLE 43-3 Properties of Quarks (Antiquarks have opposite sign Q, B, S, c, t, b)

Quarks
Mass Charge Baryon Number Strangeness Charm Bottomness Topness
Name Symbol (MeV/c2) Q B S c b t
Up u 2 + le l 0 0 0 0
3
Down d 5 1 0 0 0 0
3
Strange s 95 1 -1 0 0 0
~ \e 3
Charmed c 1250 1 0 +1 0 0
+ ie 3
Bottom b 4200 1 0 0 -1 0
3
Top t 173,000 1 0 0 0 +1
+ie 3

1182 CHAPTER 43 Elementary Particles


TABLE 43-4 Partial List of Heavy Hadrons, with Charm and Bottomness (Le =

II

II
0)

b-
4
Baryon
Anti­ Mass Number Strangeness Charm Bottomness: Mean life
Category Particle particle Spin (MeV/c2) B S c b 00 Principal Decay Modes
Mesons D+ D“ 0 1869.4 0 0 +1 0 10.6 X 10“13 K + others, e + others
D° D° 0 1864.5 0 0 +1 0 4.1 X 10“13 K + others, juor e + others
D5 0 1968 0 +1 +1 0 5.0 X 10“13 K + others
J/iA (3097) Self 1 3096.9 0 0 0 0 « io-20 Hadrons, e+e_, /jl+/jT
Y (9460) Self 1 9460 0 0 0 0 « io-20 Hadrons, e+e“, t+t“
B“ B+ 0 5279 0 0 0 -1 1.6 X 10“12 D° + others
B° B° 0 5279 0 0 0 -1 1.5 X 10“12 D° + others

Baryons A- 1 2286 +1 0 +1 0 2.0 X 10-13 Hadrons (e.g., A + others)


Ac 2
2C
++ 1 2454 +1 0 +1 0 « 10“21 A+7T+
2 r 2
1 2453 +1 0 +1 0 « 10“21 A<!"IT0
2C
+ 2C“ 2
2° 2° 1 2454 +1 0 +1 0 « 10“21 AcTT~
2
Ag 1 5620 +1 0 0 -1 1.2 X 10“12 J/j/fA°, pD°7r_, Ac7r+Tr~7r~
n 2

A ll quarks have spin \ and an electric charge of either + \ e or —\e


(that is, a fraction of the previously thought smallest charge e). Antiquarks have
opposite sign of electric charge Q, baryon number B, strangeness S, charm c,
bottomness b, and topness t. Other properties of quarks are shown in Table 43-3. FIGURE 43-15 Quark
A ll hadrons are considered to be made up of combinations of quarks (plus the compositions for several particles.
gluons that hold them together), and their properties are described by looking at
their quark content. Mesons consist of a quark-antiquark pair. For example,
a 7r+ meson is a ud combination: note that for the ud pair (Table 43-3),
Q = \ e + \ e = + le , B = \ — \ = 0, 5 = 0 + 0 = 0, as they must for a 7r+;
and a K + = us, with Q = +1, B = 0, S = +1.
Baryons, on the other hand, consist of three quarks. For example, a neutron is
n = ddu, whereas an antiproton is p = u u d . See Fig. 43-15. Strange particles
all contain an s or s quark, whereas charmed particles contain a c or c quark. A
few of these hadrons are listed in Table 43-4.
A fter the quark theory was proposed, physicists began looking for these frac­
tionally charged particles, but direct detection has not been successful. Current
models suggest that quarks may be so tightly bound together that they may not
ever exist singly in the free state. But observations of very high energy electrons
scattered off protons suggest that protons are indeed made up of constituents.
Today, the truly fundamental particles are considered to be the six quarks,
the six leptons, and the gauge bosons that carry the fundamental forces. See
Table 43-5, where the quarks and leptons are arranged in three “ families” or
“ generations.” Ordinary matter— atoms made of protons, neutrons, and electrons—
is contained in the “ first generation.” The others are thought to have existed in
the very early universe, but are seen by us today only at powerful accelerators
or in cosmic rays. A ll of the hundreds of hadrons can be accounted for by combi­
nations of the six quarks and six antiquarks.

I
EXERCISE D Return to the Chapter-Opening Questions, page 1164, and answer them again
now. Try to explain why you may have answered differently the first time.

TABLE 43-5 The Fundamental Particlest as Seen Today


First Second Third
Gauge bosons Force generation generation generation
Gluons Strong Quarks u, d s, c b, t
W±,z 0 Weak Leptons e, ve /A, Vp T, VT
7 (photon) EM
fThe quarks and leptons are arranged into three generations each.

SECTION 43-9 Quarks 1183


CONCEPTUAL EXAMPLE 45-91 Quark combinations. Find the baryon
number, charge, and strangeness for the following quark combinations, and identify
the hadron particle that is made up of these quark combinations: (a) udd, (b ) uu,
(c) uss, (d ) sdd, and ( e) bu.
RESPONSE We use Table 43-3 to get the properties of the quarks, then
Table 43-2 or 43-4 to find the particle that has these properties.
(a) udd has
Q = + \e - \e ~ \e = 0,
B = 5 + 5 + 5 = 1,
5 = 0 + 0 + 0 = 0,
as well as c = 0, bottomness = 0, topness = 0. The only baryon (B = +1)
that has Q = 0, S = 0, etc., is the neutron (Table 43-2).
(b) uu has Q = \ e — \ e = 0, B = \ — \ = 0, and all other quantum
numbers = 0. Sounds like a i r° (dd also gives a 7r°).
(c) uss has Q = 0, B = +1, S = -2 , others = 0. This is a H°.
((d) sdd has Q = -1 , B = +1, S = -1 , so must be a 2 _.
(ie) bu has Q = -1 , B = 0, 5 = 0, c = 0, bottomness = — 1, topness = 0.
This must be a B“ meson (Table 43-4).
| EXERCISE E What is the quark composition of a KT meson?

43-10 The "Standard Model":


Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and
Electroweak Theory
Not long after the quark theory was proposed, it was suggested that quarks have
another property (or quality) called color, or “ color charge” (analogous to electric
charge). The distinction between the six types of quark (u, d, s, c, b, t) was referred
to as flavor. According to theory, each of the flavors of quark can have three
colors, usually designated red, green, and blue. (These are the three primary colors
which, when added together in appropriate amounts, as on a TV screen, produce
white.) Note that the names “ color” and “ flavor” have nothing to do with our
senses, but are purely whimsical— as are other names, such as charm, in this new
field. (We did, however, “ color” the quarks in Fig. 43-15.) The antiquarks are
colored antired, antigreen, and antiblue. Baryons are made up of three quarks, one
of each color. Mesons consist of a quark-antiquark pair of a particular color and
its anticolor. Both baryons and mesons are thus colorless or white.
Originally, the idea of quark color was proposed to preserve the Pauli exclu­
sion principle (Section 39-4). Not all particles obey the exclusion principle. Those
that do, such as electrons, protons, and neutrons, are called fermions. Those that
don’t are called bosons. These two categories are distinguished also in their spin
(Section 39-2): bosons have integer spin (0,1,2, etc.) whereas fermions have half­
integer spin, usually \ as for electrons and nucleons, but other fermions have
spin | , f , etc. M atter is made up mainly of fermions, but the carriers of the forces
(7, W, Z, and gluons) are all bosons. Quarks are fermions (they have spin \) and
therefore should obey the exclusion principle. Yet for three particular baryons
(uuu, ddd, and sss), all three quarks would have the same quantum numbers, and
at least two quarks have their spin in the same direction (since there are only two
choices, spin up [m s = + or spin down [m s = — | ] ). This would seem to violate
the exclusion principle; but if quarks have an additional quantum number (color),
which is different for each quark, it would serve to distinguish them and allow the
exclusion principle to hold. Although quark color, and the resulting threefold
increase in the number of quarks, was originally an ad hoc idea, it also served to
bring the theory into better agreement with experiment, such as predicting the
correct lifetime of the ir° meson, and the measured rate of hadron production in
observed e+e” collisions at accelerators. The idea of color soon became a central feature
1184 CHAPTER 43 of the theory as determining the force binding quarks together in a hadron.
u (blue) d (red)

Gluon

u (red) d (blue)
(a) (b) (c)
FIGURE 43-16 (a) The force between two quarks holding them together as part of a proton, for example, is
carried by a gluon, which in this case involves a change in color, (b) Strong interaction n + p —» n + p with
the exchange of a charged tt meson (+ or - , depending on whether it is considered moving to the left or to the
right), (c) Quark representation of the same interaction n + p —» n + p. The blue coiled lines between
quarks represent gluon exchanges holding the hadrons together. (The exchanged meson may be regarded as ud
emitted by the n and absorbed by the p, or as ud emitted by p and absorbed by n, because a u (or d) quark
going to the left in the diagram is equivalent to a u (or d) going to the right.)
Each quark is assumed to carry a color charge, analogous to electric charge,
and the strong force between quarks is referred to as the color force. This theory
of the strong force is called quantum chromodynamics (chroma = color in Greek),
or QCD, to indicate that the force acts between color charges (and not between,
say, electric charges). The strong force between two hadrons is considered to be a
force between the quarks that make them up, as suggested in Fig. 43-16. The parti­
cles that transmit the color force (analogous to photons for the EM force) are
called gluons (a play on “ glue” ). They are included in Tables 43-2 and 43-5. There
are eight gluons, according to the theory, all massless and all have color charged
You might ask what would happen if we try to see a single quark with color by
reaching deep inside a hadron and extracting a single quark. Quarks are so tightly
bound to other quarks that extracting one would require a tremendous amount of
energy, so much that it would be sufficient to create more quarks (E = m e1).
Indeed, such experiments are done at modern particle colliders and all we get is
more hadrons (quark-antiquark pairs, or triplets, which we observe as mesons or
baryons), never an isolated quark. This property of quarks, that they are always
bound in groups that are colorless, is called confinement.
The color force has the interesting property that, as two quarks approach each
other very closely (equivalently, have high energy), the force between them
becomes small. This aspect is referred to as asymptotic freedom.
The weak force, as we have seen, is thought to be mediated by the W +, W - ,
and Z° particles. It acts between the “ weak charges” that each particle has. Each
elementary particle can thus have electric charge, weak charge, color charge, and
gravitational mass, although one or more of these could be zero. For example, all FIGURE 43-17 Quark
leptons have color charge of zero, so they do not interact via the strong force. representation of the Feynman
diagram for fi decay of a neutron
CONCEPTUAL EXAMPLE 45-10 I Beta decay. Draw a Feynman diagram, into a proton.
showing what happens in beta decay using quarks.
RESPONSE Beta decay is a result of the weak interaction, and the mediator is
either a W 1 or Z° particle. What happens, in part, is that a neutron (udd quarks)
decays into a proton (uud). Apparently a d quark (charge — \e ) has turned into a
u quark (charge + \ e ) . Charge conservation means that a negatively charged
particle, namely a W “ , was emitted by the d quark. Since an electron and an anti­
neutrino appear in the final state, they must have come from the decay of the
virtual W “ , as shown in Fig. 43-17.

Compare to the EM interaction, where the photon has no electric charge. Because gluons have color
charge, they could attract each other and form composite particles (photons cannot). Such “glueballs” n
are being searched for.
SECTION 43-1 0 The "Standard Model": Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and Electroweak Theory 1185
To summarize, the Standard Model says that the truly fundamental particles
(Table 43-5) are the leptons, the quarks, and the gauge bosons (photon, W and Z,
and the gluons). The photon, leptons, W +, W - , and Z° have all been observed in
experiments. But so far only combinations of quarks (baryons and mesons) have
been observed, and it seems likely that free quarks and gluons are unobservable.
One important aspect of theoretical work is the attempt to find a unified basis
for the different forces in nature. This was a long-held hope of Einstein, which he
was never able to fu lfill. A so-called gauge theory that unifies the weak and elec­
tromagnetic interactions was put forward in the 1960s by S. Weinberg, S. Glashow,
and A. Salam. In this electroweak theory, the weak and electromagnetic forces are
seen as two different manifestations of a single, more fundamental, electroweak
interaction. The electroweak theory has had many successes, including the
prediction of the W * particles as carriers of the weak force, with masses
of 80.38 + 0.02GeV/c2 in excellent agreement with the measured values of
80.403 + 0.029 G eV/c2 (and similar accuracy for the Z°).
The combination of electroweak theory plus QCD for the strong interaction is
often referred to today as the Standard Model.
EXAMPLE 43-11 ESTIMATE! Range of weak force. The weak nuclear force
is of very short range, meaning it acts over only a very short distance. Estimate
its range using the masses (Table 43-2) of the W * and Z: m « 80 or
90 G eV/c2 « 102G eV/c2.
APPROACH We assume the W * or Z° exchange particles can exist for a time A t
given by the uncertainty principle, A t ~ h /A E , where A E ~ m e2 is the energy
needed to create the virtual particle (W ±, Z) that carries the weak force.
SOLUTION Let Ax be the distance the virtual W or Z can move before it must
be reabsorbed w ithin the time A t « h /A E . To find an upper lim it on A x , and
hence the maximum range of the weak force, we let the W or Z travel close to
the speed of light, so Ax ^ c At. Recalling that 1 GeV = 1.6 X 10-10 J, then
Ch (3 x 108m /s)(l0 -34J-s)
Ax S C A t ~ —— ~ 7— ^------- 77--------------— ;------ r ss 10 15m.
AE (10 G eV)(l.6 X 10 J/G eV)
This is indeed a very small range.
NOTE Compare this to the range of the electromagnetic force whose range is
infinite (1 /r 2 never becomes zero for any finite r), which makes sense because
the mass of its virtual exchange particle, the photon, is zero (in the denominator
of the above equation).

We did a similar calculation for the strong force in Section 43-2, and esti­
mated the mass of the tt meson as exchange particle between nucleons, based on
the apparent range of 10-15 m (size of nuclei). This is only one aspect of the strong
force. In our deeper view, namely the color force between quarks within a
nucleon, the gluons have zero mass, which implies (see the formula above in
Example 43-11) infinite range. We might have expected a range of about 10-15 m;
but according to the Standard Model, the color force is weak at very close distances
and increases greatly with distance (causing quark confinement). Thus its range
could be infinite.
Theoreticians have wondered why the W and Z have large masses rather than
being massless like the photon. Electroweak theory suggests an explanation by
means of an hypothesized Higgs field and its particle, the Higgs boson, which
interact with the W and Z to “ slow them down.” In being forced to go slower
than the speed of light, they would have to have mass (m = 0 only if v = c).
Indeed, the Higgs is thought to permeate the vacuum (“ empty space” ) and to perhaps
confer mass on all particles with mass by slowing them down. The search for
the Higgs boson w ill be a priority for experimental particle physicists when
CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (Section 43-1) starts running. So far, searches
suggest the Higgs mass is greater than 115 G eV/c2. Yet it is expected to have a mass
no larger than 1 TeV /c2. We are narrowing in on it.

1186 CHAPTER 43 Elementary Particles


43—11 Grand Unified Theories
The Standard Model, for all its success, cannot explain some important issues—
such as why the charge on the electron has exactly the same magnitude as the
charge on the proton. This is crucial, because if the charge magnitudes were even a
little different, atoms would not be neutral and the resulting large electric forces
would surely have made life impossible. Indeed, the Standard Model is now
considered to be a low-energy approximation to a more complete theory.
With the success of unified electroweak theory, theorists are trying to incorporate
it and QCD for the strong (color) force into a so-called grand unified theory (GUT).
One type of such a grand unified theory of the electromagnetic,
weak, and strong forces has been worked out in which there is only one class of
particle— leptons and quarks belong to the same family and are able to change
freely from one type to the other— and the three forces are different aspects of a
single underlying force. The unity is predicted to occur, however, only on a scale of
less than about 10“ 31m, corresponding to a typical particle energy of about
1016GeV. If two elementary particles (leptons or quarks) approach each other to
within this unification scale, the apparently fundamental distinction between them
would not exist at this level, and a quark could readily change to a lepton, or vice
versa. Baryon and lepton numbers would not be conserved. The weak, electromag­
netic, and strong (color) force would blend to a force of a single strength.
What happens between the unification distance of 10-31 m and more normal
(larger) distances is referred to as symmetry breaking. As an analogy, consider an
atom in a crystal. Deep within the atom, there is much symmetry— in the innermost
regions the electron cloud is spherically symmetric (Chapter 39). Farther out, this
symmetry breaks down— the electron clouds are distributed preferentially along
the lines (bonds) joining the atoms in the crystal. In a similar way, at 10“ 31m
the force between elementary particles is theorized to be a single force— it is
symmetrical and does not single out one type of “ charge” over another. But at
larger distances, that symmetry is broken and we see three distinct forces. (In the
“ Standard Model” of electroweak interactions, Section 43-10, the symmetry breaking
between the electromagnetic and the weak interactions occurs at about 1 0 18m.)

CONCEPTUAL EXAMPLE 45-12 I Symmetry. The table in Fig. 43-18 has four
identical place settings. Four people sit down to eat. Describe the symmetry of this
table and what happens to it when someone starts the meal.
RESPONSE The table has several kinds of symmetry. It is symmetric to rotations
of 90°: that is, the table w ill look the same if everyone moved one chair to the left
or to the right. It is also north-south symmetric and east-west symmetric, so that
swaps across the table don’t affect the way the table looks. It also doesn’t matter
whether any person picks up the fork to the left of the plate or the fork to the
right. But once that first person picks up either fork, the choice is set for all the
rest at the table as well. The symmetry has been broken. The underlying symmetry
is still there— the blue glasses could still be chosen either way— but some choice FIGURE 43-18 Symmetry around
must get made and at that moment the symmetry of the diners is broken. a table. Example 43-12.

Another example of symmetry breaking is a pencil standing on its point before


falling. Standing, it looks the same from any horizontal direction. From above, it is a
tiny circle. But when it falls to the table, it points in one particular direction— the
symmetry is broken.
Proton Decay
Since unification is thought to occur at such tiny distances and huge energies,
the theory is difficult to test experimentally. But it is not completely impossible.
One testable prediction is the idea that the proton might decay (via, for example,
p —> 7T° + e+) and violate conservation of baryon number. This could happen if
two quarks approached to within 10 31m of each other. But it is very unlikely at
normal temperature and energy, so the decay of a proton can only be an unlikely process.

SECTION 43-11 Grand Unified Theories 1187


In the simplest form of GUT, the theoretical estimate of the proton
mean life for the decay mode p —> 7r° + e+ is about 1031yr, and this is now
within the realm of testability/ Proton decays have still not been seen, and experi­
ments put the lower lim it on the proton mean life for the above mode to be about
1033yr, somewhat greater than this prediction. This may seem a disappointment,
but on the other hand, it presents a challenge. Indeed more complex GUTs are not
affected by this result.
EXAMPLE 43-13 ESTIMATE! Proton decay. An experiment uses 3300 tons
of water waiting to see a proton decay of the type p — >• 7r + e . If the
experiment is run for 4 years without detecting a decay, estimate the lower lim it
on the proton mean life.
APPROACH As with radioactive decay, the number of decays is proportional to
the number of parent species (AT), the time interval (A t), and the decay constant
(A) which is related to the mean life r by (see Eqs. 41-4 and 41-9a):

N At
AN = - \ N A t = -

SOLUTION Dealing only with magnitudes, we solve for r:


N At
T AN '
Thus for A N < 1 over the four-year trial,
r > N ( 4 yr),
where N is the number of protons in 3300 tons of water. To determine N, we note
that each molecule of H 20 contains 2 + 8 = 10 protons. So one mole of water
(18 g, 6 X 1023molecules) contains 10 X 6 X 1023 protons in 18 g of water, or
about 3 X 1026 protons per kilogram. One ton is 103kg, so the chamber contains
(3.3 X 106kg)(3 X 1026protons/kg) « 1 X 1033protons. Then our very rough esti­
mate for a lower lim it on the proton mean life is r > (1033)(4 yr) « 4 X 1033yr.
FIGURE 4 3 -1 9 Time and energy
plot of the four fundamental forces,
unified at the Planck time, and how GUT and Cosmology
each condensed out. The symbol
^abu = time after the birth of the An interesting prediction of unified theories relates to cosmology (Chapter 44).
universe. Note that the typical It is thought that during the first 10-35 s after the theorized Big Bang that created the
particle energy (and average universe, the temperature was so extremely high that particles had energies
temperature of the universe) corresponding to the unification scale. Baryon number would not have been
decreases to the right, as time after conserved then, perhaps allowing an imbalance that might account for the observed
the Big Bang increases. We discuss predominance of matter (B > 0) over antimatter (B < 0) in the universe. The fact
the Big Bang in the next Chapter. that we are surrounded by matter, with no significant antimatter in sight, is considered
a problem in search of an explanation (not given by the Standard Model). See also
Grand Chapter 44. We call this the matter-antimatter problem. To understand it may require
Unification
Planck qUT still undiscovered phenomena— perhaps related to quarks or neutrinos, or the Higgs
time
boson or supersymmetry (next Section).
This last example is interesting, for it illustrates a deep connection between
investigations at either end of the size scale: theories about the tiniest objects
(elementary particles) have a strong bearing on the understanding of the universe
on a large scale. We w ill look at this more in the next Chapter.
Figure 43-19 is a rough diagram indicating how the four fundamental forces in
nature “ condensed out” (a symmetry was broken) as time went on after the Big
Energy (GeV) Bang (Chapter 44), and as the mean temperature of the universe and the typical
T(K) 1033 particle energy decreased.
*abu(s) 10~43 S
fThis is much larger than the age of the universe (« 14 X 109yr). But we don’t have to wait 1031yr to
see. Instead we can wait for one decay among 1031 protons over a year (see Eqs. 41-4 and 41-9a,
AN = \N At = N A t/ t ).

1188 CHAPTER 43 Elementary Particles


4 3 —12 Strings and Supersymmetry
We have seen that the Standard Model is unable to address important experimental
issues, and that theoreticians are attacking the problem as experimenters search for
new data, new particles, new concepts.
Even more ambitious than grand unified theories are attempts to also incorporate
gravity, and thus unify all four forces in nature into a single theory. (Such theories
are sometimes referred to misleadingly as theories of everything.) There are
consistent theories that attempt to unify all four forces called string theories,
in which each fundamental particle (Table 43-5) is imagined not as a point but as a
one-dimensional string, perhaps 10 35m long, which vibrates in a particular standing
wave pattern. (You might say each particle is a different note on a tiny stretched
string.) More sophisticated theories propose the fundamental entities as being
multidimensional branes (after 2-D membranes).
A related idea that also goes way beyond the Standard Model is supersymmetry,
which applied to strings is known as superstring theory. Supersymmetry,
developed by Bruno Zumino (1923- ) and Julius Wess (1934-2007), predicts that
interactions exist that would change fermions into bosons and vice versa, and
that each known fermion would have a supersymmetric boson partner of the
same mass. Thus, for each quark (a ferm ion), there would be a squark
(a boson) or “ supersymmetric” quark. For every lepton there would be a slepton.
Likewise, for every known boson (photons and gluons, for example), there would
be a supersymmetric fermion (photinos and gluinos). Supersymmetry predicts also
that a graviton, which transmits the gravity force, has a partner, the gravitino. Super-
symmetric particles are sometimes called “ SUSYs” for short, and are a candidate
for the “ dark matter” of the universe (discussed in Chapter 44). But why hasn’t this
“missing part” of the universe ever been detected? The best guess is that supersym­
metric particles might be heavier than their conventional counterparts, perhaps too
heavy to have been produced in today’s accelerators. A search for supersymmetric
particles is already in the works for CERN’s new Large Hadron Collider.
Versions of supersymmetry predict other interesting properties, such as that space
has 11 dimensions, but 7 of them are “ coiled up” so we normally only notice the
4-D of space-time. We would like to know if and how many extra dimensions
there are, and how and why they are hidden. We hope to have some answers from
the new LHC and the future ILC (Section 43-1).
The world of elementary particles is opening new vistas. What happens in the
future is bound to be exciting.

Summary
Particle accelerators are used to accelerate charged particles, such Just as the electromagnetic force can be said to be due to
as electrons and protons, to very high energy. High-energy particles an exchange of photons, the strong nuclear force is carried by
have short wavelength and so can be used to probe the structure of massless gluons. The W and Z particles carry the weak force.
matter in great detail (very small distances). High kinetic energy also These fundamental force carriers (photon, W and Z, gluons) are
allows the creation of new particles through collisions (via E = me2). called gauge bosons.
Cyclotrons and synchrotrons use a magnetic field to keep Other particles can be classified as either leptons or hadrons.
the particles in a circular path and accelerate them at intervals Leptons participate only in gravity, the weak, and the electromagnetic
by high voltage. Linear accelerators accelerate particles along a interactions. Hadrons, which today are considered to be made up
line. Colliding beams allow higher interaction energy. of quarks, participate in all four interactions, including the strong
An antiparticle has the same mass as a particle but opposite interaction. The hadrons can be classified as mesons, with baryon
charge. Certain other properties may also be opposite: for number zero, and baryons, with nonzero baryon number.
example, the antiproton has baryon number (nucleon number) All particles, except for the photon, electron, neutrinos, and
opposite (B = - 1 ) to that for the proton (B = + 1). proton, decay with measurable mean lives varying from 10-25 s to
In all nuclear and particle reactions, the following conserva­ 103 s. The mean life depends on which force is predominant. Weak
tion laws hold: momentum, angular momentum, mass-energy, decays usually have mean lives greater than about 10-13 s. Electro­
electric charge, baryon number, and lepton numbers. magnetic decays typically have mean lives on the order of 1 0 16 to
Certain particles have a property called strangeness, which 10-19 s. The shortest lived particles, called resonances, decay via
is conserved by the strong force but not by the weak force. The the strong interaction and live typically for only about 1 0 23 s.
properties charm, bottomness, and topness also are conserved Today’s Standard Model of elementary particles considers
by the strong force but not by the weak force. quarks as the basic building blocks of the hadrons. The six quark
Summary 1189
“ flavors” are called up, down, strange, charmed, bottom, and Grand unified theories of forces suggest that at very short
top. It is expected that there are the same number of quarks as distance (lO-31 m) and very high energy, the weak, electromag­
leptons (six of each), and that quarks and leptons are the truly netic, and strong forces appear as a single force, and the
fundamental particles along with the gauge bosons (7, W, Z, fundamental difference between quarks and leptons disappears.
gluons). Quarks are said to have color, and, according to According to string theory, the fundamental particles may
quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the strong color force acts be tiny strings, 10-35m long, distinguished by their standing
between their color charges and is transmitted by gluons. wave pattern. Supersymmetry hypothesizes that each fermion (or
Electroweak theory views the weak and electromagnetic forces boson) has a corresponding boson (or fermion) partner.
as two aspects of a single underlying interaction. QCD plus the
electroweak theory are referred to as the Standard Model.

Questions
1. Give a reaction between two nucleons, similar to Eq. 43-4, 11. The A baryon has spin §> baryon number 1, and charge
that could produce a . Q = +2, +1, 0, or -l.W h y is there no charge state Q = - 2 1
2. If a proton is moving at very high speed, so that its kinetic 12. Which of the particle decays in Table 43-4 occur via the
energy is much greater than its rest energy (me2), can it then electromagnetic interaction?
decay via p —> n + 7r+?
13. Which of the particle decays in Table 43-4 occur by the
3. What would an “ antiatom,” made up of the antiparticles to
weak interaction?
the constituents of normal atoms, consist of? What might
happen if antimatter, made of such antiatoms, came in 14. Quarks have spin How do you account fo r the fact
contact with our normal world of matter? that baryons have spin \ or §, and mesons have spin 0 or 1?
4. What particle in a decay signals the electromagnetic interaction? 15. Suppose there were a kind of “ neutrinolet” that was mass­
5. (a) Does the presence of a neutrino among the decay products less, had no color charge or electrical charge, and did not feel
of a particle necessarily mean that the decay occurs via the the weak force. Could you say that this particle even exists?
weak interaction? (b) Do all decays via the weak interaction 16. Is it possible for a particle to be both (a) a lepton and a
produce a neutrino? Explain. baryon? ( b ) a baryon and a hadron? (c) a meson and a
6. Why is it that a neutron decays via the weak interaction quark? (d) a hadron and a lepton? Explain.
even though the neutron and one of its decay products 17. Using the ideas of quantum chromodynamics, would it be
(proton) are strongly interacting? possible to find particles made up of two quarks and no
7. Which of the four interactions (strong, electromagnetic, weak, antiquarks? What about two quarks and two antiquarks?
gravitational) does an electron take part in? A neutrino? A proton?
18. Why can neutrons decay when they are free, but not when
8. Check that charge and baryon number are conserved in they are inside a stable nucleus?
each of the decays in Table 43-2.
19. Is the reaction e“ + p —> n + ve possible? Explain.
9. Which of the particle decays listed in Table 43-2 occur via the
electromagnetic interaction? 20. Occasionally, the A w ill decay by the following reaction:
10. Which of the particle decays listed in Table 43-2 occur by the A0 — » p+ + e“ + ve. Which of the four forces in nature is
weak interaction? responsible for this decay? How do you know?

| Problems
43 -1 Particles and Accelerators 9. (II) What magnetic field is required for the 7.0-TeV protons
1. (I) What is the total energy of a proton whose kinetic in the 4.25-km-radius Large Hadron Collider (LHC)?
energy is 4.65 GeV? 10. (II) A cyclotron with a radius of 1.0 m is to accelerate
deuterons (2H ) to an energy of 12 MeV. (fl) What is the
2. (I) Calculate the wavelength of 28-GeV electrons. required magnetic field? (b) What frequency is needed for
3. (I) What strength of magnetic field is used in a cyclotron in the voltage between the dees? (c) If the potential difference
which protons make 3.1 X 107 revolutions per second? between the dees averages 22 kV, how many revolutions w ill
4. (I) What is the time for one complete revolution for a very the particles make before exiting? ( d ) How much time does
high-energy proton in the 1.0-km-radius Fermilab accelerator? it take for one deuteron to go from start to exit? (e) Esti­
5. (I) If a particles are accelerated by the cyclotron of mate how far it travels during this time.
Example 43-2, what must be the frequency of the voltage 11. (II) What is the wavelength (= minimum resolvable
applied to the dees? size) of 7.0-TeV protons?
6. (II) (a) If the cyclotron of Example 43-2 accelerated 12. (II) The 1.0-km radius Fermilab Tevatron takes about
a particles, what maximum energy could they attain? 20 seconds to bring the energies of the stored protons from
What would their speed be? ( b ) Repeat for deuterons (2H). 150 GeV to 1.0 TeV. The acceleration is done once per turn.
(c) In each case, what frequency of voltage is required? Estimate the energy given to the protons on each turn. (You
can assume that the speed of the protons is essentially c the
7. (II) Which is better for resolving details of the nucleus: whole time.)
25-MeV alpha particles or 25-MeV protons? Compare each 13. (II) Show that the energy of a particle (charge e) in a
of their wavelengths with the size of a nucleon in a nucleus. synchrotron, in the relativistic lim it {v ~ c), is given by
8. (II) What magnetic field intensity is needed at the 1.0-km- E (in eV) = Brc, where B is the magnetic field and
radius Fermilab synchrotron for 1.0-TeV protons? r is the radius of the orbit (SI units).
1190 CHAPTER 43 Elementary Particles
43 -2 to 4 3 -6 Particle Interactions, Particle Exchange 29. (II) Calculate the kinetic energy of each of the two products in
14. (I) A bout how much energy is released when a A0 decays to the decay E - — ► A0 + 77 . Assume the a ~ decays from rest.
n + 77°? (See Table 43-2.) 30. (II) Antiprotons can be produced when a proton with suffi­
15. (I) How much energy is released in the decay cient energy hits a stationary proton. Even if there is enough
energy, which of the following reactions w ill not happen?
w + - y /*+ + v j
See Table 43-2. P + P P + P
16. (I) Estimate the range o f the strong force if the mediating p + p ^ p + p + p
particle were the kaon in place o f a pion. P + P - > P + P + P + P
17. (I) How much energy is required to produce a neutron- p + p — > p + e+ + e+ + p
antineutron pair? 31. ( Ill) Calculate the maximum kinetic energy o f the electron
18. (II) Determine the energy released when 2 ° decays to A0 when a muon decays from rest via /jl~ — » e_ + ve + v^.
and then to a proton. [Hint: In what direction do the two neutrinos move relative
19. (II) Two protons are heading toward each other w ith equal to the electron in order to give the electron the maximum
speeds. W hat minimum kinetic energy must each have if a kinetic energy? Both energy and momentum are conserved;
77° meson is to be created in the process? (See Table 43-2.) use relativistic formulas.]
20. (II) What minimum kinetic energy must two neutrons each 32. ( Ill) Could a 77+ meson be produced if a 110-MeV proton
have if they are traveling at the same speed toward each struck a proton at rest? What minimum kinetic energy must
other, collide, and produce a K +K “ pair in addition to the incoming proton have?
themselves? (See Table 43-2.)
21. (II) For the decay K° — > tt~ + e+ + v e , determine the 43 -7 to 43-11 Resonances, Standard Model,
maximum kinetic energy of (a) the positron, and ( b ) the tt~.
Quarks, QCD, GUT
Assume the K° is at rest. 33. (I) The mean life of the 2 ° particle is 7 X IO-20 s. What is the
22. (II) What are the wavelengths of the two photons produced uncertainty in its rest energy? Express your answer in M eV.
when a proton and antiproton at rest annihilate? 34. (I) The measured width of the if/ (3686) meson is about 300 keV.
23. (II) The A0 cannot decay by the follow ing reactions. What Estimate its mean life.
conservation laws are violated in each of the reactions? 35. (I) The measured w idth of the J /ij/ meson is 88keV. E sti­
(a) A0 n + tt~ mate its mean life.
0b ) A0 p + K“ 36. (I) The B_ meson is a bu quark combination, (a) Show that
this is consistent fo r all quantum numbers. ( b ) What are the
(C ) A0 \ > 77+ + 77“
quark combinations fo r B+, B°, B°?
24. (II) For the decay A0 — ► p + tt~, calculate (a) the Q-value 37. (I) W hat is the energy w idth (or uncertainty) o f (a) r f , and
(energy released), and (b) the kinetic energy of the p and tt~, (Z>)p+? See Table 43-2.
assuming the A0 decays from rest. (Use relativistic 38. (II) W hich o f the follow ing decays are possible? For those
formulas.) that are forbidden, explain which laws are violated.
25. (II) (a) Show, by conserving momentum and energy, that it (a) H° 2 + + 77“
is impossible fo r an isolated electron to radiate only a single (b) Cl~ —> 2 ° + 77_ + v
photon, (b) W ith this result in mind, how can you defend the
(c) 2 ° — » A0 + y + y
photon exchange diagram in Fig. 43-8?
26. (II) W hat would be the wavelengths of the two photons 39. (II) What quark combinations produce (a) a H° baryon and
produced when an electron and a positron, each w ith (b) a a ~ baryon?
420 keV o f kinetic energy, annihilate in a head-on collision? 40. (II) W hat are the quark combinations that can form (a) a
neutron, ( b ) an antineutron, (c) a A0, (d) a 2°?
27. (II) In the rare decay 77+ — > e+ + v e , what is the kinetic
energy o f the positron? Assume the 77+ decays from rest. 41. (II) W hat particles do the follow ing quark combinations
produce: (a) uud, ( b ) u u s, (c) us, (d ) du, ( e ) cs?
28. (II) Which o f the following reactions and decays are
42. (II) W hat is the quark combination needed to produce a
possible? For those forbidden, explain what laws are violated.
D ° meson (Q = B = S = Q, c = +1)?
(a) 77_ + p — >• n + 17°
43. (II) The D j meson has S = c = +1, B = 0. W hat quark
(b) 77+ + p — >• n + 77° combination would produce it?
(c) 77+ + p — >• p + e+ 44. (II) Draw a possible Feynman diagram using quarks (as in
(d) p e+ + v e Fig. 43-16c) fo r the reaction 77“ + p —> 770 + n.
(e) /!+ -»• e+ + 45. (II) Draw a Feynman diagram fo r the reaction
(J) p -> n + e+ + n + Vp -> p + /x“ .

| General Problems__________
46. The mean lifetimes listed in Table 43-2 are in terms of p rop er 47. Assume there are 5.0 X 1013 protons at 1.0 TeV stored in
time, measured in a reference frame where the particle is at the 1.0-km-radius ring of the Tevatron. (a) How much
rest. I f a tau lepton is created w ith a kinetic energy of current (amperes) is carried by this beam? ( b ) How fast
950 MeV, how long would its track be as measured in the would a 1500-kg car have to move to carry the same kinetic
lab, on average, ignoring any collisions? energy as this beam?
General Problems 1191
48. ( a ) How much energy is released when an electron and a 59. A proton and an antiproton annihilate each other at rest
positron annihilate each other? (b) How much energy is and produce two pions, 77“ and 77+. W hat is the kinetic
released when a proton and an antiproton annihilate each energy o f each pion?
other? (A ll particles have K « 0.) 60. For the reaction p + p — » 3p + p, where one of the in itia l
49. Protons are injected into the 1.0-km-radius Fermilab Teva- protons is at rest, use relativistic formulas to show that the
tron w ith an energy o f 150 GeV. I f they are accelerated threshold energy is 6mp c2, equal to three times the magni­
by 2.5 M V each revolution, how far do they travel and tude of the Q-value o f the reaction, where mp is the proton
approximately how long does it take fo r them to reach mass. [H in t Assume all final particles have the same
1.0 TeV? velocity.]
50. Which of the following reactions are possible, and by what 61. W hat is the total energy o f a proton whose kinetic energy
interaction could they occur? For those forbidden, explain why. is 15 GeV? What is its wavelength?
(a ) 77_ + p —> K° + p + 77° 62. A t about what kinetic energy (in eV) can the rest energy of
(b) K - + p — » A0 + 77° a proton be ignored when calculating its wavelength, if the
(c) K + + n - ► 2+ + 77° + 7 wavelength is to be w ithin 1.0% o f its true value? What are
the corresponding wavelength and speed o f the proton?
(d) K + — » 77° + 77° + 77+
(e) 77+ e+ + ve 63. Use the quark model to describe the reaction
51. Which of the following reactions are possible, and by what p + n —> 77_ + 77°.
interaction could they occur? For those forbidden, explain why. 64. Identify the missing particle in the follow ing reactions.
(a) 77“ + p K+ + 2 “ (a )p + p — » p + n + 77+ + ?
0b ) 77+ + p K+ + 2 + (b) p + ? —► n + /jl+
(c) 77“ + p —> A° + K° + 77°
65. W hat fraction of the speed o f light c is the speed o f a
(d) 77+ + p — > 2 ° + 77°
7.0-TeV proton?
(e) 77_ + p —> p + e_ + Vq
66. A particle at rest, w ith a rest energy of m e 2, decays into
52. One decay mode fo r a 77+ is 77+ —> /a+ + v ^ . W hat would two fragments w ith rest energies o f m i c 2 and m2c2. Show
be the equivalent decay fo r a tt~1 Check conservation laws. that the kinetic energy o f fragment 1 is
53. Symmetry breaking occurs in the electroweak theory at
about 10-18 m. Show that this corresponds to an energy that Kl = - ^ [ K - * h c 2)2 - f o * 2)2]-
is on the order o f the mass o f the W * .
54. Calculate the 0-value fo r each o f the reactions, Eq. 43-4,
fo r producing a pion. * Numerical/Computer
55. How many fundamental fermions are there in a water * 67. (II) In a particle physics experiment to determine the mean
molecule? lifetim e o f muons, the muons enter a scintillator and decay.
56. The mass o f a 770 can be measured by observing the reaction Students have sampled the individual lifetim es of muons
77“ + p —> 77° + n at very low incident 77“ kinetic energy decaying w ithin a tim e interval between 1 /as and 10 /as after
(assume it is zero). The neutron is observed to be emitted being stopped in the scintillator. It is assumed that the
w ith a kinetic energy of 0.60 MeV. Use conservation of muons obey the radioactive decay law R = R q where
energy and momentum to determine the 770 mass. R 0 is the unknown activity at t = 0 and R is the activity
57. (a) Show that the so-called unification distance of 10-31 m (counts//As) at tim e t. Here is their data:
in grand unified theory is equivalent to an energy of Time (/xs) 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5
about 1016GeV. Use the uncertainty principle, and also R (t) 55 35 23 18 12 5
de Broglie’s wavelength form ula, and explain how they
Make a graph of In ( R /R 0) versus tim e t (/as), and from the
apply, (b) Calculate the temperature corresponding to
best fit o f the graph to a straight line find the mean life t.
1016 GeV.
The accepted value of the mean life of the muon is
58. Calculate the Q-value for the reaction 77“ + p — ► A0 + K°, t = 2.19703 /as + 0.00004 /as. What is the percentage error
when negative pions strike stationary protons. Estimate the o f their result from the accepted value?
minimum pion kinetic energy needed to produce this reac­
tion. [H in t Assume A0 and K° move o ff w ith the same
velocity.]

Answers to Exercises
A : 1.24 X 10“ 18m = 1.24 am. D : (c); (d).
B: w 2 X 103m/0.1 m « 104. E: su.
C: (a).

1192 CHAPTER 43 Elementary Particles


This map of the entire sky (WMAP) is color-coded to represent slight temperature variations in the almost
perfectly uniform 2.7-kelvin microwave background radiation that reaches us from all directions in the sky.
This latest version (2006) is providing detailed information on the origins of our universe and its structures.
The tiny temperature variations, red slightly hotter, blue slightly cooler (on the order of 1 part in 104) are
“quantum fluctuations” that are the seeds on which galaxies and clusters of galaxies eventually grew.
To discuss the nature of the universe as we understand it today, we examine the latest theories on how
stars and galaxies form and evolve, including the role of nucleosynthesis. We briefly discuss Einstein’s
general theory of relativity, which deals with gravity and curvature of space. We take a thorough look at the
evidence for the expansion of the universe, and the
Standard Model of the universe evolving
from an initial Big Bang. Finally we
point out some unsolved
problems, including the
nature of dark matter
dark energy that
make up most of our

Astrophysics and
Cosmology
CHAPTER-OPENING QUESTIOI — Guess now! CONTENTS
U ntil recently, astronomers expected the expansion rate of the universe would be 44-1 Stars and Galaxies
decreasing. Why? 44-2 Stellar Evolution: Nucleosynthesis,
(a) Friction. and the Birth and Death of Stars
(b) The second law of thermodynamics. 44-3 Distance Measurements
(c) Gravity. 44-4 General Relativity: Gravity
(d) The electromagnetic force. and the Curvature of Space
44-5 The Expanding Universe:
n the previous Chapter, we studied the tiniest objects in the universe— the
I elementary particles. Now we leap to the grandest objects in the universe—
stars, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies. These two extreme realms, elementary
Redshift and Hubble’s Law
44-6 The Big Bang and the
Cosmic Microwave
Background
particles and the cosmos, are among the most intriguing and exciting subjects
in science. And, surprisingly, these two extreme realms are related in a fundamental 44-7 The Standard Cosmological
way, as already hinted in Chapter 43. Model: Early History of the
Universe
Use of the techniques and ideas of physics to study the heavens is often referred
44-8 Inflation: Explaining
to as astrophysics. Central to our present theoretical understanding of the universe Flatness, Uniformity, and
(or cosmos) is Einstein’s general theory o f relativity which represents our most complete Structure
understanding of gravitation. Many other aspects of physics are involved, from electro­ 44-9 Dark Matter and
magnetism and thermodynamics to atomic and nuclear physics as well as elementary Dark Energy
particles. General Relativity serves also as the foundation for modem cosmology, which 44-10 Large-Scale Structure of the
is the study of the universe as a whole. Cosmology deals especially with the search for Universe
a theoretical framework to understand the observed universe, its origin, and its future. 44-11 Finally

1193
The questions posed by cosmology are profound and difficult; the possible
answers stretch the imagination. They are questions like “ Has the
universe always existed, or did it have a beginning in time?” Either alternative is
difficult to imagine: time going back indefinitely into the past, or an actual
moment when the universe began (but, then, what was there before?). And what
about the size of the universe? Is it infinite in size? It is hard to imagine infinity.
Or is it finite in size? This is also hard to imagine, for if the universe is finite, it
does not make sense to ask what is beyond it, because the universe is all there is.
In the last few years, so much progress has occurred in astrophysics and
cosmology that many scientists are calling recent work a “ Golden Age” for
cosmology. Our survey w ill be qualitative, but we w ill nonetheless touch on the
major ideas. We begin with a look at what can be seen beyond the Earth.

44—1 Stars and Galaxies


According to the ancients, the stars, except fo r the few that seemed to move
relative to the others (the planets), were fixed on a sphere beyond the last
planet. The universe was neatly self-contained, and we on Earth were at or
near its center. But in the centuries follow ing G alileo’s first telescopic observa­
tions of the night sky in 1610, our view of the universe has changed dramatically.
We no longer place ourselves at the center, and we view the universe
as vastly larger. The distances involved are so great that we specify them
in terms of the time it takes light to travel the given distance: for
example, 1 light-second = (3.0 X 108m /s)(1.0s) = 3.0 X 108m = 300,000 km;
1 light-minute = 18 X 106km; and 1 light-year (ly) is
1 ly = (2.998 X 108m/s)(3.156 X 107s/yr)
= 9.46 X 1015m « 1013km.
For specifying distances to the Sun and Moon, we usually use meters or kilometers,
but we could specify them in terms of light. The Earth-M oon distance is
384,000 km, which is 1.281ight-seconds. The Earth-Sun distance is 1.50 X 10n m,
or 150,000,000 km; this is equal to 8.3 light-minutes. Far out in our solar system,
Pluto is about 6 X 109km from the Sun, or 6 X 10“ 4ly. The nearest star to us,
other than the Sun, is Proxima Centauri, about 4.3 ly away.
On a clear moonless night, thousands of stars of varying degrees of brightness
can be seen, as well as the long cloudy stripe known as the M ilky Way (Fig. 44-1).
Galileo first observed, with his telescope, that the M ilky Way is comprised of
countless individual stars. A century and a half later (about 1750), Thomas W right
suggested that the M ilky Way was a fla t disk of stars extending to great distances
in a plane, which we call the Galaxy (Greek for “ m ilky way” ).

FIGURE 44-1 Sections of the Milky


Way. In (a), the thin line is the trail of
an artificial Earth satellite in this long
time exposure. The dark diagonal area
is due to dust absorption of visible
light, blocking the view. In (b) the
view is toward the center of the
Galaxy; taken in summer from Arizona.

(a) (b)

1194 CHAPTER 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology


Our Galaxy has a diameter of almost 100,000 light-years and a thickness of
roughly 2000 ly. It has a bulging central “ nucleus” and spiral arms (Fig. 44-2). Our
Sun, which is a star like many others, is located about halfway from the galactic center
to the edge, some 26,000 ly from the center. Our Galaxy contains roughly 100 billion
(lO11) stars. The Sun orbits the galactic center approximately once every 250 million
years, so its speed is about 200km/s relative to the center of the Galaxy. The total
mass of all the stars in our Galaxy is estimated to be about 3 X 1041kg, which is
ordinary matter. In addition, there is strong evidence that our Galaxy is surrounded
by an invisible “ halo” of “ dark matter,” which we discuss in Section 44-9.
FIGURE 44-2 Our Galaxy, as it would appear from the -100,000 ly
outside: (a) “edge view,” in the plane of the disk; (b) “top view,”
looking down on the disk. (If only we could see it like this—
from the outside!) (c) Infrared photograph of the inner reaches
of the Milky Way, showing the central bulge and disk of our
Galaxy. This very wide angle photo taken from the COBE
satellite (Section 44-6) extends over 180° of sky, and to be
viewed properly it should be wrapped in a semicircle with your
eyes at the center. The white dots are nearby stars.

(c)

EXAMPLE 44-1 Our Galaxy's mass. Estimate the total mass of


our Galaxy using the orbital data above for the Sun about the center
of the Galaxy. Assume that most of the mass of the Galaxy is concentrated near
the center of the Galaxy.
APPROACH We assume that the Sun (including our solar system) has total mass ra
and moves in a circular orbit about the center of the Galaxy (total mass M ), and that
the mass M can be considered as being located at the center of the Galaxy. We
then apply Newton’s second law, F = m a , with a being the centripetal accel­
eration, a = v2/r , and F being the universal law of gravitation (Chapter 6).
SOLUTION Our Sun and solar system orbit the center of the Galaxy, according to the
best measurements as mentioned above, with a speed of about v = 200 km /s at a
distance from the Galaxy center of about r = 26,000 ly. We use Newton’s second law:
ma
v2
m—
r
where M is the mass of the Galaxy and m is the mass of our Sun and solar
system. Solving this, we find
rv 2 (26,000ly )(l0 16m /ly)(2 X 105m /s)2
M ~ ~G 6.67 X 10-11 N • m2/k g 2 ~ 2 X
NOTE In terms of numbers of stars, if they are like our Sun (ra = 2.0 X IO30 kg),
there would be about (2 X 1041kg)/(2 X 1030kg) « 1011 or on the order of
100 billion stars.

SECTION 44-1 Stars and Galaxies 1195


In addition to stars both within and outside the M ilky Way, we can see by
telescope many faint cloudy patches in the sky which were all referred to once as
“ nebulae” (Latin for “ clouds” ). A few of these, such as those in the constellations
Andromeda and Orion, can actually be discerned with the naked eye on a clear
night. Some are star clusters (Fig. 44-3), groups of stars that are so numerous
they appear to be a cloud. Others are glowing clouds of gas or dust (Fig. 44-4),
and it is for these that we now mainly reserve the word nebula. Most fascinating
are those that belong to a third category: they often have fairly regular elliptical
shapes and seem to be a great distance beyond our Galaxy. Immanuel Kant
(about 1755) seems to have been the first to suggest that these latter might be
circular disks, but appear elliptical because we see them at an angle, and are faint
because they are so distant. A t first it was not universally accepted that these
objects were extragalactic— that is, outside our Galaxy. The very large telescopes
FIGURE 4 4 -3 This globular star
constructed in the twentieth century revealed that individual stars could be
cluster is located in the constellation
resolved w ithin these extragalactic objects and that many contain spiral arms.
Hercules.
Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) did much of this observational work in the 1920s
using the 2.5-m (100-inch) telescope* on M t. Wilson near Los Angeles, California,
FIGURE 4 4 -4 This gaseous nebula, then the world’s largest. Hubble demonstrated that these objects were indeed
found in the constellation Carina, extragalactic because of their great distances. The distance to our nearest large
is about 9000 light-years from us. galaxy/ Andromeda, is over 2 m illion light-years, a distance 20 times greater than
the diameter of our Galaxy. It seemed logical that these nebulae must be galaxies
similar to ours. (Note that it is usual to capitalize the word “ galaxy” only when it
refers to our own.) Today it is thought there are roughly 1011 galaxies in the
observable universe— that is, roughly as many galaxies as there are stars in a
galaxy. See Fig. 44-5.
Many galaxies tend to be grouped in galaxy clusters held together by their
mutual gravitational attraction. There may be anywhere from a few to many
thousands of galaxies in each cluster. Furthermore, clusters themselves seem to be

f2.5 m (= 100 inches) refers to the diameter of the curved objective mirror. The bigger the mirror,
the more light it collects (greater intensity) and the less diffraction there is (better resolution), so more
and fainter stars can be seen. See Chapters 33 and 35. Until recently, photographic films or plates were used to
take long time exposures. Now large solid-state CCD or CMOS sensors (Section 33-5) are available containing
hundreds of millions of pixels (compared to 10 million pixels in a good-quality digital camera).
*The Magellanic clouds are much closer than Andromeda, but are small and are usually considered
small satellite galaxies of our own Galaxy.

FIGURE 4 4 -5 Photographs of galaxies, (a) Spiral galaxy in the constellation Hydra, (b) Two galaxies: the
larger and more dramatic one is known as the Whirlpool galaxy, (c) An infrared image (given “false” colors)
of the same galaxies as in (b), here showing the arms of the spiral as having more substance than in the
visible light photo (b); the different colors correspond to different light intensities. Visible light is scattered
and absorbed by interstellar dust much more than infrared is, so infrared gives us a clearer image.

(a) (b) (c)

1196 CHAPTER 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology


organized into even larger aggregates: clusters of clusters of galaxies, or
superclusters. The farthest detectable galaxies are more than 1010ly distant. TABLE 44-1 Astronomical Distances
See Table 44-1.
Approx. Distance
Object from Earth (ly)
CONCEPTUAL EXAMPLE 44-2 I Looking back in time. Astronomers often think
of their telescopes as time machines, looking back toward the origin of the universe. Moon 4 X 1CT8
How far back do they look? Sun 1.6 X 1(T5
RESPONSE The distance in light-years measures how long in years the Size of solar system
(distance to Pluto) 6 X 10“4
light has been traveling to reach us, so Table 44-1 tells us also how far back in
Nearest star
time we are looking. For example, if we saw Proxima Centauri explode into a (Proxima Centauri) 4.3
supernova today, then the event would have really occurred 4.3 years ago. The
Center of our Galaxy 2.6 X 104
most distant galaxies emitted the light we see now roughly 1010years ago.
Nearest large galaxy 2.4 X 106
What we see was how they were then, 1010yr ago, or about 109years after the
universe was born in the Big Bang. Farthest galaxies 1010

EXERCISE A Suppose we could place a huge mirror 1 light-year away from us. What would
we see in this mirror if it is facing us on Earth? When did it take place? (This might be
called a “time machine.”)
Besides the usual stars, clusters of stars, galaxies, and clusters and superclusters
of galaxies, the universe contains many other interesting objects. Among these are
stars known as re d g ia n ts , w h ite d w a r fs , n e u tro n sta rs, exploding stars called n o v a e
and s u p e r n o v a e , and b la c k h o le s whose gravity is so strong even light can not
escape them. In addition, there is electromagnetic radiation that reaches the Earth
but does not emanate from the bright pointlike objects we call stars: particularly
important is the microwave background radiation that arrives nearly uniform ly
from all directions in the universe. We w ill discuss all these phenomena.
Finally, there are a c tiv e g a la c tic n u clei (AG N), which are very luminous
pointlike sources of light in the centers of distant galaxies. The most dramatic
examples of AGN are q u a sa rs (“ quasistellar objects” or QSOs), which are so lum i­
nous that the surrounding starlight of the galaxy is drowned out. Their luminosity
is thought to come from matter falling into a giant black hole at a galaxy’s center.

4 4 - 2 Stellar Evolution: Nucleosynthesis,


and the Birth and Death of Stars
The stars appear unchanging. Night after night the night sky reveals no significant
variations. Indeed, on a human time scale, the vast m ajority of stars change very
little (except for novae, supernovae, and certain variable stars). Although stars
se e m fixed in relation to each other, many move sufficiently for the motion to be
detected. Speeds of stars relative to neighboring stars can be hundreds of km/s,
but at their great distance from us, this motion is detectable only by careful
measurement. Furthermore, there is a great range of brightness among stars. The
differences in brightness are due both to differences in the rate at which stars emit
energy and to their different distances from us.
Luminosity and Brightness of Stars
A useful parameter for a star or galaxy is its intrinsic luminosity, L (or simply
luminosity), by which we mean the total power radiated in watts. Also important is
the apparent brightness, b , defined as the power crossing unit area at the Earth
perpendicular to the path of the light. Given that energy is conserved, and ignoring
any absorption in space, the total emitted power L when it reaches a distance d
from the star w ill be spread over a sphere of surface area A ird2. If d is the distance
from the star to the Earth, then L must be equal to 4 ir d 2 times b (power per unit
area at Earth). That is,

b = (44-1)
477d

SECTION 44-2 Stellar Evolution: Nucleosynthesis, and the Birth and Death of Stars 1197
EXAMPLE 44-3 Apparent brightness. Suppose a particular star has intrinsic
luminosity equal to that of our Sun, but is 10 ly away from Earth. By what factor
w ill it appear dimmer than the Sun?
APPROACH The luminosity L is the same for both stars, so the apparent bright­
ness depends only on their relative distances. We use the inverse square law as
stated in Eq. 44-1 to determine the relative brightness.
SOLUTION Using the inverse square law, the star appears dimmer by a factor
(1.5 X 108km)
2 X 10“ 12.
(10 ly )2(l0 13km /ly)2

Careful study of nearby stars has shown that the luminosity for most stars
depends on the mass: the m ore massive the star , the greater its lu m in o s ity Indeed,
we might expect that more massive stars would have higher core temperature and
pressure to counterbalance the greater gravitational attraction, and thus be more
luminous. Another important parameter of a star is its surface temperature, which
can be determined from the spectrum of electromagnetic frequencies it emits
(stars are “ good” blackbodies— see Section 37-1). As we saw in Chapter 37, as the
temperature of a body increases, the spectrum shifts from predominantly lower
frequencies (and longer wavelengths, such as red) to higher frequencies (and
shorter wavelengths such as blue). Quantitatively, the relation is given by Wien’s
law (Eq. 37-1): the peak wavelength AP in the spectrum of light emitted by a
blackbody (we often approximate stars as blackbodies) is inversely proportional to
its Kelvin temperature T; that is, APT = 2.90 X 10“ 3m -K . The surface tempera­
tures of stars typically range from about 3000 K (reddish) to about 50,000 K (U V).

■ Determining star temperature and star size. Suppose that


the distances from Earth to two nearby stars can be reasonably estimated, and that
their measured apparent brightnesses suggest the two stars have about the same
luminosity, L. The spectrum of one of the stars peaks at about 700 nm (so it is
reddish). The spectrum of the other peaks at about 350 nm (bluish). Use Wien’s law
(Eq. 37-1) and the Stefan-Boltzmann equation (Section 19-10) to determine (a ) the
surface temperature of each star, and (b) how much larger one star is than the other.
APPROACH We determine the surface temperature T for each star using Wien’s
law and each star’s peak wavelength. Then, using the Stefan-Boltzmann equation
(power output or luminosity oc A T 4 where A = surface area of emitter), we can find
the surface area ratio and relative sizes of the two stars.
SOLUTION (a) Wien’s law (Eq. 37-1) states that AFT = 2.90 X 10“ 3m *K. So
the temperature of the reddish star is
2.90 X 10_3m *K
Tr = 4140K.
700 X 10“ 9m
The temperature of the bluish star w ill be double this since its peak wavelength is
half (350 nm vs. 700 nm):

Th = 8280 K.

(b) The Stefan-Boltzmann equation, Eq. 19-17, states that the power radiated
p er unit area of surface from a blackbody is proportional to the fourth power of the
Kelvin temperature, T 4. The temperature of the bluish star is double that of the
reddish star, so the bluish one must radiate (24) = 16 times as much energy per
unit area. But we are given that they have the same luminosity (the same total
power output); so the surface area of the blue star must be ^ that of the red one.
The surface area of a sphere is 47rr2, so the radius of the reddish star is
V l6 = 4 times larger than the radius of the bluish star (or 43 = 64 times the volume).

fApplies to “main-sequence” stars (see next page). The mass of a star can be determined by observing
its gravitational effects. Many stars are part of a cluster, the simplest being a binary star in which two
stars orbit around each other, allowing their masses to be determined using rotational mechanics.
1198 CHAPTER 44
1029

Red
1028 giants
Our Sun
KF

* **
1026 FIGURE 44-6 Hertzsprung-Russell
(H -R ) diagram is a logarithmic graph of
luminosity vs. surface temperature T of stars
1025 (note that T increases to the left).

1024 •*c

White dwarfs
1023
10,000 7000 5000 3500
Surface temperature T (K)

H-R Diagram
An important astronomical discovery, made around 1900, was that for most stars,
the color is related to the intrinsic luminosity and therefore to the mass. A useful
way to present this relationship is by the so-called Hertzsprung-Russell (H -R )
diagram. On the H -R diagram, the horizontal axis shows the surface temperature T
whereas the vertical axis is the luminosity L; each star is represented by a point
on the diagram, Fig. 44-6. Most stars fall along the diagonal band termed the
main sequence. Starting at the lower right we find the coolest stars, reddish in color;
they are the least luminous and therefore of low mass. Farther up toward the left we
find hotter and more luminous stars that are whitish, like our Sun. S till farther up
we find even more massive and more luminous stars, bluish in color. Stars that fall
on this diagonal band are called main-sequence stars. There are also stars that fall
outside the main sequence. Above and to the right we find extremely large stars,
with high luminosities but with low (reddish) color temperature: these are called
red giants. A t the lower left, there are a few stars of low luminosity but with high
temperature: these are the white dwarfs.

EXAMPLE 44-5 ESTIMATE"! Distance to a star using the H-R diagram and
color. Suppose that detailed study of a certain star suggests that it most likely fits
on the main sequence of an H -R diagram. Its measured apparent brightness is
b = 1.0 X 10_12W /m 2, and the peak wavelength of its spectrum is AP « 600 nm.
Estimate its distance from us.
APPROACH We find the temperature using Wien’s law, Eq. 37-1. The luminosity
is estimated for a main sequence star on the H -R diagram of Fig. 44-6, and then
the distance is found using the relation between brightness and luminosity, Eq. 44-1.
SOLUTION The star’s temperature, from Wien’s law (Eq. 37-1), is
2.90 X 10_3m *K
4800 K.
600 X 10_9m
A star on the main sequence of an H -R diagram at this temperature has intrinsic
luminosity of about L « 1 X 1026W, read o ff of Fig. 44-6. Then, from Eq. 44-1,
~ 7 T I l x io 26w
d = 3 X 1018m.
Airb 4(3.14)(l.O X 10-12 W /m 2)
Its distance from us in light-years is
3 X 1018m
d = 300 ly.
1016m /ly

EXERCISE B Estimate the distance to a 6000-K main-sequence star with an apparent


brightness of 2.0 X 10-12 W /m 2. SECTION 44-2 1199
Stellar Evolution; Nucleosynthesis
Why are there different types of stars, such as red giants and white dwarfs, as well
as main-sequence stars? Were they all born this way, in the beginning? Or might
each different type represent a different age in the life cycle of a star?
Astronomers and astrophysicists today believe the latter is the case. Note,
however, that we cannot actually follow any but the tiniest part of the life cycle of
any given star since they live for ages vastly greater than ours, on the order of
millions or billions of years. Nonetheless, let us follow the process of stellar
evolution from the birth to the death of a star, as astrophysicists have theoretically
reconstructed it today.
Stars are born, it is believed, when gaseous clouds (mostly hydrogen) contract
due to the pull of gravity. A huge gas cloud might fragment into numerous
contracting masses, each mass centered in an area where the density was only
slightly greater than that at nearby points. Once such “ globules” formed, gravity
would cause each to contract in toward its center of mass. As the particles of
such a protostar accelerate inward, their kinetic energy increases. When the kinetic
energy is sufficiently high, the Coulomb repulsion between the positive charges
is not strong enough to keep the hydrogen nuclei apart, and nuclear fusion can
take place.
In a star like our Sun, the fusion of hydrogen (sometimes referred to as
“ burning” )1 occurs via the p ro to n -p ro to n cycle (Section 42-4, Eqs. 42-7), in
which four protons fuse to form a ^He nucleus with the release of 7 rays, posi­
trons, and neutrinos: 4 }H — » jH e + 2 e+ + 2ve + 27. These reactions require
a temperature of about 107K, corresponding to an average kinetic energy (« kT)
of about 1 keV (Eq. 18-4). In more massive stars, the carbon cycle produces the
same net effect: four JH produce a jH e— see Section 42-4. The fusion reactions
take place primarily in the core of a star, where T may be on the order of 107to 108K.
(The surface temperature is much lower— on the order of a few thousand
kelvins.) The tremendous release of energy in these fusion reactions produces an
outward pressure sufficient to halt the inward gravitational contraction. Our
protostar, now really a young star, stabilizes on the main sequence. Exactly
where the star falls along the main sequence depends on its mass. The more
massive the star, the farther up (and to the left) it falls on the H -R diagram of
Fig. 44-6. Our Sun required perhaps 30 m illion years to reach the main sequence,
and is expected to remain there about 10 b illion years (lO10yr). Although most
stars are billions of years old, evidence is strong that stars are actually being born
at this moment. More massive stars have shorter lives, because they are hotter
and the Coulomb repulsion is more easily overcome, so they use up their fuel
faster. If our Sun remains on the main sequence for IO10years, a star ten times
more massive may reside there for only 107years.
FIGURE 4 4 - 7 A shell of “burning”
As hydrogen fuses to form helium, the helium that is formed is denser and
hydrogen (fusing to become helium)
surrounds the core where the newly
tends to accumulate in the central core where it was formed. As the core of helium
formed helium gravitates. grows, hydrogen continues to fuse in a shell around it: see Fig. 44-7. When much of
the hydrogen within the core has been consumed, the production of energy
decreases at the center and is no longer sufficient to prevent the huge gravitational
forces from once again causing the core to contract and heat up. The hydrogen in
the shell around the core then fuses even more fiercely because of this rise in
temperature, allowing the outer envelope of the star to expand and to cool. The
surface temperature, thus reduced, produces a spectrum of light that peaks at
longer wavelength (reddish).

trThe word “burn” is put in quotation marks because these high-temperature fusion reactions occur via
a nuclear process, and must not be confused with ordinary burning (of, say, paper, wood, or coal) in air,
which is a chemical reaction, occurring at the atomic level (and at a much lower temperature).

1200 CHAPTER 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology


By this time the star has left the main sequence. It has become redder, and
as it has grown in size, it has become more luminous. So it w ill have moved to
the right and upward on the H -R diagram, as shown in Fig. 44-8. As it moves
upward, it enters the red giant stage. Thus, theory explains the origin of red giants
as a natural step in a star’s evolution. Our Sun, for example, has been on the
main sequence for about 4 \ billion years. It w ill probably remain there another
4 or 5 billion years. When our Sun leaves the main sequence, it is expected to
grow in diameter (as it becomes a red giant) by a factor of 100 or more, possibly
swallowing up inner planets such as Mercury.
If the star is like our Sun, or larger, further fusion can occur. As the star’s outer
envelope expands, its core continues to shrink and heat up. When the temperature
reaches about 108 K, even helium nuclei, in spite of their greater charge and hence
greater electrical repulsion, can come close enough to each other to undergo
fusion. The reactions are
|Be
12C (44-2)
Be 6'“/
with the emission of two 7 rays. These two reactions must occur in quick succes­
FIGURE 44-8 Evolutionary
sion (because ®Be is very unstable), and the net effect is “track” of a star like our Sun
3 ^He - ► n6C. {Q = 7.3 MeV) represented on an H -R diagram.

This fusion of helium causes a change in the star which moves rapidly to the
“ horizontal branch” on the H -R diagram (Fig. 44-8). Further fusion reactions
are possible, with ^He fusing with l\C to form 1|0 . In more massive stars, higher Z
elements like JjjNe or ™Mg can be made. This process of creating heavier nuclei
from lighter ones (or by absorption of neutrons which tends to occur at higher Z)
is called nucleosynthesis.
The final fate of a star depends on its mass. Stars can lose mass as parts of
their outer envelope move off into space. Stars born with a mass less than about 8
(or perhaps 10 ) solar masses eventually end up with a residual mass less than
about 1.4 solar masses, which is known as the Chandrasekhar limit. For them, no
further fusion energy can be obtained. The core of such a “ low mass” star (original
mass ^ 8 -1 0 solar masses) contracts under gravity; the outer envelope expands
again and the star becomes an even larger red giant. Eventually the outer layers
escape into space, the core shrinks, the star cools, and typically follows the dashed
route shown in Fig. 44-8, descending downward, becoming a white dwarf. A white
dwarf with a residual mass equal to that of the Sun would be about the size of the Earth.
A white dwarf contracts to the point at which the electron clouds start to overlap, but
no further because, by the Pauli exclusion principle, no two electrons can be in the
same quantum state. A t this point the star is supported against further collapse by
this electron degeneracy pressure. A white dwarf continues to lose internal energy
by radiation, decreasing in temperature and becoming dimmer until it glows no
more. It has then become a cold dark chunk of extremely dense material.
Stars whose residual mass is greater than the Chandrasekhar lim it of 1.4 solar
masses (original mass greater than about 8 or 10 solar masses) are thought to
follow a quite different scenario. A star with this great a mass can contract under
gravity and heat up even further. In the range T = (2.5-5) X 109 K, nuclei as
heavy as ^Fe and ^N i can be made. But here the formation of heavy nuclei from
lighter ones, by fusion, ends. As we saw in Fig. 41-1, the average binding energy
per nucleon begins to decrease for A greater than about 60. Further fusions would
require energy, rather than release it.
Elements heavier than N i are thought to form mainly by neutron capture,
particularly in exploding stars called supernovae (singular is supernova). Large
numbers of free neutrons, resulting from nuclear reactions, are present inside these highly
evolved stars and they can readily combine with, say, a ^Fe nucleus to form (if three
are captured) ^Fe, which decays to 27C0 . The 27C0 can capture neutrons, also
becoming neutron rich and decaying by /3 to the next higher Z element, and so on to
the highest Z elements.

SECTION 44-2 Stellar Evolution: Nucleosynthesis, and the Birth and Death of Stars 1201
Yet at these extremely high temperatures, well above 109K, the kinetic energy
of the nuclei is so high that fusion of elements heavier than iron is still possible
even though the reactions require energy input. But the high-energy collisions
can also cause the breaking apart of iron and nickel nuclei into He nuclei, and
eventually into protons and neutrons:
iF e 13 £ ie + 4n
2p 2n.
These are energy-requiring (endothermic) reactions, but at such extremely high
temperature and pressure there is plenty of energy available, enough even to force
electrons and protons together to form neutrons in inverse f i decay:

+ P n + v.
As a result of these reactions, the pressure in the core drops precipitously. As the
core collapses under the huge gravitational forces, the tremendous mass becomes
essentially an enormous nucleus made up almost exclusively of neutrons. The
size of the star is no longer lim ited by the exclusion principle applied to electrons,
but rather by neutron degeneracy pressure, and the star contracts
rapidly to form an enormously dense neutron star. The core of a neutron
star contracts to the point at which all neutrons are as close together as they
are in an atomic nucleus. That is, the density of a neutron star is on the order of
1014 times greater than normal solids and liquids on Earth. A cupful of such
dense matter would weigh billions of tons. A neutron star that has a mass 1.5 times
that of our Sun would have a diameter of only about 20 km. (Compare this to a white
dwarf with 1 solar mass whose diameter would be « 104km, as already mentioned.)
FIGURE 44-9 The star indicated by The contraction of the core of a massive star would mean a great reduction in
the arrow in (a) exploded in 1987 as gravitational potential energy. Somehow this energy would have to be released.
a supernova (SN1987a), as shown in Indeed, it was suggested in the 1930s that the final core collapse to a neutron star
(b). The bright spot in (b) does not may be accompanied by a catastrophic explosion (a supernova — see previous page)
represent the physical size. Part (c) is whose tremendous energy could form virtually all elements of the Periodic Table and
a photo taken a few years later, blow away the entire outer envelope of the star (Fig. 44-9), spreading its contents into
showing shock waves moving
interstellar space. The presence of heavy elements on Earth and in our solar system
outward from where SN1987a was
suggests that our solar system formed from the debris of such a supernova explosion.
(blow-up in corner). Part (c) is
magnified relative
to (a) and (b).

If the final mass of a neutron star is less than about two or three solar masses,
its subsequent evolution is thought to resemble that of a white dwarf. If the mass
is greater than this, the star collapses under gravity, overcoming even the neutron
exclusion principle. Gravity would then be so strong that even light emitted from
the star could not escape— it would be pulled back in by the force of gravity. Since
no radiation could escape from such a star, we could not see it— it would be black.
An object may pass by it and be deflected by its gravitational field, but if it came
1202 CHAPTER 44 too close it would be swallowed up, never to escape. This is a black hole.
Novae and Supemovae
Novae (singular is nova , meaning “ new” in Latin) are faint stars that have suddenly Main-sequence
increased in brightness by as much as a factor of 104 and last for a month or two companion White
dwarf
before fading. Novae are thought to be faint white dwarfs that have pulled mass from
a nearby companion (they make up a binary system), as illustrated in Fig. 44-10. The
captured mass of hydrogen suddenly fuses into helium at a high rate for a few weeks.
Many novae (maybe all) are recurrent— they repeat their bright glow years later.
Supernovae are also brief explosive events, but release millions of times more
transfer
energy than novae, up to 1010 times more luminous than our Sun. The peak of
brightness may exceed that of the entire galaxy in which they are located, but lasts
only a few days or weeks. They slowly fade over a few months. Many supernovae FIGURE 44-10 Hypothetical
model for novae and type la
form by core collapse to a neutron star as described above. See Fig. 44-9.
supernovae, showing how a white
Type la supemovae are different. They all seem to have very nearly the same
dwarf could pull mass from its
luminosity. They are believed to be binary stars, one of which is a white dwarf that normal companion.
pulls mass from its companion, much like for a nova, Fig. 44-10. The mass is
higher, and as mass is captured and the total mass reaches the Chandrasekhar lim it
of 1.4 solar masses, it explodes as a supernova by undergoing a
“ thermonuclear runaway” — an uncontrolled chain of nuclear reactions. What is
left is a neutron star or (if the mass is great enough) a black hole.

4 4 —3 D istan ce M easu rem en ts


We have talked about the vast distances of objects in the universe. But how do we
measure these distances? One basic technique employs simple geometry to
measure the parallax of a star. By parallax we mean the apparent motion of a star,
against the background of much more distant stars, due to the Earth’s motion about the
Sun. As shown in Fig. 44-11, the sighting angle of a star relative to the plane of
Earth’s orbit (angle 6) can be determined at different times of the year. Since we
know the distance d from Earth to Sun, we can reconstruct the right triangles
shown in Fig. 44-11 and can determine* the distance D to the star.
trThis is essentially the way the heights of mountains are determined, by “triangulation.” See Example 1-7.
->)(- ->(£■
^ Distant stars ^ FIGURE 44-11 (a) Simple example of

*
* \
\ /
* J ** determining the distance D to a relatively
nearby star using parallax. Horizontal
distances are greatly exaggerated: in reality (f>is
a very small angle, (b) Diagram of the sky showing
the apparent position of the “nearby” star
relative to more distant stars, at two different
times (January and July). The viewing angle in
January puts the star more to the right relative
to distant stars, whereas in July it is more to the
left (dashed circle shows January location).

Sky as
seen
from
Earth in
January

As seen
from
Earth Earth Earth in
(January) (July) July

Earth’s orbit (b)

SECTION 44-3 Distance Measurements 1203


EXAMPLE 44-6 ESTIMATE~| Distance to a star using parallax. Estimate
the distance D to a star if the angle 0 in Fig. 44-11 is measured to be 89.99994°.
APPROACH From trigonometry, tan cf> = d /D in Fig. 44-11. The Sun-Earth
distance is d = 1.5 X 108km.
SOLUTION The angle <f> = 90° - 89.99994° = 0.00006°, or about 1.0 X 10“ 6radians.
We can use tan<£ « cf) since (f) is very small. We solve for D in tan<£ = d /D .
The distance D to the star is
^ d d 1.5 X 108km „ _ „
D = ------T ~ T = ---- rrz 2— r = 1-5 X 10 km,
tan <(> <f> 1.0 X 10 6rad
or about 15 ly.
Distances to stars are often specified in terms of parallax angle (4> in
Fig. 44-11 a) given in seconds of arc: 1 second (1") is ^ of one minute (1') of arc,
3
which is ^ of a degree, so 1" = m ° f a degree. The distance is then specified in
parsecs (pc) (meaning parallax angle in seconds of arc): D = l/4> with cf) in
seconds of arc. In Example 44-6, (f> = (6 X 10_5)°(3600) = 0.22" of arc, so we would
say the star is at a distance of 1/0.22" = 4.5 pc. One parsec is given by (recall
D = d/(j>, and we set the Sun-Earth distance (Fig. 44-1 la ) as d = 1.496 X 1011m):
d 1.496 X l0 n m „_ „
1PC = r = ..... ( 1' \ / 1° \ / 27t ra d \ = 3-°86 X 10 m

1 iy
lp c = (3.086 X 1016m )^ = 3.26 ly.
9.46 X 1015 m
Parallax can be used to determine the distance to stars as far away as about
100 light-years (~ 30 parsecs) from Earth, and from an orbiting spacecraft perhaps
5 to 10 times farther. Beyond that distance, parallax angles are too small to
measure. For greater distances, more subtle techniques must be employed. We
might compare the apparent brightnesses of two stars, or two galaxies, and use the
inverse square law (apparent brightness drops o ff as the square of the distance) to
roughly estimate their relative distances. We can’t expect this technique to be very
precise because we don’t expect any two stars, or two galaxies, to have the same
intrinsic luminosity. When comparing galaxies, a perhaps better estimate assumes
the brightest stars in all galaxies (or the brightest galaxies in galaxy clusters) are
similar and have about the same intrinsic luminosity. Consequently, their apparent
brightness would be a measure of how far away they were.
Another technique makes use of the H -R diagram. Measurement of a star’s
surface temperature (from its spectrum) places it at a certain point (within 20%)
on the H -R diagram, assuming it is a main-sequence star, and then its luminosity
can be estimated o ff the vertical axis (Fig. 44-6). Its apparent brightness and
Eq. 44-1 give its approximate distance; see Example 44-5.
A better estimate comes from comparing variable stars , especially Cepheid
variables whose luminosity varies over time with a period that is found to be
related to their average luminosity. Thus, from their period and apparent brightness
we get their distance.
The largest distances are estimated by comparing the apparent brightnesses of
type la supernovae (SNIa). Type la supernovae all have a similar origin
(as described on the previous page, Fig. 44-10), and their brief explosive burst of
light is expected to be of nearly the same luminosity. They are thus sometimes
referred to as “ standard candles.”
Another important technique for estimating the distance of very distant stars
is from the “ redshift” in the line spectra of elements and compounds. The redshift
is related to the expansion of the universe, as we shall discuss in Section 44-5. It is
useful for objects farther than 107 to 108 ly away.
As we look farther and farther away, the measurement techniques are less and
less reliable, so there is more and more uncertainty in the measurements of large
distances.

1204 CHAPTER 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology


44—4 General Relativity: Gravity and
the Curvature of Space
We have seen that the force of gravity plays an important role in the processes that
occur in stars. Gravity too is important for the evolution of the universe as a
whole. The reasons gravity plays a dominant role in the universe, and not one of
the other of the four forces in nature, are (1) it is long-range and (2) it is always
attractive. The strong and weak nuclear forces act over very short distances only,
on the order of the size of a nucleus; hence they do not act over astronomical
distances (they do act between nuclei and nucleons in stars to produce nuclear
reactions). The electromagnetic force, like gravity, acts over great distances. But it
can be either attractive or repulsive. And since the universe does not seem to
contain large areas of net electric charge, a large net force does not occur. But
gravity acts as an attractive force between all masses, and there are large accumu­
lations in the universe of only the one “ sign” of mass (not + and - as with electric
charge). The force of gravity as Newton described it in his law of universal
gravitation was modified by Einstein. In his general theory of relativity, Einstein
developed a theory of gravity that now forms the basis of cosmological dynamics.
In the special theory o f relativity (Chapter 36), Einstein concluded that there is
no way for an observer to determine whether a given frame of reference is at rest FIGURE 44-12 In an elevator
or is moving at constant velocity in a straight line. Thus the laws of physics must be falling freely under gravity,
the same in different inertial reference frames. But what about the more general (a) a person releases a book;
(b) the released book hovers
case of motion where reference frames can be accelerating ?
next to the owner’s hand; (b) is a few
Einstein tackled the problem of accelerating reference frames in his general
moments after (a).
theory of relativity and in it also developed a theory of gravity. The mathematics of
General Relativity is complex, so our discussion w ill be mainly qualitative.
We begin with Einstein’s principle of equivalence, which states that
I
no experiment can be performed that could distinguish between a uniform
gravitational field and an equivalent uniform acceleration.

If observers sensed that they were accelerating (as in a vehicle speeding around a
sharp curve), they could not prove by any experiment that in fact they weren’t
simply experiencing the pull of a gravitational field. Conversely, we might think we
are being pulled by gravity when in fact we are undergoing an acceleration having
nothing to do with gravity.
As a thought experiment, consider a person in a freely falling elevator near
the Earth’s surface. If our observer held out a book and let go of it, what would
happen? Gravity would pull it downward toward the Earth, but at the same rate
(g = 9.8 m /s2) at which the person and elevator were falling. So the book would
hover right next to the person’s hand (Fig. 44-12). The effect is exactly the same
as if this reference frame was at rest and no forces were acting. On the other
hand, if the elevator was out in space where the gravitational field is essentially
zero, the released book would float, just as it does in Fig. 44-12. Next, if the
elevator (out in space) is accelerating upward at an acceleration of 9.8 m /s2, the
book as seen by our observer would fa ll to the floor w ith an acceleration of
9.8 m /s2, just as if it were falling due to gravity at the surface of the Earth.
According to the principle of equivalence, the observer could not determine
whether the book fe ll because the elevator was accelerating upward, or because
a gravitational field was acting downward and the elevator was at rest. The two
descriptions are equivalent.
The principle of equivalence is related to the concept that there are two types
of mass. Newton’s second law, F = ma, uses inertial mass. We might say that
inertial mass represents “ resistance” to any type of force. The second type of mass
is gravitational mass. When one object attracts another by the gravitational force
(Newton’s law of universal gravitation, F = G m 1m j r 1, Chapter 6), the strength of
the force is proportional to the product of the gravitational masses of the two objects. (b)

SECTION 44-4 General Relativity: Gravity and the Curvature of Space 1205
This is much like Coulomb’s law for the electric force between two objects
which is proportional to the product of their electric charges. The electric charge
on an object is not related to its inertial mass; so why should we expect that an
object’s gravitational mass (call it gravitational charge if you like) be related
to its inertial mass? A ll along we have assumed they were the same. Why? Because
no experiment— not even of high precision— has been able to discern any
measurable difference between inertial mass and gravitational mass. (For example,
in the absence of air resistance, all objects fa ll at the same acceleration, g, on
Earth.) This is another way to state the equivalence principle: gravitational mass
is equivalent to inertial mass.

FIGURE 44-13 (a) Light beam goes straight


across an elevator which is not accelerating.
(b) The light beam bends (exaggerated) in an
accelerating elevator whose speed increases in the
upward direction. Both views are as seen by an
outside observer in an inertial reference frame.

(a) (b)
FIGURE 44-14 (a) Three stars in
the sky observed from Earth, (b) If the
light from one of these stars passes The principle of equivalence can be used to show that light ought to be
very near the Sun, whose gravity deflected due to the gravitational force of a massive object. Consider another
bends the rays, the star will appear thought experiment, in which an elevator is in free space where virtually no
higher than it actually is (follow the
gravity acts. If a light beam is emitted by a flashlight attached to the side of the
ray backwards).
elevator, the beam travels straight across the elevator and makes a spot on the
opposite side if the elevator is at rest or moving at constant velocity (Fig. 44-13a).
If instead the elevator is accelerating upward, as in Fig. 44-13b, the light beam
still travels straight across in a reference frame at rest. In the upwardly acceler­
ating elevator, however, the beam is observed to curve downward. Why? Because
during the time the light travels from one side of the elevator to the other, the
elevator is moving upward at a vertical speed that is increasing relative to the
light. Next we note that according to the equivalence principle, an upwardly
accelerating reference frame is equivalent to a downward gravitational field.
Hence, we can picture the curved light path in Fig. 4 4 -13b as being due to
the effect of a gravitational field. Thus, from the principle of equivalence, we
Observer expect gravity to exert a force on a beam of light and to bend it out of a straight-
on Earth (a)
line path!
That light is affected by gravity is an important prediction of Einstein’s general
theory of relativity. And it can be tested. The amount a light beam would be
deflected from a straight-line path must be small even when passing a massive
object. (For example, light near the Earth’s surface after traveling 1 km is predicted
to drop only about K T10m, which is equal to the diameter of a small atom and
not detectable.) The most massive object near us is the Sun, and it was calculated
that light from a distant star would be deflected by 1.75" of arc (tiny but detectable)
as it passed by the edge of the Sun (Fig. 44-14). However, such a measurement
could be made only during a total eclipse of the Sun, so that the Sun’s tremendous
Observer brightness would not obscure the starlight passing near its edge. An opportune
on Earth (b) eclipse occurred in 1919, and scientists journeyed to the South Atlantic to observe it.

1206 CHAPTER 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology


False
image

(a) (b)

FIGURE 44-15 (a) Hubble Space Telescope photograph of the so-called “Einstein cross”, thought to represent
“gravitational lensing”: the central spot is a relatively nearby galaxy, whereas the four other spots are thought to be
images of a single quasar behind the galaxy, (b) Diagram showing how the galaxy could bend the light coming from the
quasar behind it to produce the four images. See also Fig. 44-14. [If the shape of the nearby galaxy and distant quasar
were perfect spheres, we would expect the “image” of the distant quasar to be a circular ring or halo instead of the four
separate images seen here. Such a ring is called an “Einstein ring.”]

Their photos of stars around the Sun revealed shifts in accordance with Einstein’s
prediction. Another example is gravitational lensing, as shown in Fig. 44-15.
Fermat showed that optical phenomena, including reflection, refraction, and
effects of lenses, can be derived from a simple principle: that light traveling
between two points follows the shortest path in space. Thus if gravity curves the
path of light, then gravity must be able to curve space itself. That is, space itself
can be curved , and it is gravitational mass that causes the curvature. Indeed, the
curvature of space— or rather, of four-dimensional space-time— is a basic aspect
of Einstein’s General Relativity (GR).
What is meant by curved space? To understand, recall that our normal method
of viewing the world is via Euclidean plane geometry. In Euclidean geometry, there
are many axioms and theorems we take for granted, such as that the sum of the
angles of any triangle is 180°. Non-Euclidean geometries, which involve curved
space, have also been imagined by mathematicians. It is hard enough to imagine
three-dimensional curved space, much less curved four-dimensional space-time.
So let us try to understand the idea of curved space by using two-dimensional surfaces.
Consider, for example, the two-dimensional surface of a sphere. It is clearly
curved, Fig. 44-16, at least to us who view it from the outside— from our three-
dimensional world. But how would hypothetical two-dimensional creatures
determine whether their two-dimensional space was flat (a plane) or curved? One
FIGURE 44-16 On a
way would be to measure the sum of the angles of a triangle. If the surface is a
two-dimensional curved surface,
plane, the sum of the angles is 180°, as we learn in plane geometry. But if the space the sum of the angles of a triangle
is curved, and a sufficiently large triangle is constructed, the sum of the angles w ill may not be 180°.
not be 180°. To construct a triangle on a curved surface, say the sphere of
Fig. 44-16, we must use the equivalent of a straight line: that is, the shortest
distance between two points, which is called a geodesic. On a sphere, a geodesic is
an arc of a great circle (an arc in a plane passing through the center of the sphere)
such as the Earth’s equator and the Earth’s longitude lines. Consider, for example,
the large triangle of Fig. 44-16: its sides are two longitude lines passing from the
north pole to the equator, and the third side is a section of the equator as shown.
The two longitude lines make 90° angles with the equator (look at a world globe to
see this more clearly). They make an angle with each other at the north pole, which
could be, say, 90° as shown; the sum of these angles is 90° + 90° + 90° = 270°.
This is clearly not a Euclidean space. Note, however, that if the triangle is small in
comparison to the radius of the sphere, the angles w ill add up to nearly 180°, and
the triangle (and space) w ill seem flat.

SECTION 44-4 General Relativity: Gravity and the Curvature of Space 1207
FIGURE 44—17 On a spherical surface FIGURE 44—18 Example of a
(a two-dimensional world) a circle of circumference C is two-dimensional surface with
drawn (red) about point O as the center. The radius negative curvature.
of the circle (not the sphere) is the distance r along the
surface. (Note that in our three-dimensional view, we
can tell that C = lira. Since r > a, then C < 2irr.)
Another way to test the curvature of space is to measure the radius r and
circumference C of a large circle. On a plane surface, C = 2irr. But on a two-
dimensional spherical surface, C is less than 2irr, as can be seen in Fig. 44-17. The
proportionality between C and r is less than 2ir. Such a surface is said to have
po sitive curvature. On the saddlelike surface o f Fig. 44-18, the circumference o f a
circle is greater than 2irr, and the sum of the angles of a triangle is less than 180°.
Such a surface is said to have a negative curvature.
Curvature of the Universe
What about our universe? On a large scale (not just near a large mass), what is the
overall curvature of the universe? Does it have positive curvature, negative curva­
ture, or is it fla t (zero curvature)? We perceive our world as Euclidean (flat), but
we can not exclude the possibility that space could have a curvature so slight that
we don’t normally notice it. This is a crucial question in cosmology, and it can be
answered only by precise experimentation.
If the universe had a positive curvature, the universe would be closed , or finite
in volume. This would n ot mean that the stars and galaxies extended out to a certain
boundary, beyond which there is empty space. There is no boundary or edge in such
a universe. The universe is all there is. I f a particle were to move in a straight line
in a particular direction, it would eventually return to the starting point— perhaps
eons of time later.
On the other hand, if the curvature of space was zero or negative, the universe
would be open. It could just go on forever. A n open universe could be infinite', but
according to recent research, even that may not necessarily be so.
Today the evidence is very strong that the universe on a large scale is very
close to being flat. Indeed, it is so close to being fla t that we can’t te ll if it m ight
have very slightly positive or very slightly negative curvature.
Black Holes
FIGURE 44-19 Rubber-sheet analogy According to Einstein’s theory, space-time is curved near massive objects. We
for space-time curved by matter. m ight think of space as being like a thin rubber sheet: if a heavy weight is hung
from it, it curves as shown in Fig. 44-19. The weight corresponds to a huge mass
that causes space (space itself!) to curve. Thus, in Einstein’s theory1 we do not
speak of the “ force” of gravity acting on objects. Instead we say that objects and
light rays move as they do because space-time is curved. A n object starting at rest
or moving slowly near the great mass of Fig. 44-19 would follow a geodesic (the
equivalent of a straight line in plane geometry) toward that great mass.
Alexander Pope (1688-1744) wrote an epitaph for Newton:
“Nature, and Nature’s laws lay hid in night:
Weight God said, Let Newton be! and all was light.”
Sir John Squire (1884-1958), perhaps uncomfortable with Einstein’s profound thoughts, added:
“It did not last: the Devil howling ‘Ho!
1208 CHAPTER 44 Let Einstein be/’ restored the status quo.”
The extreme curvature of space-time shown in Fig. 44-19 could be produced
by a black hole. A black hole, as we mentioned in Section 44-2, is so dense that
even light cannot escape from it. To become a black hole, an object of mass M
must undergo gravitational collapse, contracting by gravitational self-attraction to
within a radius called the Schwarzschild radius:

_ 2G M

where G is the gravitational constant and c the speed of light. If an object collapses
to within this radius, it is predicted by general relativity to rapidly (« IO-5 s)
collapse to a point at r = 0, forming an infinitely dense singularity. This predic­
tion is uncertain, however, because in this realm we need to combine quantum
mechanics with gravity, a unification of theories not yet achieved (Section 43-12).

| EXERCISE C What is the Schwarzschild radius for an object with 2 solar masses?

The Schwarzschild radius also represents the event horizon of a black hole. By
event horizon we mean the surface beyond which no emitted signals can ever
reach us, and thus inform us of events that happen beyond that surface. As a star collapses
toward a black hole, the light it emits is pulled harder and harder by gravity, but
we can still see it. Once the matter passes within the event horizon, the emitted
light cannot escape but is pulled back in by gravity.
A ll we can know about a black hole is its mass, its angular momentum (there
could be rotating black holes), and its electric charge. No other information, no
details of its structure or the kind of matter it was formed of, can be known
because no information can escape.
How might we observe black holes? We cannot see them because no light can
escape from them. They would be black objects against a black sky. But they do
exert a gravitational force on nearby objects. The black hole believed to be at the
center of our Galaxy (M ~ 2 X 106MSun) was discovered by examining the motion
of matter in its vicinity. Another technique is to examine stars which appear to move
as if they were one member of a binary system (two stars rotating about their common
center of mass), but without a visible companion. If the unseen star is a black hole,
it might be expected to pull o ff gaseous material from its visible companion (as in
Fig. 44-10). As this matter approached the black hole, it would be highly acceler­
ated and should emit X-rays of a characteristic type before plunging inside the
event horizon. Such X-rays, plus a sufficiently high mass estimate from the
rotational motion, can provide evidence for a black hole. One of the many
candidates for a black hole is in the binary-star system Cygnus X -l. It is widely
believed that the center of most galaxies is occupied by a black hole with a mass
106 to 109 times the mass of a typical star like our Sun.

EXERCISE D A black hole has radius R. Its mass is proportional to (a) R, (b) R2, (c) R3.
Justify your answer.

4 4 —5 The Expanding Universe:


Redshift and Hubble's Law
We discussed in Section 44-2 how individual stars evolve from their birth to their
death as white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. But what about the universe
as a whole: is it static, or does it change? One of the most important scientific
discoveries of the twentieth century was that distant galaxies are racing away from
us, and that the farther they are from us, the faster they are moving away. How
astronomers arrived at this astonishing idea, and what it means for the past history
of the universe as well as its future, w ill occupy us for the remainder of the book.

SECTION 44-5 The Expanding Universe: Redshift and Hubble's Law 1209
Low redshift galaxy spectrum
z = 0.004

FIGURE 44-20 A tom s and


molecules emit and absorb light of
particular frequencies depending on
the spacing of their energy levels, as
we saw in Chapters 37 to 40. (a) The 500 600 700
(a) Wavelength (nm)
spectrum of light received from a
relatively slow-moving galaxy.
(b) Spectrum of a galaxy moving away Higher redshift galaxy spectrum
from us at a much higher speed. z = 0.104
Note how the peaks (or lines) in the
spectrum have moved to longer
wavelengths. The redshift is
Z = (^-obs — ^rest)/^-rest •

500 600 700


(b) Wavelength (nm)

That the universe is expanding was first put forth by Edwin Hubble in 1929.
This idea was based on distance measurements of galaxies (Section 44-3), and
determination of their velocities by the Doppler shift of spectral lines in the light
received from them (Fig. 44-20). In Chapter 16 we saw how the frequency of
sound is higher and the wavelength shorter if the source and observer move toward
each other. If the source moves away from the observer, the frequency is lower and
the wavelength longer. The Doppler effect occurs also for light, and we saw in
Section 36-12 (Eq. 36-15) that according to special relativity, the Doppler shift is given by

(44-3)

where Arest is the emitted wavelength as seen in a reference frame at rest with
respect to the source, and Aobs is the wavelength observed in a frame moving with
velocity v away from the source along the line of sight. (For relative motion
tow ard each other, v < 0 in this formula.) When a distant source emits light of a
particular wavelength, and the source is moving away from us, the wavelength
appears longer to us: the color of the light (if it is visible) is shifted toward the red
end of the visible spectrum, an effect known as a redshift. ( If the source moves
toward us, the color shifts toward the blue or shorter wavelength.)
In the spectra of stars in other galaxies, lines are observed that correspond to
lines in the known spectra of particular atoms (see Section 37-10 and Figs. 35-22
and 37-20). What Hubble found was that the lines seen in the spectra from distant
galaxies were generally redshifted, and that the amount of shift seemed to be approx­
imately proportional to the distance of the galaxy from us. That is, the velocity v of
a galaxy moving away from us is proportional to its distance d from us:
H U BBLE’S LAW v = Hd. (44-4)
This is Hubble’s law, one of the most fundamental astronomical ideas. The
constant H is called the Hubble parameter.
The value of H until recently was uncertain by over 20%, and thought to be
between 50 and 80km /s/M pc. But recent measurements now put its value more
precisely at
H = 71 km /s/M pc
(that is, 71 km /s per megaparsec of distance). The current uncertainty is about 5%, or
+ 4 km /s/M pc. If we use light-years for distance, then H = 22 km /s per m illion
light-years of distance:
H = 22 km /s/M ly
1210 CHAPTER 44 with an estimated uncertainty of +1 km/s/Mly.
Redshift Origins
Galaxies very near us seem to be moving randomly relative to us: some move
towards us (blueshifted), others away from us (redshifted); their speeds are on the
order of 0.001c. But for more distant galaxies, the velocity of recession is much
greater than the velocity of local random motion, and so is dominant and Hubble’s
law (Eq. 44-4) holds very well. More distant galaxies have higher recession velocity
and a larger redshift, and we call their redshift a cosmological redshift. We interpret
this redshift today as due to the expansion o f space itself. We can think of the originally
emitted wavelength Arest as being stretched out (becoming longer) along with the
expanding space around it, as suggested in Fig. 44-21. Although Hubble thought of
the redshift as a Doppler shift, now we understand it in this sense of expanding space.
Contrast the cosmological redshift, due to the expansion of space itself, with
an ordinary D oppler redshift which is due to the relative motion of emitter and
observer in a space that can be considered fixed over the time interval of observation.
There is a third way to produce a redshift, which we mention for
completeness: a gravitational redshift. Light leaving a massive star is gaining in
gravitational potential energy (just like a stone thrown upward from Earth). So the FIGURE 44-21 Simplified model
kinetic energy of each photon, hf, must be getting smaller (to conserve energy). of a 2-dimensional universe,
A smaller frequency /means a larger (longer) wavelength A {= c / f ) , which is a redshift. imagined as a balloon. As you blow
The amount of a redshift is specified by the redshift parameter, z, defined as up the balloon (= expanding
universe), the wavelength of a wave
^•obs — ^-rest AA
z = ----- ---------- = - — ’ (44-5a) on its surface gets longer.
^rest ^rest
where Arest is a wavelength as seen by an observer at rest relative to the source, and
Aobs is the wavelength measured by a moving observer. Equation 44-5a can also be FIGURE 44-22 Hubble Ultra
written as Deep Field photograph showing
^obs i what may be among the most distant
z = --------- 1 (44-5b)
Arest galaxies from us (small red dots,
indicated by green squares), with
z ~ 5 or 6, existing when the
z + 1 = (44-5c)
universe was only about 800 million
For low speeds not close to the speed of light (v ^ 0.1c), the Doppler formula years old. The two distant galaxies in
(Eq. 44-3) can be used to show (Problem 29) that z is proportional to the speed of this photo are shown enlarged below.
the source toward or away from us:
^•obs — ^rest V r a\
z = « — [v « c] (44-6)
^rest
But redshifts are not always small, in which case the approximation of Eq. 44-6 is
not valid. Modern telescopes regularly observe galaxies with z ~ 5 (Fig. 44-22);
for large z galaxies, not even Eq. 44-3 applies because the redshift is due to the
expansion of space (cosmological redshift), not the Doppler effect.

Scale Factor
The expansion of space can be described as a simple scaling of the typical distance
between two points or objects in the universe. If two distant galaxies are a distance d0
apart at some initial time, then a time t later they w ill be separated by a greater
distance d (t). The scale factor is the same as for light, expressed in Eq. 44-5a. That is,
d { t ) — d0 AA
= z
do A
or
m
= 1 + z.
d0
Thus, for example, if a galaxy has z = 3, then the scale factor is now
(1 + 3) = 4 times larger than when the light was emitted from that galaxy. That
is, the average distance between galaxies has become 4 times larger. Thus the
factor by which the wavelength has increased since it was emitted tells us by
what factor the universe (or the typical distance between objects) has increased in size.

SECTION 44-5 The Expanding Universe: Redshift and Hubble's Law 1211
FIGURE 44-23 Expansion of the universe looks the same from any point in the universe. If you are on Earth
as shown in part (a) or you are instead at point A (which is at rest in the reference frame shown in (b)), all
other galaxies appear to be racing away from you.

Expansion, and the Cosmological Principle


What does it mean that distant galaxies are all moving away from us, and with ever
greater speed the farther they are from us? It seems to suggest some kind of explo­
sive expansion that started at some very distant time in the past. And at first sight
we seem to be in the middle of it all. But we aren’t. The expansion appears the
same from any other point in the universe. To understand why, see Fig. 44-23. In
Fig. 44-23a we have the view from Earth (or from our Galaxy). The velocities of
surrounding galaxies are indicated by arrows, pointing away from us, and the
arrows are longer for galaxies more distant from us. Now, what if we were on the
galaxy labeled A in Fig. 44-23a? From Earth, galaxy A appears to be moving to
the right at a velocity, call it vA, represented by the arrow pointing to the right. If
we were on galaxy A , Earth would appear to be moving to the left at velocity — vA.
To determine the velocities of other galaxies relative to A , we vectorially add the
velocity vector, - v A, to all the velocity arrows shown in Fig. 44-23a. This yields
Fig. 44-23b, where we see clearly that the universe is expanding away from
galaxy A as well; and the velocities of galaxies receding from A are proportional to
their current distance from A. The universe looks pretty much the same from
different points.
Thus the expansion of the universe can be stated as follows: all galaxies are racing
away from each other at an average rate of about 22 km /s per m illion light-years
of distance between them. The ramifications of this idea are profound, and we
discuss them in a moment.
A basic assumption in cosmology has been that on a large scale, the universe
would look the same to observers at different places at the same time. In other
words, the universe is both isotropic (looks the same in all directions) and
homogeneous (would look the same if we were located elsewhere, say in another
galaxy). This assumption is called the cosmological principle. On a local scale, say
in our solar system or within our Galaxy, it clearly does not apply (the sky looks
different in different directions). But it has long been thought to be valid if we
look on a large enough scale, so that the average population density of galaxies
and clusters of galaxies ought to be the same in different areas of the sky. This
seems to be valid on distances greater than about 200 Mpc (700 M ly). The expan­
sion of the universe (Fig. 44-23) is consistent with the cosmological principle; and
the near uniform ity of the cosmic microwave background radiation (discussed in
Section 44-6) supports it. Another way to state the cosmological principle is that
our place in the universe is not special.
The expansion of the universe, as described by Hubble’s law, strongly suggests
that galaxies must have been closer together in the past than they are now. This is,
in fact, the basis of the Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe, which
pictures the universe as a relentless expansion starting from a very hot and
compressed beginning. We discuss the Big Bang in detail shortly, but first let us see
what can be said about the age of the universe.
1212 CHAPTER 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology
One way to estimate the age of the universe uses the Hubble parameter.
W ith H « 22 km /s per 106 light-years, the time required for the galaxies to arrive
at their present separations would be approximately (starting with v = d / t and
using Hubble’s law, Eq. 44-4),
f = d = A . = JL (I0 6ly)(0.95 x 10 n km /ly) ^
v Hd H (22km/s)(3.16 X 107s/yr)
or 14 billion years. The age of the universe calculated in this way is called the
characteristic expansion time or “ Hubble age.” It is a very rough estimate and assumes
the rate of expansion of the universe was constant (which today we are quite sure
is not true). Today’s best measurements give the age of the universe as 13.7 X 109yr,
in remarkable agreement w ith the rough Hubble age estimate.

* Steady-State Model
Before discussing the Big Bang in detail, we mention one alternative to the Big
Bang— the steady-state model— which assumed that the universe is infinitely old
and on average looks the same now as it always has. (This assumed uniform ity in
time as well as space was called the perfect cosm ological principle.) According to
the steady-state model, no large-scale changes have taken place in the universe
as a whole, particularly no Big Bang. To maintain this view in the face of the
recession of galaxies away from each other, matter must be created continuously
to maintain the assumption of uniform ity. The rate of mass creation required is
very small— about one nucleon per cubic meter every 109years.
The steady-state model provided the Big Bang model with healthy competition
in the mid-twentieth century. But the discovery of the cosmic microwave background
radiation (next Section), as well as other observations of the universe, has made the
Big Bang model universally accepted.

4 4 —( The Big Bang and the Cosmic


Microwave Background
The expansion of the universe suggests that typical objects in the universe were
once much closer together than they are now. This is the basis for the idea that the
universe began about 14 billion years ago as an expansion from a state of very high
density and temperature known affectionately as the Big Bang.
The birth of the universe was not an explosion, because an explosion blows
pieces out into the surrounding space. Instead, the Big Bang was the start of an
expansion of space itself. The observable universe was very small at the start and
has been expanding ever since. The in itia l tiny universe of extremely dense matter
is not to be thought of as a concentrated mass in the midst of a much larger space
around it. The in itia l tiny but dense universe was the entire universe. There
wouldn’t have been anything else. When we say that the universe was once smaller FIGURE 44-24 Arno Penzias (left)
and Robert Wilson, and behind them
than it is now, we mean that the average separation between objects (such as
their “horn antenna.”
galaxies) was less. It is thought the universe was infinite in extent then, and it still is
(only bigger). The observable universe, however, is finite.
A major piece of evidence supporting the Big Bang is the cosmic microwave
background radiation (or CMB) whose discovery came about as follows.
In 1964, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson pointed their radiotelescope
(a large antenna device for detecting radio waves) into the night sky (Fig. 44-24).
W ith it they detected widespread emission, and became convinced that it was
coming from outside our Galaxy. They made precise measurements at a wave­
length A = 7.35 cm, in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum
(Fig. 31-12). The intensity of this radiation was found in itia lly not to vary by day
or night or time of year, nor to depend on direction. It came from all directions in
the universe with equal intensity, to a precision of better than 1%. It could only be
concluded that this radiation came from the universe as a whole.

SECTION 44-6 The Big Bang and the Cosmic Microwave Background 1213
Wavelength (cm)
10 1.0 0.1

FIGURE 44-25 Spectrum of cosmic microwave


background radiation, showing blackbody curve
and experimental measurements including at the
frequency detected by Penzias and Wilson. |
(Thanks to G. F. Smoot and D. Scott. The vertical J
bars represent the most recent experimental
uncertainty in a measurement.)

1 10 100 1000
Frequency (GHz)

FIGURE 44-26 COBE scientists They measured this cosmic microwave background radiation at A = 7.35 cm,
John Mather (left, chief scientist and and its intensity corresponds to blackbody radiation (see Section 37-1) at a
responsible for measuring the temperature of about 3 K. When radiation at other wavelengths was measured
blackbody form of the spectrum) by the COBE satellite (COsmic Background Explorer), the intensities were found
and George Smoot (chief investigator to fall on a nearly perfect blackbody curve as shown in Fig. 44-25, corresponding
for anisotropy experiment) shown to a temperature of 2.725 K (+ 0.002 K ).
here during celebrations for their
The remarkable uniform ity of the cosmic microwave background radiation
Dec. 2006 Nobel Prize, given for
was in accordance w ith the cosmological principle. But theorists fe lt that there
their discovery of the spectrum and
anisotropy of the CMB using the needed to be some small inhomogeneities, or “ anisotropies,” in the CMB that
COBE instrument. would have provided “ seeds” around which galaxy form ation could have
started. Small areas of slightly higher density, which could have contracted
under gravity to form stars and galaxies, were indeed found. These tiny inhomo­
geneities in density and temperature were detected first by the COBE satellite
experiment in 1992, led by John M ather and George Smoot (Fig. 44-26).
This discovery of the anisotropy of the CMB ranks with the discovery of the
CMB itself in the history of cosmology. It was the culmination of decades of research
by pioneers such as Paul Richards and David Wilkinson. Subsequent experiments
with greater detail culminated in 2003 with the WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave
Anisotropy Probe) results. See Fig. 44-27 which presents the latest (2006) results.
The CMB provides strong evidence in support of the Big Bang, and gives us
information about conditions in the very early universe. In fact, in the late 1940s,
George Gamow and his collaborators calculated that a Big Bang origin of the
universe should have generated just such a microwave background radiation.
To understand why, let us look at what a Big Bang might have been like.
(Today we usually use the term “ Big Bang” to refer to the process , starting from
the birth of the universe through the subsequent expansion.) The temperature
must have been extremely high at the start, so high that there could not have
been any atoms in the very early stages of the universe. Instead, the universe

FIGURE 44-27 Measurements of the cosmic


microwave background radiation over the entire
sky, color-coded to represent differences in
temperature from the average 2.725 K: the color
scale ranges from +200 /x,K (red) to -2 0 0 fiK
(dark blue), representing slightly hotter and
colder spots (associated with variations in
density). Results are from the WMAP satellite in
2006: the angular resolution is 0.2°. The white
lines are added to show the measured
polarization direction of the earliest light, which
gives further clues to the early universe.

1214 CHAPTER 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology


would have consisted solely of radiation (photons) and a plasma of charged
electrons and other elementary particles. The universe would have been opaque—
the photons in a sense “ trapped,” traveling very short distances before being
scattered again, prim arily by electrons. Indeed, the details of the microwave
background radiation is strong evidence that matter and radiation were once in
equilibrium at a very high temperature. As the universe expanded, the energy
spread out over an increasingly larger volume and the temperature dropped.
Only when the temperature had fallen to about 3000 K, some 380,000 years later, could
nuclei and electrons combine together as atoms. W ith the disappearance of free
electrons, as they combined with nuclei to form atoms, the radiation would have been
freed— decoupled from matter, we say. The universe became transparent because
photons were now free to travel nearly unimpeded straight through the universe.
It is this radiation, from 380,000 years after the birth of the universe, that we
now see as the CMB. As the universe expanded, so too the wavelengths of the
radiation lengthened, thus redshifting to longer wavelengths that correspond to
lower temperature (recall Wien’s law, APT = constant, Section 37-1), until they
would have reached the 2.7-K background radiation we observe today.
Looking Back toward the Big Bang—Lookback Time
Figure 44-28 shows our Earth point of view, looking out in all directions back
toward the Big Bang and the brief (380,000-year-long) period when radiation was
trapped in the early plasma (yellow band). The time it takes light to reach us from an
event is called its lookback time. The “ close-up” insert in Fig. 44-28 shows a photon
scattering repeatedly inside that early plasma and then exiting the plasma in a straight
line. No matter what direction we look, our view of the very early universe is blocked
by this wall of plasma. It is like trying to look into a very thick fog or into the surface of
the Sun— we can see only as far as its surface, called the surface of last scattering,
but not into it. Wavelengths from there are redshifted by z ~ 1100. Time A t' in
Fig. 44-28 is the lookback time (not real time that goes forward).
Recall that when we view an object far away, we are seeing it as it was then,
when the light was emitted, not as it would appear today.
FIGURE 44-28 When we look out from the Earth, we look
back in time. Any other observer in the universe would see
more or less the same thing. The farther an object is from us,
the longer ago the light we see had to have left it. We cannot
see quite as far as the Big Bang; we can see only as far as the
“surface of last scattering,” which radiated the CMB. The
insert on the lower right shows the earliest 380,000 years of
the universe when it was opaque: a photon is shown
scattering many times and then (at decoupling, 380,000 yr
after the birth of the universe) becoming free to travel in a
straight line. If this photon wasn’t heading our way when
“liberated,” many others were. Galaxies are not shown, but
would be concentrated close to Earth in this diagram because
they were created relatively recently. Note: This diagram is
not a normal map. Maps show a section of the world as might
be seen all at a given time. This diagram shows space (like a
map), but each point is not at the same time. The light coming
from a point a distance r from Earth took a time At' = r/c
to reach Earth, and thus shows an event that took place long
ago, a time A£' = r/c in the past, which we call its “lookback
time.” The universe began Atb = 13.7 Gyr ago.

The Observable Universe


Figure 44-28 is a b it dangerous: it is not a picture of the universe at a given instant,
but is intended to suggest how we look out in all directions from our observation
point (the Earth, or near it). Be careful not to think that the birth of the universe
took place in a circle or a sphere surrounding us as if Fig. 44-28 were a photo
taken at a given moment. What Fig. 44-28 does show is what we can see, the
observable universe. Better yet, it shows the m ost we could see. SECTION 4 4 -6 1215
We would undoubtedly be arrogant to think that we could see the entire
universe. Indeed, theories assume that we cannot see everything, that the entire
universe is greater than the observable universe, which is a sphere of radius
r0 = ct0 centered on the observer, with t0 being the age of the universe. We can
never see further back than the time it takes light to reach us.
Consider, for example, an observer in another galaxy, very far from us, located
to the left of our observation point in Fig. 44-28. That observer would not yet have
seen light coming from the far right of the large circle in Fig. 44-28 that we see—
it w ill take some time for that light to reach her. But she w ill have already, some
time ago, seen the light coming from the left that we are seeing now. In fact, her
FIGURE 44-29 Two observers, on observable universe, superimposed on ours, is suggested by Fig. 44-29.
widely separated galaxies, have The edge of our observable universe is called the horizon. We could, in
different horizons, different principle, see as far as the horizon, but not beyond it. An observer in another
observable universes. galaxy, far from us, w ill have a different horizon.

4 4 —7 The Standard Cosmological Model:


Early History of the Universe
In the last decade or two, a convincing theory of the origin and evolution of the
universe has been developed, now called the Standard Cosmological Model, or (sometimes)
the concordance model. Part of this theory is based on recent theoretical and
experimental advances in elementary particle physics, and part from observations
of the universe including COBE and WMAP. Indeed, cosmology and elementary
particle physics have cross-fertilized to a surprising extent.
Let us go back to the earliest of times— as close as possible to the Big Bang—
and follow a Standard Model scenario of events as the universe expanded and
cooled after the Big Bang. In itia lly we talk of extremely small time intervals as
well as extremely high temperatures, far beyond anything in the universe today.
Figure 44-30 is a compressed graphical representation of the events, and it may be
helpful to consult it as we go along.

FIGURE 44-30 Compressed graphical representation of the development of the universe


after the Big Bang, according to modern cosmology. [The time scale is mostly logarithmic
(each factor of 10 in time gets equal treatment), except at the start (there can be no Decoupling
t = 0 on a log scale), and just after t = 10-35 s (to save space). The vertical 3000k | ^ ' ^
height is a rough indication of the size of the universe, mainly to — Stars
and
suggest expansion of the universe I galaxies

Radiation era

Inflation Universe
Universe opaque
Planck
Birth of Hadron
universe 1032K era Dark^T
GUT INucleosynthesis energy |

10 43s Is 10s 102s 103s 380,000 yr 1010 yr


(Planck [Now]
time) Time

The History
We begin at a time only a minuscule fraction of a second after the b irth of the
universe, 10-43 s. This time is sometimes referred to as the Planck time, which is
a value determined by the fundamental constants. It is related to the Planck length AP
which we obtained in Chapter 1 (Example 1-10) by dimensional analysis:
AP = \ j G h j ? ~ 4 X 10“ 35m. The Planck time is the time it takes light to travel the
Planck length: tF = AP/ c « (4 X 10“ 35m )/(3 X 108m /s) « 10_43s. This is an unimag­
inably short time, and predictions can be only speculative. Earlier, we can say nothing
because we do not have a theory of quantum gravity which would be needed for the
1216 CHAPTER 44 incredibly high densities and temperatures during this “ Planck era.” It is thought that,
perhaps as early as IO-43 s, the four forces in nature were unified— there was only one force
(Chapter 43, Rg. 43-19). The temperature would have been about 1032K, corresponding to
randomly moving particles with an average kinetic energy K of 1019GeV (see Eq. 18-4):
(1.4 X IO-23 J /K )(l0 32K)
K « kT « ------------------ 7^7-------- - « 10 eV = 10 GeV.
1.6 X 10 J/eV
(Note that the factor § in Eq. 18-4 is usually ignored in such order of magnitude
calculations.) A t t = 10_43s, a kind of “ phase transition” is believed to have
occurred during which the gravitational force, in effect, “ condensed out” as a
separate force. This, and subsequent phase transitions, are analogous to the phase
transitions water undergoes as it cools from a gas, condenses into a liquid, and with
further cooling freezes into ice.* The symmetry of the four forces was broken, but
the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces were still unified, and the universe
entered the grand unified era (G UT— see Chapter 43). There was no distinction
between quarks and leptons; baryon and lepton numbers were not conserved. Very
shortly thereafter, as the universe expanded considerably and the temperature had
dropped to about 1027K, there was another phase transition and the strong force
condensed out at about 10“ 35s after the Big Bang. Now the universe was filled with
a “ soup” of leptons and quarks. The quarks were initially free, but soon began to
“ condense” into more normal particles: nucleons and the other hadrons and their
antiparticles. W ith this confinement of quarks, the universe entered the hadron era.
About this time, when the universe was only 10“35s old, a strange thing may have
happened, according to theorists. A brilliant idea, proposed around 1980, suggests that
the universe underwent an incredible exponential expansion, increasing in size by a
factor of IO40 or maybe much more, in a tiny fraction of a second, perhaps 10-35 s. The
usefulness of this inflationary scenario is that it solved major problems with earlier
Big Bang models, such as explaining why the universe is flat, as well as the thermal
equilibrium to provide the nearly uniform CMB, as discussed below.
A fter the very brief inflationary period, the universe would have settled back
into its more regular expansion. The universe was now a “ soup” of leptons and
hadrons. We can think of this “ soup” as a plasma of particles and antiparticles, as
well as photons— all in roughly equal numbers— colliding with one another
frequently and exchanging energy.
By the time the universe was only about a microsecond (l0 _6s) old, it had
cooled to about 1013K, corresponding to an average kinetic energy of 1 GeV,
and the vast m ajority of hadrons disappeared. To see why, let us focus on the
most fam iliar hadrons: nucleons and their antiparticles. When the average kinetic
energy of particles was somewhat higher than 1 GeV, protons, neutrons, and their
antiparticles were continually being created out of the energies of collisions
involving photons and other particles, such as
photons —> p + p
—> n + n.
But just as quickly, particles and antiparticles would annihilate: for example
p + p — » photons or leptons.
So the processes of creation and annihilation of nucleons were in equilibrium. The
numbers of nucleons and antinucleons were high— roughly as many as there were
electrons, positrons, or photons. But as the universe expanded and cooled, and the
average kinetic energy of particles dropped below about 1 GeV, which is the
minimum energy needed in a typical collision to create nucleons and antinucleons
(about 940 MeV each), the process of nucleon creation could not continue. The
process of annihilation could continue, however, with antinucleons annihilating
nucleons, until there were almost no nucleons left. But not quite zero. Somehow
we need to explain our present world of matter (nucleons and electrons) with very
little antimatter in sight.
fIt may be interesting to note that our story of origins here bears some resemblance to ancient accounts that
mention the “void,” “formless wasteland” (or “darkness over the deep”), “abyss,” “divide the waters”
(possibly a phase transition?), not to mention the sudden appearance of light.
SECTION 44-7 1217
To explain our world of matter, we might suppose that earlier in the universe, perhaps
around IO-35 s after the Big Bang, a slight excess of quarks over antiquarks was formed.1
This would have resulted in a slight excess of nucleons over antinucleons. And it is these
“ leftover” nucleons that we are made of today. The excess of nucleons over anti­
nucleons was probably about one part in 109. During the hadron era, there should have been
about as many nucleons as photons. A fter it ended, the “ leftover” nucleons thus
numbered only about one nucleon per 109photons, and this ratio has persisted to this
day. Protons, neutrons, and all other heavier particles were thus tremendously
reduced in number by about IO-6 s after the Big Bang. The lightest hadrons, the
pions, soon disappeared, about IO-4 s after the Big Bang; because they are the lightest
mass hadrons (140 MeV), they were the last hadrons to be able to be created as the
temperature (and average kinetic energy) dropped. Lighter particles, including electrons
and neutrinos, were the dominant form of matter, and the universe entered the lepton era.
By the time the first fu ll second had passed (clearly the most eventful second in
history!), the universe had cooled to about 10 billion degrees, 1010K. The average
kinetic energy was about 1 MeV. This was still sufficient energy to create electrons
and positrons and balance their annihilation reactions, since their masses correspond
to about 0.5 M eV So there were about as many e+ and e“ as there were photons.
But within a few more seconds, the temperature had dropped sufficiently so that
e+ and e” could no longer be formed. Annihilation (e+ + e_ —> photons) continued.
And, like nucleons before them, electrons and positrons all but disappeared from
the universe— except for a slight excess of electrons over positrons (later to join with
nuclei to form atoms). Thus, about t = 10 s after the Big Bang, the universe entered
the radiation era (Fig. 44-30). Its major constituents were photons and neutrinos. But the
neutrinos, partaking only in the weak force, rarely interacted. So the universe, until
then experiencing significant amounts of energy in matter and in radiation, now
became radiation-dominated: much more energy was contained in radiation than in
matter, a situation that would last more than 50,000 years.

FIGURE 44-30 (Repeated.) Compressed graphical representation of the development of the universe
after the Big Bang, according to modern cosmology.
Decoupling
3000K ^
Stars
and
galaxies

Radiation era

Inflation Universe I
Universe opaque transparent11
Planck
Birth of Hadron
1032K era Dark "
GUT j Nucleosynthesis energy

10-43 s 10-6 s 10-4 s Is 10sl02sl03s 380,000 yr 1010 yr


(Planck [Now]
time) Time

Meanwhile, during the next few minutes, crucial events were taking place.
Beginning about 2 or 3 minutes after the Big Bang, nuclear fusion began to occur.
The temperature had dropped to about 109K, corresponding to an average kinetic
energy K « 100 keV, where nucleons could strike each other and be able to fuse
(Section 42-4), but now cool enough so newly formed nuclei would not be imme­
diately broken apart by subsequent collisions. Deuterium, helium, and very tiny
amounts of lithium nuclei were made. But the universe was cooling too quickly,
and larger nuclei were not made. A fte r only a few minutes, probably not even a
quarter of an hour after the Big Bang, the temperature dropped far enough that
nucleosynthesis stopped, not to start again for millions of years (in stars).

fWhy this could have happened is a question for which we are seeking an answer today.
1218 CHAPTER 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology
Thus, after the first quarter hour or so of the universe, matter consisted mainly of
bare nuclei of hydrogen (about 75%) and helium (about 25%)t and electrons. But
radiation (photons) continued to dominate.
Our story is almost complete. The next important event is thought to have
occurred 380,000 years later. The universe had expanded to about ^ ° f its present
scale, and the temperature had cooled to about 3000 K. The average kinetic energy
of nuclei, electrons, and photons was less than an electron volt. Since ionization ener­
gies of atoms are on the order of eV, then as the temperature dropped below this
point, electrons could orbit the bare nuclei and remain there (without being ejected
by collisions), thus forming atoms. This period is often called the recombination
epoch (a misnomer since electrons had never before been combined with nuclei
to form atoms). W ith the disappearance of free electrons and the birth
of atoms, the photons— which had been continually scattering from the free
electrons— now became free to spread throughout the universe. As mentioned in the
previous Section, we say that the photons became decoupled from matter. Thus
decoupling occurred at recombination. The total energy contained in radiation had
been decreasing (lengthening in wavelength as the universe expanded); and at about
t = 56,000 yr (even before decoupling) the total energy contained in matter became
dominant over radiation. The universe was said to have become matter-dominated
(marked on Fig. 44-30). As the universe continued to expand, the electromagnetic
radiation cooled further, to 2.7 K today, forming the cosmic microwave background
radiation we detect from everywhere in the universe.
A fter the birth of atoms, then stars and galaxies could begin to form: by self­
gravitation around mass concentrations (inhomogeneities). Stars began to form
about 200 m illion years after the Big Bang, galaxies after almost 109 years. The
universe continued to evolve until today, some 14 billion years after it started.
* * *
This scenario, like other scientific models, cannot be said to be “ proven.” Yet this
model is remarkably effective in explaining the evolution of the universe we live in,
and makes predictions which can be tested against the next generation of observations.
A major event, and something only discovered very recently, is that when the
universe was more than half as old as it is now (about 5 Gyr ago), its expansion
began to accelerate. This was a big surprise because it was assumed the expansion
of the universe would slow down due to gravitational attraction of all objects
towards each other. Another major recent discovery is that ordinary matter makes
up very little of the total mass-energy of the universe (« 5%). Instead, as we
discuss in Section 44-9, the major contributors to the energy density of the
universe are dark matter and dark energy. On the right in Fig. 44-30 is a narrow
vertical strip that represents the most recent 5 billion years of the universe, during
which dark energy seems to have dominated.

4 4 —8 Inflation: Explaining Flatness,


Uniformity, and Structure
The idea that the universe underwent a period of exponential inflation early in its life,
expanding by a factor of 1040 or more (previous Section), was first put forth by Alan
Guth in 1981. Many more sophisticated models have since been proposed. The energy
required for this wild expansion may have been released when the electroweak force
separated from the strong force (end of GUT era, Fig. 43-19). So far, the evidence for
inflation is indirect; yet it is a feature of most viable cosmological models because it is
able to provide natural explanations for several remarkable features of our universe.

trThis Standard Model prediction of a 25% primordial production of helium agrees with what we
observe today—the universe does contain about 25% He—and it is strong evidence in support of the
Standard Big Bang Model. Furthermore, the theory says that 25% He abundance is fully consistent with
there being three neutrino types, which is the number we observe. And it sets an upper limit of four to
the maximum number of possible neutrino types. This is a striking example of the exciting interface
between particle physics and cosmology.
SECTION 44-8 Inflation: Explaining Flatness, Uniformity, and Structure 1219
FIGURE 44-31 (a) Simple 2-D
model of the entire universe; the
observable universe is suggested by
the small circle centered on us (blue
dot), (b) Edge of universe is
essentially flat after the 1040-fold
expansion during inflation.

(a) Before inflation (b) After inflation

Flatness
First of all, our best measurements suggest that the universe is flat, that it has
zero curvature. As scientists, we would like some reason for this remarkable result.
To see how inflation explains flatness, let us consider a simple 2-dimensional
model of the universe (as we did earlier in Figs. 44-16 and 44-21). A circle on
the surface of this 2-dimensional universe (a sphere, Fig. 44-31) represents the
observable universe as seen by an observer at the circle’s center. A possible hypothesis is
that inflation occurred over a time interval that very roughly doubled the age of the
universe, from let us say, t = 1 X IO-35 s to t = 2 X IO-35 s. The size of the observ­
able universe (r = ct) would have increased by a factor of two during inflation, while
the radius of curvature of the entire universe increased by an enormous factor of
IO40 or more. Thus the edge of our 2-D sphere representing the entire universe would
have seemed flat to a high degree of precision, Fig. 44-31b. Even if the time of inflation
was a factor of 10 or 100 (instead of 2), the expansion factor of IO40 or more
would have blotted out any possibility of observing anything but a flat universe.
CMB Uniformity
Inflation also explains why the CMB is so uniform. W ithout inflation, the tiny
universe at 10-35 s was too large for all parts of it to have been in contact so as to
reach the same temperature (inform ation cannot travel faster than c). Imagine a
universe about 1 cm in diameter at t = 10-36 s, as per original Big Bang theory. In that
10_36s, light could have traveled d = ct = (3 X 108m /s)(l0 _36s) = 10-27m, way
too small for opposite sides of a 1-cm-wide universe to have been in communication.
But if the universe had been IO40 times smaller (= 10_42m), as proposed by the
inflation model, there could have been contact and thermal equilibrium to produce
the observed nearly uniform CMB. Inflation, by making the early universe very
small, assures that all parts could have been in thermal equilibrium; and after
inflation the universe could be large enough to give us today’s observable universe.
Galaxy Seeds, Fluctuations, Magnetic Monopoles
Inflation also gives us a clue as to how the present structure of the universe
(galaxies and clusters of galaxies) came about. We saw earlier that, according to
the uncertainty principle, energy may not be conserved by an amount A E for a
time A t ~ h /A E . Forces, whether electromagnetic or other types, can undergo
such tiny quantum fluctuations according to quantum theory, but they are so tiny
they are not detectable unless magnified in some way. That is what inflation
might have done: it could have magnified those fluctuations perhaps IO40 times in
size, which would give us the density irregularities seen in the cosmic
microwave background (WMAP, Fig. 44-27). That would be very nice, because
the density variations we see in the CMB are what we believe were the seeds that
later coalesced under gravity into galaxies and galaxy clusters, including their
substructures (stars and planets), and our models fit the data extremely well.
Sometimes it is said that the quantum fluctuations occurred in the vacuum state
or vacuum energy. This could be possible because the vacuum is no longer considered
to be empty, as we discussed in Section 43-3 relative to positrons and a negative energy
sea of electrons. Indeed, the vacuum is thought to be filled with fields and particles
occupying all the possible negative energy states. Also, the virtual exchange particles
that carry the forces, as discussed in Chapter 43, could leave their brief virtual states
and actually become real as a result of the IO40 magnification of space (according
1220 CHAPTER 44 to inflation) and the very short time over which it occurred (A t = h /A E ).
Inflation helps us too with the puzzle of why magnetic monopoles have never been
observed, yet isolated magnetic poles may well have been copiously produced at the start
After inflation, they would have been so far apart that we have never stumbled on one.
Some theorists have proposed that inflation may not have occurred in the entire universe.
Perhaps only some regions of that tiny early universe became unstable (maybe it was a
quantum fluctuation) and inflated into cosmic “bubbles.” If so, we would be living in one
of the bubbles. The universe outside the bubble would be hopelessly unobservable to us.
Inflation may solve outstanding problems, but it needs to be confirmed and we
may need new physics just to understand how inflation occurred.

4 4 —9 Dark Matter and Dark Energy


According to the Standard Big Bang Model, the universe is evolving and changing.
Individual stars are being created, evolving, and then dying to become white dwarfs,
neutron stars, black holes. A t the same time, the universe as a whole is expanding. One
important question is whether the universe w ill continue to expand forever. U ntil
the late 1990s, the universe was thought to be dominated by matter which interacts
by gravity, and this question was connected to the curvature of space-time
(Section 44-4). If the universe had negative curvature, the expansion of the
universe would never stop, although the rate of expansion would decrease due to
the gravitational attraction of its parts. Such a universe would be open and infinite.
If the universe is flat (no curvature), it would still be open and infinite but its
expansion would slowly approach a zero rate. Finally, if the universe had positive
curvature, it would be closed and finite; the effect of gravity would be strong
enough that the expansion would eventually stop and the universe would begin to
contract, collapsing back onto itself in a big crunch.

ICritical Density
EXERCISE E Return to the Chapter-Opening Question, page 1193, and answer it again. Try
to explain why you may have answered differently the first time.

According to the above scenario (which does not include inflation or the recently
discovered acceleration of the universe), the fate of the universe would depend on
the average mass-energy density in the universe. For an average mass density
greater than a critical value known as the critical density, estimated to be about
pc « 10-26 kg/m 3
(i.e., a few nucleons/m3 on average throughout the universe), gravity would
prevent expansion from continuing forever. Eventually (if p > pc) gravity would
pull the universe back into a big crunch and space-time would have a positive
curvature. If instead the actual density was equal to the critical density, p = pc,
the universe would be flat and open. If the actual density was less than the critical
density, p < pc, the universe would have negative curvature. See Fig. 44-32. Today
we believe the universe is very close to flat. But recent evidence suggests the
universe is expanding at an accelerating rate, as discussed below.

FIGURE 44-32 Three future possibilities


for the universe, depending on the density p
of ordinary matter, plus a fourth
possibility that includes dark energy. Note
that all curves have been chosen to have
the same slope (= H , the Hubble
parameter) right now. Looking back in
time, the Big Bang occurs where each
curve touches the horizontal (time) axis.

depends on model)
SECTION 44-9 Dark Matter and Dark Energy 1221
EXAMPLE 44-7 ESTIMATE~| Critical density of the universe. Use energy
conservation and escape velocity (Section 8-7) to estimate the critical density of
the universe.
APPROACH A t the critical density, pc, any given galaxy of mass m w ill just be
able to “ escape” away from our Galaxy. As we saw in Section 8-7, escape can just
occur if the total energy E of the galaxy satisfies

E = K + U = \m v 2 - G ^ ~ = 0.
R
Here R is the distance of that galaxy m from us. We approximate the total mass M that
pulls inward on m as the total mass within a sphere of radius R around us (Appendix D).
If we assume the density of galaxies is roughly constant, then M = f TrpcR 2’.
SOLUTION Substituting this M into the equation above, and setting v = H R
(Hubble’s law, Eq. 44-4), we obtain
GM
= w
or

R
We solve for pc:
_ 3 ^ 3[(22 k m /s /M ly )(l M ly/1019km )]2 3
Pc 8ttG ~ 8(3.14)(6.67 X ltT 11N • m2/kg 2) ~ 8/m '

Dark Matter
W MAP and other experiments have convinced scientists that the universe is flat
and p = pc. But this p cannot be only normal baryonic matter (atoms are 99.9%
baryons— protons and neutrons— by weight). These recent experiments put the
amount of normal baryonic matter in the universe at only about 5% of the critical
density. What is the other 95%? There is strong evidence for a significant amount
of nonluminous matter in the universe referred to as dark matter, which acts
normally under gravity, but does not absorb or radiate light. For example, observa­
tions of the rotation of galaxies suggest that they rotate as if they had considerably
more mass than we can see. Recall from Chapter 6, Eq. 6-5, that for a satellite of
mass m revolving around Earth (mass M )

v2 _ mM
m — = G — z-
r r

and hence v = V G M /r . If we apply this equation to stars in a galaxy, we see that


their speed depends on galactic mass. Observations show that stars farther from the
galactic center revolve much faster than expected if there is only the pull of visible matter,
suggesting a great deal of invisible matter. Similarly, observations of the motion of
galaxies within clusters also suggest that they have considerably more mass than
can be seen. W ithout dark matter, galaxies and stars probably would not have
formed and would not exist; it would seem to hold the universe together. But what
might this nonluminous matter in the universe be? We don’t know yet. But we hope to
find out soon. It cannot be made of ordinary (baryonic) matter, so it must consist
of some other sort of elementary particle, perhaps created at a very early time.
Perhaps it is a supersymmetric particle (Section 43-12), maybe the lightest one. We
are anxiously awaiting details both from particle accelerators and the cosmos.
Dark matter makes up about 20% of the mass-energy of the universe,
according to the latest observations and models. Thus the total mass-energy is 20%
dark matter plus 5% baryons for a total of about 25%, which does not bring p up to pc.
What is the other 75%? We are not sure about that either, but we have given it a
name: “ dark energy.”

1222 CHAPTER 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology


D ark Energy—Cosm ic Acceleration
In 1998, just before the turn of the millennium, cosmologists received a huge
surprise. Gravity was assumed to be the predominant force on a large scale in the
universe, and it was thought that the expansion of the universe ought to be slowing
down in time because gravity acts as an attractive force between objects. But
measurements of type la supernovae (SNIa, our best standard candles— see
Section 44-3) unexpectedly showed that very distant (high z) SNIa’s were dimmer
than expected. That is, given their great distance d as determined from their low
brightness, their speed v as determined from the measured z was less than expected
according to Hubble’s law. This result suggests that nearer galaxies are moving
away from us relatively faster than those very distant ones, meaning the expansion
of the universe in more recent epochs has sped up. This acceleration in the expan­
sion of the universe (in place of the expected deceleration due to gravitational
attraction between masses) seems to have begun roughly 5 billion years ago
(5 Gyr, which would be 8 to 9 Gyr after the Big Bang).
What could be causing the universe to accelerate in its expansion, against the
attractive force of gravity? Does our understanding of gravity need to be revised?
We don’t know the answers to these questions. Many scientists say dark energy is
the biggest mystery facing physical science today. There are several speculations.
But somehow it seems to have a long-range repulsive effect on space, like a negative
gravity, causing objects to speed away from each other ever faster. Whatever it is, it
has been given the name dark energy.
One idea is a sort of quantum field given the name quintessence. Another
possibility suggests an energy latent in space itself (vacuum energy) and relates to
an aspect of General Relativity known as the cosmological constant (symbol A).
When Einstein developed his equations, he found that they offered no solutions
for a static universe. In those days (1917) it was thought the universe was static—
unchanging and everlasting. Einstein added an arbitrary constant to his equations
to provide solutions for a static universe. A decade later, when Hubble showed us
an expanding universe, Einstein discarded his cosmological constant as no longer
needed (A = 0). But today, measurements are consistent with dark energy being
due to a nonzero cosmological constant, although further measurements are
needed to see subtle differences among theories.
There is increasing evidence that the effects of some form of dark energy are
very real. Observations of the CMB, supemovae, and large-scale structure (Section 44-10)
agree well with theories and computer models when they input dark energy
as providing 75% of the mass-energy in the universe, and when the total
mass-energy density equals the critical density pc.
Today’s best estimate of how the mass-energy in the universe is distributed is FIGURE 4 4 -3 3 Portions of total
approximately (Fig. 44-33): mass-energy in the universe.

75% dark energy Normal matter =5% Stars and galaxies

25% matter, subject to the known gravitational force.


O f this 25%, about
20% is dark matter
5% is baryons (what atoms are made of); of this 5% only ^ is readily
visible matter— stars and galaxies (that is, 0.5% of the total); the other
jq of ordinary matter, which is not visible, is mainly gaseous plasma.

It is remarkable that only 0.5% of all the mass-energy in the universe is visible as
stars and galaxies.
The idea that the universe is dominated by completely unknown forms of
energy seems bizarre. Nonetheless, the ability of our present model to precisely
explain observations of the CMB anisotropy, cosmic expansion, and large-scale
structure (next Section) presents a compelling case.

SECTION 44-9 Dark Matter and Dark Energy 1223


FIGURE 44-34 Distribution of some
50,000 galaxies in a 2.5° slice through almost
half of the sky above the equator, as
measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
(SDSS). Each dot represents a galaxy. The
distance from us is obtained from the
redshift and Hubble’s law, and is given in Gly
units of 109 light-years (Gly). A t greater
distances, fewer galaxies are bright enough
to be detected, thus resulting in an apparent
thinning out of galaxies. The point 0
represents us, our observation point. Note
the “walls” and “voids” of galaxies.

0
(Our Galaxy)

4 4—10 Large-Scale Structure o f the


Universe
The beautiful W MAP pictures of the sky (Fig. 44-27 and Chapter-Opening Photo)
show small but significant inhomogeneities in the temperature of the CMB. These
anisotropies reflect compressions and expansions in the prim ordial plasma just
before decoupling, from which stars, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies formed.
Analysis of the irregularities in the CMB using mammoth computer simulations
predict a large-scale distribution of galaxies very similar to what is seen today
(Fig. 44-34). These simulations are very successful if they contain dark energy and
dark_matter; and the dark matter needs to be cold (slow speed— think of Eq. 18-4,
\m v 2 = \k T where T is temperature), rather than “ hot” dark matter such as
neutrinos which move at or very near the speed of light. Indeed, the modern
cosmological model is called the A C D M model, where lambda (A ) stands fo r the
cosmological constant, and CDM is cold dark matter.
Cosmologists have gained substantial confidence in this cosmological model
from such a precise fit between observations and theory. They can also extract very
precise values for cosmological parameters which previously were only known
with low accuracy. The CMB is such an important cosmological observable that
every effort is being made to extract all of the information it contains. A new
generation of ground, balloon, and satellite experiments w ill observe the
CMB with greater resolution and sensitivity. They may detect interaction of
gravity waves (produced in the inflationary epoch) with the CMB and thereby provide
direct evidence for cosmic inflation, and also provide information about elementary
particle physics at energies far beyond the reach of man-made accelerators.

44—11 Finally . . .
When we look up into the night sky, we see stars; and with the best telescopes, we
see galaxies and the exotic objects we discussed earlier, including rare supernovae.
But even with our best instruments we do not see the processes going on inside
stars and supernovae that we hypothesized (and believe). We are dependent on
brilliant theorists who come up with viable theories and verifiable models.
We depend on complicated computer models whose parameters are varied until
the outputs compare favorably with our observations and analyses of W MAP and
other experiments. And we now have a surprisingly precise idea about some
aspects of our universe: it is flat, it is about 14 billion years old, it contains only 5%
“ normal” baryonic matter (for atoms), and so on.
The questions raised by cosmology are difficult and profound, and may seem
removed from everyday “ reality.” We can always say, “ the Sun is shining, it’s going
1224 CHAPTER 44 to burn on for an unimaginably long time, all is well.” Nonetheless, the questions of
cosmology are deep ones that fascinate the human intellect. One aspect that is
especially intriguing is this: calculations on the formation and evolution of the
universe have been performed that deliberately varied the values—just slightly—
of certain fundamental physical constants. The result? A universe in which life as
we know it could not exist. [For example, if the difference in mass between proton
and neutron were zero, or small (less than the mass of the electron, 0 .5 11 M eV /c2),
there would be no atoms: electrons would be captured by protons never to be
freed again.] Such results have contributed to a philosophical idea called the
A n thropic principle, which says that if the universe were even a little different than it
is, we could not be here. We physicists are trying to find out if there are some undis­
covered fundamental laws that determined those conditions that allowed us to exist.
A poet might say that the universe is exquisitely tuned, almost as if to accommodate us.

Summary
The night sky contains myriads of stars including those in the expanding, its galaxies racing away from each other at speeds (v)
M ilky Way, which is a “ side view” of our Galaxy looking along proportional to the distance (d) between them:
the plane of the disk. Our Galaxy includes over 1011 stars.
v = H d, (44-4)
Beyond our Galaxy are billions of other galaxies.
Astronomical distances are measured in light-years which is known as Hubble’s law (H is the Hubble parameter).
( l ly « 1013km). The nearest star is about 4 ly away and the This expansion of the universe suggests an explosive origin, the
nearest large galaxy is 2 m illion ly away. Our Galactic disk has a Big Bang, which occurred about 13.7 billion years ago. It is not
diameter of about 100,000 ly. Distances are often specified in like an ordinary explosion, but rather an expansion of space itself.
parsecs, where 1 parsec = 3.26 ly. The cosmological principle assumes that the universe, on a
Stars are believed to begin life as collapsing masses of gas large scale, is homogeneous and isotropic.
(protostars), largely hydrogen. As they contract, they heat up Im portant evidence for the Big Bang model of the universe
(potential energy is transformed to kinetic energy). When the was the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radia­
temperature reaches about 10 m illion degrees, nuclear fusion tion (CMB), which conforms to a blackbody radiation curve at a
begins and forms heavier elements (nucleosynthesis), mainly temperature of 2.725 K.
helium at first. The energy released during these reactions heats The Standard Model of the Big Bang provides a possible
the gas so its outward pressure balances the inward gravitational scenario as to how the universe developed as it expanded and
force, and the young star stabilizes as a main-sequence star. The cooled after the Big Bang. Starting at 10-43 seconds after the
tremendous luminosity of stars comes from the energy released Big Bang, according to this model, there were a series of phase
during these thermonuclear reactions. A fter billions of years, as transitions during which previously unified forces of nature
helium is collected in the core and hydrogen is used up, the core “ condensed out” one by one. The inflationary scenario assumes
contracts and heats further. The envelope expands and cools, and that during one of these phase transitions, the universe underwent
the star becomes a red giant (larger diameter, redder color). a brief but rapid exponential expansion. U ntil about 10 35 s, there
The next stage of stellar evolution depends on the mass of was no distinction between quarks and leptons. Shortly thereafter,
the star, which may have lost much of its original mass as its quarks were confined into hadrons (the hadron era). About 10 4s
outer envelope escaped into space. Stars of residual mass less after the Big Bang, the majority of hadrons disappeared, having
than about 1.4 solar masses cool further and become white combined with anti-hadrons, producing photons, leptons, and
dwarfs, eventually fading and going out altogether. Heavier stars energy, leaving mainly photons and leptons to freely move, thus
contract further due to their greater gravity: the density introducing the lepton era. By the time the universe was about 10 s
approaches nuclear density, the huge pressure forces electrons old, the electrons too had mostly disappeared, having combined
to combine with protons to form neutrons, and the star becomes with their antiparticles; the universe was radiation-dominated. A
essentially a huge nucleus of neutrons. This is a neutron star, and couple of minutes later, nucleosynthesis began, but lasted only a
the energy released from its final core collapse is believed to few minutes. It then took almost four hundred thousand years before
produce supernova explosions. If the star is very massive, it may the universe was cool enough for electrons to combine with nuclei
contract even further and form a black hole, which is so dense to form atoms (recombination). Photons, up to then continually
that no matter or light can escape from it. being scattered off of free electrons, could now move freely— they
In the general theory of relativity, the equivalence principle were decoupled from matter and the universe became trans­
states that an observer cannot distinguish acceleration from a parent. The background radiation had expanded and cooled so
gravitational field. Said another way, gravitational and inertial much that its total energy became less than the energy in matter,
masses are the same. The theory predicts gravitational bending and matter dominated increasingly over radiation. Then stars
of light rays to a degree consistent with experiment. Gravity is and galaxies formed, producing a universe not much different
treated as a curvature in space and time, the curvature being than it is today— some 14 billion years later.
greater near massive objects. The universe as a whole may be Recent observations indicate that the universe is flat, that it
curved. W ith sufficient mass, the curvature of the universe would contains an as-yet unknown type of dark matter, and that it is
be positive, and the universe is closed and finite', otherwise, it dominated by a mysterious dark energy which exerts a sort of
would be open and infinite. Today we believe the universe is flat. negative gravity causing the expansion of the universe to
Distant galaxies display a redshift in their spectral lines, accelerate. The total contributions of baryonic (normal) matter,
originally interpreted as a Doppler shift. The universe seems to be dark matter, and dark energy sum up to the critical density.

Summary 1225
Questions
1. The M ilky Way was once thought to be “ murky” or “ m ilky” 14. Compare an explosion on Earth to the Big Bang. Consider
but is now considered to be made up of point sources. Explain. such questions as: Would the debris spread at a higher speed
2. A star is in equilibrium when it radiates at its surface all the for more distant particles, as in the Big Bang? Would the
energy generated in its core. What happens when it begins to debris come to rest? What type of universe would this
generate more energy than it radiates? Less energy? Explain. correspond to, open or closed?
3. Describe a red giant star. List some of its properties. 15. If nothing, not even light, escapes from a black hole, then
how can we tell if one is there?
4. Select a point on the H -R diagram. Mark several directions
away from this point. Now describe the changes that would
16. What mass w ill give a Schwarzschild radius equal to that of
the hydrogen atom in its ground state?
take place in a star moving in each of these directions.
17. The Earth’s age is often given as about 4 billion years. Find
5. Does the H -R diagram reveal anything about the core of a star?
that time on Fig. 44-30. People have lived on Earth on the
6. Why do some stars end up as white dwarfs, and others as order of a m illion years. Where is that on Fig. 44-30?
neutron stars or black holes? 18. Explain what the 2.7-K cosmic microwave background radi­
7. Can we tell, by looking at the population on the H -R diagram, ation is. Where does it come from? Why is its temperature
that hotter main-sequence stars have shorter lives? Explain. now so low?
8. If you were measuring star parallaxes from the Moon 19. Why were atoms, as opposed to bare nuclei, unable to exist
instead of Earth, what corrections would you have to make? until hundreds of thousands of years after the Big Bang?
What changes would occur if you were measuring parallaxes 20. (a) Why are type la supernovae so useful for determining
from Mars? the distances of galaxies? (b) How are their distances actually
9. Cepheid variable stars change in luminosity with a typical period measured?
of several days. The period has been found to have a definite 21. Explain why the CMB radiation should not be that of a
relationship with the intrinsic luminosity of the star. How perfect blackbody. (The deviations from a blackbody spec­
could these stars be used to measure the distance to galaxies? trum are slightly less than one part in 104.)
10. What is a geodesic? What is its role in General Relativity? 22. Under what circumstances would the universe eventually
collapse in on itself?
11. If it were discovered that the redshift of spectral lines of
galaxies was due to something other than expansion, how
23. When stable nuclei first formed, about 3 minutes after the
Big Bang, there were about 7 times more protons than
might our view of the universe change? Would there be
neutrons. Explain how this leads to a ratio of the mass of
conflicting evidence? Discuss.
hydrogen to the mass of helium of 3:1. This is about the
12. A ll galaxies appear to be moving away from us. Are we actual ratio observed in the universe.
therefore at the center of the universe? Explain.
24. (a) Why did astronomers expect that the expansion rate of
13. If you were located in a galaxy near the boundary of our the universe would be decreasing (decelerating) with time?
observable universe, would galaxies in the direction of the (b) How, in principle, could astronomers hope to determine
M ilky Way appear to be approaching you or receding from whether the universe used to expand faster than it does now?
you? Explain.

| Problems_________________
44-1 to 4 4 -3 Stars, Galaxies, Stellar Evolution, 8. (II) We saw earlier (Chapter 19) that the rate energy reaches
Distances the Earth from the Sun (the “ solar constant” ) is about
1. (I) The parallax angle of a star is 0.00029°. How far away is 1.3 X 103W /m 2. What is (a) the apparent brightness b of
the star? the Sun, and ( b ) the intrinsic luminosity L of the Sun?

2. (I) A star exhibits a parallax of 0.27 seconds of arc. How far 9. (II) When our Sun becomes a red giant, what w ill be its
away is it? average density if it expands out to the orbit of Mercury
(6 X 1010 m, from the Sun)?
3. (I) What is the parallax angle for a star that is 65 ly away?
How many parsecs is this?
10. (II) Estimate the angular width that our Galaxy would
subtend if observed from the nearest galaxy to us
4. (I) A star is 56 pc away. What is its parallax angle? State (Table 44-1). Compare to the angular width of the Moon
(a) in seconds of arc, and ( b ) in degrees. from Earth.
5. (I) If one star is twice as far away from us as a second star, 11. (II) Calculate the Q-values for the He burning reactions of
w ill the parallax angle of the farther star be greater or less Eq. 44-2. (The mass of the very unstable ®Be is 8.005305 u.)
than that of the nearer star? By what factor?
12. (II) When our Sun becomes a white dwarf, it is expected to
6. (II) A star is 85 pc away. How long does it take for its light be about the size of the Moon. What angular width would it
to reach us? subtend from the present distance to Earth?
7. (II) What is the relative brightness of the Sun as seen from 13. (II) Calculate the density of a white dwarf whose mass is
Jupiter, as compared to its brightness from Earth? (Jupiter equal to the Sun’s and whose radius is equal to the Earth’s.
is 5.2 times farther from the Sun than the Earth is.) How many times larger than Earth’s density is this?

1226 CHAPTER 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology


14. (II) A neutron star whose mass is 1.5 solar masses has a radius 26. (II) If an absorption line of calcium is normally found at a
of about 11 km. Calculate its average density and compare wavelength of 393.4 nm in a laboratory gas, and you
to that for a white dwarf (Problem 13) and to that of nuclear measure it to be at 423.4 nm in the spectrum of a galaxy,
matter. what is the approximate distance to the galaxy?
15. ( Ill) Stars located in a certain cluster are thought to be 27. (II) What is the speed of a galaxy with z = 0.060?
about the same distance from us. Two such stars have 28. (II) What would be the redshift parameter z for a galaxy
spectra that peak at = 470 nm and A2 = 720 nm, and traveling away from us at v = 0.075 c?
the ratio of their apparent brightness is b i/b 2 = 0.091. 29. (II) Starting from Eq. 44-3, show that the Doppler shift
Estimate their relative sizes (give ratio of their diameters) in wavelength is AA/Arest « v /c (Eq. 44-6) for v « c.
using Wien’s law and the Stefan-Boltzmann equation, Eq. 19-17. [Hint: Use the binomial expansion.]
16. ( Ill) Suppose two stars of the same apparent brightness b 30. (II) Radiotelescopes are designed to observe 21-cm waves
are also believed to be the same size. The spectrum of one emitted by atomic hydrogen gas. A signal from a distant
star peaks at 750 nm whereas that of the other peaks at radio-emitting galaxy is found to have a wavelength that is
450 nm. Use Wien’s law and the Stefan-Boltzmann equation 0.10 cm longer than the normal 21-cm wavelength. Estimate
(Eq. 19-17) to estimate their relative distances from us. the distance to this galaxy.
44-4 General Relativity, Gravity and Curved Space 4 4 -6 to 4 4 -8 The Big Bang, CMB, Universe Expansion
17. (I) Show that the Schwarzschild radius for a star with mass 31. (I) Calculate the wavelength at the peak of the blackbody
equal to that of Earth is 8.9 mm. radiation distribution at 2.7 K using Wien’s law.
18. (II) What is the Schwarzschild radius for a typical galaxy 32. (II) Calculate the peak wavelength of the CMB at 1.0 s after
(like ours)? the birth of the universe. In what part of the EM spectrum is
19. (II) What is the maximum sum-of-the-angles for a triangle this radiation?
on a sphere? 33. (II) The critical density for closure of the universe is
20. (II) Calculate the escape velocity, using Newtonian pc « 10_26kg/m 3. State pc in terms of the average number
mechanics, from an object that has collapsed to its of nucleons per cubic meter.
Schwarzschild radius. 34. (II) The scale factor of the universe (average distance
21. (II) What is the apparent deflection of a light beam in an between galaxies) at any given time is believed to have
elevator (Fig. 44-13) which is 2.4 m wide if the elevator is been inversely proportional to the absolute temperature.
accelerating downward at 9.8 m/s2? Estimate the size of the universe, compared to today, at
44-5 Redshift, Hubble's Law (a) t = 106yr, (b) t = 1 s, (c) t = 10-6 s, and (d) t = 10-35 s.
22. (I) The redshift of a galaxy indicates a velocity of 35. (II) A t approximately what time had the universe
1850 km/s. How far away is it? cooled below the threshold temperature for producing
23. (I) If a galaxy is traveling away from us at 1.5% of the speed (a) kaons (M « 500 M eV /c2), (b) Y (M ~ 9500 M eV /c2),
of light, roughly how far away is it? and ( c) muons (M « 100 M eV /c2)?
24. (II) A galaxy is moving away from Earth. The “blue” hydrogen 4 4 -9 Dark Matter, Dark Energy
line at 434 nm emitted from the galaxy is measured on 36. (II) Only about 5% of the energy in the universe is composed
Earth to be 455 nm. (a) How fast is the galaxy moving? of baryonic matter, (a) Estimate the average density of
(ib) How far is it from Earth? baryonic matter in the observable universe with a radius
25. (II) Estimate the wavelength shift for the 656-nm line of 14 billion light-years that contains 1011 galaxies, each with
in the Balmer series of hydrogen emitted from a galaxy about 1011 stars like our Sun. (b) Estimate the density of dark
whose distance from us is (a) 7.0 X 106ly, (b) 7.0 X 107ly. matter in the universe.

| General Problems__________
37. The evolution of stars, as discussed in Section 44-2, can lead to 41. Suppose that three main-sequence stars could undergo the
a white dwarf, a neutron star, or even a black hole, depending three changes represented by the three arrows, A , B, and C,
on the mass, (a) Referring to Sections 44-2 and 44-4, give the in the H -R diagram of Fig. 44-35. For each case, describe
radius of (i) a white dwarf of 1 solar mass, (ii) a neutron star of the changes in temperature, intrinsic luminosity, and size.
1.5 solar masses, and (iii) a black hole of 3 solar masses,
(ib) Express these three radii as ratios ( ^ : : 7^).
38. Use conservation of angular momentum to estimate the
angular velocity of a neutron star which has collapsed to a
diameter of 16 km, from a star whose radius was equal to that
of our Sun (7 X 108m). Assume its mass is 1.5 times that of the
Sun, and that it rotated (like our Sun) about once a month.
39. By what factor does the rotational kinetic energy change
when the star in Problem 38 collapses to a neutron star?
40. Assume that the nearest stars to us have an intrinsic
luminosity about the same as the Sun’s. Their apparent
brightness, however, is about 1011 times fainter than the Sun.
From this, estimate the distance to the nearest stars. (Newton
did this calculation, although he made a numerical error of
a factor of 100.) FIGURE 44-35 Problem 41. 1227
42. A certain pulsar, believed to be a neutron star o f mass 53. The Large Hadron C ollider in Geneva, Switzerland, can
1.5 times that of the Sun, w ith diameter 16 km, is observed collide two beams o f protons at an energy o f 14 TeV. E sti­
to have a rotation speed o f 1.0 rev/s. I f it loses rotational mate the tim e after the Big Bang probed by this energy.
kinetic energy at the rate of 1 part in 109 per day, which is 54. (a) Use special relativity and Newton’s law o f gravitation to
all transformed into radiation, what is the power output of show that a photon of mass m = E / c 2 just grazing the Sun
the star? w ill be deflected by an angle A 6 given by
43. The nearest large galaxy to our Galaxy is about 2 X 106ly 2G M
away. I f both galaxies have a mass o f 3 X 1041 kg, w ith what Ad =
c R
gravitational force does each galaxy attract the other?
where G is the gravitational constant, R and M are the
44. Estimate what neutrino mass (in eV /c2) would provide the radius and mass of the Sun, and c is the speed o f light.
critical density to close the universe. Assume the neutrino
( b ) Put in values and show A0 = 0.87". (General R elativity
density is, like photons, about 109 times that of nucleons, and predicts an angle twice as large, 1.74".)
that nucleons make up only (a) 2% o f the mass needed, or
(b) 5% o f the mass needed. 55. Astronomers use an apparent magnitude (m) scale to describe
apparent brightness. It uses a logarithmic scale, where a higher
45. Two stars, whose spectra peak at 660 nm and 480 nm,
number corresponds to a less bright star. (For example, the
respectively, both lie on the main sequence. Use W ien’s
Sun has magnitude -2 7 , whereas most stars have positive
law, the Stefan-Boltzmann equation, and the H -R diagram
magnitudes.) On this scale, a change in apparent magnitude by
(Fig. 44-6) to estimate the ratio o f their diameters.
+5 corresponds to a decrease in apparent brightness by a
46. (a) In order to measure distances w ith parallax at 100 parsecs, factor of 100. If Venus has an apparent magnitude of -4 .4 ,
what minimum angular resolution (in degrees) is needed?
whereas Sirius has an apparent magnitude of — 1.4, which is
(b) W hat diameter m irror or lens would be needed?
brighter? What is the ratio of the apparent brightness of these
47. What is the temperature that corresponds to 1.96-TeV co lli­ two objects?
sions at the Fermilab collider? To what era in cosmological
56. Estimate the radius of a white dwarf whose mass is equal to
history does this correspond? [Hint: See Fig. 44-30.]
that o f the Sun by the follow ing method, assuming there are
48. Astronomers have measured the rotation o f gas around N nucleons and \ N electrons (why §?): (a) Use Ferm i-Dirac
a possible supermassive black hole o f about 2 b illion statistics (Section 40-6) to show that the total energy o f all
solar masses at the center of a galaxy. I f the radius from the the electrons is ,
galactic center to the gas clouds is 68 light-years, estimate 3 fl h 1 /3 JV\3
the measured value o f z.
49. In the later stages of stellar evolution, a star (if massive
Ee = - \ - N

5 V2 7 8rae V 2 V J

enough) w ill begin fusing carbon nuclei to form , fo r [Hint: See Eqs. 40-12 and 40-13; we assume electrons fill
example, magnesium: energy levels from 0 up to the Fermi energy.] (b) The
nucleons contribute to the total energy m ainly via the grav­
24-
126c + gM g + 7. itational force (note that the Fermi energy fo r nucleons is
negligible compared to that fo r electrons— why?). Use a
(a) How much energy is released in this reaction (see
gravitational form of Gauss’s law to show that the total
Appendix F)? ( b ) How much kinetic energy must each
gravitational potential energy o f a uniform sphere of
carbon nucleus have (assume equal) in a head-on collision if
radius R is
they are just to “ touch” (use Eq. 41-1) so that the strong
3 GM2
force can come into play? (c) W hat temperature does this
kinetic energy correspond to? 5 R
50. Consider the reaction by considering the potential energy of a spherical shell of
radius r due only to the mass inside it (why?) and integrate
+ ijjo -> g s i + ^He, from r = 0 to r = R. (See also Appendix D.) (c) W rite
and answer the same questions as in Problem 49. the total energy as a sum o f these two terms, and set
d E /d R = 0 to find the equilibrium radius, and evaluate it
51. Calculate the Schwarzschild radius using a semi-classical
fo r a mass equal to the Sun’s (2.0 X IO30 kg).
(Newtonian) gravitational theory, by calculating the
minimum radius R fo r a sphere o f mass M such that a 57. Determine the radius of a neutron star using the same argu­
photon can escape from the surface. (General R elativity ment as in Problem 56 but fo r N neutrons only. Show that the
gives R = 2G M /c 1.) radius of a neutron star, of 1.5 solar masses, is about 11 km.
52. How large would the Sun be if its density equaled the 58. Use dim ensional analysis w ith the fundamental constants c,
critical density o f the universe, pc ~ 10_26kg/m 3? Express G , and h to estimate the value of the so-called Planck time.
your answer in light-years and compare w ith the Earth-Sun It is thought that physics as we know it can say nothing
distance and the diameter o f our Galaxy. about the universe before this time.

Answers to Exercises
A : Ourselves, 2 years ago. C: 6 km.
B: 600 ly (estimating L from Fig. 44-6 as L « 8 X 1026 W; D : (a); not the usual R 3, but R: see form ula fo r the
note that on a log scale, 6000 K is closer to 7000 K than it is Schwarzschild radius,
to 5000 K ). g.

12 28 CHAPTER 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology


?, N D

M a t h e m a t i c a l F o r m u la s

A—1 Quadratic Formula


If ax2 + bx + c = 0
- b ± \ / b 2 - 4ac
then
2a

A—2 Binomial Expansion


{ 1 ± x )n = 1 ± n x + ^ ^ x, ± < ! L ^ l ^ l x3

(x + y r = xJ 1 + l Y = xJ 1 + n l + n ( n - l ) y 2
Xj \ X 21 x2

A—3 Other Expansions


jl. X2 x3
e* = 1 + * + - + - + -
2 3 4
ln (l + *) = x ~ Y + Y ~ T + '"

sine = e - |j - + |j - - -

- . - . - S - S - .

tan0 = e + J + — d5 + ••• |0| < |

In general: f ( x ) = /( 0 ) + a: + f - + •••

A—4 Exponents
(an)(am) = a'I+m J_
= a-"
(a")(fc") = (a*)"
1
(a")m = a®"

A—5 Areas and Volumes


Object Surface area Volume
Circle, radius r Trr1 —
Sphere, radius r 4ttt2 Iirr3
Right circular cylinder, radius r, height h 2ttr2 + 27rrh 7rr2h
Right circular cone, radius r, height h ttt2 + irr\/r2 + h2 \irr2h

A-1
A—6 Plane Geometry

FIGURE A - 1 If line ax is FIGURE A-2 If« !_ L « 2


parallel to line a2 , then 61 = 02. and bx _Lb2 , then d1 = 02.

3. The sum of the angles in any plane triangle is 180°.


4. Pythagorean theorem :
In any right triangle (one angle = 90°) of sides a, b, and c:
a2 + b2 = c2
where c is the length of the hypotenuse (opposite the 90°
FIGURE A-3 angle).
5. Similar triangles: Two triangles are said to be similar if all three of their angles
are equal (in Fig. A -4 , 61 = <f>i,d2 = 4>2, and 03 = (f>3). Similar triangles can
have different sizes and different orientations.
(a) Two triangles are similar if any two of their angles are equal. (This follows
because the third angles must also be equal since the sum of the angles of a
triangle is 180°.)
(b) The ratios of corresponding sides of two similar triangles are equal (Fig. A -4 ):

h al _ a2 _ a3
FIGURE A-4 b\ b2 b3

6. Congruent triangles: Two triangles are congruent if one can be placed precisely
on top of the other. That is, they are similar triangles and they have the same
size. Two triangles are congruent if any of the following holds:
(a) The three corresponding sides are equal.
(b) Two sides and the enclosed angle are equal (“ side-angle-side” ).
(c) Two angles and the enclosed side are equal (“ angle-side-angle” ).

A—7 Logarithms
Logarithms are defined in the following way:
if y = Ax, then x = log A y.
That is, the logarithm of a number y to the base A is that number which, as the
exponent of A , gives back the number y. For common logarithms, the base is 10, so
if y = 10*, then x = logy.
The subscript 10 on log10 is usually omitted when dealing with common logs.
Another important base is the exponential base e = 2.718 ..., a natural number.
Such logarithms are called natural logarithms and are written In. Thus,
if y = ex, then x = In y.
For any number y, the two types of logarithm are related by
ln y = 2.3026 logy.
Some simple rules for logarithms are as follows:
log (ab) = log a + log b, (i)
which is true because if a = 10” and b = 10m, then ab = 10” +m. From the

APPENDIX A
definition of logarithm, log a = n, log b = ra, and log (ab) = n + m; hence,
\og(ab) = n + m = log a + \ogb. In a similar way, we can show that

lo g ^ j = log a log b (ii)


and
log a" = ra log 0 . (iii)
These three rules apply to any kind of logarithm.
If you do not have a calculator that calculates logs, you can easily use a log
table, such as the small one shown here (Table A -1 ): the number N whose log we
want is given to two digits. The first digit is in the vertical column to the left, the
second digit is in the horizontal row across the top. For example, Table A -1 tells us
that log 1.0 = 0.000, log 1.1 = 0.041, and log 4.1 = 0.613. Table A -1 does not
include the decimal point. The Table gives logs for numbers between 1.0 and 9.9.
For larger or smaller numbers, we use rule (i) above, log (ab) = log a + log b.
For example, log(380) = log(3.8 X 102) = log(3.8) + log(l02). From the Table,
log 3.8 = 0.580; and from rule (iii) above log(l02) = 21og(10) = 2, since
log (10) = 1. [This follows from the definition of the logarithm: if 10 = 101, then
1 = log(10).] Thus,
log (380) = log(3.8) + log(l02)
= 0.580 + 2
= 2.580.
Similarly,
log (0.081) = log(8.1) + log (l0 -2)
= 0.908 - 2 = -1.092.
The reverse process of finding the number N whose log is, say, 2.670, is called
“ taking the antilogarithm.” To do so, we separate our number 2.670 into two parts,
making the separation at the decimal point:
log N = 2.670 = 2 + 0.670
= log 102 + 0.670.
We now look at Table A -1 to see what number has its log equal to 0.670; none
does, so we must interpolate: we see that log 4.6 = 0.663 and log 4.7 = 0.672. So
the number we want is between 4.6 and 4.7, and closer to the latter by \ • Approxi­
mately we can say that log 4.68 = 0.670. Thus
log N = 2 + 0.670
= log(l02) + log(4.68) = log(4.68 X 102),
so N = 4.68 X 102 = 468.
If the given logarithm is negative, say, -2.180, we proceed as follows:
log TV = -2.180 = -3 + 0.820
= loglO -3 + log 6.6 = log 6.6 X 10-3,
so N = 6.6 X 10 3. Notice that we added to our given logarithm the next largest
integer (3 in this case) so that we have an integer, plus a decimal number between
0 and 1.0 whose antilogarithm can be looked up in the Table.

TABLE A-1 Short Table of Common Logarithms


N 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
1 000 041 079 114 146 176 204 230 255 279
2 301 322 342 362 380 398 415 431 447 462
3 477 491 505 519 531 544 556 568 580 591
4 602 613 623 633 643 653 663 672 681 690
5 699 708 716 724 732 740 748 756 763 771
6 778 785 792 799 806 813 820 826 833 839
7 845 851 857 863 869 875 881 886 892 898
8 903 908 914 919 924 929 935 940 944 949
9 954 959 964 968 973 978 982 987 991 996
SECTION A-7 Logarithms A-3
A—8 Vectors
Vector addition is covered in Sections 3-2 to 3-5.
Vector multiplication is covered in Sections 3 -3 ,7 -2 , and 11-2.

A—9 Trigonometric Functions and Identities


The trigonometric functions are defined as follows (see Fig. A -5 , o = side opposite,
a = side adjacent, h = hypotenuse. Values are given in Table A -2 ):
1 h

sin 0^ = —° CSC0 =
h sin0 o
FIGURE A-5 a 1 h
cos 0 = — sec0 =
h COS0 a
o sin 0 1 a
tan 0 = — = ------ cot 0 =
a cos 0 tan0 o
and recall that
a2 + o2 = h2 [Pythagorean theorem].
FIGURE A-6 Figure A -6 shows the signs (+ or - ) that cosine, sine, and tangent take on for
First Quadrant Second Quadrant angles 0 in the four quadrants (0° to 360°). Note that angles are measured coun­
(0° to 90°) (90° to 180°) terclockwise from the x axis as shown; negative angles are measured from below
x>0 x<0 the x axis, clockwise: for example, -30 ° = +330°, and so on.
The following are some useful identities among the trigonometric functions:
sin20 + cos20 = 1
sec20 - tan20 = 1, csc20 - cot20 = 1
sin 20 = 2 sin 0 cos 0
cos 20 = cos20 - sin20 = 2cos20 1 = 1 - 2sin20
2tan0
sin 0 = y/r> 0 sin 0>O tan 20 =
cos 8 = x/r>0 cos0<O 1 - tan20
tan 6 =y/x>Q tan 0 < 0 sin (A + B = sin A cos B ± cos A sin B
cos(A + B = cos A cos B + sin A sin B
Third Quadrant Fourth Quadrant
(180° to 270°) (270° to 360°) tan A + tan B
ta n (A + B
x<0 jt>0 1 + tan A tan B
;y<0 y<0
sin (180° - 0 = sin0
cos(180° - 0 = -cos 0
1 xf \x 1 sin (90° - 0 = cos 0
\ ii v ^y 1 S. 1
cos(90° - 0 = sin0
\ \ / r \ r ' 1
y J \ y V/
s in (-0 = -s in 0

sin 0<O sin 0<O cos(-0 = cos 0


cos 0<O cos0>O ta n (-0 = -ta n 0
tan 0>O tan0<O
1 - COS0 1 + COS0 1 - cos0
2 cos 0
(A±B AT B
sin A + sin B = 2 sin — -— cos
FIGURE A-7 V 2
For any triangle (see Fig. A -7 ):
sin a _ sin /3 _ sin 7
[Law of sines]
a b c
c2 = a2 + b2 - la b cos 7. [Law of cosines]
Values of sine, cosine, tangent are given in Table A -2 .
A-4 APPENDIX A
TABLE A-2 Trigonometric Table: Numerical Values of Sin, Cos, Tan
Angle Angle Angle Angle
in in in in
Degrees Radians Sine Cosine Tangent Degrees Radians Sine Cosine Tangent
0° 0.000 0.000 1.000 0.000
1° 0.017 0.017 1.000 0.017 46° 0.803 0.719 0.695 1.036
2° 0.035 0.035 0.999 0.035 47° 0.820 0.731 0.682 1.072
3° 0.052 0.052 0.999 0.052 48° 0.838 0.743 0.669 1.111
4° 0.070 0.070 0.998 0.070 49° 0.855 0.755 0.656 1.150
5° 0.087 0.087 0.996 0.087 50° 0.873 0.766 0.643 1.192

6° 0.105 0.105 0.995 0.105 51° 0.890 0.777 0.629 1.235


7° 0.122 0.122 0.993 0.123 52° 0.908 0.788 0.616 1.280
8° 0.140 0.139 0.990 0.141 53° 0.925 0.799 0.602 1.327
9° 0.157 0.156 0.988 0.158 54° 0.942 0.809 0.588 1.376
10° 0.175 0.174 0.985 0.176 55° 0.960 0.819 0.574 1.428

11° 0.192 0.191 0.982 0.194 56° 0.977 0.829 0.559 1.483
12° 0.209 0.208 0.978 0.213 57° 0.995 0.839 0.545 1.540
13° 0.227 0.225 0.974 0.231 58° 1.012 0.848 0.530 1.600
14° 0.244 0.242 0.970 0.249 59° 1.030 0.857 0.515 1.664
15° 0.262 0.259 0.966 0.268 60° 1.047 0.866 0.500 1.732

16° 0.279 0.276 0.961 0.287 61° 1.065 0.875 0.485 1.804
17° 0.297 0.292 0.956 0.306 62° 1.082 0.883 0.469 1.881
18° 0.314 0.309 0.951 0.325 63° 1.100 0.891 0.454 1.963
19° 0.332 0.326 0.946 0.344 64° 1.117 0.899 0.438 2.050
20° 0.349 0.342 0.940 0.364 65° 1.134 0.906 0.423 2.145

21° 0.367 0.358 0.934 0.384 66° 1.152 0.914 0.407 2.246
22° 0.384 0.375 0.927 0.404 67° 1.169 0.921 0.391 2.356
23° 0.401 0.391 0.921 0.424 68° 1.187 0.927 0.375 2.475
24° 0.419 0.407 0.914 0.445 69° 1.204 0.934 0.358 2.605
25° 0.436 0.423 0.906 0.466 70° 1.222 0.940 0.342 2.747

26° 0.454 0.438 0.899 0.488 71° 1.239 0.946 0.326 2.904
27° 0.471 0.454 0.891 0.510 72° 1.257 0.951 0.309 3.078
28° 0.489 0.469 0.883 0.532 73° 1.274 0.956 0.292 3.271
29° 0.506 0.485 0.875 0.554 74° 1.292 0.961 0.276 3.487
30° 0.524 0.500 0.866 0.577 75° 1.309 0.966 0.259 3.732

31° 0.541 0.515 0.857 0.601 76° 1.326 0.970 0.242 4.011
32° 0.559 0.530 0.848 0.625 77° 1.344 0.974 0.225 4.331
33° 0.576 0.545 0.839 0.649 78° 1.361 0.978 0.208 4.705
34° 0.593 0.559 0.829 0.675 79° 1.379 0.982 0.191 5.145
35° 0.611 0.574 0.819 0.700 80° 1.396 0.985 0.174 5.671

36° 0.628 0.588 0.809 0.727 81° 1.414 0.988 0.156 6.314
37° 0.646 0.602 0.799 0.754 82° 1.431 0.990 0.139 7.115
38° 0.663 0.616 0.788 0.781 83° 1.449 0.993 0.122 8.144
39° 0.681 0.629 0.777 0.810 84° 1.466 0.995 0.105 9.514
40° 0.698 0.643 0.766 0.839 85° 1.484 0.996 0.087 11.43

41° 0.716 0.656 0.755 0.869 86° 1.501 0.998 0.070 14.301
42° 0.733 0.669 0.743 0.900 87° 1.518 0.999 0.052 19.081
43° 0.750 0.682 0.731 0.933 88° 1.536 0.999 0.035 28.636
44° 0.768 0.695 0.719 0.966 89° 1.553 1.000 0.017 57.290
45° 0.785 0.707 0.707 1.000 90° 1.571 1.000 0.000 oo

SECTION A-9 Trigonometric Functions and Identities A-5


% N |>

Derivatives and Integrals


B - l D e r iv a t iv e s : G e n e r a l R u le s

(See also Section 2-3.)


dx _
~dx ~
d df
— [af(x)\ = a — [a = constant]
CIJL CIJC

£ [ « * ) + * (* )] = £ + £

(* )* (* )] = f x s + f f x

iV M ] = f y% [chain rule]

— = 1 - n
f < fy\ dx
,d x /

B —2 D e r iv a t iv e s : P a r t ic u la r F u n c t io n s

4 ^ = 0 [a = constant]
dx
-^ -x n = n x "-1
dx
d .
— sin ax = a cos ax
dx
d
— cos ax = —a sin ax
dx
d 2
— tan ax = a sec ax
dx
d 1
— In ax = —
dx x
d_
dx

B —3 I n d e f in it e In t e g r a ls : G e n e r a l R u le s

(See also Section 7-3.)


\ dx = x

|a f ( x ) d x = a^f ( x)dx [a = constant]

[/(x) + g(x)]dx = |/(x) dx + jg(x)d x

u dv = uv — \ v du [integration by parts: see also B-6]


A -6
B—4 Indefinite Integrals: ParticularFunctions
(An arbitrary constant can be added to the right side of each equation.)
+ x
[ a dx = ax \a = constant! [---------
J (x22±
J (x ± aa2)l
: a2\ J x 2± i

f x mdx = ^ xm+1 [ m * - 1] f xdx -1


m ,+ l ((x2 ± da2)l
x 2± ' y j x 2± a2

1“ sin ax dx = ——cos ax
a
1 J
.
I . 0 T x
sin2 ax dx = ^ —
| sii
2
. _
sin 2ax
4a
/ cos ax dx = —sin ax
a [ e
xe~ax dx = ------Y ^ ax + 1 )
S'
| tan ax dx = ^ ln|sec ax\
f e~ax
x2e~ax dx = ------ j- (ia2x2 + la x + l)
I —dx = In x f dx 1 ,x
—z-------7 = —tan —
J xl + ar a a
■axdx = - e ax
S' a [x2 > fl2]
J\^x ~—2a = f2 a In f— + fl

+ ^ = _ lj£ ± iL ) [x2 < a 2


la \a - x J

I^ = ! - “ " ( f ) - - “ *“ ( ! )

B—5 A Few Definite Integrals


n\ r oo 77
x2e~“ ‘ dx =
I,o an+1 Jo ' 16fl3
pTT r oo
JV V 4a
x ^ -^ d x =
2a2
Jo Jo
1
[ x e -^ d x = J - f°°j:2V _'“2dx
1 x2ne~a^ dx = 1 '3 '5 ' " ( 2”---- 51 J z
Jo la
2a Jo 2“ fl V fl

B—6 Integration by Parts


Sometimes a difficult integral can be simplified by carefully choosing the functions u and v in the identity:

j u d v = uv — Jv du. [Integration by parts]

This identity follows from the property of derivatives


d . , dv du
-(u v ) = u - + v -

or as differentials: d(uv) = u dv + vdu.


For example Jxe~x dx can be integrated by choosing u = x and dv = e x dx in the “integration by parts” equation above:

| xe~x dx = (x ) ( - e ~x) + j e~x dx

= -xe~x —e~x = —(x + l)e~x.

SECTION B-6 A-7


More on Dimensional Analysis
An important use of dimensional analysis (Section 1-7) is to obtain the form of an
equation: how one quantity depends on others. To take a concrete example, let us
try to find an expression for the period T of a simple pendulum. First, we try to
figure out what T could depend on, and make a list of these variables. It might
depend on its length £, on the mass m of the bob, on the angle of swing 0, and on
the acceleration due to gravity, g. It might also depend on air resistance (we would
use the viscosity of air), the gravitational pull of the Moon, and so on; but everyday
experience suggests that the Earth’s gravity is the major force involved, so we
ignore the other possible forces. So let us assume that T is a function of £, m, 0, and
g, and that each of these factors is present to some power:
T = C£wm x6y g z .
C is a dimensionless constant, and w , x, y, and z are exponents we want to solve
for. We now write down the dimensional equation (Section 1-7) for this relationship:
[T] = [L] w[M ] x [L /T 2]z .
Because 0 has no dimensions (a radian is a length divided by a length— see
Eq. 1 0 -la ), it does not appear. We simplify and obtain
[T] = [L] w+z[M ] x [T]~2z
To have dimensional consistency, we must have
1 = —2z
0 = w + z
0 = x.
We solve these equations and find that z = = and x = 0. Thus our
desired equation must be
t = cVt/gf(e), (C -i)
where /(0 ) is some function of 0 that we cannot determine using this technique.
Nor can we determine in this way the dimensionless constant C. (To obtain C and
/ , we would have to do an analysis such as that in Chapter 14 using Newton’s laws,
which reveals that C = 2ir and / « 1 for small 0). But look what we have found,
using only dimensional consistency. We obtained the form of the expression that
relates the period of a simple pendulum to the major variables of the situation,
£ and g (see Eq. 14-12c), and saw that it does not depend on the mass m.
How did we do it? And how useful is this technique? Basically, we had to use
our intuition as to which variables were important and which were not. This is not
always easy, and often requires a lot of insight. As to usefulness, the final result in
our example could have been obtained from Newton’s laws, as in Chapter 14. But
in many physical situations, such a derivation from other laws cannot be done. In
those situations, dimensional analysis can be a powerful tool.
In the end, any expression derived by the use of dimensional analysis (or by any
other means, for that matter) must be checked against experiment. For example, in our
derivation of Eq. C -l, we can compare the periods of two pendulums of different
lengths, lx and l 2 >whose amplitudes (0) are the same. For, using Eq. C -l, we would have
Ti o /ijg m ft
t2 cV U gf(e) Vi 2
Because C and /(0 ) are the same for both pendula, they cancel out, so we can
experimentally determine if the ratio of the periods varies as the ratio of the
square roots of the lengths. This comparison to experiment checks our derivation,
at least in part; C and /(0 ) could be determined by further experiments.
A-8 APPENDIX C More on Dimensional Analysis
D Gravitational Force due to a
Spherical Mass Distribution
In Chapter 6 we stated that the gravitational force exerted by or on a uniform
sphere acts as if all the mass of the sphere were concentrated at its center, if the
other object (exerting or feeling the force) is outside the sphere. In other words,
the gravitational force that a uniform sphere exerts on a particle outside it is
ifiM
F = G— » [ra outside sphere of mass M l
r
where ra is the mass of the particle, M the mass of the sphere, and r the distance of
ra from the center of the sphere. Now we w ill derive this result. We w ill use the
concepts of infinitesim ally small quantities and integration.
First we consider a very thin, uniform spherical shell (like a thin-walled
basketball) of mass M whose thickness t is small compared to its radius R
(Fig. D - l) . The force on a particle of mass ra at a distance r from the center of the
shell can be calculated as the vector sum of the forces due to all the particles of the
shell. We imagine the shell divided up into thin (infinitesim al) circular strips so
that all points on a strip are equidistant from our particle ra. One of these circular
strips, labeled AB, is shown in Fig. D - l. It is R dd wide, t thick, and has a radius
R sin 0. The force on our particle ra due to a tiny piece of the strip at point A is
represented by the vector FA shown. The force due to a tiny piece of the strip at
point B, which is diametrically opposite A , is the force FB. We take the two pieces
at A and B to be of equal mass, so FA = FQ. The horizontal components of FA
and Fb are each equal to
Fa cos (f>
and point toward the center of the shell. The vertical components of FA and FB are
of equal magnitude and point in opposite directions, and so cancel. Since for every
point on the strip there is a corresponding point diametrically opposite (as with A
and B), we see that the net force due to the entire strip points toward the center of
the shell. Its magnitude w ill be
^ ra dM
dF = G — — cos 4>,

where dM is the mass of the entire circular strip and £ is the distance from all
points on the strip to ra, as shown. We write dM in terms of the density p; by
density we mean the mass per unit volume (Section 13-2). Hence, dM = p dV,
where d V is the volume of the strip and equals (2 ttR sin 6) ( t ) ( R dd). Then the
force dF due to the circular strip shown is
^ m p lirR h sin 0 dd
dF = G ---------- ^ ---------- cos (f>. (D -l)

FIGURE D-T Calculating the


gravitational force on a particle of
mass m due to a uniform spherical
shell of radius R and mass M.

A-9
FIGURE D -l (repeated)
Calculating the gravitational force
on a particle of mass m due to a
uniform spherical shell of radius R
and mass M.

To get the total force F that the entire shell exerts on the particle ra, we must
integrate over all the circular strips: that is, we integrate
m p2irR 2t sin 6 dd
dF = G — ------ j 2---------- cos<£ (D -l)

from 6 = 0° to 6 = 180°. But our expression for dF contains £ and 4>, which are
functions of 0. From Fig. D - l we can see that
£cos $ = r - R cos 6.
Furthermore, we can write the law of cosines for triangle CraA:
r2 + R 2 _ f
c o se = — IT r ------- (D" 2)
W ith these two expressions we can reduce our three variables (£, 0, <f>) to only one,
which we take to be L We do two things with Eq. D -2: (1) We put it into the equa­
tion for £ cos cb above:

cos cf) = —(r — R cos 6) =


£' ' 2r£
and (2) we take the differential of both sides of Eq. D -2 (because sin 0 dd appears
in the expression for dF, Eq. D - l) , considering r and R to be constants when
summing over the strips:
• „ 2£ d£ . n £d£
-s in Odd = — — — or sin 6 dd = —— •
2rR rR
We insert these into Eq. D - l for dF and find
R ( r2 — R 2\
dF = G m pirt — ( 1 H-------—---- j d£.

Now we integrate to get the net force on our thin shell of radius R. To integrate
over all the strips (6 = 0° to 180°), we must go from £ = r - R to £ = r + R
(see Fig. D - l) . Thus,
R I" r2 - R 2~\l =r+R
F = G m pirt \ £ —
r2 I £ \ l =r- R

= G m pirt ^ (A R ) .

The volume V of the spherical shell is its area (4irR 2) times the thickness t. Hence
the mass M = pV = p4irR2t, and finally
p - q [ particle of mass m outside a
r2 I thin uniform spherical shell of mass M J
This result gives us the force a thin shell exerts on a particle of mass m a
distance r from the center of the shell, and outside the shell. We see that the force
is the same as that between m and a particle of mass M at the center of the
shell. In other words, for purposes of calculating the gravitational force exerted
on or by a uniform spherical shell, we can consider all its mass concentrated at
its center.
What we have derived for a shell holds also for a solid sphere, since a solid
sphere can be considered as made up of many concentric shells, from R = 0 to
R = R 0, where R0 is the radius of the solid sphere. Why? Because if each shell has
A-10 APPENDIX D
mass dM , we write for each shell, dF = G m d M /r 2, where r is the distance from
the center C to mass m and is the same for all shells. Then the total force equals
the sum or integral over dM , which gives the total mass M. Thus the result
_ mM Tparticle of mass m outside 1 _
r2 i solid sphere of mass M \

is valid for a solid sphere of mass M even if the density varies with distance from
the center. (It is not valid if the density varies w ithin each shell— that is, depends
not only on R .) Thus the gravitational force exerted on or by spherical objects,
including nearly spherical objects like the Earth, Sun, and Moon, can be consid­
ered to act as if the objects were point particles.
This result, Eq. D -3 , is true only if the mass m is outside the sphere. Let us
next consider a point mass m that is located inside the spherical shell of Fig. D - l.
Here, r would be less than R, and the integration over I would be from i = R — r
to I = R + r, so
R +r
= 0.
R -r

Thus the force on any mass inside the shell would be zero. This result has partic­
ular importance for the electrostatic force, which is also an inverse square law. For
the gravitational situation, we see that at points within a solid sphere, say 1000 km
below the Earth’s surface, only the mass up to that radius contributes to the net
force. The outer shells beyond the point in question contribute zero net gravitational
effect.
The results we have obtained here can also be reached using the gravitational
analog of Gauss’s law for electrostatics (Chapter 22).

APPENDIX D Gravitational Force due to a Spherical Mass Distribution A -11


N />

E Differential Form of
Maxwell's Equations
Maxwell’s equations can be written in another form that is often more convenient
than Eqs. 31-5. This material is usually covered in more advanced courses, and is
included here simply for completeness.
We quote here two theorems, without proof, that are derived in vector analysis
textbooks. The first is called Gauss’s theorem or the divergence theorem. It relates
the integral over a surface of any vector function F to a volume integral over the
volume enclosed by the surface:

<j> F -d& = I t- F rfF .


J Area^4 JVolumeV

The operator V is the del operator, defined in Cartesian coordinates as


^ ~d *3 ~d
V = i — + i — + k—
dx dy dz
The quantity
^ ^ dFx dFy dFz
V F = ---- + —- + ----
dx dy dz

is called the divergence of F. The second theorem is Stokes’s theorem, and relates
a line integral around a closed path to a surface integral over any surface enclosed
by that path:

F -d l = [ f X F-dA.
-ine
Line AreaA
Ja

The quantity V X F is called the curl of F. (See Section 11-2 on the vector product.)
We now use these two theorems to obtain the differential form of Maxwell’s
equations in free space. We apply Gauss’s theorem to Eq. 31-5a (Gauss’s law):

j) E-dA = jf-E dV = — ■

Now the charge Q can be written as a volume integral over the charge density p:
Q = f p dV. Then

pdV .

Both sides contain volume integrals over the same volume, and for this to be true
over any volume, whatever its size or shape, the integrands must be equal:

f-E = —• (E-l)
e0
This is the differential form of Gauss’s law. The second of Maxwell’s equations,
<J)B-d A = 0, is treated in the same way, and we obtain
V-B = 0. (E-2)

A -12
Next, we apply Stokes’s theorem to the third of Maxwell’s equations,

(j>E-d? = j ? X E -d A =

Since the magnetic flux 4>5 = JB • dA , we have

j v X E-dA = - 1 B •dA

where we use the partial derivative, dB/dt, since B may also depend on position.
These are surface integrals over the same area, and to be true over any area, even
a very small one, we must have

- dB
V X E = - — • (E -3)

This is the third of Maxwell’s equations in differential form. Finally, to the last of
Maxwell’s equations,

B -dl = fi0I + fi0e0—— >

we apply Stokes’s theorem and write 4>£ = j E - d A :

j v X B dA = ix0I + |e*^A.

The conduction current I can be written in terms of the current density j , using
Eq. 25-12:

/ = Jj-rfA .

Then Maxwell’s fourth equation becomes:

jvxB-dA = hq Jj-dA + M0€0^ jfi-dA.


For this to be true over any area A , whatever its size or shape, the integrands on
each side of the equation must be equal:

dE
v X B - /A0j + (E-4)

Equations E - l , 2, 3, and 4 are Maxwell’s equations in differential form for free


space. They are summarized in Table E - l .

TABLE E-l Maxwell's Equations in Free Spacef


Integral form D ifferential form

<j)E-dA = j- V-E = —
eo

<j)B-dA = 0 V -B = 0

f dQ d *V *
i)E -di = - — - XE = -------
J dt dt

f — -* * ^ r dE
(DB- d t = n 0I + /A0e0 — — VXB = fi0] + /A0e0- —
dt

fV standsfor thedel operator V = i — + j — + k —inCartesiancoordinates.


dx dy dz

APPENDIX E Differential Form of Maxwell's Equations A-13


% N tt

Selected Isotopes

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)


A tom ic Mass % A bundance
Number Number A tom ic (or R adioactive H alf-life
Z E lem ent Symbol A M ass1- Decay* M ode) (if radioactive)

0 (N eutron) n 1 1.008665 F 10.23 min


1 H ydrogen H 1 1.007825 99.9885%
D euterium d or D 2 2.014082 0.0115%
Tritium to r T 3 3.016049 pr 12.312 yr
2 H elium He 3 3.016029 0.000137%
4 4.002603 99.999863%
3 Lithium Li 6 6.015123 7.59%
7 7.016005 92.41%
4 Beryllium Be 7 7.016930 E C ,y 53.22 days
9 9.012182 100%
5 B oron B 10 10.012937 19.9%
11 11.009305 80.1%
6 Carbon C 11 11.011434 j6+, EC 20.370 min
12 12.000000 98.93%
13 13.003355 1.07%
14 14.003242 fr 5730 yr
7 N itrogen N 13 13.005739 jS+,E C 9.9670 min
14 14.003074 99.632%
15 15.000109 0.368%
8 O xygen O 15 15.003066 /3+, EC 122.5 min
16 15.994915 99.757%
18 17.999161 0.205%
9 Fluorine F 19 18.998403 100%
10 N eon Ne 20 19.992440 90.48%
22 21.991385 9.25%
11 Sodium Na 22 21.994436 p +, e c , y 2.6027 yr
23 22.989769 100%
24 23.990963 /r ,r 14.9574 h
12 M agnesium Mg 24 23.985042 78.99%
13 Alum inum Al 27 26.981539 100%
14 Silicon Si 28 27.976927 92.2297%
31 30.975363 y 157.3 min
15 Phosphorus P 31 30.973762 100%
32 31.973907 fr 14.284 days

trThe masses given in column (5) are those for the neutral atom, including the Z electrons.
*Chapter 41; E C = electron capture.

A -1 4
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Atomic Mass % Abundance
Number Number Atomic (or Radioactive Half-life
Z Element Symbol A Mass D ecay M ode) (if radioactive)

16 Sulfur S 32 31.972071 94.9%


35 34.969032 pr 87.32 days
17 Chlorine Cl 35 34.968853 75.78%
37 36.965903 24.22%
18 Argon Ar 40 39.962383 99.600%
19 Potassium K 39 38.963707 93.258%
40 39.963998 0.0117%
/ r , EC, y,/3+ 1.265 X 109 yr
20 Calcium Ca 40 39.962591 96.94%
21 Scandium Sc 45 44.955912 100%
22 Titanium Ti 48 47.947946 73.72%
23 Vanadium V 51 50.943960 99.750%
24 Chromium Cr 52 51.940508 83.789%
25 Manganese Mn 55 54.938045 100%
26 Iron Fe 56 55.934938 91.75%
27 Cobalt Co 59 58.933195 100%
60 59.933817 /3~ y 5.2710 yr
28 Nickel Ni 58 57.935343 68.077%
60 59.930786 26.223%
29 Copper Cu 63 62.929598 69.17%
65 64.927790 30.83%
30 Zinc Zn 64 63.929142 48.6%
66 65.926033 27.9%
31 Gallium Ga 69 68.925574 60.108%
32 Germanium Ge 72 71.922076 27.5%
74 73.921178 36.3%
33 Arsenic As 75 74.921596 100%
34 Selenium Se 80 79.916521 49.6%
35 Bromine Br 79 78.918337 50.69%
36 Krypton Kr 84 83.911507 57.00%
37 Rubidium Rb 85 84.911790 72.17%
38 Strontium Sr 86 85.909260 9.86%
88 87.905612 82.58%
90 89.907738 r 28.80 yr
39 Yttrium Y 89 88.905848 100%
40 Zirconium Zr 90 89.904704 51.4%
41 Niobium Nb 93 92.906378 100%
42 Molybdenum Mo 98 97.905408 24.1%
43 Technetium Tc 98 97.907216 /r , y 4.2 X 106 yr
44 Ruthenium Ru 102 101.904349 31.55%
45 Rhodium Rh 103 102.905504 100%
46 Palladium Pd 106 105.903486 27.33%
47 Silver Ag 107 106.905097 51.839%
109 108.904752 48.161%
48 Cadmium Cd 114 113.903359 28.7%
49 Indium In 115 114.903878 95.71%; iQ- 4.41 X 1014 yr
50 Tin Sn 120 119.902195 32.58%
51 Antimony Sb 121 120.903816 57.21%

APPENDIX F Selected Isotopes A -15


(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Atomic Mass % Abundance
Number Number Atomic (or Radioactive Half-life
Z Element Symbol A Mass Decay M ode) (if radioactive)

52 Tellurium Te 130 129.906224 34.1%;/ r / r > 9 .7 X 1022 yr


53 Iodine I 127 126.904473 100%
131 130.906125 P~, y 8.0233 days
54 Xenon Xe 132 131.904154 26.89%
136 135.907219 8.87%; p-p~ > 8 .5 X 1021 yr
55 Cesium Cs 133 132.905452 100%
56 Barium Ba 137 136.905827 11.232%
138 137.905247 71.70%
57 Lanthanum La 139 138.906353 99.910%
58 Cerium Ce 140 139.905439 88.45%
59 Praseodymium Pr 141 140.907653 100%
60 Neodymium Nd 142 141.907723 27.2%
61 Promethium Pm 145 144.912749 EC, a 17.7 yr
62 Samarium Sm 152 151.919732 26.75%
63 Europium Eu 153 152.921230 52.19%
64 Gadolinium Gd 158 157.924104 24.84%
65 Terbium Tb 159 158.925347 100%
66 Dysprosium Dy 164 163.929175 28.2%
67 Holmium Ho 165 164.930322 100%
68 Erbium Er 166 165.930293 33.6%
69 Thulium Tm 169 168.934213 100%
70 Ytterbium Yb 174 173.938862 31.8%
71 Lutetium Lu 175 174.940772 97.41%
72 Hafnium Hf 180 179.946550 35.08%
73 Tantalum Ta 181 180.947996 99.988%
74 Tungsten (wolfram) W 184 183.950931 30.64%; a > 8 .9 X 1021 yr
75 Rhenium Re 187 186.955753 62.60%; p~ 4.35 X 1010 yr
76 Osmium Os 191 190.960930 P~,y 15.4 days
192 191.961481 40.78%
77 Iridium Ir 191 190.960594 37.3%
193 192.962926 62.7%
78 Platinum Pt 195 194.964791 33.832%
79 Gold Au 197 196.966569 100%
80 Mercury Hg 199 198.968280 16.87%
202 201.970643 29.9%
81 Thallium Tl 205 204.974428 70.476%
82 Lead Pb 206 205.974465 24.1%
207 206.975897 22.1%
208 207.976652 52.4%
210 209.984188 pr, y, a 22.23 yr
211 210.988737 pr, y 36.1 min
212 211.991898 P~,y 10.64 h
214 213.999805 p ~ ,y 26.8 min
83 Bismuth Bi 209 208.980399 100%
211 210.987269 a, y,P~ 2.14 min
84 Polonium Po 210 209.982874 a, y, EC 138.376 days
214 213.995201 a ,y 162.3 jjls
85 Astatine At 218 218.008694 a, p~ 1.4 s

A -16 APPENDIX F Selected Isotopes


(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
A tom ic Mass % A bundance
Number N um ber A tom ic (or R adioactive H alf-life
Z E lem ent Symbol A Mass D ecay M ode) (if radioactive)

86 R adon Rn 222 222.017578 0 ,7 3.8232 days


87 Francium Fr 223 223.019736 p - , y, a 22.00 min
88 Radium Ra 226 226.025410 a ,7 1600 yr
89 Actinium Ac 227 227.027752 /T , y, a 21.772 yr
90 Thorium Th 228 228.028741 a ,y 698.60 days
232 232.038055 100%; a, y 1.405 X 1010 yr
91 Protactinium Pa 231 231.035884 a ,y 3.276 X 104 yr
92 Uranium U 232 232.037156 a ,y 68.9 yr
233 233.039635 a ,y 1.592 X 105 yr
235 235.043930 0.720%; a , y 7.04 X 108 yr
236 236.045568 a ,y 2.342 X 107 yr
238 238.050788 99.274%; a, 7 4.468 X 109 yr
239 239.054293 P~,y 23.46 min
93 Neptunium Np 237 237.048173 a, y 2.144 X 106 yr
239 239.052939 p ~ ,y 2.356 days
94 Plutonium Pu 239 239.052163 a ,y 24,100 yr
244 244.064204 a 8.00 X 107 yr
95 Am ericium Am 243 243.061381 a ,y 7370 yr
96 Curium Cm 247 247.070354 «, y 1.56 X 107 yr
97 Berkelium Bk 247 247.070307 a, y 1380 yr
98 Californium Cf 251 251.079587 a ,y 898 yr
99 Einsteinium Es 252 252.082980 a, EC, y 471.7 days
100 Fermium Fm 257 257.095105 a ,y 100.5 days
101 M endelevium Md 258 258.098431 a, y 51.5 days
102 N obelium No 259 259.10103 a, EC 58 min
103 Lawrencium Lr 262 262.10963 a, EC, fission ~4h
104 Rutherfordium Rf 263 263.11255 fission 10 min
105 D ubnium Db 262 262.11408 a, fission, EC 35 s
106 Seaborgium Sg 266 266.12210 a, fission ~21 s
107 Bohrium Bh 264 264.12460 a « 0.44 s
108 Hassium Hs 269 269.13406 a «10s
109 M eitnerium Mt 268 268.13870 a 21 ms
110 Darmstadtium Ds 271 271.14606 a ~ 7 0 ms
111 R oentgenium Rg 272 272.15360 a 3.8 ms
112 U ub 277 277.16394 a « 0.7 ms

Preliminary evidence (unconfirmed) has been reported for elements 113,114,115,116 and 118.

APPENDIX F Selected Isotopes A -1 7


Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems
CHAPTER 1________________________ 41. (a) 3.16 X 107 s; 25. (fl) 21.2 m/s;

1. (fl) 1.4 X IO10 y; 0b) 3.16 X 1016 ns; cb) 2.00 m /s2.
(c) 3.17 X 10-8 y. 27. 17.0 m /s2.
0b) 4.4 X 1017 s.
43. 2 X 10“4 m. 29. (fl) m /s, m /s2;
3. (a) 1.156 X 10°;
45. 1 X 1011 gal/y. (fo) 22? m /s2;
0b) 2.18 X 101; 47. 9 cm /y . (c) (A + 105) m /s, 2B m /s2;
(c) 6.8 X IO-3; 49. 2 X 109 kg/y. (rf) A - 3 # r 4.
(rf) 3.2865 X 102; 51. 75 min. 31. 1.5 m /s2, 99 m.
(e) 2.19 X IO-1; 53. 4 X 105 metric tons, 1 X 108 gal. 33. 240 m /s2.
55. 1 X 103 days 35. 4.41 m /s2, 2.61 s.
(/)4 .4 4 X 102.
57. 210 yd, 190 m. 37. 45.0 m.
5. 4.6%.
59. (fl) 0.10 nm; 39. (fl) 560 m;
7. 1.00 X 105 s. (b) 47 s;
(fo) 1.0 X 105 fm;
9. 0.24 rad. (c) 1.0 X IO10 A; (c) 23 m, 21 m.
11. (a) 0.2866 m; (rf) 9.5 X 1025 A. 41. (a) 96 m;
(fo) 0.000085 V; 61. (fl) 3%, 3%; (fo) 76 m.
0b) 0.7%, 0.2%. 43. 27 m /s.
(c) 0.00076 kg;
63. 8 X 10“2 m3. 45. 117 km /h.
(rf) 0.0000000000600 s;
65. L /m , L /y, L. 47. 0.49 m /s2.
(e) 0.0000000000000225 m;
67. (a) 13.4; 49. 1.6 s.
( / ) 2,500,000,000 V. 51. (fl) 20 m;
(fo) 49.3.
13. 5'10" = 1.8 m, 165 lbs = 75.2 kg. 69. 4 X 1051 kg. (fo) 4 s.
15. (a) 1 ft2 = 0.111 yd2; 53. 1.16 s.
(fo) 1 m2 = 10.8 ft2. CHAPTER 2 55. 5.18 s.
1. 61 m. 57. (a) 25 m/s;
17. (a) 3.9 X 10-9 in.;
3. 0.65 cm /s, no. (fo)3 3 m;
(fo) 1.0 X 108 a to m s .
5. 300 m /s, 1 km every 3 sec. (c) 1.2 s;
19. (a) 1 km /h = 0.621 mi/h; (rf) 5.2 s.
7. (a) 9.26 m /s;
(fo) 1 m /s = 3.28 ft/s; 59. (a) 14 m/s;
(b) 3.1 m /s.
(c) 1 km /h = 0.278 m /s. 9. (fl) 0.3 m/s; (fo) fifth floor.
21. (a) 9.46 X 1015m; 0b) 1.2 m/s; 61. 1.3 m.
(c) 0.30 m/s; 63. 18.8 m /s, 18.1 m.
(fo) 6.31 X 104 AU;
(rf) 1.4 m /s; 65. 52 m.
(c) 7.20 A U /h .
( e) -0 .9 5 m /s. 67. 106 m.
23. ( a ) 3.80 X 1013 m 2;
11. 2.0 X 101 s. 69.
(fo) 13.4.
13. (fl) 5.4 X 103 m;
25. 6 X 105 books. (fo) 72 min.
27. 5 X 104 L. 15. (fl) 61 km/h; 71. 6.
29. ( a) 1800. ob) o. 73. 1.3 m.
31. 5 X 104 m . 17. (fl) 16 m /s; 75. (fo) 10 m;
33. 6.5 X 106 m. (fo) + 5 m /s. (c) 40 m.
19. 6.73 m /s. 77. 5.2 X 10-2 m /s2.
35. [ M /L 3].
21. 5 s. 79. 4.6 m /s to 5.4 m /s, 5.8 m /s to
37. ( a) Cannot;
23. (a) 48 s; 6.7 m /s, smaller range of velocities.
(fo) can; (fo) 90 s to 108 s; 81. (fl) 5.39 s;
(c) can. (c) 0 to 42 s, 65 s to 83 s, 90 s to 108 s; (fo) 40.3 m/s;
39. ( l X 10_5)%, 8 significant figures. (rf) 65 s to 83 s. (c) 90.9 m.

A -18
83. (a) 8.7 min; (b) -2 2 .8 , 9.85; 45. (a) (2.3i + 2.5j) m/s;
( b) 13 min. (c) 24.8,23.4° above the —x axis. (b) 5.3 m;
85. 2.3. (c) (2.3i — 10.2j)m /s.
(fl) 625 km /h, 553 km/h;
87. Stop. 47. No, 0.76 m too low; 4.5 m to
(ib) 1560 km, 1380 km.
89. 1.5 poles. 34.7 m.
91. 0.44 m /m in, 2.9 burgers/min. 9. (a) 4.2 at 315°;
51. tan-1 g t/v Q.
93. (a) Where the slopes are the same; (b) l.Oi - 5.0j or 5.1 at 280°. 53. (fl) 50.0 m;
(b) bicycle A; 11. (a) —53.7i + 1.31j or 53.7 at 1.4° (b) 6.39 s;
(c) when the two graphs cross; first
above —x axis; (c) 221 m;
crossing, B passing A; second
crossing, A passing B; (b) 53.71 - 1.3lj or 53.7 at 1.4° (d) 38.3 m /s at 25.7°.
(id) B until the slopes are equal, A below +x axis, they are 1 1
= ^ + —
55. —tan
after that; opposite. 2 tan i 2 4’
(e) same. 13. (a) —92.5i - 19.4j or 94.5 at 11.8° 57. (10.5 m /s)i, (6.5 m /s)i.
95. (c) 59. 1.41 m /s.
below —x axis;
u.u '"S 61. 23 s, 23 m.
^n (b) 1221 - 86.6j or 150 at 35.3°
D.U
/-N — 63. ( a) 11.2 m /s, 27° above the
below +x axis.
1 O ft i r horizontal;
w DX)
15. ( —2450 m )i + (3870 m)j
oH 9Z.U
0 (b) 11.2 m /s, 27° below the
^ l.U
10 + (2450 m)k, 5190 m. horizontal.
0 .0 - 17. (9.60i - 2.00tk) m /s, 65. 6.3°, west of south.
2 3
Time (s) (-2 .0 0 k ) m /s2. 67. (fl) 46 m;
19. Parabola. (b) 92 s.
21. (a) 4.0t m /s, 3.0? m/s; 69. ( a) 1.13 m/s;
(b) 3.20 m /s.
(b) 5.0t m/s;
71. 43.6° north of east.
(c) (2.0t2i + 1.5t2]) m;
73. (6 6 m )i - (35m )j - (12m )k,
( d ) vx = 8.0 m /s, vy = 6.0 m /s, 76 m, 28° south of east, 9° below the
v = 10.0 m /s, horizontal.
Time (s) r = (8.0i + 6.0j) m. 75. 131 km /h, 43.1° north of east.
97. ( b ) 6.8 m. 23. (a) (3.16i + 2.78j)cm /s; 77. 7.0 m /s.

(b) 4.21 cm /s at 41.3°. 79. 1.8 m /s2.


81. 1.9 m /s, 2.7 s.
25. (a) (6.0£i - 18.0?2j) m /s,
Dv
(6.0i — 36.0?j) m /s2; 83. (fl)
(v2 - u 2Y
(b) (19i — 94j)m , (15i - 110j)m /s.
D
27. 4 1 4 m a t -6 5 .0 °. (b)

29. 44 m, 6.9 m. 85. 54°.


31. 18°, 72°. 87. [(1.5 m )i - (2.0£ m )i]
+ [ ( - 3 .1 m )j + (l.75r2 m)j,
? (3.5 m /s2)j, parabolic.
CHAPTER 3 <D
89. Row at an angle of 24.9° upstream
1. 286 km, 11° south of west. and run 104 m along the bank in a
total time of 862 seconds.
91. 69.9° north of east.
93. ( a) 13 m;
Horizontal distance (m)
(ft) 31° below the horizontal.
3. 10.1, -39.4°.
33. 2.26 s. 95. 5.1s.
35. 22.3 m. 97. (fl) 13 m /s, 12 m/s;

37. 39 m. (b) 33 m.
99. ( a) x = (3.03* - 0.0265) m,
41. (a) 12 s;
3.03 m/s;
(b) 62 m. (b) y = (0.158 - 0.855* + 6.09*2) m,
43. 5.5 s. 12.2 m /s2.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A -1 9


CHAPTER 4 51. (a) 2i
89. (a) g sin 0,
1. 77 N. g sin0

3. (a) 6.7 X 102 N; NAi sin 6 , mg cos 6;


(b)
(ft) 1.2 X 102 N;
10
(c) 2.5 X 102 N;
mAg
mAg \m}
m B§ a 8-
{d) 0. I 6
raB raAraB
5. 1.3 X 106 N, 39%, 1.3 X 106N. (b)g g raA + mB 1 4-
raA + £ 2-
7. 2.1 X 102N.
8 o
9. m > 1.5 kg. raB + mc 15 30 45 60 75 90
53. g - Angle (degrees)
11. 89.8 N. mA + mB + me
13. 1.8 m / s 2, up.
55. (ra + M )gtan0.
15. Descend with a > 2.2 m /s2.
57. 1.52 m /s2, 18.3 N, 19.8 N.
17. -2800 m / s 2, 280 g ’s, 1.9 X 105N.
(raA + raB + rac)raB
19. (a) 7.5 s, 13 s, 7.5 s; 5 9 .--------. -------- g .
(ft) 12%, 0%, -12%; V ( m i - m l)
(c) 55%.
61. (a ) ( y - 1 ]g ;
21. (a) 3.1 m /s2;
(ft) 25 m/s;
(c) 78 s. (*)-v/2«jtol 1 - y l ;
23. 3.3 X 103N.
25. (a) 150 N; (c )jV iL
(ft) 14.5 m/s. 63. 6.3 N.
27. (a) 47.0 N; 65. 2.0 s, no change.
(ft) 17.0 N;
_ . . (mA sin 6 - raB)
(c ) 0. 67. (a) g — 7----- ------ r— ;
(raA + raBJ
29. (a) (b) (ft) raA sin 6 > raB
(raAdown the plane),
0 15 30 45 60 75 90
raA sin 0 < raB
Angle (degrees)
mg t mg (raAup the plane).
The graphs are all consistent with
31. (a) 1.5 m; , n mB sin 6b ~ raA sin dA
69. ( a ) ----------------- -------------------g; the results of the limiting cases.
(ft) 11.5 kN, no. raA + raB
33. (a) 31 N, 63 N; (ft) 6.8 kg, 26 N; CHAPTER 5
(ft) 35 N, 7 1 N. (c) 0.74. 1. 65 N, 0.
35. 6.3 X 103 N, 8.4 X 103N. 71. 9.9°. 3. 0.20.
37. (a) 19.0 N at 237.5°, 1.03 m /s2 at 5. 8.8 m /s2.
237.5°; 7. 1.0 X 102 N, 0.48.
73-(“>41^
(ft) 14.0 N at 51.0°, 0.758 m /s2 at 9. 0.51.
(ft) 1.4 X 102N.
51.0°.
75. (a) Mg/2; 11. 4.2 m.
39. | — t l 13. 1.2 X 103 N.
2m (6) Mg/2, Mg/2,3Mg/2, Mg.
15. (a) 0.67;
41. 4.0 X 102 m. 77. 8.7 X 102N,
(ft) 6.8 m/s;
43. 12°. 72° above the horizontal.
(c) 16 m/s.
45. (a) 9.9 N; 79. (a) 0.6 m /s2;
17. (a) 1.7 m /s2;
(ft) 260 N. (ft) 1.5 X 105N.
(ft) 4.3 X 102N;
47. (a) mEg - FT = mEa', 81. 1.76 X 104N. (c) 1.7 m /s2, 2.2 X 102N.
Ft - m c g = m c a; 83. 3.8 X 102N, 7.6 X 102N. 19. (a) 0.80 m;
(ft) 0.68 m /s2, 10,500 N. 85. 3.4 m/s. (ft) 1.3 s.
49. (a) 2.8 m; 87. (a) 23 N; 21. (a) A will pull B along;
(ft) 2.5 s. (ft) 3.8 N. (ft) B will eventually catch up to A;

A-20 Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems


(c) fxA < fxB: a = 69. ( a) 14 kg/m; 13. 21/* ~ 1.26 times larger.
[ ( ^ a + rnB) sin 6 — (/xA m A + fiB m B) cos 6 (fo) 570 N. 15. 3.46 X 108 m from the center of the
mg W/ b, .J Earth.
I {mA + m B) t + — {e mt - 1)J S
19. (fo) g decreases as r increases;
mAmB . \
Ft = g 7-------;------ t(^ b ~ M a)cos 6, 75. 10 m. (c) 9.42 m /s2 approximate,
[mA + m B) 9.43 m /s2 exact.
77. 0.46.
ixA > P b -Va = g (sin 0 - fxA cosd), 79. 102 N, 0.725. 21. 9.78 m /s2, 0.099° south of radially
aB = ^(sin 6 - ixB cos d), FT = 0. 81. Yes, 14 m /s. inward.
83. 28.3 m /s, 0.410 rev/s. 23. 7.52 X 103 m /s.
23. (a) 5.0 kg;
85. 3500 N, 1900 N. 25. 1.7 m /s2 upward.
(b) 6.7 kg.
87. 35°. 27. 7.20 X 103 s.
vo
25. (a) - tan 0; 89. 132 m. 29. (fl) 520 N;
2dg cos 0
(fo) fxs > tan 0. 91. ( a) 55 s; (fo) 520 N;
(fo) centripetal component of the (c) 690 N;
27. (fl) 0.22 s;
normal force. (d) 350 N;
(fo) 0.16 m.
29. 0.51. 93. (a) 6 = cos"1 8 ; (e) 0.
47rr/ 2 31. ( a) 59 N, toward the Moon;
31. (a) 82 N; (fo) 73.6°;
(b) 4.5 m /s2. (fo) 110 N, away from the Moon.
(c) no.
(sin0 + (jl cos 0) 33. ( a) They are executing centripetal
33. (M + m )g 95. 82°.
motion;
(cos 0 — fx sin 0) ’ 97. ( a) 16 m /s;
(fo) 9.6 X 1029 kg.
35. (a) 1.41 m /s2; (fo) 13 m /s.
(ib) 31.7 N. 99. (fl) 0.88 m /s2; 35
V t
37. V r g . (fo) 0.98 m /s2.
37. 5070 s, or 84.5 min.
39. 30 m. 101. (fl) 42.2 m/s;
39. 160 y.
41. 31 m /s. (fo) 35.6 m, 52.6 m.
41. 2 X 108 y.
43. 0.9 g ’s. 103. (fl)
43. Europa: 671 X 103 km;
45. 9.0 rev/min.
Ganymede: 1070 X 103 km;
47. ( a ) 1.9 X 103m; Callisto: 1880 X 103 km.
(b) 5.4 X 103N; 45. ( a) 180 AU;
(c) 3.8 X 103N. (fo) 360 AU;
49. 3.0 X 102 N. (c) 360/1.
51. 0.164. 4772
53. (a) 7960 N; f (s) 47. (fl) log T = | log r + § log
Gmj
(b) 588 N; slope = | ,
(c) 29.4 m /s. 4 TT
55. 6.2 m /s. ^-intercept = |lo g
Gmi
57. (fo) v = ( - 6 .0 m /s) sin (3.0 rad/s £)i (b)
+ (6.0 m /s) cos (3.0 rad/s t) j, 6.2 -i 1 1 1
a = ( - 1 8 m /s2) cos (3.0 rad/s t ) i 1.50a: -1 . 1
\y =
5.8
+ ( - 1 8 m /s2) sin(3.0rad/s£)j; ft "
<A
j.4
(c) v = 6.0 m /s, a = 18 m /s2. f (s)
59. 17 m /s < v < 32 m /s. (c) speed: -12% , position: -6.6% .
rn
J.U
61. (fl) flt = ( tt/ 2) m /s2, flc = 0; 8.,6 8.1 8.8 8. 9 9..0 9..1 9..2 9..3 9.
Log (r)
(fo) flt = ( tt/ 2) m /s2, CHAPTER 6________________________
flc = (^ 2/8 ) m /s2; slope = 1.50 as predicted,
1. 1610 N.
(c) flt = ( tt/ 2) m /s2, mj = 1.97 X 1027 kg.
3. 1.9 m /s2.
«c = (^ 2/2 ) m /s2. c 2 49. (a) 5.95 X 10-3 m /s2;
63. (a) 1.64 m/s; (fo) no, only by about 0.06%.
7. 0.91 g ’s.
(fo) 3.45 m /s. 51. 2.64 X 106 m .
9. 1.4 X 10-8 N at 45°.
65. m/b. 53. (fl) 4.38 X 107 m /s2;
2 3*o
mg ( mg\ 11. Gm l — + (fo) 2.8 X 109 N;
67. («) — + j e m<; [xl (xl + yl)3/2\
(c) 9.4 X 103 m /s.
m8 , ( ^ m8 \ _ b t 4 3^o 55. r inner = 2.0 X 104 s,
— +
(b) ~ — + U 0 + Je mt•
Jl (xl + ^ ) 3/2J '}■ outer = 7.1 X 104 s.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A-21


57. 5.4 X 1012 m, it is still in the solar 37. 3.0 X lO^J. 77. j e - ° 10k.
system, nearest to Pluto’s orbit.
59. 2.3 g ’s. 79. 86 kJ, 42°.

61. 7.4 X 1036 kg, 3.7 X 106 MSun. 81. 1.5 N.


65. 1.21 X 106 m. 83. 2 X 107 N /m .
67. V^jeposit = 5 X 10 m , 85. 6.7°, 10°.
Tdeposit — 200 m; 87. (a) 130 N, yes («291bs);
^deposit = 4 X 10 kg. (b) 470 N, perhaps not (« 1 1 0 lbs).
69. 8.99 days. 89. (a) 1.5 X 104 J;
71. 0.44r. * (m)
(b) 18 m /s.
73. (fl) 53 N; 39. 2800 J. 93. (a) F = 10.0*;
(ft) 3.1 X 1026 kg. 41. 670 J. (b) 10.0 N/m ;
77. 1 X 10-10 m3/k g • s2. 43. \kX2 + IaX4 + \bX5. (c) 2.00 N.
79. (a) 45. 4.0 J.
30,000- 1 47 V 3 ttR F
|y = 0.999‘)x + 0.3412
20,000-
49. 72 J.
h 10,000-
51. (fl) V 3 ;
( b) l
0 10,000 20,000 30,000 Stretch (m)
r 3 (AU3) 53. - 4 .5 X 105 J.

(ft) 39.44 AU. 55. 3.0 X 102 N.


CHAPTER 8
CHAPTER 7 1. 0.924 m.
1. 7.7 X 103 J. 3. 54 cm.
3. 1.47 X 104J. 5. (fl) 42.0 J;
5. 6000 J. 59. 8.3 X 104 N /m . ( b ) 11 J;
7. 4.5 X 105J. 61. 1400 J. (c) same as part (a), unrelated to
9. 590 J. part ( b ).
63. ( a ) 640 J;
11. (a) 1700 N; 7. (a) Yes, the expression for the work
(ft) -4 7 0 J;
(ft) -6 6 0 0 J; depends only on the endpoints;
(c) 0;
(c) 6600 J; ( b ) U(x) =
(d) 4.3 m /s. \ k x 2 — \ a x 4 — \ b x 5 + C.
(<0 0.
13. (a) 1.1 X 107 J; 65. 27 m /s.
9. P W = — L + _ ^ .
(ft) 5.0 X 107 J.
67. ( a ) \ m v 2^1 +
V' 2x2 8 m2
15. -4 9 0 J, 0,490 J. 11. 4 9 m /s.
21. 1.5i - 3.0j. (ft) \m vi, 13. 6.5 m /s.
23. ( a) 7.1; 15. (fl) 93 N /m ;
(c) \ m v 2^1 + 2 ~ j relative to
(ft) -250; (b) 22 m /s2.
(c) 2.0 X 101. Earth, \ 1n v 2 relative to train; 19. (fl) 7.47 m/s;
25. —1.4i + 2.0j. (1d) the ball moves different (b) 3.01 m.
27. 52.5°, 48.0°, 115°. distances during the throwing 21. No, D = 2d.
29. 113.4° or 301.4°. process in the two frames of
31. (fl) 130°; reference. 23. (a) ^Jvl + - ^ x l ;
(ft) negative sign says that the angle 69. ( a ) 2.04 X 105 J;
is obtuse. (b) y j x l + Y V0-
(ft) 21.0 m/s;
35. 0.11 J.
(c) 2.37 m. 25. (fl) 2.29 m /s;
71. 1710 J. (ft) 1.98 m/s;
73. (fl) 32.2 J; (c) 1.98 m/s;
(b) 554 J; (d) 0.870 N, 0.800 N, 0.800 N;
(c) -333 J; (e) 2.59 m /s, 2.31 m /s, 2.31 m /s.
(d) 0; 12 Mg
27. k = — A .
(e) 253 J. h
Stretch distance 75. 12.3 J. 29. 3.9 X 107J.

A -22 Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems


31. (a) 25 m /s; CHAPTER 9
(ft) 370 m. {b)ru=0 - © 6;
1. 5.9 X 107 N.
33. 12 m /s. (c) 3. (9.6ti - 8.9k) N.
35. 0.020.
5. 4.35 k g -m /s (j - i).
37. 0.40.
7. 1.40 X 102 kg.
39. (a) 25%;
(ft) 6.3 m /s, 5.4 m/s; 9. 2.0 X 104 kg.
(c) primarily into heat energy. 11. 4.9 X 103 m /s.
41. For a mass of 75 kg, the energy 13. -0 .9 6 6 m /s.
change is 740 J. 15. 1:2.
(d) E < 0: bound oscillatory
43. (a) 0.13 m; motion between two turning 17. l v 0i - ^oj.
(ft) 0.77; points, E > 0: unbounded; 19. (4.0i + 3.3j - 3.3k) m /s.
(c) 0.5 m /s.
(e) rF>o < 21. (a) (1161 + 58-0j) m/s;
GMEm s
45. (a) (ft) 5.02 X 105 J.
2rs ’

(*>)
GMEm s rF<0 > (^)6’ 23. (a) 2.0 k g -m /s, forward;
(ft) 5.8 X 102 N, forward.
(c) - I rF=0 = 25. 2.1 k g -m /s, to the left.
W --
47. 4-
27. 0.11 N.
49. ( a ) 6 .2 X 1 0 5 m /s ;
29. 1.5 k g-m /s.
(ft) 4 .2 X 1 0 4 m / s ,
79. 2.52 X io 4 w .
^esc at Earth orbit — ^ 2 ' yEarth orbit ■ \ 2mv
81. (a) 42 m/s; 3L (a) '
53. (a) 1 .0 7 X 1 0 4 m /s ;
(ft) 2.6 X 105 W.
(ft) 1 .1 6 X 1 0 4 m /s ;
83. (a) 28.2 m/s;
( c ) 1 .1 2 X 1 0 4 m / s .
(ft) 116 m. 33. (a) 0.98 N + (1.4 N /s)f;
GMF
55. (a) - 85. (a) V2g£; (ft) 13.3 N;
2r3 ’
(ft) 1.09 X 104 m /s. (ft) V L 2^ . (c) [(0.62 N/m 2) X
GMm 89. (a) 8.9 X 105 J; V 2 5 m - (0.070 m/s)?]
57.
12rE (ft) 5.0 X 101 W, 6.6 X 10-2 hp; + (1.4 N /s)?, 13.2 N.
59. 1.12 X 104 m /s. (c) 330 W, 0.44 hp.
35. 1.60 m /s (west), 3.20 m /s (east).
63. 510 N. 91. (a) 29°;
37. (a) 3.7 m/s;
65. 2.9 X 104W or 38 hp. (ft) 480 N;
(ft) 0.67 kg.
67. 4.2 X 103 N, opposing the velocity. (c) 690 N.
69. 510 W. 39. (a) 1.00;
93. 5800 W or 7.8 hp.
71. 2 X 106W. (ft) 0.890;
95. (a) 2.8 m;
73. (a) - 2 .0 X 102 W; (c) 0.286;
(ft) 1.5 m;
(ft) 3800 W; (d) 0.0192.
(c) 1.5 m.
(c) —120 W; 41. (a) 0.37 m;
97. 1.7 X 105 m3.
(d) 1200 W.
99. (a) 5220 m/s; (ft) —1.6 m /s, 6.4 m/s;
75. The mass oscillates between + x 0
(ft) 3190 m /s. (c) yes.
and —jc0, with a maximum speed
at x = 0. 101. (a) 1500 m;
U(x) (ft) 170 m /s. 43- w ^ ;
103. 60 m. (ft) -0 .9 6 .

105. (a) 79 m/s; 45. 3.0 X 103 J, 4.5 X 103 J.


(ft) 2.4 X 107 W. 47. 0.11 k g -m /s, upward.
107. (a) 2.2 X 105 J; FhJ
49. (ft) e = J y .
(ft) 22 m/s;
(c) - 1 .4 m. 51. (a) 890 m/s;
(ft) 0.999 o f initial kinetic energy
m * = • lost.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A -23


53. (a) 7.1 X 1(T2 m/s; 113. 0.2 km /s, in the original direction 43. 17.5 m /s.
(fo) - 5 .4 m /s, 4.1 m/s; of m A . 45. (fl) 14Mf2;
(c) 0, 0.13 m /s, reasonable; (fo) il M ic r,
(rf) 0.17 m /s, 0, not reasonable; CHAPTER 10_____________________ (c) perpendicular to the rod and
(e) in this case, - 4 .0 m /s, 3.1 m /s, the axis.
1. (a) ^ rad, 0.785 rad;
reasonable. 47. (a) 1.90 X 103 kg •m2;
55. 1.14 X 10_22k g-m /s, 147° from the (fo) 7.5 X 103 m -N .
(fo) y rad, 1.05 rad;
electron’s momentum, 123° from 49. (fl) R 0 ;
the neutrino’s momentum. 77
(c) — rad, 1.57 rad; (6) + w -,
57. (a) 30°;
(c) V i R o ;
(d) 277 rad, 6.283 rad;
(fo) v'A = v'B = ^ = ; (d) V K ^ i +
(e) ^ J r rad, 7.77 rad. (e) V |r 0 ;
(c)l 36
(0
59. 39.9 u. 3. 5.3 X 103 m.
(g)
63. 6.5 X 10-11 m. 5. (a) 260 rad/s;
W #H -
65. (1.2 m )i - (1.2 m)j. (fo) 46 m /s, 1.2 X 104 m /s2.
(mB - m A)
■f 2 r ~ 7. (a) 1.05 X 10”1 rad/s; 51* « = t--------------------- r ^ r g,
67, Oi + — j. (mA + mB + //-R )
77
(fo) 1.75 X 10“3 rad/s;
69. Oi + Oj + ih k . compared to
(c) 1.45 X 10“4 rad/s;
~ AR ■j _ (mB ~ mA)
71. (rf) 0.
01 + Ul~° (rnA + mB) g '
9. (fl) 464 m/s;
73. (a) 4.66 X 106 m from the center of 53. (a) 9.70 rad/s2;
(fo) 185 m/s;
the Earth. (fo) 11.6 m /s2;
(c) 328 m /s.
75. (a) 5.7 m; (c) 585 m /s2;
11. 36,000 rev/min.
(fo) 4.2 m; (rf) 4.27 X 103 N;
(c) 4.3 m.
13. (a) 1.5 X 10-4 rad/s2;
(e) 1.14°.
77. 0.41 m toward the initial position of (fo) 1.6 X 10_2m /s2,
57. (fl) 5.3 Mrl; (fo) -15% .
the 85-kg person. 6.2 X 10_4m /s2.
59. (fl) 3.9 cm from center along line
m 15. (a) - i , k;
79. v ----------— , upward, balloon also connecting the small weight and
m +M (fo) 56.2 rad/s, 38.5° from —x axis the center;
stops. towards +z axis; (fo) 0.42 kg -m2.
81. 0.93 hp. (c) 1540 rad/s2, —j. 61. ( b ) ^ M f , ^ M w 2.
83. - 7 6 m /s. 17. 28,000 rev. 63. 22,200 J.
85. Good possibility of a “scratch” shot. 19. (a) -0 .4 7 rad/s2; 65. 14,200 J.
87. 11 bounces. (fo) 190 s. 67. 1.4 m /s.
89. 1.4 m. 21. (a) 0.69 rad/s2; 69. 8.22 m /s.
91. 50%. (fo) 9.9 s. 71. 7.0 X 101 J.
M 0v o
93. (a) v 23. (a) w = 15.Or3 - 18.512; 73. (a) 8.37 m /s, 32.9 rad/sec.
dM ’
(fo) 0 = 4 5 .0 14 - 18.5r3; (b)h
Mo + ~dT t
(c) &>(2.0s) = - 4 rad/s, (c) the translational speed and
(fo) 8.2 m /s, yes.
0(2.0 s) = —5 rad. the energy relationship are
95. 112 km /h or 70 m i/h. independent o f both mass and
25. 1 .4 m -N , clockwise.
97. 21 m. radius, but the rotational speed
27. mg{l 2 — ■f'l), clockwise.
99. (a) 1.9 m /s; depends on the radius.
29. 270 N, 1700 N.
(fo) - 0 .3 m /s, 1.5 m/s; 75. - /■„)•
(c) 0.6 cm, 12 cm. 31. 1.81 kg -m2. 77. (fl) 4.06 m/s;
101. m < \ M or m < 2.33 kg. 33. (fl) 9.0 X 10_2m-N; (fo) 8.99 J;
103. (a) 8 .6 m ; (fo) 12 s. (c) 0.158.
(fo) 40 m. 35. 5 6 m -N . 79. (fl) 4.1 X 105 J;
105. 29.6 km /s. 37. (a) 0.94 kg -m2; (fo) 18%;
107. 0.38 m, 1.5 m. (fo) 2.4 X 10_2m -N . (c) 1.3 m /s2;
109. (a) 1.3 X 105 N; 39. (a) 78 rad/s2; (rf) 6%.
(fo) - 8 3 m /s2. (fo) 670 N. 81. (a) 1.6 m/s;
111. 12 kg. 41. 2.2 X 104 m -N . (fo) 0.48 m.

A -24 Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems


i i 11. ( a) 0.55 rad/s; 73. (fl) 820k g-m 2/s 2;
83- 2 ’ 2- (ft) 420 J, 240 J. (ft) 8 2 0 m-N;
85. (a) 0.84 m/s; (c) 930 W.
13. 0.48 rad/s, 0.80 rad/s.
(ft) 96%. 75. atan = —/ta s in 0 i + R a cos 0j;
15. \ a .
87. 2.0 m •N, from the arm swinging the (fl) m R 2ak;
sling. 17. (fl) 3.7 X 1016 J;
(ft) m R 2ak.
(ft) 1.9 X 1020 kg-m 2/s.
89. (a) ^ f ; 77. 0.965.
(Op Nr 19. -0 .3 2 rad/s.
79. ( a) There is zero net torque exerted
(b) 4.0; 23. 45°. about any axis through the
(c) 1.5. 27. (25i ± 14j + 19k) m -kN. skater’s center of mass;
91. ( a ) 1.7 X 108 J; 29. ( a) —7.0i - l l j + 0.5k; (b) /single axel = 2.5 rad/s,
(ft) 2.2 X 103rad/s; /triple axel = 6.5 rad/s.
(ft) 170°.
(c) 25 min. 81. (fl) 17,000 rev/s;
37. ( —551 - 45j + 49k) kg-m 2/s.
M g \ j 2 R h - h2 (ft) 4300 rev/s.
93. 39. (fl) g M + lm ) f( o 2',
R -h
A0f 3
(ft) (|M + y m )£2w. 83.
(a)"=(12^ ) * ;
95. (6)
41. (a) [(M a +
97. 5.0 X 102 m -N .
MBg
99. (fl) 1.6 m;
(ft) 1.1 m. M a + M b + —^
-Ko
101. (fl) ^ g; (d + rA cos <f)mA rA a)2 sin (f>
45. Fa =
(ft) x should be as small as possible, 2d
y should be as large as possible, {d — rAcos cf>)mA rA (o2 sin<f)
^B = *(m)
and the rider should move 2d
upward and toward the rear of m Lv L CHAPTER 12
the bicycle; 47.
g{m + M ) (rn + |M ) 1. 528 N, (1.20 X 102)° clockwise from
(c) 3.6 m /s2.
49. Aw/wq = - 8 .4 X 10“13. Fa -
/3 g i 3. 6.73 kg.
103. J - § - . ra
V 4 51. u™ = -----------' 5. (a) Fa = 1.5 X 103 N down,
M + ra
105. r = Fb = 2.0 X 103 N up;
12ra
[(0.300 m) cos0 + 0.200 m](500 N) &) (about cm) = . , (ft) Fa = 1-8 X 103 N down,
v ' V4M + 7ra
Fb = 2.6 X 103 N up.
53. 8.3 X 10-4 kg-m 2.
7. ( a) 230 N;
55. 8.0 rad/s.
(ft) 2100 N.
57. 14 rev/m in, CCW when viewed 9. - 2 .9 X 103 N, 1.5 X 104 N.
from above. 11. 3400 N, 2900 N.
59. ( a) 9.80 m /s2, along a radial line; 13. 0.28 m.
30 45 60
(ft) 9.78 m /s2, 0.0988° south from a 15. 6300 N, 6100 N.
Angle (degrees)
radial line; 17. 1600 N.
CHAPTER 11 (c) 9.77 m /s2, along a radial line. 19. 1400 N, 2100 N.
1. 3.98kg-m 2/s. 61. D ue north or due south. 21. (fl) 410 N;
3. (a) L is conserved: If I increases, co (ft) 410 N, 328 N.
63. (mra)2 — Ffr)i
must decrease; 23. 120 N.
+ (/spoke - 2mo)v)j
(ft) increased by a factor of 1.3. 25. 550 N.
5. 0.38 rev/s. + (Fn - mg) k.
7. (a) 7.1 X 1033 kg*m2/s; 65. (fl) ( —24i + 28j - 1 4 k )k g -m 2/s;
(ft) 2.7 X 1040kg-m 2/s. (ft) (16j - 8.0k) m -N .
67. (ft) 0.750.
9* («) Ww5
69. 1>[—sin(firf)i + COS(<W*)j],

( ) “ 2i r “ w;
, v Av
(:
(c) ww — ; 71. (fl) The wheel will turn to the right; (ft) ^ah = 51 N, Fa y = —9 N;
(rf)0. (ft) AL / L q = 0.19. (c) 2.4 m.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A -25


29. Ftop = 55.2 N right, 63.7 N up, 63. 29°. CHAPTER 13
^bottom = 55.2 N left, 63.7 N up. 65. 3.8. 1. 3 X 1011 kg.
31. 5.2 m /s 2. 67. 5.0 X 105 N , 3.2 m. 3. 6.7 X 102 kg.
33. 2.5 m at the top. 69. (a) 650 N; 5. 0.8547.
35. (a) 1.8 X 105 N /m 2; (b) Fa = 0 ,F b = 1300 N; 7. (a) 5510 k g /m 3;
(b) 3.5 X 10“6. (c) Fa = 160 N , F b = 1140 N; (b) 5520 k g /m 3, 0.3%.
37. (a) 1.4 X 106 N /m 2; (d) Fa = 810 N, FB = 490 N. 9. (a) 8.1 X 107 N /m 2;
(b) 6.9 X IO-6; 71. H e can walk only 0.95 m to the right (b) 2 X 105 N /m 2.
(c) 6.6 X 10_5m. of the right support, and 0.83 m to 11. 13 m.
39. 9.6 X 106 N /m 2. the left of the left support. 13. 6990 kg.
41. (a) 1.3 X 102 m -N , clockwise; 73. Fieft = 1 2 0 N ,F right = 2 1 0 N . 15. (a) 2.8 X 107 N , 1.2 X 105 N /m 2;
(b) the wall; 75. F /A = (b) 1.2 X 105 N /m 2.
(c) all three are present. 3.8 X 105 N /m 2 < tissue strength. 17. 683 k g /m 3.
43. (a) 393 N; 77. Fa = 1.7 X 104 N, 19. 3.35 X 104 N /m 2.
(b) thicker. FB = 7.7 X 103 N. 21. (a) 1.32 X 105 Pa;
45. (a) 3.7 X IO-5 m2; 79. 2.5 m. (b) 9.7 X 104 Pa.
(b) 2.7 X 10“3 m. 81. (a) 6500 m; 23. (c) 0.38ft, no.
47. 1.3 cm. (b) 6400 m. 27. 2990 k g /m 3.
49. (a) Fx = 150 kN; 29. 920 kg.
83. 570 N.
Fa = 170 kN, 23° above AC; 31. Iron or steel.
85. 45°.
(ft)F DE = FDB = FBC = 7 6 k N , 33. 1.1 X 10“2 m3.
87. (a) 2.4 w;
tension; 35. 10.5%.
FCE = 38 kN , compression; (b) 2.6 w, 32° above the horizontal.
37. (b) A bove.
FDC = FAB = 76 kN , compression; 89. (a) (4.5 X 10“6)%;
39. 3600 balloons.
*CA = 114 kN, compression. 0b) 9.0 X 10-18 m.
43. 2.8 m /s.
51. (a) 5.5 X 10-2 m2; 91. 150 N, 0.83 m.
45. 1.0 X 101 m /s.
(b) 8.6 X 10-2 m2. >o
93. (a) m g\ 1 - 77 c o t 0 ]; 47. 1.8 X 105 N /m 2.
53. Fab = Fbd = Fde = 7.5 X 104 N,
compression; 49. 1.2 X 105 N.
FBC = FCD = 7.5 X 104N, tension; (b) — - cot 6. 51. 9.7 X 104 Pa.
ro
^ ce = Fac = 3.7 X 104N , tension. 5 7 .1
95. ( b ) 46°, 51°, 11%.
3V2
55. F a b — F'JG
ja — F, compression; 97. (a )
gAl
59. (b) h = Vho ~ t
Fac ~ Fm - FCE - FHE - \ F , 3..0 x 10 8- 2 (Ai ~ Ai) J
tension; 2..5 x 10 8- (c) 92 s.
Fbc = ^ gh = F, tension; .0 x 10 8-
63. 7.9 X 10-2 P a-s.
V2 .5 X 108-
^BE = Fge = — F, tension; 65. 6.9 X 103 Pa.
I 1..0 X 108-
67. 0.10 m .
FBd = Fqd = 2 F, compression; 0..5 X 107-
0- 69. (a) Laminar;
^ d e = 0.
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 (b) turbulent.
57. 0.249 kg, 0.194 kg, 0.0554 kg. Strain
71. 1.0 m .
h (b)
59. (a) Mg- 73. 0.012 N.
2R - h ’
75. 1.5 mm.
V h ( 2 R - h)
y = (2.02 X IO11)* - (6.52 f< 105) 79. (a) 0.75 m;
(b) 0.65 m;
61.
(c) 1.1 m.
81. 0.047 atm.
83. 0.24 N.
85. 1.0 m .
() l. 0 3.0 5..0 7..0 87. 5.3 km.
XII0“4 . ^ XI'0“4 , „ XI'0-4 „ XII0-4 „
(b) m g = 65 N , F right = 550 N, x io - XKT4 x io - X10 -4 89. (a) 88 P a/s;
Fleft = 490 N; Strain (b) 5.0 X 101 s.
(c) 11 m -N . Elastic M odulus = 2.02 X 1011 N /m 2. 91. 5 X 1018 kg.

A -2 6 Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems


93. (a) 8.5 m/s; 10.2 m/s. Air
93. (a) k = —-----, y-intercept = 0;
(b) 0.24 L/s; slope
^high energy = ^5^-low energy •
(c) 0.85 m/s. (fl) 430 N/m; (b) slope = 0.13 s2/kg,
i (ft) 3.7 kg. y-intercept = 0.14 s2
95. rf
vo + 2gy 309.8 m/s.
97. 170 m/s. (fl) 0.410 s, 2.44 Hz;
99. 1.2 X 104N. (b) 0.148 m;
101. 4.9 s. (c) 34.6 m /s2;
(rf) x = (0.148 m) sin(4.877r£);
CHAPTER 14
(e) 2.00 J;
1. 0.72 m. ( / ) 1.68 J. Mass (kg)
3. 1.5 Hz. 2.2 s.
5. 350 N/m. (a) -5.4°; 47r
(c) k = ------= 310 N/m,
7. 0.13 m/s, 0.12 m /s2, 1.2%. slope
(b) 8.4°;
9. (fl) 0.16 N/m; 47r2m0
(c) -13°. y-intercept =
(b) 2.8 Hz.
V 3 k /M V 2 g f(l - COS 0) . ra0 = 1.1 kg;
' 2tt ' 0.41 g. (rf) portion of spring’s mass that is
13. (fl) 2.5 m, 3.5 m; effectively oscillating.
(b) 0.25 Hz, 0.50 Hz; (fl) 0 = 0ocos(w£ + <f>), co = tJ ^ Y ’
(c) 4.0 s, 2.0 s; CHAPTER 15______________________
2.9 s.
(rf) xA = (2.5 m) sin(§7rt), 1.08s. 1. 2.7 m/s.
xB = (3.5 m) cos(7rr).
Decreased by a factor of 6. 3. (a) 1400 m/s;
15. (fl) y(t) =
(a) (-1.21 X 10_3)%; 0b) 4100 m/s;
(0.280 m) sin[(34.3 rad/s)*];
(b) 32.3 periods. (c) 5100 m/s.
(P) ^longest =
4.59 X 10-2 s + «(0.183s), (a) 0°; 5. 0.62 m.
n = 0,1,2, •••; (ft) 0, +A; 7. 4.3 N.
^shortest = (c) \ tt or 90°. 9. (fl) 78 m/s;
1.38 X 10-1 s + w(0.183s),
65. 3.1 m/s.
n = 0,1, 2, •••. ob) 8300 N.
67. 23.7.
17. (a) 1.6 s, §Hz; 11. (fl)
69. (a) 170 s;
(b) 3.3 m, -7.5 m/s;
(b) 1.3 X 10“5W; ---- Earlier
(c) -1 3 m/s, 29 m /s2. 2 cm- - - - Later

A/
(c) 1.0 X 10_3Hz on either side.
19. 0.75 s. 1cm-
21. 3.1s, 6.3 s, 9.4 s.
71. 0.11 m. 0-
23. 88.8 N/m, 17.8 m. 73. (a) 1.22 /; -1 cm-
(ft) 0.71/. -2 cm-
27. (a) 0.650 m;
75. (a) 0.41 s;
1m 2m 3m
(b) 1.18 Hz; down-4^-UP_ -«-down-*-
(c) 13.3 J; (b) 9 mm.
(rf) 11.2 J, 2.1 J. 77. 0.9922 m, 1.6 mm, 0.164 m. (b) —4 cm/s.
29. V3A 13. 18 m.
79. x = ± ± 0.866A
15. more energy M iess energy
81. Pwater g(areabottom side)-
19. (fl) 0.38 W;
83. (fl) 130 N/m;
(ft) 0.25 cm.
(b) 0.096 m.
21. (ft) 420 W.
V3x0
85. (fl) jc = ± ± 0.866xfi „ ,X t
-2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 23. D -= A sin ^ + <f>
x (cm) (b) x = ± \ x Q. A+ r
(fl) 0.011 J; 84.5 min. 25. (fl) 41 m/s;
(b) 0.008 J; 1.25 Hz. 0ft) 6.4 X 104 m /s2;
(c) 0.5 m/s. -3000 N/m. (c) 35 m/s, 3.2 X 104m /s2.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A-27


27. (b) D = 81. (a) G: 784 Hz, 1180 Hz, B: 988 Hz,
(0.45 m) cos[2.6(x - 2.00 + 1-2]; 1480 Hz;
(d) D = (b) 1.59;
(0.45 m) cos[2.6(x + 2.00 + 1-2]. (c) 1.26;
(d) 0.630.
0.5
83. 6.3 m from the end where the first
0.25 \ 0 (A \
pulse originated.
0 \ \ ! /\\N - 1= 1s,
o\o ? /i /l.5r' 2 . i
right 61. n = 4,« = 8, and « = 12. Ai
-0.25 - t = Is, 2/1- 1’
,V v ' ]
left 63. x = ± (« + |) y m, « = 0,1, 2, •••.
\3
-0.5 87. D(x, t) =
x(m)
65. 5.2 km/s. (3.5 cm) cos(0.10-7rx - 1.57rr), with
29. D = (0.020 cm) X 67. (3.0 X IO1)0. x in cm and t in s.
69. 44°. 89. 12 min.
sin[(9.54 m-1)* - (3290rad/s)t + § tt\
93. speed = 0.50 m/s; direction
31. Yes, it is a solution. 71. (a) 0.042 m;
of motion = +x, period = 2ir s,
35. Yes, it is a solution. (b) 0.55 radians. wavelength = tt m.
73. The speed is greater in the less
37. (a) 0.84 m;
dense rod, by a factor of
(b) 0.26 N; VZ5 = 1.6.
(c) 0.59 m. 75. (a) 0.05 m;
0b) 2.25.
77. 0.69 m.
79. (a) ? = 0 s;
(b) slope = —r,
x (m)
y-mtercept = —z DL.
\ CHAPTER 16
41. (a)
j Q5 \
yo, 1. 340 m.
__n V 3. (a) 1.7 cm to 17 m;
-10 -5 0 5 (b) 2.3 X 10-5 m.
*(m)
0b) 5. (a) 0.17 m;
4.0 m3 (b) 11 m;
( } [ x - 2At)2 + 2.0 m2 (c) 0.5%.
(c) £ = 1.0 s, moving right; 7. 41 m.
(c) all kinetic energy. 9. (a) 8%;
43. 662 Hz. 15 A (b) 4%.
45. Tn = -
(1.5 s)
1,2,3,
/ \ 11. (a) 4.4 X 10-5 Pa;
0b) 4.4 X 10“3Pa.
0>
f n = n{0.67Hz), n = 1,2,3, 13. (a) 5.3 m;
------- 0-
47. / 0.50/ / 1.00 = V 2. 10 -5 0 5 (b) 675 Hz;
49. 80 Hz. *(m) (c) 3600 m/s;
53. 11. 4.0 m3 (d) 1.0 X 10-13 m.
55. (a) D2 = 4.2sin(0.84* + Alt + 2.1); (x + 2.402 + 2.0 m2’ 15. 63 dB.
(b) 8.4sin(0.84x + 2.1)cos(470- 17. (a) 109;
t = 1.0 s, moving left.
57. 315 Hz. Cb) IO12.
19. 2.9 X 10“9J.
59. (a)
0.3 A 21. 124 dB.
0.2 Dl.
1 o-1
D1 +P2 / V 23. (a) 9.4 X 10-6 W;
(b) 8.0 X 106people.
Q 0 j
-0.1 25. (a) 122dB,115dB;
-0.2
-0.3 ~D( 0 (b) no.
f (s) *(m) 27. 7 dB.

A-28 Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems


29. (a) The higher frequency wave, 2.6; 85. 51 dB. 17. (a) 5.0 X 10_5/C °;
(b) 6.8. 87. 1.07. (ib ) copper.
31. (fl) 3.2 X 10“5 m; 89. ( a) 280 m /s, 57 N; 21. (fl) 2.7 cm;
(b) 3.0 X 101 Pa. (ib) 0.19 m; (b) 0.3 cm.
33. 1.24 m. (c) 880 Hz, 1320 Hz. 23. 55 min.
35. (a) 69.2 H z, 207 H z, 346 H z, 484 Hz;
91. 3 Hz. 25. 3.0 X 107 N /m 2.
(ib) 138 H z, 277 H z, 415 H z, 553 Hz.
93. 141 H z, 422 H z, 703 H z, 984 Hz. 27. (fl) 27°C;
37. 8.6 mm to 8.6 m.
95. 22 m /s. (b) 5500 N.
39. (a) 0.18 m;
97. ( a) N o beats; 29. —459.67°F.
(b) 1.1 m;
(b) 20 Hz;
(c) 440 H z, 0.78 m. 31. 1.35 m3.
(c) no beats.
41. -3.0% . 33. 1.25 k g /m 3.
99. 55.2 kHz.
43. (a) 1.31 m; 35. 181°C.
Cb ) 3 ,4 , 5, 6. 101. 11.5 m.
37. (a) 22.8 m 3;
45. 3.65 cm, 7.09 cm, 10.3 cm, 13.4 cm, 103. 2.3 Hz.
(b) 1.88 atm.
16.3 cm, 19.0 cm. 105. 17 k m /h .
39. 1660 atm.
47. 4.3 m, open. 107. ( a) 3400 Hz;
41. 313°C.
49. 21.4 H z, 42.8 Hz. (b) 1.50 m;
51. 3430 H z, 10,300 H z, 17,200 Hz, 43. 3.49 atm.
(c) 0.10 m.
relatively sensitive frequencies. 45. —130°C.
109. (fl)
53. ± 0 .5 0 Hz. 1l.Z,
n 47. 7.0 min.
55. 346 Hz. 1l.U
n 49. Ideal = 0.588 m 3,
57. 10 b eats/s. fi 8 actual = 0.598 m3 (nonideal
n ft
^ 0.6
59. (a) 221.5 H z or 218.5 Hz; behavior).
fi A
U.4 /
( b) 1.4% increase, 1.3% decrease. 51. 2.69 X 1025 m o lecu les/m 3.
u.z0
fi
61. (a) 1470 Hz; 0.0 - / 53. 4 X 10“17 Pa.
(b) 1230 Hz. 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
x(m) 55. 300 m olecu les/cm 3.
63. (fl) 2430 H z, 2420 Hz, difference o f
57. 19 m olecules/breath.
10 Hz; (b)
(b) 4310 H z, 3370 H z, difference o f 59. (fl) 71.2 torr;
940 Hz; (b) 180°C.
(c) 34,300 H z, 4450 H z, difference 61. 223 K.
o f 29,900 Hz;
63. ( a) Low;
(d) /source moving ~ /observer moving (b) 0.025%.
^object \
=f 1 + 65. 20%.
^sound J x (m)
67. 9.9 L, not advisable.
65. (a) 1420 H z, 1170 Hz;
0b) 1520 H z, 1080 Hz; 69. (a) 1100 kg;
CHAPTER 1 7
(c) 1330 H z, 1240 Hz. (ib) 100 kg.
1. N Au = 0.548ATAg.
67. 3 Hz. 71. (fl) Lower;
3. ( a) 20°C;
69. ( a) E very 1.3 s; (b) 0.36%.
(1b) 3500°F.
(b) every 15 s. 73. 1.1 X 1044 m olecules.
5. 102.9°F.
71. 8.9 cm /s. 75. 3.34 nm.
73. (a) 93; 7. 0.08 m.
77. 13 h.
0b) 0.62°. 9. 1.6 X 10_6 m for Super Invar™,
79. (fl) 0.66 X 103 k g /m 3;
77. 19 km. 9.6 X 10-5 m for steel, steel is
60 X as much. (b) -3 % .
79. (fl) 57 H z, 69 H z, 86 H z, 110 Hz,
170 Hz. 11. 981 k g /m 3. 81. ± 0.11 C°.
81. 90 dB. 13. —69°C. 83. 3.6 m.
83. 1 1 W. 15. 3.9 cm3. 85. 3% increase.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A -2 9


87. 41. (a) 3.1 X 106 Pa; 15. 2.3 X 103 J/kg-C °.
3 103- (b) 3.2 X 106 Pa. 17. 54 C°.
1 1 1
i 102.5 - =(4.92 X: lO-2)* + 100
% 102- 43. (b) a = 0.365 N -m 4/m o l2, 19. 0.31 kg.
101.5- b = 4.28 X 10-5 m3/m ol. 21. (a) 5.1 X 105 J;
1
ufl 101 -
3 100.5 - 45. (a) 0.10 Pa; Cb) 1.5 X 105 J.
£ 100 h
10 20 30 40 50 (b) 3 X 107 Pa. 23. 4700 kcal.
Temperature (°C) 25. 360 m /s.
47. 2.1 X 10 7 m, stationary targets,
Slope of the line: 4.92 X 10 2 ml/°C, effective radius of rH2 + /air • 27. 1.5
relative /3: 492 X 10“6/°C , 49. (b) 4.7 X 107 s-1.
P for the liquid: 501 X 10“6/°C , A
which liquid: glycerin. 51. i .
53. 3.5 h, convection is much more c
CHAPTER 18_________________________ important than diffusion.
0.5 ■
1. (a) 5.65 X 10“21 J; 55. (b) 4 X 10_11m ol/s;
0b) 3.7 X 103J. (c) 0.6 s.
3. 1.29. 57. 260 m /s, 3.7 X 10“22atm. 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0
5. 3.5 X 10- 9m /s. V(L)
59. (a) 290 m/s;
7. (a) 4.5; 29. (a) 0;
(b) 9.5 m /s.
0b) 5.2. (b) -3 6 5 kJ.
61. 50 cm.
9. V 5 . 31. (a) 480 J;
63. Kinetic energy = 6.07 X 10-21 J,
13. ( b ) 5.6%. (b) 0;
potential energy = 5.21 X 10- 25J,
15. 1.004. (c) 480 J into gas.
yes, potential energy can be
17. (a) 493 m/s; 33. (a) 4350 J;
neglected.
(b) 28 round trips/s. (b) 4350 J;
19. Double the temperature. 65. 0.07%.
(c) 0.
21. (a) 710 m/s; 67. 1.5 X 105 K.
35. - 4 .0 X 102 K.
(b) 240 K; 69. (a) 2800 Pa;
37. 236 J.
(c) 650 m /s, 240 K, yes. (b) 650 Pa.
39. (a) 3.0 X 101J;
23. Vapor. 71. 2 X 1013 m.
(b) 68 J;
25. (a) Vapor;
73. 0.36 kg.
(b) solid. (c) - 8 4 J;
75. ( b ) 4.6 X 109 Hz,
27. 3600 Pa. (d) -1 1 4 J;
2.3 X 105 times larger.
29. 355 torr or 4.73 X 104 Pa or (e) - 1 5 J.
77. 0.21.
0.466 atm. {Vl - b) ( 1 1
41. i? T lii7--------- r + a — - — |.
31. 92° C. f a - b) V^2 V
CHAPTER 19_______________________
33. 1.99 X 105 Pa or 1.97 atm. 43. 43 C°.
35. 70 g. 1. 10.7°C.
45. 83.7 g /m ol, krypton.
37. 16.6°C. 3. (a) 1.0 X 107 J;
47. 48 C°.
39. (a) Slope = -5 .0 0 X 103K, (b) 2.9 kWh; 49. (a) 6230 J;
y intercept = 24.9. (c) $0.29 per day, no. (b) 2490 J;
Let P0 = 1 Pa in this graph:
14 5. 4.2 X 105J,1.0 X 102 kcal. (c) 8720 J.
13
~ \ y - -5000jc■+- 24.9 h 7. 6.0 X 106J. 51. 0.457 atm, -3 9 °C .
Q? 12
^ 11 9. (a) 3.3 X 105 J; 53. (a) 404 K, 195 K;
M 10
9 (b) 56 min. (b) -1 .5 9 X 104 J;
11. 6.9 min. (c) 0;
0.0022 0.0024 0.0026 0.0028 0.0030 0.0032
l/r(K-!) 13. 39.9°C. (d) -1 .5 9 X 104J.

A -30 Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems


55. (a) 89. (a) 1.9 X 105 J;
49‘ «C y'
(ft) 4.4 X 105 J;
53. 2.1 X 105J.
(c ) P (atm)
55.
(6) a -
1.0 57. (fl) 2.47 X 10“23 J/K;
(ft) - 9 .2 X 10-22 J/K;
V (m3) (c) these are many orders of
V(m3) 2.2 4.1
magnitude smaller, due to the
ob) 209 K;
91. 2200 J. relatively small number of
(c) G i—^2 = o>
microstates for the coins.
A£'i_^2 = -2 4 8 0 J, CHAPTER 20
Wi_>2 = 2480 J, 59. (a) 1.79 X 106 kWh;
1. 0.25. (ft) 9.6 X 104 kW.
02 ^ 3 = -3 7 4 0 J,
A£ 2^ 3 = -2 2 4 0 J, 3. 0.16. 61. 12 MW.
W2^ 3 = -1 4 9 0 J, 5. 0.21.
63. (a) 0.41 mol;
<23^ i = 4720 J, 7. ( b ) 0.55.
(ft) 396 K;
A E ^ = 4720 J, 9. 0.74.
(c) 810 J;
W3^ i = 0; 13. 1.4 X 1013 J/h.
(d) -7 0 0 J;
(d) Gcycle = 990 J, 15. 1400 m.
A^cycle — (e) 810 J;
17. 660°C.
Wcyde = 990 J. ( / ) 0.13;
19. (a) 4.1 X 105 Pa, 2.1 X 105 Pa;
57. (a) 5.0 X 101 W; (g) 0.24.
(ft) 34 L, 17 L;
Cb) 17 W. 65. (a) 110 kg/s;
(c) 2100 J;
59. 21 h. (ft) 9.3 X 107 gal/h.
(d) -1 5 0 0 J;
61. (a) Ceramic: 14 W, shiny: 2.0 W; 67. (a) 18km 3/days;
(e) 600 J;
(ft) ceramic: 11 C°, shiny: 1.6 C°. (ft) 120 km2.
( / ) 0.3.
63. (fl) 1.73 X 1017 W;
21. 8.55. 69. (a) 0.19;
(ft) 278 K or 5°C.
23. 5.4. (ft) 0.23.
65. 28%.
25. ( a) —4°C; 71. (a) 5.0 C°;
67. (ft) 4.8 C°/s;
(ft) 29%. (ft) 72.8 J/k g-K .
(c) 0.60 C°/cm.
27. (fl) 230 J; 73. 1700 J/K .
69. 6.4 Cal.
(ib) 390 J. 75. 57 W or 0.076 hp.
71. 4 X 1015J.
29. (a) 3.1 X 104 J;
73. 1 C°. 77. ^sterling =
(ft) 2.7 min.
75. 3.6 kg. In —r
31. 91 L.
77. 0.14 C°.
33. 0.20 J/K . , , 3 Th - T l
79. (fl) 800 W;
35. 5 X 104J/K. ^ v j + 2
(b) 5.3 g.
37. 5.49 X 1 0 - ^ . ^Sterling ^Carnot-
81. 1.1 days. s
79. (a)
83. (fl) 4.79 cm; 39. 9.3 J/K . T
(b) 41. (fl) 93 ra J/K , yes;
(ft) - 9 3 ra J/K , no; ra in kg (SI).
43. (fl) 1010 J/K;
(ft) 1020 J/K;
(c ) - 9 .0 X 102J/K.
45. ( a) Adiabatic;
(ft) ASadiabatic = 0,
V (m L)
^ ^isothermal — _ w i?ln2;
(c) Q = 4.99 J, A E = 0 , W = 4.99 J. (b) Wnet.
(c) A^environment adiabatic — 0,
85. 110°C. ^^environment isothermal = nR\vi2. 81. 16 kg.
87. 305 J. 47. (fl) A ll processes are reversible. 83. 3.61 X 10“2J/K .

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A-31


CHAPTER 21 39. 1.08 X 107
79. N /C (upwards).
[3.00 - cos(13.9r)]2
1. 2.7 X IO-3 N.
81. 5 X 10“9 C.
3. 7200 N.
83. 8.0 X 10“9 C.
5. (4.9 X 10“14)%. 85. 18°.

7. 4.88 cm. 87. Ea = 3.4 X 104 N /C , to the right;


Eb = 2.3 X 104 N /C , to the left;
9. - 5 .8 X 108 C, 0.
Ec = 5.6 X 103 N /C , to the right;
11. (a) qi = q2 = \ Q t , Ed = 3.4 X 103 N /C , to the left.
(b) qi = 0, q2 = Q t • 89. -7 .6 6 X 10-6 C, unstable.

13. FI = 0.53 N at 265°,


Qy 91. (a) 9.18 X 106 N /C , down;
43. (a)
27re0( / + P)312
F2 = 0.33 N at 112°, (b) 1.63 X 10“4 C /m 2.
45. 1.8 X 106 N /C , away from the wire.
F3 = 0.26 N at 53°. 93. (a) ~^= = 7.07 cm;
8Alz V 2
15. F = 2.96 X 107 N, away from 47. vertical. (b) yes;
TTfio^ 2 + 4z2) V 4 z 2 + 2 f
center of square.
2A sin 00 ~
17. 1.0 X 1012 electrons. 49. ---------- -^ i.
ATTEnR
/ x jm d 3
51. (a)
Atteq x(x2 + £2)1/2

(b) 0.2 ps. X (£i + [x - (x2 + f2)1/2]j).

21. 3.08 X 10“16 N west. Q


53.
Attsqx(x + i ) (c ) and (d)
23. 1.10 X 107 N /C up.
Q(Xi irj) % 6.0
25. (172j)N /C . 55.
Atteq(x 2 + a2)3/2 1
0 4.5 t% ----- Ring
27. 1.01 X 1014m /s2, opposite to the % ----- Point
57. (a) (-3 .5 X 1015 m /s2) i 1 3.0
field. ,g l.5
- (1.41 X 1016 m /s2) j;
29. (b) 166° counterclockwise from the & 0.0
w 10 20 30 40 50
initial direction. x (cm)

59. -2 3 ° . (e) 37 cm.


Atteq m R
61. ( b ) 2^ , gQ CHAPTER 2 2

63. (a) 3.4 X IO”20 C; 1. (a) 31 N -m 2/C;

(b) no; (b) 22 N • m2/C;


(c ) 8.5 X 10-26m-N; (c) 0.
3 1 . ( - 4 . 7 X 1 0 11 i ) N / C
(d) 2.5 X 10“26 J. 3. (a) 0;
- ( 1 . 6 X 10n j)N /C ;
65. (a) 6 very small; (b) 0, 0, 0, 0, EoS2, —E ^ 2.
or
5. 1.63 X 10“8 C.
5.0 X 1011 N /C at 199°.
<» s # 7. (a) - 1 .1 X 105 N • m2/C;
33. E = 2.60 X 104 N /C , away from
67. (a) In the direction of the dipole. 0b) 0.
the center.
69. 3.5 X 109 C. 9. - 8 .3 X 10“7 C.
4 kQxa 71. 6.8 X 105 C, negative. 11. 4.3 X 10“5 C /m .
((xz2 - azy
2X2 ’
73. 1.0 X 107 electrons. 13. -8 .5 2 X 10“n C.

A /I 1 x 75. 5.71 X 1013 C. 15. (a) - 2 .6 X 104 N /C (toward wire);


37. „ H— tan —■
2ire0 V x 2 y2 y 77. 1.6 m from Q2, 3.6 m from Qx. (b) —8.6 X 104 N /C (toward wire).

A -3 2 A n sw ers to O d d -N u m b ered P ro b lem s


17. (a) -(1.9 X IO11 N/C-m )r; (tRq 65. (a) On inside surface of shell,
33. (fl) — —, radially outward;
(fo) -(1.1 X 108 N-m2/C )/r2 (fo) r < 0.10 m,
+ (3.0 X 1011 N/C-m )r; ft) 0; (2.1 X 104\
E = j N/C;
(c) (4.1 X 108 N*m2/C )/r2; c) same for if A = 2ttR0(t . V r2
35. a) 0; r > 0.10 m, E = 0.
(rf) yes.
67. —46N-m 2/C, -4.0 X 10-10 C.
2778o r CHAPTER 23___________________
c) 0; 1. -0.71 V.
3. 3280 V, plate B has higher
^ (f potential.
37. a) 1.9 X 107 m/s; 5. 30 m.
fo) 5.5 X 105 m/s. 7. 1.4 pC.
19. NPe r 9. 1.2 cm, 46 nC.
39.
а)w 11. (fl) 0;
M pEr3°- (fo) -29.4 V;
б) i ^ ’ (c) -29.4 V.
c) 0; 13. (a) -9.6 X 108 V;
(fo) 9.6 X 108 V.
v 3e0 4t780 15. (a) They are equal;
41. a) 0;
O
21. (a) 5.5 X 107 N /C (outward); ft)
2500-7780i?o 17. (a) 10-20 kV;
(ft) 0; pErf (fo) 30 AtC/m2.
(c) 5.5 X 105 N /C (outward). 43. a) —— away from surface.
2eo 19. (fl)
Q
23. (a) -8 .0 0 /xC;
45. a) 13 N (attractive);
(fo) +1.90 AtC. Q
fo) 0.064 J.
25. (a) 0; (ft)
47. fl) 0;
p0(d - x ) . (c) Let V0 = V at r = r0, and
(fo) — (outward, if both plates are
£o fo)--------------- 1 ; E0 = E at r = r0:
eo
positive);
p0(rf + * ).
(c) same. c) -------------1 .
eo
27. (a) 0;
Q f2
49. ------- radially outward.
4t780 ri
( » %
e0rz 51. O = § g - d A = —477GMenc.
(rfo-! + rl<r2) 53. flf3e0.
e0rz------5
(C) ----------2
55. 475 N •m2/C, 475 N •m2/C.
57. (fl) 0;
(d)tri = o-2;
Q Q
(ft) -^max
(e) ai = 0, or place Q = -Air a i r 2 77£0r\ 25778QTq
inside r i . (c) no;
29. (fl) 0; (1d) no.
, 3 _ r3 59. (a) 1.1 X 10“19 C;
G ( 1
^ 47T60 (fo) 3.5 X 1011 N/C.

(c) — 61. (a) right;


rL 6e0
/?o / ^0 1
31. (fl) ru\ 17 PEr0 1
54 ~8^~ ’
23- w ^ inU ) +v,°;
(ft) <2 + 41 (b)V0;
63. (fl) 0;
( \ kq (c) no, from part (fl) V —►- 0 0 due
(c) ^ (fo) 5.65 X 105 N/C, right; to length of wire.
W 0; (c) 5.65 X 105 N/C, right; 25. (a) 29 V;
,, Kq + 0 ) (rf) -5.00 X 10“6 C/m3; (fo) -4.6 X IO”18 J.
(«)------5---- (e) +5.00 X 10“6 C/m3. 27. 0.34 J.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A-33


29. 4.2 MV. v^e e (V 3 19. (fl) 0.22 fim < x < 220 fim;
77.
31. 9.64 X 105 m /s. 2its0£ ttsq£ \ 6
™ * 2 A c-
33. (fl) 0; __e v s
1 +
(b) Ex = 0, 7TEq£ \ 6
(c) 0.01%, 10%.
E = _ 0 _______* _____ looks 79. (fl) 1.2 MV;
(b) 1.8 kg. 21. 3600 pF, yes.
51 4™„ (x2 + R 2f /2
like a dipole. 23. 1.5 fxF in series with the parallel
combination of 2.0 fiF and 3.0 {jlF,
35. ^ ( V W T 7 2 - V W T V 2).
ZEq lh, P E ( r l r2 r\ 2.8 V.
37. 29 m /s. 25. Add 11 /jlF connected in parallel.
0 , lx + l ( c ) ^ { r l - r f ) ; yes.
39. In ze0 27. Cmax = 1.94 X 10“8 F, all in
87T8o£ \ x — I ) '
parallel, Cmin = 1.8 X 10-9 F, all in
83. E = radially outward.
41. - ^ - { R 2 - 2x 2) \ / ^ T 7 2 + lirenR series.
6e0 3e0
85. (a) 23 kV;
43. 2 mm. 29. (a) fC;
45. (a) 2.6 mV; (b) Qi = Qi = \C V , Q3 = ICV ,
W ( * 2 + i?2)3’
(ft) 1.8 mV; Qt = l C V , ^ = V2 = \ V ,
(c) (2.3 X 105 N /C )i.
(c) - 1 .8 mV.
87. (a) and ( b) v3 = l v , v 4 = l v .
49. -7 .1 X 10-11 C /m 2 on jc = 0 plate,
7.1 X 10-11 C /m 2 on other plate. 31- Ql = r Cl,C' V0, q 2 = - C2 v0.
51. ( —2.5 y + 3.5yz)i L-l T L*2 '-'l '-'2
+ ( —2 y — 2.5* + 3.5*z)j 33. (fl) Ql = 23 fjLC, Q2 = Q a = 46 /xC;
+ (3.5xy)k. {b)V1 = V2 = V3 = V4 = 2.9 V;
, y. Q ( 1 (c) 5.8 V.
53. (fl)
47re0 [ y \ / f + y 7 x (cm)
35. 2.4 jjF.
89. (a) Point charge;
0 ( i
(b) i. 4
37- (a)Cl + ^ ;
55. -6 2 .5 kV. 3
(ft) 0 ! = 8.40 X 10“4 C,
57. 1.3 eV. ^ 2
S*
1 Qi Qi
j QlQ3 Qi 0 4 1 02 = 03 = 2.80 X 10“4 C.
59. ( a)
) \ rX2 ris riA 0 39. C = W 1 _ < ^ ).
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 d \ 2d J
Q1 Q 3 ! 02 04 0 3 0 4\
x (cm)
r23 '24 r34 / 41. 6.8 X 10“3 J.
0b) 1.5 X KT11 C;
( Q 1 Q2 QlQ3 0104 43. 2.0 X 103 J.
(b) 0.10
) V rl2 t"l3 ^14 J y = 0 .1 3 9 2 * - 0.03731 45. 1.70 X 10-3 J.
f 0.06
QlQs , Q 2Q 3 0204 3 R*
* 0.04
ns r13 >24
0.02
Q 2Q 5 Q 3Q 4 03 05 0.00
r35 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Rb
•* r* l/vtv-1) work done to enlarge cylinder;
04 05^
(c) x = - 3 .7 cm.
^45 7
CHAPTER 2 4 (b)B = ln f e < \
61. (fl) 1.33 keV; K ) U{ ( 3R* u
(ft) v j v v = 42.8. 1. 3.0 /jlF. In

63. 250 MeV, same order of magnitude 3. 3.1 pF. charge moved to battery.
as observed values. 5. 56 /xF.
0e A lV 02
65. 1.11 X 105 m /s, 3.5 X 105 m /s. 7. 1.1 C. 49. (fl) -
2d(d - ey
67. 0.26 M V /m . 9. 83 days.
e0A t V 02
69. 600 V. 11. 130 m2. Cb)
71. 1.5 J. 2(d - t)2
13. 7.10 X 10“4 F.
73. Yes, 2.0 pV. 15. 18 nC. 53. 2200 batteries, no.
75. 1.03 X 106 m /s. 17. 5.8 X 104 V /m . 55. 1.1 X 10“4J.

A -34 Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems


57. (a) 0.32 Atm2; 97. (a) 32 nF; 0.055 kWh, 7.9 cents/month.
(ft) 59 megabytes. (ft) 14 AtC; 0.90 kWh = 3.2 X 106 J.
(c) 7.0 mm; 24 lightbulbs.
59 . ^ { K 1 + K2).
11 kW.
^ a k lk 2 0.15 kg/s = 150mL/s.
61.
(,dt K 2 + d1K 1) 0.12 A.
(a) oo;
« 3 .( a ) ^ [ l + (A :-l)y ];
(ft) 96 a
(a) 930 V;
(6) ^
Id (ft) 3.9 A.
v W (K - 1), left. (a) 1.3 kW;
(C) 2d (ft) max = 2.6 kW, min = 0.
e0A (a) 5.1 X 10-10 m/s;
67.
(ft) 6.9 A /m 2;
« 4 CHAPTER 25 (c) 1.2 X 10-7 V/m .
69. £ air = 2.69 X 104 V/m , 1. 8.13 X 1018 electrons/s. 2.5 A /m 2, north.
iSglass = 4.64 X 103V /m , 3. 5.5 X 10-11 A. 35 m /s, delay time from stimulus to
Gfree = 0.345 pC, Qind = 0.286 ijlC. 5. (a) 28 A; action.
(ft) 8.4 X 104 C. 11 hr.
7. 1.1 X 1021 electrons/min. 1.8 m, it would generate 540 W of
9. (a) 2.0 X 101 H; heat and could start a fire.
(ft) 430 J. 0.16 S.
11. 0.47 mm. (a) $35/month;
13. 0.64. (ft) 1300 kg/year.
15. (a) Slope = 1/R, ^-intercept = 0; (a) -19% change;
71. 43 fiF.
(ft) yes, R = 1.39 ft; (ft) % change would be slightly
73. 15 V. less.
0.4
75. 840 V. 0.3 J v=. n nnn v 73. (a) 190 O;
77. 3.76 X 10“9F, 0.221m2. 0.2 (ft) 15 a
0.1 75. (a) 1500 W;
79. work done by the electric
2K 0.0 (ft)12 A.
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
field, V(V) 2:1.
(c) 1.0 X 10 6 O •m, nichrome. (a) 21 H;
81. 1.2.
17. A t 1/5.0 of its length, 2.0 ft, 8.0 0 . (ft) 2.0 X 101 s.
83. (a) 25 J;
19. 2400° C. (c) 0.17 cents.
(b) 940 kW.
21. V 2 . 36.0 m, 0.248 mm.
85. (a) Parallel;
23. 44.1°C. (a) 1200 W;
(b) 7.7 pF to 35 pF.
25. One-quarter of the original. (ft) 100 W.
87. 5.15 pF.
1.4 X 1012 protons.
<2i = 11 £iC, 02 = 13 AtC, 27. - J - ( - - -
4-7TO- \r i r2j (a) 3.1 kW;
G3 = 13/*C,Vi = 11V, 29. (a) 0.14 ti; (ft) 24 W;
V2 = 6.3 V, V3 = 5.2 V. (ft) 0.60 A; (c) 15 W;
(c) VAi = 52 mV, V^u = 33 mV. (d) 38 cents/month.
91.
2e0A 31. 0.81 W. 89. (a) $55/kWh;
93. 9 X 10-16 m, no. 33. 29 V. (ft) $280/kWh, D-cells and AA-cells
95. (a) 0.27 fiC, 15 kV/m , 5.9 nF, 35. (ft) As large as possible. are 550 X and 2800 X ,
6.0 //J; 37. (a) 0.83 A; respectively, more expensive.
(ft) 0.85 fiC, 15 kV/m , 19 nF, 19 fiJ. (ft) 140 O. 91. 1.34 X io~4a

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A-35


4lp R (5R ' + 31?) 89. (a) 6.8 V, 15 pC;
93. 41. (a)
abir 8(2?' + R) ’ (fo) 48 ais.
91. 200 M ft.
95- / = 1 “ ^
« i
93. 4.5 ms.
43. 1 - 1 5 M ft.
CHAPTER 26 45. 5.0 ms.
1. (a) 5.93 V; 47. 44 s.
(fo) 5.99 V.
49. (a) / , = ! ! ■ h = h = h
3. 0.060 ft. w 1 3R 3R

5. 9.3 V. ( b ) h = h = - ^ ’ h = 0; Time (ms)


7. ( a) 2.60 kft;
(fo) 270 ft.
9. C onnect nine 1.0-ft resistors in
51. (a) 8.0 V;
series with battery; then connect
(fo) 14 V;
output voltage circuit across four
(c) 8.0 V;
consecutive resistors.
(d) 4.8 fjuC. Time (ms)
11. 0.3 ft.
53. 29 fxA.
13. 450 ft, 0.024.
55. (a) Place in parallel with 0.22-m ft CHAPTER 2 7
15. Solder a 1.6-kft resistor in parallel
shunt resistor; 1. (fl) 8.5 N /m ;
with 480-ft resistor.
(fo) place in series with 45-kft (fo) 4.9 N /m .
17. 120 ft. 3. 2.6 X 10“4N.
resistor.
19. %R. 57. 100 kft. 5. ( a) South pole;
21. R = r. 59. V44 = 24 V , V27 = 15 V; (fo) 3.41 A;
23. ( a) Vieft decreases, -1 5 % , -15% . (c) 7.39 X 10“2 N.

^middle increases, 7. 2.13 N, 41.8° b e l o w n e g a t i v e y a x is .


61. 0.960 m A , 4.8 V.
9. ( —2 / r 6 o sin 0 o)j-
bright = 0; 63. 12 V.
13. 6.3 X 10“14 N , n o r t h .
(fo) /ieft decreases, 65. C onnect a 9.0-kft resistor in series
15. 1.8 T.
^middle increases, with human body and battery.
17. ( a) Downward;
67. 2.5 V, 117 V.
bright = (fo) into page;
(c) terminal voltage increases; 69. 92 kft.
(c) right.
(d) 8.5 V; R 2R 3 19. (fl) 0.031 m;
71. («) p ,
Ki (fo) 3.8 X 10-7 s.
(e) 8.6 V.
(fo) 121 ft. 23. 1.8 m.
25. (a) V\ and V2 increase, V3 and V4
73. Terminal voltage o f mercury 25. (0.78i - l.Oj + 0.1k) X 10-15 N.
decrease;
cell (3.99 V ) is closer to 4.0 V 27. .Lfinal = 2 ^initial •
(fo) I\ and I2 increase, /3 and /4 than terminal voltage o f dry cell 29. (fl) Negative;
decrease; (3.84 V ).
( P + d 2N
(c) increases; 75. 150 cells, 0.54 m2, connect in series; ( b ) q B o^—
(d) before: I x = 117 m A , I2 = 0, connect four such sets in parallel to 31. 1.3 X 108 m /s, yes.
h = h = 59 mA; total 600 cells and deliver 120 V.
33. ( a) 45°;
after: I\ = 132 m A , 77. C ounterclockwise current: —24 V , (fo) 2.3 X 10-3 m.
clockw ise current: + 4 8 V.
h = h = h = 44 m A , yes. 35. (fl) 2NIAB;
79. 10.7 V. (fo) 0.
27. 0.38 A .
83. 9.0 ft. 37. (a) 4.85 X 10_5m -N ;
29. 0.
85. (fo) 1.39 V; (fo) north.
31. (a) 29 V;
(c) 0.42 mV; 39. (fl) ( - 4 .3 k) A * m 2;
(fo) 43 V, 73 V.
(id) no current from “working” (fo) (2.6i - 2.4j) m -N ;
33. I\ = 0.68 A left, I2 = 0.33 A left. battery is needed to “pow er” (c) - 2 .8 J.
37. 0.70 A . galvanom eter. 41. 12%.
39. 0.17 A . 87. 1.0 mV, 2.0 mV, 4.0 mV, 10.0 mV. 43. 39 fiA.

A -3 6 Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems


45. 6 electrons. 31. (a) 55. (a) 2.7 X 10“6T;
47. (ft) 0.05 nm, about \ the size o f a 2ttR i (ft) 5.3 X 10-6 T;
typical m etal atom; Polo _ (c) no, no N ew ton ’s third-law-type
(b)
(c) 10 mV. 2ttR 5 o f relationship;
49. 0.820 T. Polo ( R 3 ~ R 2 (d) both 1.1 X 10_5N /m , yes,

51. 70 u, 72 u, 73 u, and 74 u. (c) N ew ton ’s third law holds.


2ttR \ R l - R l ) ’
53. 1.5 mm, 1.5 mm, 0.77 mm, 0.77 mm. Mo tj
(d) 0; 57. -, to the left above sheet (with
2
55. ?H, ^He.
(e) current coming toward you).
57. 2.4 T, upwards.
N fxo IR 2
61. (a)
I B d 1\
59. (, an) ------
m
1
IBd
(b) - f*kg ]t; (.R2 + x 2f 2 (R 2 + (x - R f f 2
ra
(c ) e a st. (ft) 4.5 mT.

61. 1.1 X 10-6 m / s , w e s t . 63. 3 X 109 A .

63. 3.8 X 10-4 m • N. R (cm) 65. (a) 46 turns;


mb(3a + b) ~11/2 (ft) 0.83 mT;
65. 33. 3.6 X 10“6T.
r\_3N IB a(a + b) J ' (c) no.
35. 0.075 mq I / R .
67. They do not enter second tube, 12° Mo 1 V 5 .
67. —--------, into the page.
69. 1.1 A , down. IM)I ( 1 1 \ 2ttcl
37* I^ + Y 2 ) ’ int° thC Page’ 69. 0.10 N, south.
71. 7.3 X 10“3 T.
73. - 6 .9 X 10“20J. Trl(Rl + R l) 71. 3*
( b ) -------- ----------, into the page. 73. (c) 1.5 A .
75. 0.083 N, northerly and 68° above
the horizontal. 75.
77. (a) Downward; 39. (a) i;
(ft) 28 mT;
(c) 0.12 T.
2ttR 2 \ \ J r 2 + jc2
CHAPTER 2 8 (c) yes.
-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40
1. 0.37 mT, 7.4 times larger. x (cm)
Mo I ( d
41. (6 ) k.
3. 0.15 N, toward other wire. \ \ J d 2 + y2
CHAPTER 2 9
7. 0.12 mT, 82° above directly right. ^ ta n (-7 r /« )
9. 3.8 X 10“5T, 17° below the 43. ( « ) ------- -—-------- , i n t o t h e p a g e . 1. - 4 6 0 V.
2itR
horizontal to north. 3. Counterclockwise.
11. (a) (2.0 X 10_5)(25 - /) T ; V ? T / V ^ 2 + (6 - A:)2 5. 1.2 m m /s.
45. ^
(b) (2.0 X 10_5)(25 + I) T.
Air (fc - x )y 7. (a) 0.010 Wb;
15. Closer wire: 0.050 N /m , attractive, • V (q - y)2 + {b - (b) 55°;
farther wire: 0.025 N /m , repulsive. (a - > )(6 - ac) (c) 5.8 mWb.
17. 17 A , downward. 9. Counterclockwise.
V (« - W +
fi0I ( d — 2x , out o f 11. (a) Clockwise;
t(a - y)
19' 2-n \ x ( d - x ) 11 (ft) 43 mV;
page.
21. 4 6 .6 / iT . (c) 17 m A .
LLnl 13. (a) 8.1 mJ;
23. (b) - — » yes, looks like B from 47. (a) 16 A -m 2;
v ' lir y 3 (ft) 4.2 X 10“3 C°.
long straight wire. (ft) 13 m -N . 15. (a) 0.15 A;
25. 0.160 A . 49. 2.4 T. (ft) 1.4 mW.
27. (a) 5.3 mT; 17. 8.81 C.
51. (F /£)m = 6.3 X 10“4 N /m at 90°,
(ft) 3.2 mT; 19. 21 /jJ .
(F/£)n = 3.7 X 10“4 N /m at 300°,
(c) 1.8 mT. 21. 23 mV, 26 mV.
29. (a) 0.554 m; (F /£)P = 3.7 X 10-4 N /m at 240°. 23. (a) 0;
(b) 10.5 mT. 53. 170 A . (ft) 0.99 A , counterclockwise.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A -3 7


73. \Ba>l2. 53. 240 Hz, voltages are out of phase.
77. B(oR, radially in toward axis. 55. (fl) 0.124 A;
H0Ia2V tTd2B 2lv (fo) 5.02°;
79. (fl)
1 ' 2tTb(a + fo) ’ 16p ’ (c) 14.8 W;
(c) clockwise; (b) 16ppmg/B 2-, (d) 0.120 kV, 10.5 V.
Po I 2a4v (c) 3.7 cm /s. 57. 7.8 pF.
(d)
47T2b2(a + b)2R 59. I qVqsin ojt sin (cot + </>).
27. 1.0 m /s. CHAPTER 30 61. 130 ft, 0.91.
29. (a) 0.11 V; 1. (fl) 31.0 mH; 63. 265 Hz, 324 W.
(fo) 4.1 mA; (fo) 3.79 V. 65. (fo) 130 ft.
(c) 0.36 mN. Po Ni N2 A 2 sin 6
31. 0.39 m /s. 3. 67' T T-2 i \2 |;
£
33. ( a) Yes; 5. 12 V. L +
2 r2 - ScJ J
(fo) v0 e~B2ft/mR. 7. 0.566 H.
9. 11.3 V.
11. 46 m, 21 km, 0.70 kft
(c) L -
15. 18.9 J.
17. 1.06 X 10“3 J /m 3. 69. 37 loops.
37. 57.2 loops. Po N 2! 2 ii0N 2I 2h 71. (fl) 0.040 H;
19. In -
41. 150 V. 8t r V 477 (fo) 28 mA;
43. 13 A. Vo I 2 (c) 16 pJ.
21.
45. ( a) 2.4 kV; 1677
(fo) 190 V. 23. 3.5 time constants.
47. 50,4.8 V. 77. («)

49. ( a) Step-up; * .( f l) g f ( l
(fo) 3.5. (fo) 7.6 time constants.
51. (a) R ; 27. (fo) 6600 V. 79.
29. (1 2 V )e“f/8-2^s, 0 ,1 2 V.
31. (fl) 0.16 nF;
53. 98 kW. (fo) 62 pH .
55. (fo) Clockwise; 33. (c) (2 X 10“4)%.
(c) increase.
35. ( f l ) ^ ;
57. (a)
(b)lT .
(6) g-BVt/mR 3 7 .|l n ( |) = ( 0 .2 9 ) ~ (fo) 0,90° out of phase.
83. 2.2 kHz.
59. 10.1 mJ. 39. 3300 Hz. 85. 69 mH, 18 ft.
61. 0.6 nC. 41. 89. (a)
63. ( a) 41 kV;
(fo) 31 MW;
(c) 0.88 MW;
(d) 3.0 X 107 W.
65. ( a) Step-down;
(fo) 2.9 A;
Frequency (Hz)
(c) 0.29 A;
(d) 4.1 ft. 43. (fl) R + R'-,
67. 46 mA, left to right through (fo) R ’.
resistor. 45. (a) 2800 ft;
69. 2.3 X 1017 electrons. (fo) 660 Hz, 11 A.
71. ( a) 25 A; 47. 2190 W.
(fo) 98 V; 49. (fl) 0.40 kft;
coL —
(c) 600 W; (fo) 75 ft.
<f>= tan 1
(d) 81%. 51. 1600 Hz. R

A -38 Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems


91. (a) 7. (ft) With i? in meters, for R < i?o, 57. 4 X 1010W.
B0 = (6.3 X 10-11 T/m)/?; 59. 5 nodes, 6.1 cm.
5.7 X 10-14 T •m 61. (a) +x;
for R > Rq, B q
R
(ft) /3 = ac\
(c)
(c) —
o)2LC ’ c
(d) V\ out = V l. 63. ( d ) Both E and B rotate
Vo
93. (a) — sin cot; counterclockwise.
R
z
( b ) ^ - s in ( ( o t - |tt);

(c) —7- sin(atf + 577) R (cm) E0


Xc
9. 3.75 V /m .
(d) B0
11. (a) -k;
fl En .
(f> = tan 1li?o>C------— I;
coL CHAPTER 32
R
(e) 13. 2.00 X 1010 Hz. 1.

1 + | flwC 15. 5.00 X 102 s = 8.33 min.


o)L Mirror
17. ( a) 3.00 X 105 m;
1 far
(f) (ft) 34.1 cm;
1 + | flwC - jR- (c) no.
(oL
95. 0.14 H. 19. ( a) 261 s;
97. 54 mH, 22 H. (ft) 1260 s.
99. V 6 S / 0 = 2.4/ 0. 21. 3.4krad/s.
101. (a) 7.1 kHz, Vrms;
23. 2.77 X 107 s.
(b) 0.90.
25. 4.8 W /m 2, 42 V /m . 3. 7°.
103. (b) For / —►0 A -> 1;
for / —» co, A 0; 27. 4.50 /zJ. 7.
(c) / is in s-1: 29. 3.80 X 1026W.
31. ( a) 5 cm2, yes;
(ft) 20 m2, yes;
(c) 100 m2, no.
33. ( a) 2 X 108 ly;
9. 37.6 cm.
(ft) 2000 times larger.
11. 1.0 m.
35. 8 X 106 m /s2.
13. 2.1 cm behind front surface of ball;
log / 37. 27 m2.
virtual, upright.
105. 39. 16 cm.
15. Concave, 5.3 cm.
A 41. 3.5 nH to 5.3 nH.
— r = o .m -
17. - 6 .0 m.
< 0.6 — r = m 43. 6.25 X 10-4 V /m ;
I 0.4 19. Convex, —32.0 cm.
1.04 X 10-9 W /m 2.
0.2 21.
0 45. 3 m.
0 0.5 1 1.5 2.5 47. 1.35 s.
O)/(O0
49. 34 V /m , 0.11 juT.

CHAPTER 31 51. Down, 2.2 juT, 650 V /m .

1. 110k V /m -s. 53. (a) 0.18 nJ;


3. 1.2 X 1015 V /m *s. (ft) 8.7 fiY /m , 2.9 X 10“14T.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A -39


23. - 3 .9 m. 87. A = 1.5005, B = 5740 nm2. 13. 21.3 cm, 64.7 cm.
1.56 Position A
25. (a) Convex;
1.55
(b) 20 cm behind mirror;
(c) - 9 1 cm;
1.54
1.53
1.52
§ f x
0 p'
.
V f\
(d) —1.8 m. 1.51
1.50 /
27. (b) 250 500 750 1000 1250
A (nm)

1.56 Position B
1.55
1.54
s 1.53
1.52 I
1.51 _ jC. '7A\S i1urv
y,, — ----
Ar iL 1i . jcun _
0 , N
1.50 ---------- 1---------- 1---------- 1-----------1----------
d0(m) 0.0 2.0 X 4.0 X 6.0 X 8.0 X 10.0X 12.0X \
10-6 10-6 10-6 10-6 10-6 10-6 15. (c) Real, upright; ( d) real, upright.
(c) 0.90 m; 1/A2 (nm-2)
17. 0.107 m, 2.2 m.
(d) just beyond focal point. 19. (b) 182 cm; (c) 182 cm.
31. Because the image is inverted. CHAPTER 3 3 21. 18.5 cm beyond second lens, —0.651 X .

33. (a) 2.21 X 108 m /s ; 1. (a) 23. (a) 7.14 cm beyond second lens;
(b) -0 .3 5 7 X; (c)
(b) 1.99 X 108 m /s ;
Lens A LensB
(c ) 1.97 X 108 m /s.
35. 8.33 min.
37. 3 m .
39. 35°.
41. 38.6°.
25. (a) 0.10 m to right of diverging
43. 2.6 cm.
lens; (b) -1 .0 X ;
45. 4.4 m. (c) Lens A
47. 3.2 mm.
49. 38.9°. (b) 508 mm.
53. 0.22°. 3. (a) 4.26 D, converging;
55. 0.80°. (b) -1 4 .8 cm, diverging.
57. 33.3°, diamond. 5. (a) 106 mm;
59. 82.1 cm. (b) 109 mm;
61. n > 1.5. (c) 117 mm;
63. (a) 2.3 fis; (d) an object 0.513 m away.
the size of object;
(b) 17 ns. 7. (a) Virtual, upright, magnified; Lens 1 Lens 2
65. n > 1.72.
67. 17.3 cm.
W ' Fi "
71. 0.25 m, 0.50 m. o FP P % i2
73. (a) 3.0 m, 4.4 m, 7.4 m;
(b) toward, away, toward. (b) 29 cm beyond second lens, 0.46
times the size of object.
75. 3.80 m. 29. 1.54.
77. 31 cm for real image, 15 cm for 31. 8.6 cm.
( b) converging; 33. 34 cm.
virtual image.
(c) 6.7 D. 35. //2 .8 .
d
83. 37. I s.
n - 1 9. (a) 0.02 m;
39. 41 mm.
85. The light would totally internally (b) 0.004 m. 41. +2.5 D.
reflect only if < 32.5°. 11. 50 cm. 43. 41 cm, yes.

A -40 Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems


45. (a) - 1 .3 D; CHAPTER 3 4 13. 0.15.
(ft) 37 cm. 3. 3.9 /m i. 15. d = 5 D.
47. - 2 4 .8 cm. 5. 0.2 mm. 17. 265 fringes.
49. 18.4 cm, 1.00 m. 7. 660 nm. 19. (a) 1.9 cm;
51. 6.6 cm. 9. 3.5 cm. (ft) 12 cm.
53. (fl) 13 cm; 11. Inverted, starts with central dark 21. 0.255.
(ft) 8.3 cm. line, and every place there was 1 + 2 cos 8
23. (fl) Ie = I0
55. (fl) - 2 3 4 cm; bright fringe before is now dark
(ft) 4.17X . fringe and vice versa.
25. 1.5 X 1011 m.
57. ( a) - 6 6 cm; 13. 2.7 mm.
27. 1.0 X 104 m.
(ft) 3.0 X. 15. 2.94 mm.
59. 4 cm, toward. 29. 730 lin es/m m , 88 lines/m m .
61. 2.5 cm, 91 cm. 2-77-d sin 6 31. 0.40 /am, 0.50 /m i, 0.52 /m i, 0.62 /m i.
63. - 2 6 X. 3 + 2V 2cos
21. In 33. Two full orders, plus part o f a third
65. 16 X. order.
3 + 2V 2
67. 3.7 m, 7.4 m. 35. 556 nm.
23. 634 nm.
69. -9 X .
25. ( a) 180 nm; 37. 24°.
71. 8.0 X.
(ft) 361 nm, 541 nm. 39. A2 > 600 nm overlap with
73. 1.6 cm.
27. (ft) 290 nm. A3 < 467 nm.
75. (fl) 754 X;
(b) 1.92 cm, 0.307 cm; 29. 8.68 /m i. 41. Ai = 614 nm, A2 = 899 nm.
(c) 0.312 cm. 31. 113 nm, 225 nm. 43. 7 cm, 35 cm, second order.
77. ( a) 0.85 cm; 35. 1.32.
45. (c) -3 2 ° , 0.9°.
(ft) 250 X . 37. (c) 571 nm.
47. ( a) 16,000 and 32,000;
79. 410 X , 25 X . 39. 0.191 mm.
(ft) 26 pm, 13 pm.
81. 79.4 cm, 75.5 cm. 41. 80.1 /m i.
83. 6.450 m < d0 < oo. 43. 0.3 mm. 49. 14.0°.
85. 116 mm, 232 mm. 45. (fl) 17 lm /W ; 51. No.
87. - 1 9 .0 cm. (ft) 160 lamps. 53. 45°.
89. 3.1 cm, 25 cm. 47. ( a) Constructive; 55. 61.2°.
91. (fl) 0.26 mm; (ft) destructive. 57. (fl) 35.3°;
(ft) 0.47 mm; 49. 440 nm. (ft) 63.4°.
(c) 1.3 mm;
51. W ( * f ). 59. 36.9°, smaller than both angles.
(d) 0.5 6 X, 2 .7 X.
93. 20.0 cm. 61. / = ^ s i n 2(20),45°.
53. (fl) 81.5 nm;
95. 47 m.
(ft) 0.130 /m i. 63. 28.8 /m i.
97. 2.8 X , 3.9 X , person with normal eye.
99. 1.0 X . 55. 6 = sin- 1 ^sin0i + 65. 580 nm.
101. + 3 .4 D . 67. 0.6 m.
57. 340 nm, 170 nm.
103. - 1 9 X . 69. 658 nm, 853 lin es/cm .
59. Constructive: 90°, 270°; destructive:
105. (fl) 28.6 cm; 0°, 180°; exactly switched. 71. (fl) 18 km;
(ft) 120 cm; (ft) 23", atm ospheric distortions
61. 240 nm.
(c) 15 cm. make it worse.
63. 0.20 km.
107. - 6 .2 cm.
65. 126 nm. 73. 5.79 X 105 lin es/m .
109. (a) - 1 / / , 1;
75. 36.9°.
(ft) 14 cm, yes,
CHAPTER 35________________________ 77. ( a) 60°;
y-intercept = 1.03;
0.0 1. 37.3 mrad = 2.13°. (ft) 71.6°;

-0.5 3. 2.35 m. (c) 84.3°.

-1.0 5. Entire pattern is shifted, with central 79. 0.4 m.

-0.0726 jc + 1.01981 maximum at 23° to the normal. 81. 0.245 nm.


-1.5
7. 4.8 cm. 83. 110 m.
-2.0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 9. 953 nm. 85. —0.17 mm.
d{(cm) 11. ( a) 63°; 87. U se 24 polarizers, each rotated
(c) / = —1/slo p e. (ft) 30°. 3.75° from previous axis.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A-41


CHAPTER 36 53. 0.32c. 2.7 X 10“19 J < E < 4.9 X 10“19 J,
1. 72.5 m. 55. 0.866c, 0.745c. 1.7 eV < E < 3.0 eV.

3. 1 .0 0 ,1 .0 0 ,1 .0 1 ,1 .0 2 ,1 .0 5 ,1 .0 9 ,1 .1 5 , 57. (a) 2.5 X 1019 J; 9. 2 X 1013 H z, 1 X 10-5 m.


1 .2 5 ,1 .4 0 ,1 .6 7 ,2 .2 9 ,7 .0 9 . (fo) -2.4% . 11. 7.2 X 1014 Hz.
8.00 59. 237.04832 u. 13. 3.05 X 10-27 m.
7.00
6.00 61. 240 MeV. 15. Copper and iron.
^ 5.00
65. 230 M Hz. 17. 0.55 eV.
4.00
3.00 19. 2.66 eV.
67. {a) 1.00 X 102 km /h;
2.00
1.00 (fo) 67 Hz. 21. 3.56 eV.
0.20c 0.40c 0.60c 0.80c 1.0c
69. 75 /as. 23. ( a) 1.66 eV;
V
71. 8.0 X 10“8 s. (fo) 3.03 eV.
5. 2.42 X 108 m / s .
73. (a) 0.067c; 25. ( a) 1.66 eV;
7. 27 yr.
(fo) 0.070c. (fo) 3.03 eV.
9. (6.97 X 10“8)%.
11. (a) 0.141c; 27. 0.004, or 0.4%.
75. ( a ) tan - i \ j ~ ^ ~ 1;
(fo) 0.140c. 29. (fl) 2.43 pm;

13. (a) 3.4 yr; (fo) 1.32 fm.


(c) tan 1 —•
^ >u = \ v/ c 2 + v 2 .
(fo) 7.4 yr. 31. (fl) 8.8 X 10“6;
15. 0.894c. 77. (a) 0.77 m /s; (fo) 0.049.
17. Base: 0.30£, sides: 1.941. (fo) 0.21 m. 33. ( a) 229 eV;
19. 0.65c. 79. 1.022 MeV. (fo) 0.165 nm.
21. (a) (820 m, 20 m, 0); 83. (a) 4 X 109 kg/s; 35. 1.65 MeV.
(fo) (2280 m , 20 m , 0). (fo) 4 X 107 yr; 37. 212 MeV, 5.86 fm.
23. (a) 0.88c; (c) 1 X 1013 yr. 39. 1.772 MeV, 702 fm.
(fo )-0 .8 8 c . 85. 28.32 MeV. 41. 4.7 pm.
25. (a) 0.97c; 87. (a) 2.86 X 10_18k g -m /s; 43. 4.0 pm.
(fo) 0.55c. (fo) 0; 45. 1840.
27. 0.93c at 35°. (c) 3.31 10_17k g -m /s.
X 47. ( a) 1.1 X 10-24 k g -m /s;
89. 3 X 107 kg. (fo) 1.2 X 106 m /s;
29. (a) £0\ / 1 ~ ^ cosz 0;
91. 0.987c. (c) 4.2 V.
tan 0 93. 5.3 X 1021 J, 53 times as great. 51. 590 m /s.
(b)
tan - l 95. (a) 6.5 yr; 53. 20.9 pm.
- I , (fo) 2.3 ly. 55. 1.51 eV
vi 99. 57. 122 eV.
31. f t - f t = - •
1.2 59. 91.4 nm.
i
1.0 t
----- Ch tssir.al / 61. 37.0 nm.
r- 0.8 /
B is turned on first. O 0.6 ------ Relativistic f 63.
— r
*
33. N ot possible in b oy’s frame o f S ' 0.4
0.2 Continuum
reference. o
0
35. (fl) -0.5% ; 0.2c 0.4c 0.6c 0.8c 1.0c -3 .4
(fo) -20% . v -6 .0
37. 0.95c.
CHAPTER 3 7 n =2
39. 8.20 X 10“14J, 0.511 MeV. -1 3 .6
41. 900 kg. 1. (fl) 10.6 fxm, far infrared; I?
43. 1.00 M e V /c 2, or 1.78 X 10“30kg. (fo) 829 nm, infrared; s

45. 9.0 X 1013 J, 9.2 X 109 kg. (c) 0.69 mm, microwave;
47. 0.866c. (d) 1.06 mm, microwave.
49. 1670 MeV, 2440 M eV /c. 3. 5.4 X 10“20J, 0.34 eV.
51. 0.470c. 5. (fo) 6.62 X 10“34 J-s. -54.4 -n = 1

A -4 2 Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems


67. Yes: v = 7 X 10“3 c;
+ = [ ( - 1 ) ™ ^ c o s ( 2 f ),
1 /7 = 0.99997. (b)
69. 97.23 nm, 102.6 nm, 121.5 nm,
486.2 nm, 656.3 nm, 1875 nm.
71. Yes.
73. 3.28 X 1015 Hz.
75. 5.3 X 1026 photons/s.
77. 6.2 X 1018 photons/s.
79. 0.244 MeV for both. 1/A (/^m-1)
81. 28 fm. (c ) 1.2 X 10-6 V • m, -2 .3 1 V ;
83. 4.4 X 10“40, yes. (d) 2.31 eV;
85. 2.25 V. (e) 6.63 X 10-34 J •s.
87. 9.0 N.
89. 1.2 nm. CHAPTER 38_______________________
91. (a)
1. 2.8 X 10“7 m.
0
3. 5.3 X 10“n m.
5. 4500 m /s.
7. 1.0 X 10“14.
9. A*electron ^ 1.4 X 10“3 m,
A-^baseball — 9.3 X 10 m,
"A AAA
-6 .4 eV
0)
a -8
-6 .8 eV

-9 .0 eV
^ eleclron = 1.5 X 1029.
A^baseball
11. 1.3 X 10-54 kg.
WAAAAA
13. (a) 10-7 eV;
37. 0.020 nm.
-1 2
-11.5 eV (b) 1/108;
39. 17 eV.
(c) 100 nm, 10-6 nm.
41. (a) 6.1%;
(ft) Ground state, 0.4 eV, 2.2 eV, 19. (a) A sin[(2.6 X 109 m_1)x]
2.5 eV, 2.6 eV, 4.7 eV, 5.1 eV. (ft) 93.9%.
+ B cos[(2.6 X 109 m_1)x];
43. (a) 12% decrease;
„ 2.84 X 10165J (ft) A sin[(4.7 X lO ^ n T ^ x ]
93. (a) En — ’ (b) 6.2% decrease.
+ 5 cos[(4.7 X 1012 m_1)x],
rn = n \ 5 1 1 X 10-129 m); 45. (a) 32 MeV;
21. 1.8 X 106 m /s.
(ft) no, because n « 1068 so An = 1 (ft) 57 fm;
23. (a) 46 nm;
is negligible compared to n. (c) 1.4 X 107 m /s, 8.6 X 1020Hz,
(ft) 0.20 nm.
95. 1.0 X 10“8 N. 7 X 109 yr.
25. Ap Ax « h, which is consistent with
47. 14 MeV.
the uncertainty principle.
97. (a) (ft) 1.34 X 10“43s; 49. 25 nm.
27. #i = l: 0.094 eV,
(l.O nm_1/2) sin[(l.6 nm_1)x]; 51. Ax = #i (the Bohr radius).
(c) ( d ) 4.05 X 10_35m.
n = 2: 0.38 eV, 53. 0.23 MeV, 3.3 X 106 m /s.
99. (a) 6.0 X 10-3 m/s; (l.O nm-ly/2) sin[(3.1 nm_1)x]; 55. 27% decrease.
(ft) 1.2 X 10“7 K. n = 3: 0.85 eV, 57.
101. (a) (l.O nm_1/2) sin[(4.7 nm_1)x];
0.34t2 j
n = 4: 1.5 eV, •#
.330CIK (l.O nm_1/2) sin[(6.3 nm_1)x]. 0.32I2 — *
W A /
29. (a) 940 MeV; \%
© 3 / 0.30f2 —
/ /2700 (ft) 0.51 MeV;
2 2
E-h / /
(c) 0.51 MeV. 0.28£2 r i | | | | | | | | |
d 1 > 0 4 8 12 16 20
^ 0 n
31. (a) 4.0 X 10“19eV;
0 400 800 1200 1600 2000
A (nm) (ft) 2 X 108; 59. (a) A<£ > 0 so </> ^ 0 exactly;
(,b) 4.8 times more intense. (c ) 1.4 X 10“10eV. (ft) 4 s.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A -43


61. (a) 29. (a) (1,0,0, - 1), (1,0,0, +\), CHAPTER 40
1.0 - - (2, 0, 0, -\), (2, 0, 0, +g, 1. 5.1 eV.

>,0.8- (2 ,1 ,-1 ,-1 ), (2 ,1 ,-1 ,+ 1); 3. 4.7 eV.
g 0.6- • Transmission T
| 0.4-
V • Reflection R
(ft) (1,0,0,- |) , (1,0,0,+i), 5. 1.28 eV.
(2, 0, 0 ,- |) , (2,0,0,+|), 9. (a) 18.59 u;
£ 0.2- • ••
-• (ft) 8.00 u;
(2,1,- 1 , - |) , (2 ,1 ,-1 ,+ 1),
r--n t- -I (c) 0.9801 u.
4 6 10 (2 ,1,0,-i), (2,1,0,+1),
11. 1.10 X 10-10m.
( 2 ,l ,l,- i ) ,( 2 ,l ,l,+ |) ,
13. (a) 1.5 X 10“2eV, 0.082 mm;
(ft) 10%: £ /t/0 = 0.146; (3, 0, 0, - \ ) , (3,0, 0, +i),
20%: E/U0 = 0.294; (ft) 3.0 X 10“2eV, 0.041mm;
(3 ,1 ,- 1 , - |) .
50%: E/U0 = 0.787; (c) 4.6 X 10-2 eV, 0.027 mm.
80%: £ /t/0 = 1.56. 31. n = 3,£ = 2.
15. (a) 6.86 u;
33. (a) ls22s22p63s23p63d84s2;
CHAPTER 39______________________ (ft) 1850 N/m, kCo/kn2 = 3.4.
(ft) 1j 22s22p63523p63rf104s24p64rf105j1; 17. 2.36 X 10“10m.
1. 0,1, 2,3,4,5,6. (c) ls22s22/763s23 /3 rf104s24/?64rf10-
19. rniXi = m2x2.
3. 18 states, (3,0,0, - \), (3, 0, 0, + §), 4 /145525/?65rf106,s26p65f36dlls2.
21. 0.2826 nm.
( 3 ,1 ,- 1 ,- i ) , (3 ,1 ,-1 ,+ i), 35. 5.75 X 10“13m, 115 keV.
23. 0.34 nm.
(3 ,1 ,0 ,-i), (3,1,0,+ i), 39. 0.0383 nm, 1 nm.
25. (ft) -6.9 eV;
(3 ,1 ,1 ,- I ) , (3 ,1 ,1 ,+ 1), 41. 0.194 nm. (c) -11 eV;
(3,2, - 2 , - 1 ) , (3,2, - 2 ,+ |) , 43. Chromium. (rf) -2.8%.
( 3 , 2 , - l , - i ) , ( 3 , 2 , - l , + |) , 47. 2.9 X 10“4eV. 27. 9.0 X 1020.
(3,2, 0, -§), (3,2, 0, +!), 49. (a) 0.38 mm; (ft) 0.19 mm. 29. (a) 6.96 eV;
( 3 ,2 ,l,- i) ,( 3 ,2 ,l,+ i) , 51. (a) | ’ I ; (ft) I ’ I ; (c) | ’ §; (ft) 6.89 eV.
(3,2, 2, - \ ) , (3,2, 2, + |). 31. 1.6%.
5. n > 6; ra£ = -5 , -4 , -3 , -2 , -1 , 3 33. 3.2 eV, 1.1 X 106m/s.
0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5; ms = -§> + §• 53. (a) 0.4 T; h2N 2
7. (fl) 7; 39. (a)
(ft) 0.5 T. 32mf2’
(ft) -0.278 eV; 55. 4.7 X 10-4 rad; (a) 180 m; h2 (N + 1)
(c) 4.72 X 10-34 J-s, 4; (ft) 1.8 X 105 m. (b)
8mi2 ’
(rf) -4 , -3 , -2 ,- 1 ,0 ,1 ,2 , 3, 4. 57. 634 nm.
11. n > l, I = 6, mf = 2. 59. 3.7 X 104K.
61. (a) 1.56; 43. 1.09 /mi.
13. (a)- 1
(ft) 1.36 X 10-10 m. 45. (fl) 2N\
63. (a) ls22s22p63s23p63d54s2; (ft) 6N;
(ft) ls22s22 /3 s 23 /3 d 104s24 / ; (c) 6N;
(c) l ^ ^ p ^ ^ p ^ r f ^ s ^ p ^ r f ^ 2. (rf) 2N{2£ + 1).
65. (a) 2.5 X 1074; 47. 4 X 106.
(ft) 5.1 X 1074. 49. 1.8 eV.
67. 5.24r0. 51. 8.6 mA.
69. (a) 45°, 90°, 135°; 53. (fl) 1.7 mA; (ft) 3.4 mA.
(ft) 35.3°, 65.9°, 90°, 114.1°, 144.7°; 55. (fl) 35 mA; (ft) 70 mA.
(c) 30°, 54.7°, 73.2°, 90°, 106.8°, 57. 3700 Cl.
125.3°, 150°; 59. 0.21 mA.
(rf) 5.71°, 0.0573°, yes. 61. JB + Jc = / E.
71. (b)K = - \ U . 63. (fl) 3.1 X 104 K;
73. (a) Forbidden; (ft) allowed; (ft) 930 K.
(c) forbidden; (rf) forbidden; 65.
(e) allowed. U
75. 4, beryllium.
77. (a) 3 X 10“171, 1 X 10“202; 1.4eV\
(ft) 1 X 10“8, 6 X 10-10; __L A
(c) 7 X 1015, 4 X 1014; 1.6eV
(rf) 4 X 1022photons/s, 1
(c) 13.1r0. 7 X 1023 photons/s. r0
A-44 Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems
67. (a) 0.9801 u; 13. 550 MeV. 85. ( a) 1.6%;
(fo) 482 N /m , k HCi / k H2 = 0.8 15. 7.94 MeV. (fo) 0.66%.
71. Yes, 1.09 /m i. 17. iiN a: 8.11 M eV /nucleon; 87. 1.3 X 1021 yr.
73. 1100 J /m ol. f}Na: 8.06 M eV /n u cleon . 89. 8.33 X 1016 nuclei,
75. 5.50 eV. 19. (b) Yes, binding energy is positive.
77. 3 X 1025. 21. 0.782 MeV.
79. 6.47 X 10-4 eV. 23. 2.6 X 10“12m.
81. 1.1 eV. 25. (fl) J8“;
83. ( a) 0.094 eV; (fo) 0.63 nm. (b) 24N a -► g M g + (3~ + v,
5.52 M eV.
85. ( a) 150 V < F < 486 V;
27. (fl) 2ijTh; (fo) 234.04367 u.
(fo) 3.16 k n < 2?load < 00 • t( s)
29. 0.078 MeV. 600 s.
87. (fl)
31. (fl) iiS;
1.00- CHAPTER 4 2
(fo) 31.97207 u.
33. 0.862 MeV. 1* 13AI, /3 , ifSi.
T= 500K 35. 0.9612 MeV, 0.9612 MeV, 0 ,0 . 3. Yes, because Q = 4.807 M eV.
37. 5.31 MeV. 5. 5.701 M eV released.
39. (a) 1.5 X 10-10 yr-1 ; 7. ( a) Yes;
2.00 (fo) 6.0 h. (fo) 20.8 MeV.
41. 0.16. 9. 4.730 MeV.
43. 0.015625. 11. n + 14N —» U6C + p, 0.626 M eV .
45. 6.9 X 1019 nuclei. 13. (a) The H e has picked up a neutron
47. (a) 3.59 X 1012 decays/s; from the C;

(fo) 3.58 X 1012 decays/s; (b) n6C;


(c ) 9.51 X 107 decays/s. (c) 1.856 MeV, exotherm ic.

49. 0.76 g. 15. 18.000938 u.


2.00 17. 0.671 MeV.
51. 2.30 X 1 0 -n g.
53. 4.3 m in. 19. + R 2f .
21. 10 cm.
55. 2.98 X 10“2g.
23. 173.3 MeV.
57. 35.4 d.
25. 6 X 1018 fissions/s.
59. 2i R a , 2i A c , 2ig T h ,2^ R a ,2igRn;
239oTh,
,jTh, 229il
39lP a ,2g A c , 2i 7o T h,2i R a . 27. 0.34 g.

61. N d = N q(1 - e~xt). 29. 5 X 10-5 kg.


31. 25 collisions.
63. 2.3 X 104 yr.
2.00 33. 0.11.
65. 41 yr.
35. 3000 eV.
69. 6.647i/2 .
39. (fl) 5.98 X 1023 M eV /g ,
71. (fo) 98.2%.
4.83 X 1023 M eV /g ,
73. 1 MeV. 2.10 X 1024 M eV /g;
75. ( a) ^ylr; (fo) 5.13 X 1023 M eV /g; Eq. 42-9a
(b) gives about 17% more energy per
gram, 42-9b gives about 6% less,
and 42-9c gives about 4X more.
1.00 2.00 41. 0.35 g.
E/Ef
43. 6100 k g /h .
45. 2.46 X 109 J, 50 tim es m ore than
gasoline.
CHAPTER 41
47. (fo) 26.73 MeV;
1. 0.149 u. (c ) The higher excited state.
(c) 1.943 MeV, 2.218 MeV,
3. 0.85%. 77. 550 M eV , 2.5 X 1012J. 7.551 MeV, 7.296 MeV,
5. 3727 M e V /c 2. 79. 2.243 MeV. 2.752 MeV, 4.966 MeV;
7. (fo) 180 m; (c) 2.58 X 10“10m. 81. (fl) 2.4 X 105 yr; (d) larger Coulom b repulsion to
9. 30 MeV. (fo) no significant change, maximum overcome.
11. 6 X 1026 nucleons, no, mass o f all age is on the order o f 105 yr. 49. 4.0 Gy.
nucleons is approxim ately the same. 83. 5.49 X 10“4. 51. 220 rad.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A -4 5


53. 280 counts/s. 27. 69.3 MeV. 65. v/c = 1 - (9.0 X 109).
55. 1.6 days. 29. K ao = 8.6 MeV, K n- = 57.4 MeV. 67.
57. (a) xg X e + pr + v\ 31. 52.3 MeV. 5.0 t

(b) 31 d; 33. 9keV.


(c) 8 X 10-12 kg. 35. 7.5 X 10“21 s.
59. 8.3 X 10“7 G y/d. 37. (a) 700 eV;
61. ( a) 2gPo; (b) 70 MeV.
(b) radioactive, alpha and beta 39. (a) uss; 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0
decay, 3.1 min; * 0 s)
(b) dss.
2.3 fi s,3.1%.
(c) chemically reactive; 41. (a) Proton;
(d) 9.1 X 106 Bq, 4.0 X 104Bq. (b) 2 CHAPTER 4 4
63. 7.041 m, radio wave. (c) K- 1. 3.1 ly.
65. (fl) 126C; (d) Tr­ 3. 0.050", 20 pc.
(b) 5.701 MeV. ie) D 5 5. Less than, a factor of 2.
67. 1.0043:1. 43. cs. 7. 0.037.
69. 6.5 X 10-2 rem/yr. 45. 9. 2 X 10-3 kg/m 3.
71. 4.4 m.
11. -0 .0 9 2 MeV, 7.366 MeV.
73. (a) 920 kg;
13. 1.83 X 109 kg/m 3, 3.33 X 105 times.
(b) 3 X 106 Ci.
15. Dx/D 2 = 0.15.
75. ( a) 3.7 X 1026W;
19. 540°.
(b) 3.5 X 1038 protons/s;
21. 3.1 X 10-16 m.
(c) 1.1 X 10n yr.
23. 200 Mly.
77. 8 X 1012J.
25. (fl) 656 nm;
79. ( a) 3700 decays/s;
(b) 659 nm.
(b) 4.8 X 10_4Sv/yr, yes (13% of 47. (fl) 0.38 A;
27. 0.0589 c.
the background rate). (b) 1.0 X 102 m /s.
31. 1.1 X 10“3 m.
81. 121A MeV. 49. 2.1 X 109 m, 7.1 s.
33. 6 nucleons/m 3.
83. 79 yr. 51. (fl) Possible, strong interaction;
35. (a) 10“5 s;
85. 2mCi. (b) possible, strong interaction;
(b) 10“7 s;
(c) possible, strong interaction;
(c) 10“4 s.
CHAPTER 43______________________ (d) not possible, charge is not
37. (a) 6380 km, 20 km, 8.85 km;
1. 5.59 GeV. conserved;
(b) 700:2:1.
3. 2.0 T. (e) possible, weak interaction.
5. 13 MHz. 55. 64. 39. 8 X 1 0 9.
7. Alpha particles, 57. ( b) 1029K. 41. A: Temperature increases,
A-a ~ ^nucleon? ~ 2rfnucle0n • 59. 798.7 MeV, 798.7 MeV. luminosity stays the same,
and size decreases;
9. 5.5 T. 61. 16 GeV, 7.8 X 10“17m.
B: Temperature stays the same,
11. 1.8 X 10“19m. 63. Some possibilities:
and luminosity and size decrease;
15. 33.9 MeV. ir- TT~ C: Temperature decreases,
17. 1879.2 MeV. ud uu uu ud and luminosity and size increase.
19. 67.5 MeV.
43. 2 X 1028N.
21. ( a) 178.5 MeV;
45. ^480/^660 = 1-7.
(b) 128.6 MeV. uud ddu udu udd
47. 2 X 1016 K, hadron era.
23. ( a) Charge, strangeness; p n p n
49. (a) 13.93 MeV;
(b) energy; or [see Example 43-9b] (b) 4.7 MeV;
(c) baryon number, strangeness, Tj-0 ,,-0 7r- (c) 5.5 X 1010 K.
spin.
51. R min = G M /c2.
25. (b) The photon exists for such a
53. ~ 10-15 s.
short time that the uncertainty
principle allows energy to not 55. Venus, Z>yenus/fosirius — 16.
be conserved during the h2
57.
exchange. Aml/3 GMl/3 V4tt2

A -46 Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems


Index
Note: The abbreviation defn means the Active solar heating, 550 polarizing, 943^14
page cited gives the definition of the Activity, 1118 radian measure of, 249
term; fn means the reference is in a and half-life, 1120 of reflection, 410,838
footnote; pr means it is found in a source, 1147 of refraction, 415,850
Problem or Q uestion;/f means “also the Addition of vectors, 52-58 solid, 7 fn, 915 fn
following pages.” Addition of velocities: Angstrom (A ) (unit), 17 pr, 852 fn
classical, 71-74 Angular acceleration, 251-56,258-63
relativistic, 970-71 constant, 255
A (atomic mass number), 1105 Adhesion, 360 Angular displacement, 250,381
Aberration: Adiabatic lapse rate, 525 pr Angular frequency, 373
chromatic, 889 fn, 892,932 Adiabatic processes, 508,514-15 Angular magnification, 886
of lenses, 891-92,929,931 ADP, 1076-77 Angular momentum, 285-89,291-300,1003
spherical, 843,857,891,892,932 AFM, 1039 in atoms, 1004,1046-49,1057-60
Absolute pressure, 345 AGN, 1197 conservation, law of, 285-89,297-98,
Absolute space, 953,957 Air bags, 31 1117
Absolute temperature scale, 457, Air cleaner, electrostatic, 645 pr directional nature of, 288-89,291 f f
464,469-70 Air columns, vibrations of, 434-36 nuclear, 1107
Absolute time, 953 Air conditioners, 537-38 of a particle, 291-92
Absolute zero, 464,549 Air parcel, 525 pr quantized in atoms, 1046-47
Absorbed dose, 1148 Air pollution, 551 quantized in molecules, 1080-81
Absorption lines, 936,1002,1081,1084-85 Air resistance, 34-35,129-30 relation between torque and, 292-97
Absorption spectra, 936,1002,1084 Airplane wing, 356-57 total, 1059
Absorption wavelength, 1008 Airy disk, 929 and uncertainty principle, 1023
Abundances, natural, 1105 Alkali metals, 1054 vector, 288,291
A c circuits, 664-65,677 fn, 790-803 Allowed transitions, 1048-49,1080-81, Angular position, 249,1023
A c generator, 766-67 1083,1084 Angular quantities, 249 f f
A c motor, 720 Alpha decay, 1111-14,1117 vector nature, 254
Accelerating reference frames, 85,88, and tunneling, 1038,1113 Angular velocity, 250-55
155-56,300-2 Alpha particle (or ray), 1038,1111-14 of precession, 299-300
Acceleration, 24-42,60-62 Alternating current (ac), 664-65,677 fn, Anisotropy of CMB, 1214,1220
angular, 251-56,258-63 796-803 Annihilation (e_e+, particle-antiparticle),
average, 24-26 Alternators, 768 996,1175,1217
centripetal, 120 f f AM radio, 830 Anode, 620
constant, 28-29,62 Amino acids, 1079 Antenna, 812,817,824,831,909
constant angular, 255 Ammeter, 695-97,721 Anthropic principle, 1225
Coriolis, 301-2 digital, 695,697 Anticodon, 1079
cosmic, 1223 Amorphous solids, 1085 Antilogarithm, A-3
in g ’s, 37 Ampere, Andre, 654,737 Antimatter, 1175,1188,1190 p r (see also
due to gravity, 34-39,87 fn, 92,143-45 Ampere (A ) (unit), 654,736 Antiparticle)
instantaneous, 27-28,60-61 operational definition of, 736 Antineutrino, 1115—16,1179
of the Moon, 121,140 A m pere’s law, 737-43,813-17 Antineutron, 1175
motion at constant, 28-39,62-71 Amplifiers, 1097 Antinodes, 412,433,434,435
radial, 1 20//, 128 Amplitude, 371,397,404 Antiparticle, 1116,1174-76,1179 (see also
related to force, 86-88 intensity related to, 430 Antimatter)
tangential, 128-29,251-52 pressure, 427 Antiproton, 1164,1174-75
uniform, 28-39,62-71 of vibration, 371 Antiquark, 1179,1183
variable, 39-43 of wave, 371,397,402,404,426,430,1019 Apparent brightness, 1197-98
Accelerators, particle, 1165-71 Amplitude modulation (AM ), 830 Apparent magnitude, 1228 pr
Accelerometer, 100 Analog information, 775 Apparent weight, 148-49,350
Acceptor level, 1094 Analog meters, 695-97,721 Apparent weightlessness, 148-49
Accommodation of eye, 883 Analyzer (of polarized light), 941 Approximations, 9-12
Accuracy, 3-5 Anderson, Carl, 1174 Arago, F., 922
precision vs., 5 Andromeda, 1196 Arches, 327-28
Achromatic doublet, 892 Aneroid barometer, 347 Archimedes, 349-50
Achromatic lens, 892 Aneroid gauge, 347 Archimedes’ principle, 348-52
Actinides, 1054 Angle, 7 fn, 249 and geology, 351
Action at a distance, 154,568 attack, 356 Area, 9, A -l, inside back cover
Action potential, 670 Brewster’s, 943,949 pr under a curve or graph, 169-71
Action-reaction (N ewton’s third law), critical, 854 Arecibo, 931
89-91 of dip, 709 Aristotle, 2,84
Activation energy, 481,1075,1077 of incidence, 410,415,838,850 Armature, 720,766
Active galactic nuclei (A G N ), 1197 phase, 373,405,800 Arteriosclerosis, 359

Index A -47
Artificial radioactivity, 1111 Average position, 1034 Bell, Alexander Graham, 428
A S A number, 879 fn Average speed, 20,480-82 Bernoulli, Daniel, 354
Associative property, 54 Average velocity, 20-22,60 Bernoulli’s equation, 354-58
Asteroids, 159 pr, 162 pr, 210 pr, Average velocity vector, 60 Bernoulli’s principle, 354-57
247 pr, 308 pr Avogadro, A m edeo, 468 Beta decay, 1111,1114-16,1117,1121,1185
Astigmatism, 884,892,892 fn Avogadro’s hypothesis, 468 inverse, 1202
Astronomical telescope, 888-89 Avogadro’s number, 468-69 Beta particle (or ray), 1111,1114 (see also
Astrophysics, 1193-1225 Axial vector, 254 fn Electron)
Asymptotic freedom, 1185 Axis, instantaneous, 268 Betatron, 782 pr
ATLAS, 1170 Axis of rotation (defn), 249 Bethe, Hans, 1143
Atmosphere, scattering of light by, 945 Axis of lens, 867 Biasing and bias voltage, 1095,1097
Atmosphere (atm) (unit), 345 Axon, 669-70 Bicycle, 181 pr, 281 pr, 283 pr, 289,295,
Atmospheric pressure, 344-48 309 pr
decrease with altitude, 344 Big Bang theory, 1188,1193,1212-25
A tom trap, 1013 pr, 1016 pr Back, forces in, 337 pr Big crunch, 1220,1221
Atomic bomb, 1141,1144 Back emf, 768-69 Bimetallic-strip thermometer, 457
Atomic emission spectra, 936,1002 Background radiation, cosmic Binary system, 1203,1209
Atomic force microscope (AFM ), 1039 microwave, 1193,1213-15,1219, Binding energy:
Atomic mass, 455,1024-27 1220,1224 in atoms, 1006
Atomic mass number, 1105 Bainbridge-type mass spectrometer, 724 in molecules, 211 pr, 1073,1075,1077
Atomic mass unit, 7,455 Balance, human, 318 of nuclei, 1108-9
unified, 1106 Balance a car wheel, 296 in solids, 1086
Atomic number, 1052,1054-56,1105 Ballistic galvanometer, 783 pr total, 985 pr, 1108
Atomic spectra, 1001-3,1006-8 Ballistic pendulum, 226 Binding energy per nucleon (defn), 1108
Atom ic structure: Balloons: Binoculars, 855,889
Bohr model of, 1003-9,1017,1044-46 helium, 467 Binomial expansion, A -l, inside back
of complex atoms, 1052-54 hot air, 454 cover
early models of, 1000-1 Balmer, J. J., 1002 Biological damage by radiation, 1146-47
of hydrogen atoms, 1045-51 Balmer formula, 1002,1007 Biological evolution, and entropy, 545
nuclear model of, 1001 Balmer series, 1002,1007-8 Biot, Jean Baptiste, 743
planetary model of, 1001 Band gap, 1091-92 Biot-Savart law, 7 4 3 ^ 5
quantum mechanics of, 1044-65 Band spectra, 1080,1084-85 B ismuth-strontium-calcium-copper oxide
shells and subshells in, 1053-54 Band theory of solids, 1090-92 (BSCCO), 669
Atomic theory of matter, 455-56,559 and doped semiconductors, 1094 Bits, 775
Atomic weight, 455 fh Banking of curves, 126-27 Blackbody, 988
Atoms, 455-56,468-69,476-82,486-90, Bar (unit), 345 Blackbody radiation, 987-88,1198,1214
1000-10 Bar codes, 1063 Black holes, 156,160 pr, 161 pr, 1197,
angular momentum in, 1004,1046-49, Barn (bn) (unit), 1136 1202,1203,1208-9,1221,1228 pr
1057-60 Barometer, 347 Blood flow, 353,357,359,361,366 pr,
binding energy in, 1006 Barrel distortion, 892 453 pr
Bohr model of, 1003-9 Barrier, Coulomb, 1038,1113,1200 Blood-flow measurement,
as cloud, 1045 Barrier penetration, 1036-39,1113 electromagnetic, 453 pr, 765
complex, 1052-54 Barrier tunneling, 1036-39,1113 Blue sky, 945
crystal lattice of, 1085 Baryon, 1179-80,1183,1184,1222 Blueshift, 1211
and de Broglie’s hypothesis, 1009-10 and quark theory, 1183,1184 Body fat, 368 pr
distance between, 456 Baryon number, 1175,1179-80,1182-83, Bohr, Niels, 997,1 0 0 3 ^ , 1009,1017,
electric charge in, 561 1187,1217 1024-25,1115
energy levels in, 1003-9,1046-47, conservation of, 1175 Bohr magneton, 1057,1107
1052-53,1055 Base, nucleotide, 581,1078 Bohr model of atom, 1003-9,1017,
hydrogen,1002-10,1045-51 Base, of transistor, 1097 1044-45,1046
ionization energy in, 1006-8 Base bias voltage, 1097 Bohr radius, 1005,1044,1045,1049-50
neutral, 1106 Base quantities, 7 Bohr theory, 1017,1044-45,1046
probability distributions in, 1045, Base semiconductor, 1097 Boiling, 485 (see also Phase, changes of)
1049-51 Base units (defn), 7 Boiling point, 457,485,503
quantum mechanics of, 1044-65 Baseball, 82 pr, 163,303 pr, 310 pr, 357, Boltzmann, Ludwig, 546
shells and subshells in, 1053-54 1023 Boltzmann constant, 468,547
vector model of, 1069 pr Baseball curve, and Bernoulli’s principle, Boltzmann distribution, 1061
(see also Atom ic structure; Kinetic 357 Boltzmann factor, 1061,1088
theory) Basketball, 82 pr, 105 pr Bomb:
ATP, 1076-77 Battery, 609,652-53,655,658,678 atomic, 1141,1144
Attack angle, 356 automobile, charging, 678 fn, 686-87 fission, 1141
Attractive forces, 1074-75,1171 chargers, inductive, 780 pr fusion, 1144
A tw ood’s machine, 99,279 pr, 295 Beam splitter, 914 hydrogen, 1144
Audible range, 425 Beams, 322,323-26 Bond (defn), 1072-73
Aurora borealis, 717 Beat frequency, 438-39 covalent, 1072-73,1074,1085,1086
Autofocusing camera, 426 Beats, 438-39 dipole-dipole, 1077
Autoradiography, 1152 Becquerel, Henri, 1110 dipole-induced dipole, 1077
Average acceleration, 24-26 Becquerel (Bq) (unit), 1147 hydrogen,1077-80
Average acceleration vector, 60 Bel (unit), 428 ionic, 1073,1075,1085,1086

A -48 Index
Bond (icontinued) Cable television, 832 Cell (biological):
metallic, 1086 Calculator errors, 4 energy in, 1077
molecular, 1071-74 Calculator LCD display, 944 radiation taken up by, 1147
partially ionic and covalent, 1074 Caloric, 497 Cell (electric), 653,678
in solids, 1085-86 Calories (unit), 497 Cell phone, 771,812,824,832
strong, 1072-74,1077-78,1085-86 relation to joule, 497 Celsius temperature scale, 457-58
van der Waals, 1077-80,1086 Calorimeter, 501,1124,1125 Center of buoyancy, 364 pr
weak, 1077-80,1086 Calorimetry, 500-5 Center of gravity (CG), 232
Bond energy, 1072-73,1077 Camera, digital and film, 878-82 Center of mass (CM), 230-36
Bond length, 1077,1099 pr autofocusing, 426 and angular momentum, 293
Bonding: gamma, 1152 and moment of inertia, 259,264,
in molecules, 1071-74 Camera flash unit, 636 268-71
in solids, 1085-86 Cancer, 1147,1150-51,1166 and sport, 192,193
Born, Max, 1017,1019 Candela (cd) (unit), 915 and statics, 313
Bose, Satyendranath, 1053 Cantilever, 315 and translational motion, 234-36,
Bose-Einstein statistics, 1087 fn Capacitance, 629-42 268-9
Bosons, 1053, 1087/w, 1178,1179, of axon, 670 Centi- (prefix), 7
1183-86 Capacitance bridge, 646 pr Centigrade scale, 457-58
Bottomness and bottom quark, 1119 fn, Capacitive reactance, 798-99 Centiliter (cL) (unit), 7
1182-83 Capacitor discharge, 690-91 Centimeter (cm) (unit), 7
Bound charge, 641 Capacitor microphone, 699 pr Centipoise (cP) (unit), 358
Bound state, 1035 Capacitors, 628-42,1098 Centrifugal (pseudo) force, 123,300
Boundary conditions, 1030,1035 charging of, 813-15 Centrifugal pump, 361
Bow wave, 443-44 in circuits, 633-35,687-92, Centrifugation, 122
Box, rigid, 1030-34 798-99 Centripetal acceleration, 120 f f
Boyle, Robert, 464 energy stored in, 636-38 Centripetal force, 122-24
B oyle’s law, 464,477 as filters, 798-99 Cepheid variables, 1204,1226 pr
Bragg, W. H., 939 reactance of, 798-99 CERN, 1168,1169,1186
Bragg, W.L., 939,1017 with R or L, 687-92,793 f f Cgs system o f units, 7
Bragg equation, 939 in series and parallel, 633-35 Chadwick, James, 1105,1162 pr
Bragg peak, 1151 uses of, 799 Chain reaction, 1137-39,1141
Bragg scattering of X-rays, 1065 Capacity, 629-42,670 Chamberlain, Owen, 1175
Brahe, Tycho, 149 Capillaries, 353,360 Chandrasekhar limit, 1201
Brake, hydraulic, 346 Capillarity, 359-60 Change of phase (or state), 482-86,
Braking a car, 32,174,272-73 Capture, electron, 1116 502-5
LED lights to signal, 1096 Car: Characteristic expansion time, 1213
Branes, 1189 battery charging, 686-7 Characteristic X-rays, 1055
Brayton cycle, 557 pr brake lights, 1096 Charge, 506 f f (see Electric charge)
Breakdown voltage, 612 power needs, 203 Charge, free and bound, 641
Break-even (fusion), 1145 stopping of, 32,174,272-73 Charge density, 596
Breaking point, 319 Carbon (CNO) cycle, 1143,1161 pr Charge-coupled device (CCD), 878
Breaking the sound barrier, 444 Carbon dating, 1104,1122-24 Charging a battery, 678 fn, 686-87
Breath, molecules in, 469 Carnot, N. L. Sadi, 533 Charging by induction, 562-63
Breeder reactor, 1140 Carnot cycle, 533 Charles, Jacques, 464
Bremsstrahlung, 1056 Carnot efficiency, 534 Charles’s law, 464
Brewster, D., 943,949 pr and second law of thermodynamics, Charm, 1179 fn, 1182-84
Brewster’s angle and law, 943, 534-35 Charmed quark, 1182
949 pr Carnot engine, 533-35 Chemical bonds, 1072-80
Bridge circuit, 704 pr Carnot’s theorem, 535 Chemical lasers, 1063
Bridge-type full-wave rectifier, Carrier frequency, 830 Chemical reactions, rate of, 481
1099 pr Carrier of force, 1171-73,1185 Chemical shift, 1157
Bridges, 324-27,335 pr, 386 Caruso, Enrico, 386 Chernobyl, 1139
Brightness, apparent, 1197-98 Cassegrainian focus, 889 Chimney, and Bernoulli effect, 357
British engineering system of units, 7 CAT scan, 1153-54,1156 Chip, computer, 16 pr, 1071,1094,1098
Broglie, Louis de, 997,1009 Catalysts, 1077 Cholesterol, 359
Bronchoscope, 856 Cathedrals, 327 Chord, 23,250
Brown, Robert, 455 Cathode, 620 Chromatic aberration, 889 fn, 892,932
Brownian motion, 455 Cathode ray tube (CRT), 620-21,723, Chromatography, 490
Brunelleschi, Filippo, 328 831 Chromodynamics, quantum (Q CD),
Brushes, 720,766 Cathode rays, 620,721-22 {see also 1173,1184-87
BSCCO, 669 Electron) Circle of confusion, 880,881
Btu (unit), 497 Causal laws, 152 Circuit, digital, 1097
Bubble chamber, 1125,1174 Causality, 152 Circuit, electric (see Electric circuits)
Bulk modulus, 319,321 Cavendish, Henry, 141,144 Circuit breaker, 662-63,694,747,776
Buoyancy, 348-52 CCD, 878 Circular apertures, 929-31
center of, 364 pr CD player, 1063 Circular motion, 119-29
Buoyant force, 348-49 CDs, 44 pr, 45 pr, 920 pr, 935,1063 nonuniform, 128-29
Burglar alarms, 992 CDM m odel o f universe, 1224 uniform, 119-25
Burning (= fusion), 1200 fn C DM A cell phone, 832 Circulating pump, 361

Index A -49
Classical physics ( defn), 2,952,1018 Compass, magnetic, 707-8,709 Confinement:
Clausius, R. J. E., 529,539 Complementarity, principle of, 997 in fusion, 1145-46
Clausius equation of state, 487 Complementary metal oxide of quarks, 1185,1217
Clausius statement of second law of semiconductor (CMOS), 647 pr, Conical pendulum, 125
thermodynamics, 529,537 878 Conservation of energy, 183 f f 189-201,
Closed system {defn), 500 Complete circuit, 654 506-7,1026,1112,1115,1117,1176
Closed tube, 434 Completely inelastic collisions, 225 in collisions, 222-25
Cloud, electron, 1045,1051,1072-74 Complex atoms, 1052-56 Conservation laws, 163,190
Cloud chamber, 1125 Complex quantities, 1019 fn, 1025 fn, of angular momentum, 285-89,297-98
Cloud color, 945 1028 apparent violation of, in beta decay,
Clusters, of galaxies, 1196,1220,1224 Complex wave, 408,436 1115
of stars, 1196 Components of vector, 55-59 of baryon number, 1175,1187,1217
CM, 230-36 (see Center of mass) Composite particles, 1178,1179,1183 and collisions, 217-19,222-29
CMB, 1193,1213-15,1219,1220,1224 Composite wave, 408,436 of electric charge, 560,1117,1175
CMB anisotropy, 1214,1220,1224 Composition resistors, 657 in elementary particle interactions,
CMB uniformity, 1220 Compound lenses, 892 1172,1175-76
CMOS, 647 pr, 878 Compound microscope, 890-91 of energy, 189-201,506-7,1026,1112,
CNO cycle, 1143,1161 pr Compound nucleus, 1136-37 1115,1117,1176
CO molecule, 1082 Compounds, 455 fn of lepton number, 1175-76,1187,1217
Coal, energy in, vs. uranium, 1140 Compression (longitudinal wave), 398,401 of mechanical energy, 189-95
Coating of lenses, optical, 913-14 Compressive stress, 321 of momentum, 217-29,1175-76
Coaxial cable, 740,789,825 Compton, A . H., 994,1017,1138 in nuclear and particle physics, 1117,
COBE, 1214 Compton effect, 994-95,996,1146 1175
Coefficient: Compton shift, 994 in nuclear processes, 1115
of kinetic friction, 113-14 derivation of, 995 of nucleon number, 1117,1175-76,1180
of linear expansion, 459-63 Compton wavelength, 994 of strangeness, 1181
of performance (COP), 537,538 Computed tomography (CT), 1153-54, Conservative field, 775
of restitution, 243 pr 1156 Conservative forces, 184-85
of static friction, 113-14 Computer: Conserved quantity, 163,190
of viscosity, 358 and digital information, 775 Constant acceleration, 28-29,62
of volume expansion, 460,461 disks, 775 Constant angular acceleration, 255
Coherence, 906 hard drive, 253,775 Constant, normalization, 1032
Coherent light, 906,1061,1064 keyboard, 631 Constants, values of: inside front cover
Cohesion, 360 memory, 644 pr Constant-volume gas thermometer, 458
Coil (see Inductor) monitor, 621,943 Constructive interference, 410-11,437,
Cold dark matter (CDM ) model of printers, 582-83 904 # 9 1 3 ,1 0 7 2
universe, 1224 Computer chips, 16 pr, 1071,1094,1098 Contact force, 84,92,95
Collector (of transistor), 1097 Computer-assisted tomography (CAT), Contact lens, 885
Collider D etector at Fermilab (CDF), 1153-54,1156 Continental drift, 351
1125 Computerized axial tomography (CAT), Continuity, equation of, 353
Colliding beams, 1169-71 1153-54,1156 Continuous laser, 1063
Collimated beam, 1152/h , 1153 Concave mirror, 842,846-48,889 Continuous spectrum, 935,988
Collimated gamma-ray detector, 1152 Concentration gradient, 489,516 fn Continuous wave, 397
Collision: Concordance model, 1216 Control rods, 1139
completely inelastic, 225 Concrete, prestressed and reinforced, Convection, 517
conservation of energy and momentum 323 Conventional current (defn), 655
in, 217-19,222-29 Condensation, 484 Conventions, sign (geometric optics),
elastic, 222-25 Condensed-matter physics, 1085-98 845-46,849,871
and impulse, 220-21 Condenser microphone, 699 pr Converging lens, 866 f f
inelastic, 222,225-27,238 Condition, boundary, 1030,1035 Conversion factors, 8, inside front cover
nuclear, 225,228-29 Conductance, 675 pr Converting units, 8-9
Colloids, 340 Conduction: Convex mirror, 842,848^-9
Colonoscope, 856 charging by, 562-63 Conveyor belt, 236-37,244 pr
Color: electrical, 561,651-97 Coordinate axes, 19
in digital camera, 878 of heat, 515-17,525 pr Copenhagen interpretation of quantum
of light related to frequency and in nervous system, 669-70 mechanics, 1024
wavelength, 852-4,903,906,912 Conduction band, 1091-92 Copier, electrostatic, 569,582-83
of quarks, 1184-85 Conduction current (defn), 816 Cord, tension in, 97
of star, 988,1199 Conduction electrons, 561 Core, of reactor, 1139
Color charge, 1184-85 Conductivity: Coriolis acceleration, 301-2
Color force, 1185-86,1187 electrical, 659,668 Coriolis force, 301
Color-corrected lens, 892 thermal, 515 Cornea, 883
Coma, 892 Conductors: Corona discharge, 612,645 pr
Common logarithms, A -2-A -3 charge of, 1094 Corrective lenses, 883-85
Commutative property, 53,167,290 electric, 561,577,654 f f Correspondence principle, 980,1009,
Commutator, 720 heat, 516 1018
Compact disc (C D) player, 1063 quantum theory of, 1091-92 Cosmic acceleration, 1223
Compact disc (or disk), 44 pr, 45 pr, 920 pr, Cones, 882 Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),
935,1063 Configuration, electron, 1053-54 1214

A -50 Index
Cosmic microwave background radiation Dark energy, 1175,1219,1221-23 Detergents and surface tension, 360
(CMB), 1193,1213-15,1219,1220, Dark matter, 1189,1219,1221-23 Determinism, 152,1024-25
1224 Dating, geological, 1123-24 Deuterium, 1105,1132,1138,1142-45
anisotropy of, 1214,1220,1224 Dating, radioactive, 1122-24 Deuterium-tritium fusion (d -t), 1144-45
uniformity of, 1214,1220 Daughter nucleus (defn), 1111 Deuteron, 1132
Cosmic rays, 1165 Davisson, C. J., 998 D ew point, 486
Cosmological constant, 1223,1224 dB (unit), 428-31 Diagrams:
Cosmological model, 1216-19,1224 D c (defn), 664 Feynman, 1172,1185
Cosmological principle, 1212 D c circuits, 677-97 force, 95
perfect, 1213 D c generator, 767,768 free-body, 95-96,102
Cosmological redshift, 1211 D c motor, 720 H -R , 1199,1204
Cosmology, 1188,1193-1225 de Broglie, Louis, 997,1009,1017,1018 phase, 483
Coulomb, Charles, 563 de Broglie wavelength, 997-98,1009-10, phasor, 800,907,925,937
Coulomb (C) (unit), 564,737 1019,1025,1165-66 potential, energy, 1074-77
operational definition of, 737 applied to atoms, 1009-10 PT,483
Coulomb barrier, 1038,1113,1200 D ebye (unit), 617 PV, 482-83,487,507
Coulomb potential (defn), 613 D ebye equation, 527 pr, 558 pr ray, 844,849,871
Coulomb’s law, 563-67,593-94,600,817, Decay, 1110 for solving problems, 30,58,64,96,
1076 alpha, 1038,1111-14,1117 102,125,166,198,229,261,314,571,
vector form of, 567 beta, 1111,1114-16,1117,1121,1185,1202 849,871
Counter emf, 768-70 of elementary particles, 1175-86 Diamagnetism, 749-50
Counter torque, 769 exponential, 688-90,791,1118-19 Diamond, 855
Counters, 1124-25 gamma, 1111,1116-17 Dielectric constant, 638
Covalent bond, 1072-73,1074,1085,1086 proton, 1179,1187-88 Dielectric strength, 638
Creativity in science, 2-3 radioactive, 1110-26 Dielectrics, 6 3 8 ^ 0
Credit card swipe, 776 rate of, 1118-20 molecular description of, 640-42
Crick, F , 939 types of radioactive, 1111,1117 D iesel engine, 508,527 pr, 553 pr
Critical angle, 854 Decay constant, 1117-18 Differential cross section, 1136
Critical damping, 383 Decay series, 1121-22 Differential equation (defn), 372
Critical density, of universe, 1221-22 Deceleration, 26 Diffraction, 901,921-39,1062
Critical mass, 1138^11 Decibels (dB) (unit), 428-31 by circular opening, 929-30
Critical point, 483 Declination, magnetic, 709 as distinguished from interference,
Critical reaction, 1138-41 Decommissioning nuclear power plant, 929
Critical temperature, 483,668 1140 in double-slit experiment, 927-29
Cross product, vector, 289-91 D ecoupled photons, 1215,1219 of electrons, 998-9
Cross section, 1135-37 D ee, 1166-67 Fraunhofer, 922 fn
Crossed Polaroids, 941-42 D efects of the eye, 883-85,892 Fresnel, 922 fh
CRT, 620-21,723,831 Defibrillator, heart, 638,692 fn of light, 901,921-39
Crystal lattice, 456,1085 Definite integrals, 41, A-7 as limit to resolution, 929-33
Crystallography, 939 Degeneracy: by single slit, 922-27
CT scan, 1153-54,1156 electron, 1201 X-ray, 938-39
Curie, Marie, 1017,1110 neutron, 1202 o f water waves, 416
Curie, Pierre, 750,1110 Degradation of energy, 545-46 Diffraction factor, 928
Curie (Ci) (unit), 1147 Degrees of freedom, 512-13 Diffraction grating, 933-35
Curie temperature, 746,750 Dehumidifier, 558 pr resolving power of, 937-38
Curie’s law, 750 D el operator, 618 fn, A-12 Diffraction limit of lens resolution,
Curl, A-12 Delayed neutrons, 1139 929-30
Current, electric (see Electric current) D elta particle, 1181 Diffraction patterns, 922
Current, induced, 758-76,785 f f Demagnetization, 749 of circular opening, 929
Current density, 666-68 Demodulator, 831 of single slit, 922-27
Current gain, 1097 Dendrites, 669 X-ray, 938-39
Current sensitivity, 695 Density, 3 4 0 ^ 1 Diffraction spot or disk, 929-30
Curvature of field, 892 charge, 596 Diffuse reflection, 839
Curvature of space, 155-56,1207-9, and floating, 351 Diffusion, 489-90
1220-22 probability, 1019,1028,1031,1036, Fick’s law of, 489
Curvature of universe (space-time), 1045,1048-49,1051,1072 Diffusion constant, 489
1207-9,1220-21 Density of occupied states, 1088 Diffusion equation, 489
Curves, banking of, 126-27 Density of states, 1087-90 Diffusion time, 490
Cutoff wavelength, 1055-56 Density of universe, 1221-22 Digital ammeter, 695,697
Cycle (defn), 371 Depth of field, 880 Digital artifact, 878
Cyclotron, 731 pr, 1166-67 Derivatives, 22-23,27, A-6, inside back Digital camera, 878-82
Cyclotron frequency, 715,1167 cover Digital circuits, 1097
Cygnus X -l, 1209 partial, 189,406 Digital information, 775
Derived quantities, 7 Digital video disk (D V D ) players, 1063
Destructive interference, 410,437,904, Digital voltmeter, 695,697
DAC, 706 pr 913,914,1072 Digital zoom, 882
Damage, done by radiation, 1146-47 D etection of radiation, 1124-26,1149 Digital-to-analog converter (DAC),
Damping and damped harmonic motion, Detectors, of particles and radiation, 706 pr
382-85 1124-26 Dilation, time, 960-64,970

Index A-51
Dimensional analysis, 12-13,16 pr, 134 pr, Doppler, J. C., 439 fn Einstein cross, 1207
135 pr, 418 pr, 1015 pr, 1228 pr, A-8 Doppler effect: Einstein ring, 1207
Dimensions, 12-13 for light, 443,978-80,1210 EKG, 609,621
Diodes, 1038,1095-96,1125 for sound, 439-43 Elapsed time, 20-21
forward-biased, 1095 Doppler flow meter, 442,453 pr Elastic collisions, 222-25
junction, 1097 Dose, 1147-50 Elastic cross section, 1135
lasers, semiconductor, 1063 effective, 1148 Elastic limit, 319
light-emitting (LED), 1096 Dosimetry, 1147-50 Elastic moduli, 319
photo-, 992,1096 D ot (scalar) product, 167-68 and speed of sound waves, 400
reverse-biased, 1095 Double-slit experiment (electrons), 1018, Elastic potential energy, 188 f f
semiconductor, 1094-96 1019-20 Elastic region, 319
tunnel, 1038 Double-slit experiment (light), 903-6 Elastic scattering, 1135
zener, 1095 intensity in pattern, 906-9,927-29 Elasticity, 318-22
Diopter (D ) (unit), 868 Down quark, 1182 El Capitan, 77 pr, 363 pr
Dip, angle of, 709 Drag force, 129-30,356,368 pr Electric battery, 609,652-53,655,658,
D ipole antenna, 817-18 DRA M , 644 pr, 647 pr 678
D ipole layer, 669 Drift velocity, 666-68,723,724 Electric car, 675 pr
D ipole-dipole bonds, 1077 Dry cell, 653 Electric cell, 653,678
D ipole-induced dipole bonds, 1077 Dry ice, 483 Electric charge, 560 f f
D ipoles and dipole moments: d -t (deuterium-tritium) fusion, in atom, 561
of atoms, 1057-60 1144-45 bound and free, 641
electric, 576,579-80,617,641 Duality, wave-particle, 997-9,1009-10 conservation of, 560,1117,1175
magnetic, 718-19,745 Dulong and Petit value, 513 continuous charge distributions, 572-75
of nuclei, 1107 Dust, interstellar, 1196 and Coulomb’s law, 563-67
Dirac, P. A . M., 1017,1047,1087 fn, 1174 D VD player, 1063 of electron, 564
Dirac equation, 1174 Dwarfs, white, 1197,1199,1201-2 elementary, 564
Direct current (dc), 664 (see also Electric D ye lasers, 1063 free, 641
current) Dynamic lift, 356-57 induced, 562-63,641
Discharge, capacitor, 690-91 Dynamic random access memory motion of, in electric field, 578-79
Discharge, corona, 612,645 pr (D R A M ), 644 pr, 647 pr motion of, in magnetic field, 714-17
Discharge tube, 1002 Dynamics, 19,84 f f point (defn), 565
Discovery in science, 722 fluid, 352-61 quantization of, 564
Disintegration, 1110 hydro-, 352 test, 568
Disintegration energy (defn), 1112 of rotational motion, 258 f f types of, 560
Disorder and order, 544-45 of uniform circular motion, 122-25 Electric circuits, 654-5,662-5,677-97,
Dispersion, 409,853 Dynamo, 766-68 790-803
Displacement, 20-21,371,380,404 D yne (unit), 87 ac, 664-5,677 fn, 796-803
angular, 250,381 Dynodes, 1124 complete, 654
resultant, 52-53 containing capacitors, 633-35,687-92,
vector, 20,52-54,59-60 798 f f
in vibrational motion, 371 Ear: dc, 677-97
of wave, 404 ff, 1019 discomfort, altitude, 367 pr digital, 1097
Displacement current, 816 response of, 431 impedance matching of, 802-3
Dissipative forces, 196-98 Earth: induced, 758-76,785 f f
energy conservation with, 197-99 as concentric shells, 142-43, A -9-A -11 integrated, 1098
Dissociation energy, 1073 estimating radius of, 11,15 pr and Kirchhoff’s rules, 683-86
Distance: as inertial frame, 85,137 pr, 145-46 L C , 793-96
astronomical, 1194,1197,1199,1203-4 magnetic field and magnetic poles of, L R ; 790-92
image, 840,845,857,870-71 709 LRC, 795-803
object, 840,845,857,870-71 mass, radius, etc.: inside front cover open, 654
relativity of, 964-70 mass determination, 144 parallel, 633,663,680
Distortion, by lenses, 892 precession of axis, 303 pr RC, 687-92
Distribution, probability: rocks and earliest life, 1124 rectifier, 1096
in atoms, 1019,1028,1031,1036,1045, Earthquake waves, 401,402,403,416 resonant, 802
1048-49,1051 Eccentricity, 150 series, 634,679
in molecules, 1072 ECG, 609,621 time constants of, 688,791
Distributive property, 167,290 Echolocation, 400 Electric conductivity, 659,668
Diver, 286 Eddy currents (electric), 770 in nervous system, 669-70
Divergence, A-12 Eddy currents (fluids), 352 Electric current, 651,654-58,662-69,
Divergence theorem, A-12 Edison, Thomas, 620 683 f f
Diverging lens, 867 f f Effective cross section, 1135 alternating (ac), 664-65,677 fn,
D N A , 581-82,936,939,1077-80,1147, Effective dose, 1148 796-803
1152 Effective values, 664-65 conduction (defn), 816
Domains, magnetic, 746 Efficiency, 203,531,534 conventional, 655
Domes, 328 Carnot, 534 density, 666-68
D onor level, 1094 and Otto cycle, 536 direct (dc) (defn), 664
D oor opener, automatic, 992 Einstein, Albert, 155,455,513,952,954, displacement, 816
Doorbell, 747 957-58,961,969,989,1017,1141, eddy, 770
Doping of semiconductors, 1093 f f 1205-8,1223 hazards of, 692-94

A -52 Index
Electric current (continued) Electricity, 559-836 Electrostatics, 560-642
induced, 759 hazards of, 692-94 Electroweak force, 155,559 fn, 1186-88
leakage, 694 Electricity, static, 559 f f Electroweak theory, 1186-88
magnetic force on, 710-19 Electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG), 609,621 Elementary charge, 564
microscopic view of, 666-68 Electrochemical series, 652 Elementary particle physics, 1164-89
and Ohm’s law, 655-58 Electrode, 653 Elementary particles, 1164-89
peak, 664 Electrolyte, 653 Elements, 455 fn, 1053-54
produced by magnetic field, 759-60 Electromagnet, 747 in compound lenses, 892
produces magnetic field, 710-13,746 Electromagnetic energy, 1168 origin of in universe, 1201-2
rms, 664-65 Electromagnetic force, 155,717,1118, Periodic Table of, 1053-54, inside back
(see also Electric circuits) 1171-73,1178-79,1186-88,1205 cover
Electric dipole, 576,579-80,617,641 Electromagnetic induction, 758 f f production of, 1201-2
Electric energy, 607-9,619-20,636-38, Electromagnetic oscillations, 793-96, transmutation of, 1111,1132-35
660-62 802 transuranic, 1134
stored in capacitor, 636-38 Electromagnetic pumping, 726 pr Elevator and counterweight, 99
stored in electric field, 637-38 Electromagnetic spectrum, 823,852-54 Ellipse, 150
Electric energy resources, 550 Electromagnetic (EM) waves, 817-32 EM waves, 817-32 (see also Light)
Electric field, 568-83,591-600,610-12, (see also Light) Emf, 678-79,758-66,767,768
617-19,775 Electrometer, 563 back, 768-69
calculation of, 568-75,595-600,610-11, Electromotive force (emf), 678-79, counter, 768-69
617-19 758-67,768 (see also Emf) of generator, 766-69
and conductors, 577,655 fn Electron: Hall, 723-24
continuous charge distributions, as beta particle, 1111,1114 induced, 758-69,789
572-75 as cathode rays, 620,721 motional, 765-66
in dielectric, 63 9 ^ 0 charge on, 564,722-23 and photons, 1172
of and by dipole, 579-80 cloud, 1045,1051,1072-74 RC circuit with, 689
in EM wave, 817-18 conduction, 561 series and parallel, 686-87
energy stored in, 637-38 defined, 999 sources of, 678,758-68
and Gauss’s law, 591-600 discovery of, 721-23 Emission spectra, 987-88,1001-3,1005-8
inside a wire, 668 in double-slit experiment, 1019-20 atomic, 936,1002
motion of charged particle in, 578-79 as elementary particle, 1175-76 Emission tomography, 1156
produced by changing magnetic field, free, 561,1029,1086,1092 Emissivity, 518
759-60,773-75 mass of, 723,1107 Emitter (transistor), 1097
produces magnetic field, 813-16 measurement of charge on, 723 Emulsion, photographic, 1125
relation to electric potential, 610-12, measurement of e/m, 722-23 Endoergic reaction (defn), 1133
617-19 momentum of, 972 Endoscopes, 856
Electric field lines, 575-76,616 motion of, in electric field, 578-79 Endothermic reaction (defn), 1133
Electric flux, 592-93,814 in pair production, 996 Energy, 163,172-76,183-200,222-29,
Electric force, 559,563-67,717 path in magnetic field, 715 265-69,505-7,607 f f
Coulomb’s law for, 563-67 photoelectron, 992 activation, 481,1075,1077
and ionization, 1146 speed of, 666-68 and ATP, 1076-77
in molecular biology, 581-82,1077-80 spin, 746 binding, 985 pr, 1006,1073,1075,1077,
Electric generator, 766-68 wave nature, 1020 1108-9
Electric hazards, 692-94 wavelength of, 998 bond, 1072-73,1077
Electric motor, 720 Electron capture, 1116 conservation of, 189-201,506-7,1026,
counter emf in, 768-69 Electron cloud, 1045,1051,1072-74 1112,1115,1117,1176
Electric plug, 693-94 Electron configuration, 1053-54 dark, 1165,1175,1219,1222,1223
Electric potential, 607-18 Electron degeneracy, 1201 degradation of, 545-46
of dipole, 617 Electron diffraction, 998-99 disintegration, 1112
due to point charges, 612-15 Electron gun, 621 dissociation, 1073
equipotential surfaces, 616-17 Electron lepton number, 1176,1179,1183 electric, 607-9,619-20,636-38,660-63
relation to electric field, 610-12, Electron microscope, 987,1000,1021, in EM waves, 817,818,826-27,1168
617-19 1038-39,1043 pr equipartition of, 512-13
(see also Potential difference) Electron neutrino, 1178,1179 Fermi, 1087-89,1092
Electric potential energy, 607-10,619-20, Electron sharing, 1072 and first law of thermodynamics,
636-38 Electron spin, 746,1047,1058-60,1072 505-7
Electric power, 660-63 Electron volt (eV) (unit), 619-20,1107 geothermal, 550
in ac circuits, 665,790,792,797,798, Electrons, sea of, 1174 gravitational potential, 186-88,191,
801,802,803 Electronic circuits, 1095-98 194-95,199-201
generation, 766-68 Electronic devices, 1093-98 internal, 196,498-99
in household circuits, 662-63 Electronic pacemakers, 692,787 ionic cohesive, 1086
and impedance matching, 802-3 Electroscope, 562-63,652 fn ionization, 1006,1008
transmission of, 770-73 Electrostatic air cleaner, 645 pr kinetic, 172-73,265-69,974-6
Electric quadrupole, 589 pr Electrostatic copier, 569,582-83 and mass, 974-78
Electric shielding, 577,740 Electrostatic force, 563-67,581-82,1077 mechanical, 189-95
Electric shock, 692-94 defined, 565 molecular kinetic, 478-79
Electric stove burner, 660 potential energy for, 607-8 nuclear, 530 fn, 550,1131-59
Electric vehicle, 675 pr Electrostatic potential energy, 619-20 nucleotide, 1078
Electrical grounding, 562,655 Electrostatic unit (esu), 564 fn photon, 989-93

Index A -53
Energy ( continued ) second condition for, 313 Fahrenheit temperature scale, 457-58
potential, 186-89,607-10,619-20, stable, 204-5,317 Falling objects, 34-39
636-38 (see also Electric potential; static, 311-24 Fallout, radioactive, 1141
Potential energy) thermal, 459 False-color image, 1154
quantization of, 989,1003-9,1031 unstable, 205,317 Fan-beam scanner, 1153-54
reaction (defn), 1133 Equilibrium distance, 1077,1099 pr Far field, 818
relation to work, 172-76,186,197-99, Equilibrium position (vibrational Far point of eye, 883
265-67,978 motion), 370 Farad (F) (unit of capacitance), 629
relativistic, 974-8 Equilibrium state, 463 Faraday, Michael, 154,568,758-60
rest, 974-76,1023 Equipartition of energy, 512-13 Faraday cage, 577
rotational, 265-67 and ff, 499,1080-82, Equipotential lines, 616-17 Faraday’s law of induction, 760-61,
1084-85 Equipotential surface, 616-17 773-74,817
in simple harmonic motion, 377-78 Equivalence, principle of, 155-56,1205-6 Farsightedness, 883,884
solar, 550 Erg (unit), 164 Femtometer (fm) (unit), 1106
thermal, 196,498 Escape velocity, 201,1222 Fermat’s principle, 864 pr
threshold, 1134,1163 pr Escher drawing, 206 pr Fermi, Enrico, 12,997,1018,1053,1087 fn,
total binding, 985 pr Estimated uncertainty, 3 1115,1134,1138,1180-81
transformation of, 196,201 Estimating, 9-12 Fermi (fm) (unit), 1106
translational kinetic, 172-74 Eta (particle), 1179 Fermi-Dirac probability function, 1088,
unavailability of, 545-46 Ether, 954-57 1092
and uncertainty principle, 1022-23,1036 Euclidean space, 1207-8 Fermi-Dirac statistics, 1087-90
units of, 164,173,256 European Center for Nuclear Research Fermi energy, 1087-90,1092
vacuum, 1223 (CERN), 1168,1169,1186 Fermi factor, 1088
vibrational, 377-78,499,1082-85 Evaporation, 484 Fermi gas, 1087
zero-point, 1031,1036-37,1042 pr, 1083 and latent heat, 505 Fermi level, 1087-90
Energy bands, 1090-92 Event, 958 f f Fermi speed, 1089
Energy conservation, law of, 189-201, Event horizon, 1209 Fermi temperature, 1102 pr
506-7,1026,1112,1115,1117,1176 Everest, Mt., 6 ,8,144,161 pr, 364 pr, 485 Fermilab, 1164,1168,1169
Energy density: Evolution: Fermions, 1053, 1087,1184
in electric field, 638,639 and entropy, 545 Ferromagnetism and ferromagnetic
in magnetic field, 790,826 stellar, 1200-3 materials, 708,746-49
Energy gap, 1091-92 Exact differential, 506 fh Feynman, R., 1172
Energy levels: Exchange particles (carriers of force), Feynman diagram, 1172,1185
in atoms, 1003-9,1046-48 1171-73 Fiber optics, 855-56
for fluorescence, 1060 Excited state: Fick’s law of diffusion, 489
for lasers, 1061-64 of atom, 996,1005 f f Fictitious (inertial) forces, 300-1
in molecules, 1080-85 of nucleon, 1181 Field, 154
nuclear, 1116-17 of nucleus, 1116-17 conservative and nonconservative, 775
in solids, 1090-91 Exclusion principle, 1052-53,1072,1087, electric, 568-83,591-600,610-12,
in square well, 1031 1089,1184,1201,1202 617-19,775 (see also Electric field)
Energy states, in atoms, 1003-9 Exoergic reaction (defn), 1133 in elementary particles, 1171
Energy transfer, heat as, 497 Exothermic reaction (defn), 1133 gravitational, 154,156,576,1205-9
Engine: Expansion: Higgs, 1186
diesel, 508,527 pr, 553 pr free, 510-11,542,548 magnetic, 707-17,733-50 (see also
internal combustion, 530-32,535-36 linear and volume, 318-21 Magnetic field)
power, 202-3 thermal, 459-62 vector, 575
steam, 530 of universe, 1209-13,1221-23 Film badge, 1125
Enriched uranium, 1138 Expansions, mathematical, A-1 Film speed, 879 fn
Entire universe, 1216 Expansions, in waves, 398 Filter circuit, 799,810 pr, 811 pr
Entropy, 539-48 Exponential curves, 688-90,791,1118-19 Fine structure, 1017,1044,1047,1060
and biological evolution, 545 Exponential decay, 688-90,791,1118-19 Fine structure constant, 1060
as order to disorder, 544-45 Exponents, A-1, inside back cover Finite potential well, 1035-36
and second law of thermodynamics, Exposure time, 879 First law of motion, 84-85
541—48 Extension cord, 663 First law of thermodynamics, 505-7
as a state variable, 540 External force, 218,234 applications, 507-11
statistical interpretation, 546-48 Extragalactic (defn), 1196 extended, 507
and tim e’s arrow, 544 Extraterrestrials, possible communication Fission, 550
Enzymes, 1077 with, 834 pr nuclear, 1136-41
Equally tempered chromatic scale, 431 Eye: Fission bomb, 1141
Equation of continuity, 353 aberrations of, 892 Fission fragments, 1136—40
Equation of motion, 372 accommodation, 883 Fitzgerald, G. F., 957
Equation of state, 463 defects of, 883-85,892 Flasher unit, 691
Clausius, 487 far and near points of, 883 Flashlight, 659
ideal gas, 466 lens of, 883 Flatness, 1220
van der Waals, 486-87 normal (defn), 883 Flavor (of elementary particles), 1177,
Equilibrium (defn), 204-5,311,312-13,317 resolution of, 930,932-33 1184
first condition for, 312 structure and function of, 882-85 Flavor oscillation, 1177
force in, 312-13 Eyeglass lenses, 883-85 Flip coil, 783 pr
neutral, 205,317 Eyepiece, 888 Floating, 351

A -54 Index
Flow: in N ewton’s laws, 83-102,215,218, of vibration, 371,382,412
of fluids, 352-61 234-35 of wave, 397
laminar, 352 nonconservative, 185 Frequency modulation (FM), 830,
meter, Doppler, 442,453 pr normal, 92-94 831 fn
streamline, 352 nuclear, 155,212 pr, 1110,1115, Fresnel,A .,922
in tubes, 353-55,357,358-59 1171-89,1205 Fresnel diffraction, 922 fn
turbulent, 352,357 pseudoforce, 300-1 Friction, 85,113—19
Flow rate, 353 relation of momentum to, 215-16,218, coefficients of, 113-14
Fluid dynamics, 352-61 220-21,235,236,972,974 force of, 85-87,113-19
Fluids, 339-61 (see also Flow of fluids; repulsive, 1074-75,1171 helping us to walk, 90
Gases; Liquids; Pressure) resistive, 129-30 kinetic, 113 f f
Fluorescence, 1060 restoring, 170,370 rolling, 113,273-74
Fluorescent lightbulb, 1060 short-range, 1110,1205 static, 114,270
ballast, 773 strong nuclear, 155,1110, 1134 fh, Fringe shift, 956
Flux: 1171-89,1205 Fringes, interference, 904-6,956,1065
electric, 592-93,814 types of, in nature, 155,559 fn, 1173, Frisch, Otto, 1136
magnetic, 760 ff, 773-75,816,820 1188 /-stop (defn), 879
Flying buttresses, 327 units of, 87 Fulcrum, 313
Flywheel, 266,281 pr van der Waals, 1077-80,1086 Full-scale current sensitivity, 695
FM radio, 830-31,831 fn velocity-dependent, 129-30 Full-wave rectifier, 1096,1099 pr
/-number, 879 viscous, 358-59 Fundamental constants: inside front cover
Focal length: weak nuclear, 155,1110,1115,1173-89, Fundamental frequency, 413,432,433-35
of lens, 867-68,875,876-77,882,883 1205 Fundamental particles, 1178-79,1183,1186
of spherical mirror, 8 4 2 ^ 3 ,8 4 8 (see also Electric force; Magnetic force) Fuse, 662-63
Focal plane, 867 Force diagrams, 95 Fusion, nuclear, 1141-46
Focal point, 842-43,848,867-68,883 Force pumps, 348,361 in stars, 1142-44,1200-1
Focus, 843 Forced oscillations, 385-87 Fusion bomb, 1144
Focusing, of camera, 879-80 Forward biased diode, 1095 Fusion reactor, 1144^16
Football kicks, 66,69 Fossil-fuel power plants, 550
Foot-candle (defn), 915 fn Foucault, J., 902
Foot-pounds (unit), 164 Four-dimensional space-time, 967,1207 g-factor, 1058
Forbidden energy gap, 1091 Fourier analysis, 436 Galaxies, 1194-97,1209-12,1219,1220,
Forbidden transitions, 1049,1061 fn, Fourier integral, 408 1222-24
1083 fn, 1084 Fourier’s theorem, 408 black hole at center of, 160 pr, 161 pr,
Force, 83-102,155,184-85,215,234-35, Fovea, 882 1197,1209
1173,1188 Fracture, 322-23 clusters of, 1196,1220,1224
addition of, 95,143 Frame of reference, 19,85,300-2,952 f f mass of, 1195
attractive, 1074—75,1171 accelerating, 85,88,155-56,300-2 origin of, 1220,1224
buoyant, 348-49 inertial, 8 5 ,8 8 ,3 0 0 , 952 f f redshift of, 1210-11
centrifugal (pseudo), 123,300 noninertial, 85,88,156,300-2,952 superclusters of, 1196-97
centripetal, 122-24 rotating, 300-2 Galilean telescope, 887,887 fn, 889
color, 1185-86,1187 transformations between, 968-71 Galilean transformation, 968-69
conservative, 184-85 Franklin, Benjamin, 560,600 Galilean-Newtonian relativity, 952-54,
contact, 84,92,95 Franklin, Rosalind, 939 968-69
Coriolis, 301 Fraunhofer diffraction, 922 fn Galileo, 2 ,1 8 ,3 4 ,5 1 ,6 2 ,8 4 -8 5 ,3 46,348,
definition of, 87 Free-body diagrams, 95-96,102 380,457,825,839,887,887 fn, 952,
diagram, 95 Free charge, 641 968,1194
dissipative, 196-98 Free-electron theory of metals, 1086-90 Galvani, Luigi, 652
drag, 129-30,356,368 pr Free electrons, 561,1029,1086,1092 Galvanometer, 695-96,721,783 pr
electromagnetic, 155,717,1118, Free expansion, 510-11,542,548 Gamma camera, 1152
1171-73,1178-79,1186-88,1205 Free fall, 34-39,148 Gamma decay, 1111,1116-17
electrostatic, 563-67,581-82,1077 Free particle, and Schrodinger equation, Gamma particle, 1111,1116-17,1146,
electroweak, 155,559 fn, 1188 1025-29 1171
in equilibrium, 312-13 Freezing (see Phase, changes of) Gamma ray, 1111,1116-17,1146,1171
exerted by inanimate object, 90 Freezing point, 457 fn, 503 Gamow, George, 951,1214
external, 218,234 Frequency, 121,253,371,397 Gas constant, 466
fictitious, 300-1 angular, 373 Gas laws, 463-65
of friction, 85-87,113-19 of audible sound, 425,431 Gas lasers, 1063
of gravity, 84,92-94,140-156,1173, beat, 438-39 Gas vs. vapor, 483
1188,1189,1193,1202,1205-9,1221, of circular motion, 121 Gas-discharge tube, 1002
1223 collision, 494 pr Gases, 340,463-90
impulsive, 221 cyclotron, 1167 adiabatic expansion of, 514-15
inertial, 300-1 fundamental, 413,432,433-35 Fermi, 1087
long-range, 1110,1205 infrasonic, 426 ideal, 465-70,476 f f
magnetic, 707,710-19 of light, 823,853,854 kinetic theory of, 476-90
measurement of, 84 natural, 374,385,412 molar specific heats for, 511-12
in muscles and joints, 278 pr, 315,330 pr, resonant, 385,412-13 real, 482-87
331 pr, 332 pr, 336 pr, 337 pr of rotation, 253 Gate, 1097
net, 85-88,95 f f ultrasonic, 426,445 Gauge bosons, 1165,1178-79,1183-85

Index A -55
Gauge pressure, 345 Gravitational lensing, 1206-7 Heart, 361
Gauge theory, 1186 Gravitational mass, 155-56,1205-6 defibrillator, 638,648 pr, 692
Gauges, pressure, 347 Gravitational potential, 609,617 pacemaker, 692,787
Gauss, K. F., 591 Gravitational potential energy, 186-88, Heartbeats, number of, 12
Gauss (G) (unit), 712 199-201 Heat, 196,496-528
Gauss’s law, 591-600 and escape velocity, 201 calorimetry, 500-5
for magnetism, 816,817 Gravitational redshift, 1211 compared to work, 505
Gauss’s theorem, A-12 Gravitational slingshot effect, 246 pr conduction, 515-17
Gay-Lussac, Joseph, 464 Gravitino, 1189 convection, 517
Gay-Lussac’s law, 464,468,469 Graviton, 1173,1189 distinguished from internal energy and
Geiger counter, 627 pr, 1124 Gravity, 3 4 -3 9 ,9 2 ,1 3 9 # 1173,1188, temperature, 498
Gell-Mann, M., 1182 1193.1202.1223 as energy transfer, 497
General motion, 230,267-74,292-93 acceleration of, 34-39,87 fn, 92, in first law of thermodynamics, 505-7
General theory of relativity, 155-56,1193, 143-45 of fusion, 502
1205-7 center of, 232 latent, 502-5
Generator: and curvature of space, 1205-9 mechanical equivalent of, 497
ac, 766-67 effect on light, 1206-7,1209 radiation, 517-20
dc, 767,768 force of, 84,92-94,140-56,1173, of vaporization, 502
electric, 766-68 1188,1189,1193,1202,1205-9, Heat capacity, 522 pr (see also Specific heat)
emf of, 766-69 1221.1223 Heat conduction to skin, 525 pr
Van de Graaff, 607 ,621 pr free fall under, 34-39,148 Heat death, 546
Genetic code, 1079 specific, 341 Heat engine, 529,530-32,1139
Geodesic, 1207 Gravity anomalies, 144 Carnot, 533-35
Geological dating, 1123-24 Gravity waves, 1224 efficiency of, 531-32
Geometric optics, 838-91 Gray (Gy) (unit), 1148 internal combustion, 530-31,532
Geometry, A-2 Greek alphabet: inside front cover operating temperatures, 530
Geosynchronous satellite, 147 Grimaldi, F., 901,906 steam, 530-31
Geothermal energy, 550 Ground fault, 776 temperature difference, 531
Germanium, 1093 Ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI), Heat of fusion, 502
Germer, L. H., 998 694,776 Heat of vaporization, 502
GFCI, 694,776 Ground state, of atom, 1005 Heat pump, 536,538-39
Giants, red, 1197,1199,1201 Ground wire, 693,694 Heat reservoir, 508
Glaser, D. A ., 1125 Grounding, electrical, 562,655 Heat transfer, 515-20
Glashow, S., 1186 Groves, Leslie, 1141 conduction, 515-17
Glasses, eye, 883-85 GSM, 832 convection, 517
Global positioning satellite (GPS), 16 pr, GUT, 155,1187-88 radiation, 517-20
160 pr, 964 Guth, A ., 1219 Heating element, 665
Global System for Mobile Gyration, radius of, 279 pr Heavy elements, 1201-2
Communication (GSM), 832 Gyromagnetic ratio, 1058 Heavy water, 1138
Global warming, 551 Gyroscope, 299-300 Heisenberg, W., 987,1017,1018
Glueballs, 1185 /h Heisenberg uncertainty principle,
Gluino, 1189 1020-23,1036,1072
Gluons, 1165,1173,1178,1179,1183, /j-bar (h), 1022,1048 and particle resonance, 1181
1184-86 Hadron era, 1217-18 and tunneling, 1113
Golf putt, 48 pr Hadrons, 1179,1182-85,1217 Helicopter drop, 51,70
GPS, 16 pr, 160 pr, 964 Hahn, Otto, 1136 Helium, 1052,1108,1111,1133,1142
Gradient: Hair dryer, 665 la n d 11,483
concentration, 489,516 fn Hale telescope, 889 balloons, 467
of electric potential, 618 Half-life, 1119-21 primordial production of, 1218,1219 fn
pressure, 359,516 fn Half-wave rectification, 1096 and stellar evolution, 1200-1
temperature, 516 Hall, E. H., 723 H elium -neon laser, 1062
velocity, 358 Hall effect, Hall emf, Hall field, Hall Helmholtz coils, 756 pr
Gradient operator (del), 618 fn probe, 723-24,1094 Henry, Joseph, 758
Gram (g) (unit), 7,87 Hall voltage, 1094 Henry (H) (unit), 786
Grand unified era, 1217 H ailey’s comet, 160 pr Hertz, Heinrich, 823
Grand unified theories (G UT), 155, Halogens, 1054 Hertz (Hz) (unit of frequency), 253,371
1187-88 Hard drive, 253 Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, 1199,
Graphical analysis, 40-43 Harmonic motion: 1204
Grating, 933-38 damped, 382-85 Higgs boson, 1186
Gravitation, universal law of, 139-43, forced, 386 Higgs field, 1186
199-201,564,1205 simple, 372-79 High-energy accelerators, 1165-71
Gravitational collapse, 1209 Harmonic oscillator, 372-79,1036, High-energy physics, 1165-89
Gravitational constant (G ), 141 1042 High-pass filter, 799,811 pr
Gravitational field, 154,156,576,1205-9 Harmonic wave, 405 Highway curves, banked and unbanked,
Gravitational force, 84,92-94,140-43 Harmonics, 413,432-35 126-27
and ff, 155,1118,1173,1188,1193, Hazards, electric, 692-94 Hiroshima, 1141
1202,1205-9,1223 Headlights, 609,661,677 H oles (in semiconductors), 1091-94,1097
due to spherical mass distribution, Hearing, 424-44 (see Sound) Hologram and holography, 1064-65
142-43, A -9-A -11 threshold of, 431 Hom ogeneous (universe), 1212

A -56 Index
H ooke, Robert, 318,910 fn as tiny diffraction pattern, 929-30 Instantaneous velocity, 22-24,60
H ooke’s law, 170,188,318,370 ultrasound, 445-46 Instantaneous velocity vector, 60
Horizon, 1216 virtual, 840,870 Insulators:
event, 1209 Image artifact, 878 electrical, 561,658,1091-92
Horizontal (defn), 92 fn Image distance, 840,845,857,870-71 thermal, 516,1091-92
Horizontal range (defn), 68 Imaging, medical, 445-46,1107,1152-59 Integrals, 3 9 ^ 3 ,1 6 9 -7 0 , A-6, A-7, A-12,
Horsepower, 202-3 Imbalance, rotational, 296-97 A-13, inside back cover
H ot air balloons, 454 Impedance, 798,800-3 definite, A-7
H ot wire, 693,694 Impedance matching, 802-3 Fourier, 408
Household circuits, 662-63 Impulse, 220-21 indefinite, A-6, A-7
H -R diagram, 1199,1204 Impulsive forces, 221 line, 169
HST (see Hubble Space Telescope) Inanimate object, force exerted by, 90 surface, A-13
Hubble, Edwin, 979,1196,1210 Inch (in.) (unit), 6 volume, A-12
Hubble age, 1213 Incidence, angle of, 410,415,838,850 Integrated circuits, 1098
Hubble parameter, 1210,1213 Incident waves, 410,4151 Integration by parts, 1034,1050, A-6, A-7
Hubble Space Telescope (HST), 930,1207, Inclines, motion on, 101 Intensity, 402-3,427 f f
1211 Incoherent source of light, 906 in interference and diffraction
Hubble Ultra D eep Field, 1211 Indefinite integrals, A -6-A -7 patterns, 906-9,924-28
Hubble’s constant, 1210 Indeterminacy principle, 1021 (see of light, 915,1019
Hubble’s law, 1210,1213,1223 Uncertainty principle) of Poynting vector, 827
Humidity, 485-86 Index of refraction, 850 of sound, 427-31
Huygens, G , 901 dependence on wavelength Interference, 410-11,437-8,903-14
Huygens’ principle, 901-3 (dispersion), 853 constructive, 410-11,437,904,913,914,
Hydraulic brake, 346 in Snell’s law, 851 1072
Hydraulic lift, 346 Induced current, 758-76,785 f f destructive, 410,437,904,913,914,1072
Hydraulic press, 364 pr Induced electric charge, 562-63,641 as distinguished from diffraction, 929
Hydrodynamics, 352 Induced emf, 758-66,789 of electrons, 1019-20,1072
Hydroelectric power, 550 counter, 768-69 of light waves, 903-14,928-29
Hydrogen atom: in electric generator, 766-68 of sound waves, 437-39
Bohr theory of, 1003-9 in transformer, 770-73 by thin films, 909-14
magnetic moment of, 719 Inductance, 786-89 of water waves, 411
populations in, 1070 pr in ac circuits, 790-803 wave-phenomenon, 903
quantum mechanics of, 1045-51 of coaxial cable, 789 of waves on a string, 410
spectrum of, 936,1002-3 mutual, 786-87 Interference factor, 928
Hydrogen bomb, 1141,1144 self-,788-89 Interference fringes, 904-6,956,1065
Hydrogen bond, 581,1077,1079 Induction: Interference pattern:
Hydrogen isotopes, 1105 charging by, 562-63 double-slit, 903-9,1019-20
Hydrogen molecule, 1072-75,1080,1083 electromagnetic, 758 f f including diffraction, 927-29
Hydrogen-like atoms, 1004 fn, 1008,1010 Faraday’s law of, 760-61,773-74,817 multiple slit, 933-36
Hydrometer, 351 Induction stove, 762 Interferometers, 914,954-57
Hyperopia, 883 Inductive battery charger, 780 pr Intermodulation distortion, 408 fn
Hysteresis, 748-49 Inductive reactance, 797 Internal combustion engine, 530-31,532
hysteresis loop, 748 Inductor, 788,1098 Internal conversion, 1117
in circuits, 790-803 Internal energy, 196,498-99
energy stored in, 790 distinguished from heat and
Ice skater, 284,286,309 pr reactance of, 797 temperature, 498
Ideal gas, 46 5 -7 0 ,4 7 6 .# 1089 Inelastic collisions, 222,225-29 of an ideal gas, 498-99
kinetic theory of, 476-90,1089 Inelastic scattering, 1135 Internal reflection, total, 421 pr, 854-56
Ideal gas law, 465-66,482 Inertia, 85 Internal resistance, 678-79
internal energy of, 498-99 moment of, 258-60 International Linear Collider (ILC),
in terms of molecules, 468-69 Inertial confinement, 1145,1146 1170
Ideal gas temperature scale, 469-70,534 Inertial forces, 300-1 International Thermonuclear
Identical (electrons), 1053 Inertial mass, 155,1205-6 Experimental Reactor (ITER), 1131,
Ignition: Inertial reference frame, 85,88,137 pr, 1146
automobile, 609,772 300,952 f f Interpolation, A-3
fusion, 1145 Earth as, 85,137 pr, 145-46 Interstellar dust, 1196
ILC, 1170 equivalence of all, 952-53,957 Intrinsic luminosity, 1197,1204
Illuminance, 915 transformations between, 968-71 Intrinsic semiconductor, 1091,1093
Image: Infinitely deep square well potential, Invariant quantity, 977
CAT scan, 1153-54,1156 1030-34 Inverse square law, 140/f, 403,429,563-4
false-color, 1154 Inflationary scenario, 1217,1219-21 Inverted population, 1062-63
formed by lens, 867 f f Infrared (IR) radiation, 823-24,852,936 Ion (defn), 561
formed by plane mirror, 838-41 Infrasonic waves, 426 Ionic bonds, 1073,1075,1085,1086
formed by spherical mirror, 842-49,889 Initial conditions, 373 Ionic cohesive energy, 1086
MRI, 1107,1158-59 Inkjet printer, 583 Ionization energy, 1006,1008
NMR, 1107,1156-59 In-phase waves, 411,904,910-14,933 Ionizing radiation (defn), 1146
PET and SPECT, 1156 Instantaneous acceleration, 27-28,60-61 IR radiation, 823-24,852,936
real, 840,844,869 Instantaneous acceleration vector, 60 Irreversible process, 533
seeing, 847,848,869 Instantaneous axis, 268 Iris, 882

Index A -57
ISO number, 879 fn molecular, relation to temperature, combination of, 874-75
Isobaric processes, 508 478-79,498-99,512-13 compound, 892
Isochoric processes, 508 of photon, 993 contact, 885
Isolated system, 218,500 relativistic, 974-78 converging, 866 f f
Isomer, 1117 rotational, 265-69 corrective, 883-85
Isotherm, 507 translational, 172-73 cylindrical, 884
Isothermal processes, 507-8 Kinetic friction, 113 f f diverging, 8 6 7 //
Isotopes, 725,1105-6,1110-11 coefficient of, 113 of eye, 883
mean life of, 1119 fn, 1129 pr Kinetic theory, 455,476-90 eyeglass, 883-85
in medicine, 1151-52 basic postulates, 477 eyepiece, 888
table of, A -14-A -17 boiling, 485 focal length of, 867,868,875,877
Isotropic (universe), 1212 diffusion, 489-90 magnetic, 1000
Isovolumetric (isochoric) process, 508 evaporation, 484 magnification of, 871
ITER, 1131,1146 ideal gas, 476-82 negative, 871
Iterative technique, 1155 kinetic energy near absolute zero, 480 normal, 882
of latent heat, 505 objective, 888,889,890
mean free path, 487-88 ocular, 890
J (total angular momentum), 1059 molecular speeds, distribution of, positive, 871
J/iff particle, 1023,1183 480-82 power of (diopters), 868
Jars and lids, 461,465 of real gases, 482-84 resolution of, 881,929-32
Jeans, J., 988 van der Waals equation of state, spherical, 858
Jets (particle), 1164 486-87 telephoto, 882
Jeweler’s loupe, 887 Kirchhoff, G. R., 683 thin (defn), 867
Joints, 324 Kirchhoff’s rules, 683-86,816 fn wide-angle, 882,892
method of, 325 junction rule, 684 f f zoom, 882
Joule, James Prescott, 497 loop rule, 684 f f Lens aberrations, 891-92,929,931
Joule (j) (unit), 164,173,256,619,620,661 Lens elements, 892
relation to calorie, 497 Lensmaker’s equation, 876-77
Joyce, James, 1182 fn Ladder, forces on, 317,338 pr Lenz’s law, 761-64
Jump start, 687 Lagrange, Joseph-Louis, 153 Lepton era, 1216,1218
Junction diode, 1097 Lagrange Point, 153 Lepton number, 1175-77,1179-80,1182,
Junction rule, Kirchhoff’s, 684 f f Lambda (particle), 1179,1181 1187
Junction transistor, 1097 Laminar flow, 352 Leptons, 1165,1171,1175-76,1178,1179,
Jupiter, moons of, 150,151,158 pr, Land, Edwin, 940 1182-83,1185-87,1189,1217
159-60,825,887 Lanthanides, 1054 Level:
Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 1168-70, acceptor, 1094
1189 donor, 1094
K-capture, 1116 Laser printer, 583 energy (see Energy levels)
K lines, 1056 Lasers, 1061-64 Fermi, 1087-90
K particle (kaon), 1179,1181 chemical, 1063 loudness, 431
Kant, Immanuel, 1196 gas, 1063 sound, 428-30
Kaon, 1179,1181 helium -neon, 1062 Level range formula, 68-69
Karate blow, 221 surgery, 1064 Lever, 177 pr, 313
Keck telescope, 889 Latent heats, 502-5 Lever arm, 256
Kelvin (K) (unit), 464 Lateral magnification, 845-46,871 LHC, 1168-70,1189
Kelvin temperature scale, 464,548-49 Lattice structure, 456,1085,1093,1097 Lids and jars, 461,465
Kelvin-Planck statement of the second Laue, Max von, 939 Lifetime, 1179 (see also Mean life)
law of thermodynamics, 532,535 Law (defn), 3 (see proper name) Lift, dynamic, 356-57
Kepler, Johannes, 149-50,887 fn Lawrence, E. O., 1166 Light, 823,825-6,837-946
Keplerian telescope, 887 fn, 888 Lawson, J. D., 1145 coherent sources of, 906
Kepler’s laws, 149-53,298 Lawson criterion, 1145 color of, and wavelength, 852-54,903,
Keyboard, computer, 631 L C circuit, 793-96 906,912
Kilo- (prefix), 7 LC oscillation, 793-96 dispersion of, 853
Kilocalorie (kcal) (unit), 497 LCD, 831,878^1,943-44 Doppler shift for, 443,978-80,1210
Kilogram (kg) (unit), 6,86,87 Leakage current, 694 as electromagnetic wave, 823-26
Kilometer (km) (unit), 7 LED, 1096 frequencies of, 823,853,854
Kilowatt-hour (kWh) (unit), 661 Length: gravitational deflection of, 1206-7,
Kinematics, 18^ 3 ,5 1 -7 4 ,2 4 8 -5 5 focal, 842-43,848,867-68,875,876-77, 1209
for rotational motion, 248-55 882,883 incoherent sources of, 906
translational motion, 18-43,51-74 Planck, 13,1216 infrared (IR), 823,824,852,936,948 pr
for uniform circular motion, 119-22 proper, 965 intensity of, 915,1019
vector kinematics, 59-74 relativity of, 964-70 monochromatic (defn), 903
Kinetic energy, 1 7 2 -7 5 ,1 8 9 # 265-69, standard of, 6,914 as particles, 902,989-97
974-76 Length contraction, 964-67,970 photon (particle) theory of, 989-97
of CM, 268-69 Lens, 866-92 polarized, 940-43,949 pr
in collisions, 222-23,225-26 achromatic, 892 ray model of, 838 ff, 867 f f
and electric potential energy, 608 axis of, 867 scattering, 945
of gas atoms and molecules, 478-79, coating of, 913-14 from sky, 945
498-99,512-13 color-corrected, 892 spectrometer, 935-36

A -58 Index
Light (icontinued) L R circuit, 790-92 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),
speed of, 6,822,825-26,850,902,953, L R C circuit, 795-96,799-801 1107,1158-59
957,975 Lumen (lm) (unit), 915 Magnetic susceptibility (defn), 749
total internal reflection of, 1038 Luminosity (stars and galaxies), 1197, Magnetic tape and disks, 775
ultraviolet (U V ), 823,824,852 1204 Magnetism, 707-90
unpolarized (defn), 940 Luminous flux, 915 Magnetization vector, 750
velocity of, 6,822,825-26,850,902,953, Luminous intensity, 915 Magnification:
951,915 Lyman series, 1002-3,1006,1007,1054 angular, 886
visible, 823,852-54 lateral, 8 45^ 6,871
wave, tunneling of, 1038 of lens, 871
wave theory of, 900-45 Mach, E., 443 fn of lens combination, 874-75
wavelengths of, 823,852-54,903,906, Mach number, 443 of magnifying glass, 885-87
912 Macroscopic description o f a system, 454, of microscope, 890-91,932,933,1000
wave-particle duality of, 997 456 of mirror, 845
white, 852-53 Macroscopic properties, 454,456 sign conventions for, 845-46,849,871
(see also Diffraction; Intensity; Macrostate of system, 546-47 of telescope, 888,931
Interference; Reflection; Refraction) Madelung constant, 1085-86 useful, 932-33,1000
Light meter (photographic), 992 Magellanic clouds, 1196 fn Magnifier, simple, 866,885-87
Light pipe, 855 Magnet, 707-9,746-47 Magnifying glass, 866,885-87
Light rays, 838 # 8 6 7 # domains of, 746 Magnifying mirror, 848
Lightbulb, 651,653,656,657,660,704 pr, electro-, 747 Magnifying power, 886 (see also
773,915,991 permanent, 746 Magnification)
fluorescent, 1060 superconducting, 747 total, 888
Light-emitting diode (LED), 1096 Magnetic bottle, 1145 Magnitude, apparent, o f star, 1228 pr
Light-gathering power, 889 Magnetic circuit breakers, 747 Magnitude of vector, 52
Lightning, 425,662 Magnetic confinement, 1145 Main sequence (stars), 1199-1201
Lightning rod, 612 Magnetic damping, 778 pr Majorana, Ettore, 1177 fn
Light-year (ly) (unit), 15 pr, 1194 Magnetic declination, 709 Majorana particles, 1177
Linac, 1169 Magnetic deflection coils, 621 Manhattan Project, 1141
Line integral, 169 Magnetic dipoles and magnetic dipole Manometer, 346
Line spectrum, 935-36,1002 # 1017 moments, 718-19,745,1057-59 Marconi, Guglielmo, 829
Line voltage, 665 Magnetic domains, 746 Mars, 150,151
Linear accelerator, 1169 Magnetic field, 707-17,733-50 Mass, 6,86-88,155
Linear expansion (thermal), 459-61 of circular loop, 744-45 atomic, 455,1024-27
coefficient of, 459-60 definition of, 708 center of, 230-33
Linear momentum, 214-35 determination of, 712-13,738-45 critical, 1138-41
Linear waves, 402 direction of, 708,710,716 of electron, 723,1107
Linearly polarized light, 940 # of Earth, 709 of Galaxy, 1195
Lines of force, 575-76,708 energy stored in, 790 gravitational vs. inertial, 155,1205-6
Liquefaction, 463-66,476,482 hysteresis, 748-49 and luminosity, 1198
Liquid crystal, 340,48 3 ,9 4 3 ^ 4 induces emf, 759-73 molecular, 455,465
Liquid crystal display (LCD), SIS fit, motion of charged particle in, 714-17 of neutrinos, 1177-78
943-44 produced by changing electric field, nuclear, 1106-7
Liquid scintillators, 1125 813-16 of photon, 993
Liquid-drop model, 625 pr, 1136-37 produced by electric current, 710, precise definition of, 88
Liquid-in-glass thermometer, 457 7 4 1-42, 143-46 (see also Am pere’s reduced, 1081
Liquids, 340 # 455-56 (see also Phase, law) in relativity theory, 974
changes of) produces electric field and current, rest, 974
Lloyd’s mirror, 919 pr 773-75 standard of, 6-7
Logarithms, A -2-A -3, inside back cover of solenoid, 741-42 table of, 7
Log table, A-3 sources of, 733-51 units of, 6-7 ,8 7
Longitudinal waves, 398 # of straight wire, 711-12,734-35 variable, systems of, 236-38
and earthquakes, 401 of toroid, 742 Mass excess (defn), 1129 pr
velocity of, 400-1 uniform, 709 Mass number, 1105
(see also Sound waves) Magnetic field lines, 708 Mass spectrometer (spectrograph),
Long-range force, 1110,1205 Magnetic flux, 760 # 773-75,816,820 724-25
Lookback time, 1197,1215 Magnetic force, 707,710-19 Mass-energy, distribution in universe,
Loop rule, Kirchhoff’s, 684 # on electric current, 710-14,718-19 1221-23
Lorentz, H. A ., 957,1017 on moving electric charges, 714-17 M ass-energy transformation, 974-78
Lorentz equation, 717 Magnetic induction, 710 (see also Mathematical expansions, A -l
Lorentz transformation, 969-71 Magnetic field) Mathematical signs and symbols: inside
Los Alamos laboratory, 1141 Magnetic lens, 1000 front cover
Loudness, 425,427,429 (see also Intensity) Magnetic moment, 718-19,745 Mather, John, 1214
Loudness control, 431 Magnetic monopole, 708,1221 Matter:
Loudness level, 431 Magnetic permeability, 734,748 anti-, 1175,1188,1190 pr
Loudspeakers, 375,428-29,720-21,799 Magnetic poles, 707-9 dark, 1165,1189,1219,1222,1223
concert time delay, 452 pr of Earth, 709 passage of radiation through, 1146-47
Loupe, jeweler’s, 887 Magnetic quantum number, 1046-47, states of, 340,455-56
Low-pass filter, 799,811 pr 1057 wave nature of, 997-99,1009-10

Index A -59
Matter waves, 997-99,1009-10,1019 f f Microscope, 890-91,931-33 Moment of inertia, 258-60
Matter-antimatter problem, 1188 atomic force, 1039 determining, 263-65,382
Matter-dominated universe, 1218,1219 compound, 890-91 parallel-axis theorem, 264-65
Maxwell distribution of molecular electron, 987,1000,1021,1038-39, perpendicular-axis theorem, 265
speeds, 480-82,547,1145 1043 pr Momentum, 214-38
Maxwell, James Clerk, 480,813,817, magnification of, 890-91,932,933,1000 angular, 285-89,291-300,1003
819-20,822,823,953-54 resolving power of, 932 center of mass (CM), 230-33
Maxwell’s equations, 813,817,819-22, scanning tunneling electron (STM), in collisions, 217-29
911 fn, 951,953,954,958,969 1038-39,1043 pr conservation of angular, 285-87,
differential form of, A -12-A -13 useful magnification, 932-33, lOOOar 297-98
in free space, A-13 Microscopic description of a system, 454, conservation of linear, 217-20,222-29,
Maxwell’s preferred reference frame, 4 5 6 ,4 7 6 # 235,1175-76
953-54 Microscopic properties, 454,456,476 f f linear, 214-38
Mean free path, 487-88 Microstate of a system, 546 of photon, 993
Mean life, 1119, 1129 pr, 1179 Microwave background radiation, relation of force to, 215-16,218,
of proton, 1188 cosmic, 1193,1213-15,1219,1220, 220-21,235,236,972,974
Measurements, 3-5 1224 relativistic, 971-73,977,978
of astronomical distances, 1194,1199, Microwaves, 824,1213-14 uncertainty in measurement of, 1021
1203-4 Milliampere (m A) (unit), 654 Monochromatic aberration, 892
of charge on electron, 723 Millikan, R. A ., 723,991 Monochromatic light (defn), 903
electromagnetic, o f blood flow, 453 pr, Millikan oil-drop experiment, 723 Moon, 1194
765 Millimeter (mm) (unit), 7 centripetal acceleration of, 121,140
of e/m, 722-23 Milky Way, 1194-95 force on, 140,142
of force, 84 Mirage, 903 work on, 167
precision of, 3-5,1020-22 Mirror equation, 845-49 Morley, E.W., 954-57
of pressure, 346-48 Mirrors, 839-49 Morse Potential, 1102 pr
of radiation, 1147-50 aberrations of, 889 fn, 891-92 Moseley, H. G. J., 1055
of speed of light, 825-26 concave, 842-49,889 M oseley plot, 1055
uncertainty in, 3-5,1020-23 convex, 8 4 2 ,8 48 ^ 9 Motion, 18-300,951-80
Mechanical advantage, 100,313,346 focal length of, 842-43,848 of charged particle in electric field,
Mechanical energy, 189-95 Lloyd’s, 919 pr 578-79
Mechanical equivalent of heat, 497 plane, 838-42 circular, 119-29
Mechanical oscillations, 369 used in telescope, 889 at constant acceleration, 28-39,
Mechanical waves, 395-416 Missing orders, 948 pr 62-71
Mechanics, 18-445 (see also Motion) Mr Tompkins in Wonderland (Gamow), damped, 382-85
definition, 19 951,982 description of (kinematics), 18-43,
Mediate, of forces, 1172 MKS (meter-kilogram-second) system 51-74
Medical imaging, 445-46,1107,1152-59 (defri),l in free fall, 34-39,148
Meitner, Lise, 1018,1136 mm-Hg (unit), 346 harmonic, 372-77,382-85
Melting point, 503-5 (see also Phase, Models, 2-3 on inclines, 101
changes of) Moderator, 1138-39 Kepler’s laws of planetary, 149-53,298
Mendeleev, Dmitri, 1053 Modern physics (defn), 2,952 linear, 18-43
Mercury barometer, 347 Modulation: N ew ton’s laws of, 8 4 -9 1 ,9 5 -9 6 ,1 1 2 #
Mercury-in-glass thermometer, 457-58 amplitude, 830 215,218,234,235,259-63,292-93,
Meson exchange, 1172-73 frequency, 830,831 fn 972,1018,1024,1025
Meson lifetime, 1023 Moduli of elasticity, 319,400 nonuniform circular, 128-29
Mesons, 1172,1173,1175-76,1178-79, Molar specific heat, 511-13 oscillatory, 369 f f
1180,1181,1183-84,1185 Mole (mol) (unit), 465 periodic (defn), 370
Messenger R NA (m -RNA), 1079-80 volume of, for ideal gas, 465 projectile, 51,62-71
Metal detector, 770 Molecular biology, electric force in, rectilinear, 18-43
Metallic bond, 1086 581-82,1077-80 and reference frames, 19
Metals: Molecular kinetic energy, 478-79,498-99, relative, 71-74,951-80
alkali, 1054 512-13 rolling, 267-73
free-electron theory of, 1086-90 Molecular mass, 455,465 rotational, 248-302
Metastable state, 1061,1117 Molecular rotation, 1080-81,1083-85 simple harmonic (SHM), 372-77
Meter (m) (unit), 6 Molecular spectra, 1080-85 translational, 18-239
Meters, electric, 695-97,721 Molecular speeds, 480-82 uniform circular, 119-25
correction for resistance of, 697 Molecular vibration, 1082-85 uniformly accelerated, 28-39
Metric (SI) multipliers: inside front cover Molecular weight, 455 fn at variable acceleration, 39-43
Metric (SI) system, 7 Molecules, 455,468-69,476-82,486-90, vibrational, 369 f f
Mho (unit), 675 pr 1071-85 of waves, 395-416
Michelson, A . A , 826,914,954-57 bonding in, 1071-74 M otion sensor, 448 pr
Michelson interferometer, 914,954-57 polar, 561,579,1074 Motional emf, 765-66
Michelson-M orley experiment, 954-57 potential energy diagrams for, Motor:
Microampere (A ) (unit), 654 1074-77 ac, 720
Micrometer, 10—11 spectra of, 1080-85 electric, 720
Microphones: weak bonds between, 1077-80 back emf in, 768-69
capacitor, 699 pr Moment arm, 256 Mountaineering, 106 pr, 110 pr, 137 pr,
magnetic, 775 Moment of a force about an axis, 256 182 pr

A -60 Index
Mt. Everest, 6,8,144,161 pr, 364 pr, 485 Newton (N) (unit), 87 Nucleon number, conservation of, 1117,
MP3 player, 677 Newtonian focus, 889 1175-76
MRI, 1107,1158-59 Newtonian mechanics, 83-156 Nucleosynthesis, 1200-1,1218
m-RNA, 1079-80 N ewton’s first law of motion, 84-85 Nucleotide bases, 581,1078
Mu meson (see Muon) N ewton’s law of universal gravitation, Nucleus, 1 1 0 5 #
Multimeter, 696 139,140-43,199-201,564,1205 compound, 1136-37
Multiplication factor, 1138-39 N ewton’s laws of motion, 84-91,95-96, daughter and parent (defn), 1111
Multiplication of vectors, 55,167-68, 112 # 215,218,234-35,259-63, half-lives of, 1117-21
289-91 292-93,972,1018,1024,1025 liquid-drop model of, 625 pr
Muon, 1164,1175-76,1178,1179 N ewton’s rings, 910-11 masses of, 1105-7
Muon lepton number, 1176-79,1183 N ewton’s second law, 86-88,90,95-96, radioactive decay of unstable, 1110-24
Muon neutrino, 1178,1179 215,218,234-35,953,972 size of, 1106
Muscles and joints, forces in, 278 pr, 315, for rotation, 259-63,292-93 structure and properties of, 1105-7
330 pr, 331 pr, 332 pr, 336 pr, 337 pr for a system of particles, 234-35, Nuclide (defn), 1105
Musical instruments, 413,422 pr, 424, 292-93 Null result, 954,957,969
431-36 N ewton’s synthesis, 152 Numerical integration, 40-43
Musical scale, 431 N ewton’s third law of motion, 89-91
Mutation, 1147 NMR, 1107,1156-59
Mutual inductance, 786-87 Noble gases, 1054,1086 Object distance, 840,845,857,870-71
Myopia, 883 Nodes, 412,433,434,435 Objective lens, 888,889,890,932
Nonconductors, 561,638-42,658 Observable universe, 1215-16
Nonconservative field, 775 Observations, 2,952
«-type semiconductor, 1093-96 Nonconservative forces, 185 and uncertainty, 1021
Nagasaki, 1141 Non-Euclidean space, 1207-8 Occhialini, G., 1173
Natural abundances, 1105 Noninductive winding, 788 Occupied states, density of, 1088
Natural frequency, 374,385,412 (see also Noninertial reference frames, 85,88,156, Oersted, H. C., 710
Resonant frequency) 300-2 Off-axis astigmatism, 892
Natural logarithms, A-2 Nonlinear device, 1096 Ohm, G. S., 655
Natural radioactive background, 1114,1148 Nonohmic device, 656 Ohm (fl) (unit), 656
Natural radioactivity, 1111 Nonreflecting glass, 913-14 Ohmmeter, 696,721
Nd:YAG laser, 1063 Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, 1026, Ohm’s law, 655-58,668,680,685
Near field, 818 1028 Oil-drop experiment, 723
Near point, of eye, 883 Nonuniform circular motion, 128-29 Omega (particle), 1179
Nearsightedness, 883,884-85 Normal eye (defn), 883 One-dimensional Schrodinger equation,
Nebulae, 1196 Normal force, 92-94 1025-37
Negative, photographic, 878 fn Normal lens, 882 One-dimensional wave equation, 407
Negative curvature, 1208,1221 Normalization condition, 1026-27, Onnes, H. K., 668
Negative electric charge (defn), 560,655 1029 fn, 1031-34 Open circuit, 654
Negative lens, 871 Normalization constant, 1032 Open system, 500
N eon tubes, 1044 North pole, Earth, 709 Open tube, 434
Neptune, 150,152 North pole, of magnet, 708 Open-tube manometer, 346^17
Neptunium, 1134 Nova, 1197,1203 Operating temperatures, heat engines, 530
Nerve pulse, 669-70,715 npn transistors, 1097 Operational definitions, 7,737
Nervous system, electrical conduction in, n-type semiconductor, 1093-96 Oppenheimer, J. Robert, 1141
669-70 Nuclear angular momentum, 1107 Optical coating, 913-14
N et force, 85-88,95 / / Nuclear binding energy, 1108-9 Optical illusion, 851,903
N et resistance, 679 Nuclear collision, 225,227-29 Optical instruments, 878-92,914,929-38
Neuron, 669 Nuclear decay, 976 Optical pumping, 1062
Neutral atom, 1106 Nuclear energy, 530 fn, 550,1131-59 Optical sound track, 992
Neutral equilibrium, 205,317 Nuclear fission, 1136-41 Optical tweezers, 105 pr, 829
Neutral wire, 694 Nuclear forces, 155,212 pr, 1110,1115, Optical zoom, 882
Neutrino flavor oscillation, 1177 1171-89,1205 Optics:
Neutrinos, 1114-16,1165,1175-79,1218 Nuclear fusion, 1141-46,1200-1 fiber, 855-56
mass of, 1177-78,1179 Nuclear magnetic moments, 1107 geometric, 838-91
types of, 1175-78 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NM R), physical, 900-45
Neutron, 561,1105,1165,1179 1107,1156-59 Orbital angular momentum, in atoms,
delayed, 1139 Nuclear magneton, 1107 1046^ 7,1059-60
in nuclear reactions, 1136-42 Nuclear masses, 1105 and f f Orbital quantum number, 1046
role in fission, 1 1 3 6 # Nuclear medicine, 1150-52 Order and disorder, 544-45
thermal, 1136 Nuclear physics, 1104-64 Order of interference or diffraction
Neutron activation analysis, 1163 pr Nuclear power, 1139-41 pattern, 904-6,933-34,936,939,948 pr
Neutron cross section, 1136 Nuclear power plants, 767,1139^40 Order-of-magnitude estimate, 9-12,102
Neutron degeneracy, 1202 Nuclear radius, 1106 Organ pipe, 435
Neutron number, 1105 Nuclear reactions, 1132-38 Orion, 1196
Neutron physics, 1134 Nuclear reactors, 1 1 3 8 ^ 1 ,1 1 4 4 ^ 6 Oscillations, 369-89
Neutron star, 287,1100 pr, 1197,1202 Nuclear spin, 1107 of air columns, 434-6
Newton, Isaac, 18,85-86,89,139-40,155, Nuclear structure, 1105-7 damped harmonic motion, 382-85
568,889 fn, 902,910 fn, 952,1205, Nuclear weapons testing, 1141 displacement, 371
1208 fn Nucleon, 1105,1165,1186,1217-18 forced,385-87

Index A-61
Oscillations (continued) Peaks, tallest, 8 mediation of (force), 1172
mechanical, 369 Pendulum: momentum of, 993
of molecules, 512-13 ballistic, 226 virtual, 1172
of physical pendulum, 381-82 conical, 125 Photon exchange, 1171-73
simple harmonic motion (SHM), physical, 381-82 Photon interactions, 996
372-77 simple, 13,195,379-81 Photon theory of light, 989-97
as source of waves, 397 torsion, 382 Photosynthesis, 993
of a spring, 370-71 Pendulum clock, 380 Photovoltaic (solar) cells, 550
on strings, 412-14,431-33 Penetration, barrier, 1036-39,1113 Physical pendulum, 381-82
of torsion pendulum, 382 Penzias, Arno, 1213-14 Physics:
Oscillator, simple harmonic, 372-79, Percent uncertainty, 3 -4, 5 classical (defn), 2,952
1036,1042 and significant figures, 5 modern (defn), 2 , 952
Oscilloscope, 620,621 Perfect cosmological principle, 1213 Pi meson, 1172-73,1179,1180,1183-85
Osteoporosis, diagnosis of, 995 Performance, coefficient of (COP), 537, Piano tuner, 12
Otto cycle, 535-36 538 Pick-up nuclear reaction, 1160 pr
Out-of-phase waves, 411,904,914,933 Perfume atomizer, 356 Pin, structural, 323
Overdamped system, 383 Period, 121,253,371,397 Pincushion distortion, 892
Overexposure, 879 of circular motion, 121 Pion (see Pi meson)
Overtones, 413,432,433 of pendulums, 13,380, A-8 Pipe, light, 855
of planets, 150-51 Pipe, vibrating air columns in, 431 f f
of rotation, 253-54 Pitch of a sound, 425
/7-type semiconductor, 1093-96 of vibration, 371 Pixel, 878,881,943-4,1154
Pacemaker, heart, 692,787 of wave, 397 Planck, Max, 989,1017
Packet, wave, 1029 Periodic motion, 370 f f Planck length, 13,1216
Packing of atoms, 1085 Periodic Table, 1053-54,1105 fn, inside Planck time, 16 pr, 1015 pr, 1188,1216
Page thickness, 10-11 back cover Planck’s constant, 989,1022
Pair production, 996 Periodic wave, 397 Planck’s quantum hypothesis,
Pantheon, dome of, 328 Permeability, magnetic, 734,748 988-89
Parabola, 51,71,326 Permittivity, 565,639 Plane:
Parabolic mirror, 843 Perpendicular-axis theorem, 265 focal, 867
Parallax, 1203-4 Personal digital assistant (PD A), 647 p r mirror, 838-42
Parallel-axis theorem, 264-65 Perturbations, 152 polarization of light by, 940-44
Parallel circuits, 633,663,680 PET, 1156 Plane geometry, A-2
Parallel emf, 686-87 Phase: Plane waves, 410,818,819,1028-29
Parallelogram method of adding vectors, in ac circuit, 796-802 Plane-polarized light, 940
54 changes of, 482-83,502-5 Planetary motion, 149-53,298
Paramagnetism, 749-50 of matter, 340,456 Planets, 149-53,158 pr, 247 pr,
Paraxial rays (defn), 843 of waves, 404,411,904,910-14,933 309 pr
Parent nucleus (defn), 1111 Phase angle, 373,405,800 Plasma, 340,1131,1145
Parsec (pc) (unit), 1204 Phase constant, 1028/rc, 1030 Plasma globe, 810 pr
Partial derivatives, 189,406 Phase diagram, 483 Plastic region, 319
Partial ionic character, 1074 Phase shift, 911,913,914 Plate tectonics, 351
Partial pressure, 485-86 Phase transitions, 482-83,502-5 Plum-pudding model of atom, 1001
Partially polarized, 945 Phase velocity, 404 Pluto, 150,152,1194
Particle (defn), 19 Phasor diagram: Plutonium, 1134,1138,1140,1141
Particle accelerators, 1165-71 ac circuits, 800 PM tube, 1124-25
Particle classification, 1178-80 interference and diffraction of light, pn junction, 1094-96
Particle detectors, 1096,1124-25,1164, 907,925,937 pn junction diode, 1094-96,1125
1170 Phon (unit), 431 pn junction laser, 1063
Particle exchange, 1171-73,1185 Phosphor, 1124 pnp transistor, 1097
Particle interactions, 1175 f f Phosphorescence, 1061 Point:
Particle physics, 1164-89 Photino, 1189 boiling, 457,485,503
Particle resonance, 1180-81 Photocathode, 1124 breaking, 319
Particles, elementary, 1164-89 Photocell, 626 pr, 990 critical, 483
Particle-antiparticle pair, 1175 Photocell circuit, 990,992 dew, 486
Particulate pollution, 15 pr Photoconductivity, 582 far, 883
Pascal, Blaise, 341,346,363 pr Photocopier, 569,582-83 focal, 842-43,848,867-68,883
Pascal (Pa) (unit of pressure), 341 Photodiode, 992,1096 freezing, 457 fn, 503
Pascal’s principle, 346 Photoelectric effect, 989-92,996,1146 Lagrange, 153
Paschen series, 1003,1006,1007 Photographic emulsion, 1125 melting, 503-5
Passive solar heating, 550 Photographic film, 878,879 near, 883
Pauli, Wolfgang, 1017,1018,1052,1115 Photomultiplier (PM) tube, 1124-25 sublimation, 483
Pauli exclusion principle, 1052-53,1072, Photon, 989-97,1019,1053,1165,1171-72, triple, 469,483
1087,1089,1184,1201,1202 1175,1178-79,1183,1217-19 turning, 204
PDA, 647 pr absorption of, 1060-61 Point charge (defn), 565
Peak current, 664 decoupled (early universe), 1215,1219 potential, 612-15
Peak voltage, 664 and emf, 1172 Point particle, 19,96
Peak widths, of diffraction grating, energy of, 993 Point rule, Kirchhoff’s, 816 f f
937-38 mass of, 993 Poise (P) (unit), 358

A -62 Index
Poiseuille, J. L., 358 Precipitator, 645 pr Projectile, horizontal range of, 68-69
Poiseuille’s equation, 358-59 Precision, 5 Projectile motion, 51,62,71
Poisson, Simeon, 922 Presbyopia, 883 kinematic equations for (table), 64
Polar molecules, 561,579,641,1073-74 Prescriptive laws, 3 parabolic, 71
Polarization of light, 9 4 0 ^ 4 ,9 4 9 pr Pressure, 341-45 Proper length, 965
by absorption, 940-42 absolute, 345 Proper time, 962,1191 pr
plane, 940-44 atmospheric, 344-48 Proportional limit, 318-19
by reflection, 942-43 in fluids, 341-45 Proteins:
of skylight, 945 in a gas, 345,463-65,478,482-87 shape of, 1080
Polarizer, 941-44 gauge, 345 synthesis of, 1079-80
Polarizing angle, 943 h ead ,343 Proton, 1 1 0 5 # 1132,1141-43,1151,1164,
Polaroid, 94 0 ^ 2 hydraulic, 346 1165,1179
Pole vault, 183,192-93 measurement of, 346-48 decay of, 1179,1187-88
Poles, magnetic, 707-9 partial, 485 mean life of, 1188
of Earth, 709 and Pascal’s principle, 346 Proton-antiproton collision, 1164
Pollution, 549-50 radiation, 828-29 Proton centers, 1151
Poloidal field, 1145 units for and conversions, 341,345,347 Proton decay, 1179,1187-88
Pool depth, apparent, 852 vapor, 484-85,491 Proton-proton collision, 228-29
Pope, Alexander, 1208 fn Pressure amplitude, 427,430-31 Proton-proton cycle, 1142-43,1200
Population, inverted, 1062-63 Pressure cooker, 485,493 pr Proton therapy, 1151
Position, 19 Pressure gauges, 347 Protostar, 1200
angular, 249,1023 Pressure gradient, 359 Proxima Centauri, 1194
average, 1035 Pressure head, 343 Pseudoforce, 300-1
uncertainty in, 1021-23 Pressure waves, 401,426 f f Pseudovector, 254 fn
Position vector, 59-60,62 Prestressed concrete, 323 Psi (in Schrodinger equation, defn),
Positive curvature, 1208,1221 Primary coil, 770 1025-27
Positive electric charge (defn), 560 Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory /7-type semiconductor, 1093-96
Positive holes, 1093 (PPPL), 1146 P T diagram, 483
Positive lens, 871 Principal axis, 843 Pulley, 99-100
Positron, 996,1116,1156,1165,1174-75 Principal quantum number, 1 0 0 4 # Pulse, wave, 396
Positron emission tomography (PET), 1156 1046^ 8 Pulsed laser, 1063
Post-and-beam construction, 321 Principia (Newton), 85,139 Pulse-echo technique, 445^ 6 ,1 1 58
Potential (see Electric potential) Principle, 3 (see proper name) Pumps, 348,361
Potential difference, electric, 608 f f (see Principle of correspondence, 980,1009, centrifugal, 361
also Electric potential; Voltage) 1018 heat, 538-39
Potential energy, 186-89 and f f Principle of complementarity, 997 Pupil, 882
diagrams, 204-5,1074-77 Principle of equipartition of energy, P V diagrams, 482-83,487,507
elastic, 188,193,194,377-78 512-13 P waves, 401,403,416
electric, 607-10,619-20,636-38 Principle of equivalence, 155-56, Pythagorean theorem, A-2, A-4
gravitational, 186-88,199-201 1205-6
in metal crystal, 1090 Principle of superposition, 407-9,436,
for molecules, 1074-77,1082,1085-86 565,569 QCD, 1173,1184-87
for nucleus, 1038,1113 Printers, inkjet and laser, 583 QED, 1172
related to force, 188-89 Prism, 852-53 QF, 1148
in Schrodinger equation 1027,1028, Prism binoculars, 855,889 QSOs, 1197
1030-36 Probability: Quadratic equation, 36
for square well and barriers, 1030-36 and entropy, 546-48 Quadratic formula, 38, A-1, inside back
Potential well, 1030-36 in kinetic theory, 476-82 cover
Potentiometer, 705 pr in nuclear decay, 1117 Quadrupole, electric, 589 pr
Pound (lb) (unit), 87 in quantum mechanics, 1019,1020, Quality factor (QF) of radiation, 1148
Powell, C. E, 1173 1024-25,1033,1045,1049-51, Quality factor (Q-value) of a resonant
Power, 201-3,660-65,801 1072-74 system, 387,392 pr, 810 pr
rating of an engine, 202-3 Probability density (probability Quality of sound, 436
Power, magnifying, 886 distribution): Quantities, base and derived, 7
total, 888 in atoms, 1019,1028,1031,1036,1045, Quantization:
(see also Electric power) 1048^ 9,1051 of angular momentum, 1004,1046-47
Power factor (ac circuit), 801 in molecules, 1072-74 of electric charge, 564
Power generation, 549-50,766-67 Probability function, Fermi-Dirac, 1088, of energy, 989,1003-9,1031
Power of a lens, 868 1092 Quantum chromodynamics (Q CD ), 1173,
Power plants: Problem-solving strategies, 30,58,64,96, 1184-87
fossil-fuel, 550 102,125,166,198,229,261,314,504, Quantum condition, Bohr’s, 1004,1010
nuclear, 767,1139-40 551,571,685,716,740,763,849,871, Quantum electrodynamics (Q ED ),
Power reactor, 1139 913 1172
Power transmission, 770-73 Processes: Quantum fluctuations, 1220
Powers of ten, 5 isobaric, 508 Quantum hypothesis, Planck’s, 988-89
Poynting, J. H., 826 fn isochoric, 508 Quantum mechanics, 1017-98
Poynting vector, 826-27 isothermal, 507-8 of atoms, 1044-65
Precession, 299-300 isovolumetric, 508 Copenhagen interpretation of, 1024
of Earth, 303 pr reversible and irreversible (defn), 533 of molecules and solids, 1071-98

Index A -63
Quantum numbers, 989,1004-5,1031, Radiation therapy, 1150-51 Receivers, radio and television,
1046-49,1052-53,1080-85 Radio, 829-32 830-31
principal, 1 0 0 4 # Radio waves, 823-24,931 Recoil, 220
Quantum (quanta) of energy, 989 Radioactive background, natural, 1114, Recombination epoch, 1219
Quantum theory, 952,987-1010,1017-98 1148 Rectifiers, 1096,1099 pr
of atoms, 1003-10,1044-65 Radioactive dating, 1122-24 Recurrent novae, 1203
of blackbody radiation, 987-88 Radioactive decay, 1110-26 Red giants, 1197,1199,1201
of light, 987-97 Radioactive decay constant, 1117-18 Redshift, 443,979,1204,1210-11,1215
of specific heat, 513 Radioactive decay law, 1118,1119 Redshift parameter, 1211
Quarks, 564 fn, 1107,1165,1171-73,1179, Radioactive decay series, 1121-22 Reduced mass, 1081
1182-85,1217-18 Radioactive fallout, 1141 Reference frames, 1 9 ,8 5 ,3 0 0 -2 ,9 5 2 #
confinement, 1185,1217 Radioactive tracers, 1151-52 accelerating, 85,88,155-56,300-2
Quartz oscillator, 450 pr Radioactive waste, 1139^ 1 inertial, 8 5 ,8 8 ,3 0 0 ,9 5 2 #
Quasars (quasi-stellar objects, QSOs), Radioactivity, 1104-26 noninertial, 8 5,88,156,300-2,952
1197,1207 (Fig.) artificial (defn), 1111 rotating, 300-2
Quasistatic process (defn), 508 natural (defn), 1111 transformations between, 968-71
Quintessence, 1223 Radiofrequency (RF) signal, 830,1157-58 Reflecting telescope, 889
Q-value (disintegration energy), 1112 Radioisotope (defn), 1111 Reflection:
Q-value (quality factor) of a resonant Radionuclide (defn), 1111,1147 angle of, 410,838
system, 387,392 pr, 810 pr Radiotelescope, 931 diffuse, 839
Q-value (reaction energy), 1133 Radius, of nuclei, 1106 law of, 409-10,838
Radius of curvature (defn), 129 and lens coating, 913
Radius of Earth estimate, 11,15 pr of light, 837,838-42
Rad (unit), 1148 Radius of gyration, 279 pr phase changes during, 909-14
Rad equivalent man (rem), 1148 Radon, 1111,1148,1150 polarization by, 942-43
Radar, 446 fn, 823 Rainbow, 853 specular, 839
Radial acceleration, 1 2 0 # 128 RAM (random access memory), 629, from thin films, 909-14
Radial probability distribution, 1049-51 644 pr total internal, 421 pr, 854-56
Radian (rad), measure for angles, Raman effect, 1016 of waves on a cord, 409
249-50 Ramp vs. stair analogy, 989 Reflection coefficient, 1037,1043 pr
Radiant flux, 915 Random access memory (R AM ), 629, Reflection grating, 933
Radiation, electromagnetic: 644 pr Reflectors, 865 pr
blackbody, 987-88,1198,1214 Range of projectile, 68-69 Refracting telescope, 888
cosmic microwave background, 1193, Rapid estimating, 9-12 Refraction, 415-16,850-92,902-3
1213-15,1219,1220,1224 Rapid transit system, 49 pr angle of, 415,850
emissivity of, 518 Rare-earth solid-state lasers, 1063 of earthquake waves, 416
gamma, 1111,1116-17,1146 Rarefactions, in waves, 398 index of, 850
infrared (IR), 823-24,852,936 Rate of nuclear decay, 1117-21 law of, 415,851,902-3
microwave, 823-24 Ray, 410,838 # 8 6 7 # of light, 850-52,902-3
seasons and, 519 paraxial (defn), 843 and Snell’s law, 850-52
solar constant and, 519 Ray diagram, 844,849,871 at spherical surface, 856-58
synchrotron, 1168 Ray model of light, 838 # 867 f f by thin lenses, 867-70
thermal, 517-20 Ray tracing, 838 # 867 f f of water waves, 415
ultraviolet (U V ), 823-24,852 Rayleigh, Lord, 930,988 Refrigerators, 536-38
X-ray, 8 2 3 ^ , 938-39,950 pr, 1056 (see Rayleigh criterion, 930 coefficient of performance (COP) of,
also X-rays) Rayleigh-Jeans theory, 988 537
Radiation, nuclear: RBE, 1148 Regelation, 491 pr
activity of, 1118,1120,1147 R C circuit, 687-92 Reinforced concrete, 323
alpha, 1111-14,1117 Reactance, 788,797,798 Relative biological effectiveness (RBE),
beta, 1111,1114-16,1117,1202 capacitive, 798-99 1148
damage by, 1146-47 inductive, 797 Relative humidity, 485
detection of, 1124-26,1149 (see also Impedance) Relative motion, 71-74,951-80
dosimetry for, 1147-50 Reaction energy, 1133 Relative permeability, 749
gamma, 1111,1116-17,1146 Reaction time, 791 Relative velocity, 71-74,959 # 968 #
human exposure to, 1148-50 Reactions: Relativistic addition of velocities, 970-71
ionizing (defn), 1146 chain, 1137-39,1141 Relativistic energy, 974-78
measurement of, 1147-50 chemical, rate of, 481 Relativistic mass, 974
medical uses of, 1150-52 endoergic, 1133 Relativistic momentum, 971-73,977
types of, 1111,1117 endothermic, 1133 derivation of, 972-73
Radiation biology, 1150-52 exoergic, 1133 Relativity, Galilean-Newtonian, 952-54,
Radiation damage, 1146-47 exothermic, 1133 968-69
Radiation-dominated universe, nuclear, 1132-38 Relativity, general theory of, 155-56,
1218-19 slow-neutron, 1133 1193,1205-7
Radiation dosimetry, 1147-50 subcritical, 1139,1141 Relativity, special theory of, 951-80,1205
Radiation era, 1218-19 supercritical, 1139,1141 constancy of speed of light, 957
Radiation field, 818 Reactors, nuclear, 1138^ 1,1144-46 four-dimensional space-time, 967
Radiation film badge, 1149 Read/W rite head, 775 impact of, 980
Radiation pressure, 828-29 Real image, 840,844,869 and length, 964-67
Radiation sickness, 1149 Rearview mirror, curved, 849 and Lorentz transformation, 968-71

A -64 Index
Relativity, special theory of (continued) Rifle recoil, 220 Satellites, 139,146-49
and mass, 974 Right-hand rule, 254,710,711,714,716, geosynchronous, 147
mass-energy relation in, 974-78 735,763 global positioning, 16 pr, 160 pr, 964
postulates of, 957-58 Rigid box, particle in, 1030-34 Saturated vapor pressure, 484
simultaneity in, 958-59 Rigid object (defn), 249 Saturation (magnetic), 748
and time, 959-64,967 rotational motion of, 248-74,294-97 Savart, Felix, 743
Relativity principle, 952-53,957 f f translational motion of, 234-36, Sawtooth oscillator, 691,706 pr
Relay, 751 pr 268-70 Sawtooth voltage, 691
Rem (unit), 1148 Ripple voltage, 1096,1103 pr Scalar (defn), 52
Repulsive forces, 1074-75,1171 Rms (root-mean-square): Scalar components, 55
Research reactor, 1139 current, 664-65 Scalar (dot) product, 167-68
Resistance and resistors, 656-58,661,796 sp eed ,479-82 Scalar quantities, 52
in ac circuit, 796 f f voltage, 664-65 Scale, musical, 431
with capacitor, 687-92,795-802 R NA, 1079-80 Scale factor of universe, 1211
color code, 657 Rock climbing, 106 pr, 110 pr, 137 pr, Scanner, fan-beam, 1153-54
and electric currents, 651 f f 182 pr Scanning electron microscope (SEM),
with inductor, 790-92,795-802 Rocket propulsion, 83,90,219,238 987,1000
internal, in battery, 678-79 Rocks, dating oldest Earth, 1124 Scanning tunneling electron microscope
in L R C circuit, 795-803 Roemer, Ole, 825 (STM), 1038-39,1043 pr
of meter, 697 R oentgen (R) (unit), 1148 Scattering:
net, 679 Roentgen, W. C., 938 elastic, 1135
in series and parallel, 679-83 Roller coaster, 191,198 of light, 945
shunt, 695 Rolling friction, 113,273-74 of X-rays, Bragg, 1065
and superconductivity, 668-69 Rolling motion, 267-73 Schrodinger, Erwin, 987,1017,1018
Resistance thermometer, 660 instantaneous axis of, 268 Schrodinger equation, 1025-36,1045-46,
Resistive force, 129-30 total kinetic energy, 268 1082,1090
Resistivity, 658-60 without slipping, 267-71 Schwarzschild radius, 1209,1228 pr
temperature coefficient of, 659-60 Root-mean-square (rms) current, Scientific notation, 5
Resistor, 657 664-65 Scintigram, 1152
shunt, 695 Root-mean-square (rms) speed, 479-82 Scintillation counter, 1124
wire-wound, 657 Root-mean-square (rms) voltage, Scintillator, 1124,1125,1152
Resolution: 664-65 Scuba diving, 473 pr, 475 pr, 495 pr,
of diffraction grating, 937-39 Rotating reference frames, 300-2 521 pr
of electron microscope, 1000 Rotation, 248-302 SDSS, 1224
of eye, 930,932-33 axis of (defn), 249 Sea of electrons, 1174
of high-energy accelerators, 1165-66 frequency of (defn), 253 Search coil, 783 pr
of lens, 881,929-32 of rigid body, 248-74,294-97 Seasons, 519
of light microscope, 932-33 Rotational angular momentum quantum Second (s) (unit), 6
limits of, 929-32 number, 1080-81,1084-85 Second law of motion, 86-88,90,95-96,
and pixels, 881 Rotational imbalance, 296-97 215,218,234-35,953,972
of telescope, 931 Rotational inertia, 258,259-60 (see also for rotation, 259-63,292-93
of vectors, 55-58 M oment of inertia) for a system of particles, 234-35,
Resolving power, 932,938 Rotational kinetic energy, 265-67 292-93
Resonance, 385-87 molecular, 499,512-13 Second law of thermodynamics, 529-48
in ac circuit, 802 Rotational motion, 248-302 and Carnot efficiency, 534-35
elementary particle, 1180-81 Rotational plus translational motion, Clausius statement of, 529,537
nuclear magnetic, 1107,1156-59 267-68 and efficiency, 531-32
Resonant frequency, 385,412-13,432-35, Rotational transitions, 1080-81 and entropy, 5 39^ 8 ,5 5 1
802 Rotational work, 266 general statement of, 543,544,548
Resonant oscillation, 385-86 Rotor, 720,768 heat engine, 529,530-32
Resonant peak, width of, 387 Rough calculations, 9-12 and irreversible processes, 533
Rest energy, 974-76,1023 Rubidium-strontium dating, 1128 pr Kelvin-Planck statement of, 532,535
Rest mass, 974 Ruby laser, 1062 refrigerators, air conditioners, and heat
Resting potential, 669-70 Runway, 29 pumps, 536-39
Restitution, coefficient of, 243 pr Russell, Bertrand, 999 reversible processes, 533
Restoring force, 170,370 Rutherford, Ernest, 1001,1106,1111, and statistical interpretation of
Resultant displacement, 52-53 1132,1163 pr entropy, 546-48
Resultant vector, 52-54,57-58 Rutherford’s model of the atom, 1001 and time’s arrow, 544
Retentivity (magnetic), 749 R-y alue, 517 Secondary coil, 770
Retina, 882 Rydberg constant, 1002,1007 Seesaw, 314
Reverse-biased diode, 1095 Rydberg states, 1070 pr Segre, Emilio, 1175
Reversible cycle, 533-35,540 Seismograph, 776
Reversible process, 533 Selection rules, 1048^9,1080,1083,
Revolutions per second (rev/s), 253 S wave, 401 1084
Reynold’s number, 366 pr SAE, viscosity numbers, 358 fn Self-inductance, 788-89
RF signal, 830,1157-58 Safety factor, 322 Self-sustaining chain reaction, 1138^1
Rho (particle), 1179 Sailboats, and Bernoulli’s principle, 357 SEM, 987,1000
Ribosome, 1079 Salam ,A., 1186 Semiconductor detector, 1125
Richards, R, 1214 Satellite dish, 831 Semiconductor diode lasers, 1063

Index A -65
Semiconductor diodes, 1094-96 SLAC, 1169 tone color of, 436
Semiconductor doping, 1093-94 Slepton, 1189 ultrasonic, 425,445-46
Semiconductors, 561,658,1091-98 Slingshot effect, gravitational, 246 pr Sound barrier, 444
intrinsic, 1091,1093 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), 1224 Sound level, 428-31
n and p types, 1093-96 Slope, o f a curve, 23 Sound spectrum, 436
resistivity of, 658 Slow-neutron reaction, 1133 Sound track, optical, 992
silicon wafer, 1125 SLR camera, 882 Sound waves, 424-46 (see also Sound)
Sensitivity, full-scale current, 695 Slug (unit), 87 Sounding board, 433
Sensitivity of meters, 696,697 Smoke detector, 1114 Sounding box, 433
Separation of variables, 1027 Smoot, George, 1214 Soundings, 444
Series circuit, 634,679 Snell, W., 851 Source activity, 1147
Series emf, 686-87 Snell’s law, 851-52,856,876,902 Source of emf, 678,758-68
Shear modulus, 319,321 SNIa (type la) supernovae, 1203,1204,1223 South pole, Earth, 709
Shear stress, 321 SN1987a, 1177,1202 South pole, o f magnet, 708
Shells, atomic, 1053 Snowboarder, 51,133 pr Space:
Shielded cable, 740,789,825 Soap bubble, 900,909,912-13 absolute, 953,957
Shielding, electrical, 577,740 Soaps, 360 curvature of, 155-56,1207-9,1220-22
SHM, see Simple harmonic motion Sodium chloride, bonding in, 1073, Euclidean and non-Euclidean, 1207-8
SHO, see Simple harmonic oscillator 1075-76,1085 relativity of, 964-70
Shock absorbers, 369,371,383 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Space-time (4-D), 967
Shock waves, 443-44 (SOHO) satellite, 153 curvature of, 1207-9,1220-21
Short circuit, 663 Solar (photovoltaic) cell, 550 Space-time interval, 967
Short-range forces, 1110,1205 Solar absorption spectrum, 936,1002 Space quantization, 1047
Shunt resistor, 695 Solar cell, 1096 Space shuttle, 139
Shutter speed, 879,881 Solar constant, 519 Space station, 131 pr, 149
SI (Systeme International) units, 7 Solar energy, 550 Space travel, 963
SI derived units: inside front cover Solar neutrino problem, 1177 Spark plug, 785
Siemens (S) (unit), 675 pr Solar pressure, 828 Speaker wires, 659
Sievert (Sv) (unit), 1148 Solar sail, 829 Special theory of relativity, 951-80,1205
Sigma (particle), 1179 Solenoid, 733,741 ^ 2 ,7 4 7 ,7 4 8 -4 9 , (see also Relativity, special theory of)
Sign conventions (geometric optics), 788-89 Specific gravity, 341,351
845-46,849,871 Solid angle, 7 fn, 915 fn Specific heat, 499-500
Significant figures, 4-5 Solid-state lighting, 1096 for gases, 511-13
percent uncertainty vs., 5 Solid-state physics, 1085-98 for solids, 513
Silicon, 1 0 9 1 # Solids, 318 ff, 340,455-56,1085-93 (see SPECT, 1156
Silicon wafer semiconductor, 1125 also Phase, changes of) Spectrometer:
Simple harmonic motion (SHM), 372-79 amorphous, 1085 light, 935-36
applied to pendulums, 379-82 band theory of, 1090-92 mass, 724-25
related to uniform circular motion, bonding in, 1085-86 Spectroscope and spectroscopy, 935-36,
379 energy levels in, 1090-92 948 pr
sinusoidal nature of, 372 specific heats for, 513 Spectroscopic notation, 1059
Simple harmonic oscillator (SHO), Solvay Conference, 1017 Spectrum, 934
372-79,1036,1042 pr Sonar, 444-45 absorption, 936,1002,1084
acceleration of, 374 Sonic boom, 444 atomic emission, 936,1001-3,1006-8
energy in, 377-78,1042 pr Sonogram, 445 band, 1080,1084-85
molecular vibration as, 1082-83 Sound, 424-46 continuous, 935,988
velocity and acceleration of, 374 audible range of, 425 electromagnetic, 823,852-54
Simple machines: and beats, 438-39 emitted by hot object, 987-88
lever, 177 pr, 313 dBs of, 428-31 line, 9 3 5 -3 6 ,1 0 0 2 # 1017
pulley, 99-100 Doppler effect of, 439-43 molecular, 1080-85
Simple magnifier, 885-87 ear’s response to, 431 visible light, 852-54
Simple pendulum, 13,195,379-81 infrasonic, 426 X-ray, 1054-56
with damping, 384 intensity of, 427-31 Specular reflection, 839
Simultaneity, 958-60 interference of, 437-39 Speed, 20
Single-lens reflex (SLR) camera, 882 level of, 428-31 average, 20,480-82
Single photon emission computed loudness of, 425,427,429 of EM waves, 821-22,825
tomography (SPECT), 1156 loudness level of, 431 Fermi, 1089
Single photon emission tomography mathematical representation of wave, instantaneous, 22
(SPET), 1156 426-27 of light (see separate entry below)
Single-slit diffraction, 922-27 pitch of, 425 molecular, 480-82
Singularity, 1209 pressure amplitude of, 427,430-31 most probable, 480-82
Sinusoidal curve, 372 # quality of, 436 rms (root-mean-square), 479,480,482
Sinusoidal traveling wave, 404-6 shock waves of, 443-44 of sound (see separate entry on next page)
Siphon, 362 pr, 368 pr and sonic boom, 444 (see also Velocity)
Skater, 284,286,309 pr sound level of, 428-31 Speed of light, 6,822,825-26,850,902,
Skidding car, 126-27 sources of, 431-36 953,957,975
Skier, 112,117,149,183,211 pr speed of, 425-26,824 constancy of, 957
Sky color, 945 supersonic, 426,443-44 measurement of, 825-26
Sky diver, 77 pr, 105 pr, 138 pr timbre of, 436 as ultimate speed, 974

A -66 Index
Speed of sound, 425-26 H -R diagram, 1199,1201,1204 Strength of materials, 319,322
infrasonic, 426 magnitude of, 1228 pr Stress, 320-21
supersonic, 426,443-44 neutron, 287,1100 pr, 1197,1202 compressive, 321
SPET, 1156 quasars, 1197,1207 (Fig.) shear, 321
Spherical aberration, 843,891,892,929, red giants, 1197,1199,1201 tensile, 320-21
932 size of, 520 thermal, 463
Spherical lens, 858 source o f energy of, 1142-43,1200-2 String theories, 1189
Spherical mirrors, image formed by, Sun (see Sun) Stringed instruments, 413,432-33
842-49,889,892 supernovae, 1177-78,1197,1201-4 Strings, vibrating, 412-15,431-33
Spherical shells, Earth, 142-43, temperature of, 1198 Stripping nuclear reaction, 1160 pr
A -9-A -11 types of, 1197 a n d # Strong bonds, 1072-74,1077-78,
Spherical wave, 403,410 variable, 1204 1085-86
Spiderman, 179 pr white dwarfs, 1197,1199,1201,1228 pr Strong nuclear force, 155,1110,1134 fn,
Spin: State: 1171-89,1205
boson, 1184 bound, 1035 and elementary particles, 1171-89
down, 1047,1156-57 changes of, 482-83,502-5 Strongly interacting particles (defn),
electron, 746,1047,1058-60,1072 energy, in atoms, 1003-9 1179
fermion, 1184 equation of, 463 Structure:
nuclear, 1107 for an ideal gas, 466,468 fine, 1017,1044,1047,1060
up, 1047,1156-57 van der Waals, 486-87 of universe, 1219-20
Spin angular momentum, 1047 of matter, 340,456 Struts, 324
Spin quantum number, 1047 metastable, 1061,1117 Subcritical reactions, 1139,1141
Spin-echo technique, 1158 as physical condition of system, 454, Sublimation, 483
Spin-orbit interaction, 1047,1060 463 Sublimation point, 483
Spinning top, 299-300 of a system, 454 Subshells, atomic, 1053,1054
Spiral galaxy, 1196 State variable, 455,506,539,540 Subtraction of vectors, 54-55
Splitting of atomic energy levels, 1090, Static electricity, 559-642 Suction, 348
1156-57 Static equilibrium, 311-24 Sun, 1142^3,1195,1197-1201
Spring: Static friction, 114,270 energy source of, 1142-43,1200
potential energy of, 188,193-94,377-78 coefficient of, 113-14 mass determination, 152
vibration of, 370 f f Statics, 311-28 surface temperature of, 988
Spring constant, 170,370 Stationary states in atom, 1003-10 Sunglasses, polarized, 941,942
Spring equation, 170,370 Statistics: Sunsets, 945
Spring stiffness constant, 170,370 Bose-Einstein, 1087 fn Supercluster, 1196-97
Spyglass, 889 and entropy, 546-48 Superconducting magnets, 747
Square wave, 409 Fermi-Dirac, 1087-90 Superconductivity, 668-69
Square well potential, infinitely deep, Stator, 768 Supercritical reactions, 1139,1141
1030-34 Steady-state model of universe, 1213 Superdome (New Orleans, LA), 328
Squark, 1189 Steam engine, 528,530-31 Superfluidity, 483
Stability, of particles, 1180-81 Steam power plants, 1140 Supernovae, 1177-78,1197,1201^
Stable equilibrium, 204-5,317 Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 518 as source of elements on Earth, 1201,
Stable nucleus, 1110 Stefan-Boltzmann law (or equation), 518, 1202
Standard candle, 1204 1198 type la, 1203,1204,1223
Standard conditions (STP), 466 Stellar evolution, 1200-3 Superposition, principle of, 407,408-9,
Standard length, 6,914 Stellar fusion, 1142-44 436,565,569,1141 pr
Standard mass, 6 Step-down transformer, 771 Supersaturated air, 486
Standard Model: Step-up transformer, 771 Supersonic speed, 426,443
cosmological, 1216-19 Stereo, 689,831 fn Superstring theory, 1189
elementary particles, 1165,1184-86 Sterilization, 1151 Supersymmetry, 1189
Standard of time, 6 Stern-Gerlach experiment, 1058-59 Surface area formulas, A -1, inside back
Standard temperature and pressure Stimulated emission, 1061-64 cover
(STP), 466 Stirling cycle, 557 pr Surface charge density, 641
Standards and units, 6-7 STM, 1038-39,1043 pr Surface of last scattering, 1215
Standing waves, 412-15 Stokes’s theorem, A -12-A -13 Surface tension, 359-60
fundamental frequency of, 413 Stopping a car, 32,174,272-73 Surface waves, 402,410
mathematical representation of, 414-15 Stopping potential, 990 Surfactants, 360
natural frequencies of, 412 Stopping voltage, 990 Surge protector, 792
resonant frequencies of, 412-13 Storage rings, 1169 Surgery, laser, 1064
and sources of sound, 431-35 Stove, induction, 762 Suspension bridge, 326
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center STP, 466 SUSYs, 1189
(SLAC), 1169 Strain, 320-21 SUV rollover, 308 pr
Star clusters, 1196 Strain gauge, 673 S wave, 401
Stars: 1142-43,1194-1204 and f f Strange quark, 1182 Symmetry, 10,37,140,228,233,296,313,
black holes, 156,160 pr, 161 pr, 1197, Strange particles, 1181,1182 323,325,563 fn, 565,571,572,573,
1202,1203,1208-9,1221,1228 pr Strangeness, 1179 fn, 1181-82 579,580,593,595,596,597,598,600,
clusters of, 1196 conservation of, 1181 635,637,713,738,739,740,742,743,
color of, 988,1199 Strassman, Fritz, 1136 744,774,813,815,819,847,877,907,
distance to, 1 2 0 3 ^ Streamline (defn), 352 972,997,1187,1189,1217
evolution of, 1200-3 Streamline flow, 352 Symmetry breaking, 1187,1217

Index A -67
Synapse, 669 Terminal velocity, 35 fn, 129-30 TIA, 357
Synchrocyclotron, 1167 Terminal voltage, 678-79 Tidal wave, 397
Synchrotron, 1168 Terrestrial telescope, 889 Timbre, 436
Synchrotron radiation, 1168 Tesla (T) (unit), 712 Time:
Systeme International (SI), 7, inside front Test charge, 568 absolute, 953
cover Testing, of ideas/theories, 2 characteristic expansion, 1213
Systems, 98,454,500 Tevatron, 1168,1169 lookback, 1215
closed, 500 TFTR, 1145 Planck, 16 pr, 1015 pr, 1188,1216
isolated, 218,500 Theories (general), 3 proper, 962,1191 pr
o p en ,500 Theories of everything, 1189 relativity of, 958-64,967,968-71
as set of objects, 98,454 Thermal conductivity, 515 standard of, 6
of units, 7 Thermal contact, 459 Time constant, 688,791,1119
of variable mass, 236-38 Thermal energy, 196,498 Time dilation, 960-64,970
distinguished from heat and Time intervals, 6,21
temperature, 498 Time-dependent Schrodinger equation,
Tacoma Narrows Bridge, 386 transformation of electric to, 660 1027-28
Tail-to-tip method of adding vectors, (see also Internal energy) Time-independent Schrodinger equation,
53-54 Thermal equilibrium, 459 1025-27
Tangential acceleration, 128-29,251-52 Thermal expansion, 459-62 Time’s arrow, 544
Tape recorder, 749,775 anomalous behavior of water below Tire pressure, 468
Tau lepton, 1176,1178,1179,1183 4°C, 462 Tire pressure gauge, 347
Tau lepton number, 1176-77,1179,1183 coefficients of, 460 Tokamak, 1145-46
Tau neutrino, 1178,1179 linear expansion, 459-61 Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR),
Technetium-99,1152 volume expansion, 461-62 1145
Telephone, cell, 771,812,824,832 Thermal neutron, 1136 Tomography, 1153-56
Telephoto lens, 882 Thermal pollution, 549-50 Tone color, 436
Telescope(s), 887-89,930-31 Thermal radiation, 519 Toner, 583
Arecibo, 931 Thermal resistance, 517 Top, spinning, 299-300
astronomical, 888-89 Thermal stress, 463 Top quark, 1164,1182
Galilean, 887,887 fn, 889 Thermionic emission, 620 Topness, 1183
Hale, 889 Thermistor, 660 Topographic map, 617
Hubble Space (HST), 930,1207,1211 Thermodynamic probability, 547 Toroid, 742,748
Keck, 889 Thermodynamic temperature scale, 5 48^ 9 Toroidal field, 1145
Keplerian, 887 fn, 888 Thermodynamics, 455,496-520,528-51 Torque, 256-60 and # 290 #
magnification of, 888 first law of, 505-7 counter, 769
reflecting, 889 second law of, 529-48 on current loop, 718-19
refracting, 888 third law of, 539 fn, 5 4 8 ^ 9 vector, 290
resolution of, 930-31 zeroth law of, 459 Torr (unit), 3 4 6 ^ 7
space, 930,1207,1211 Thermography, 519 Torricelli, Evangelista, 346,347-48,356
terrestrial, 889 Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) Torricelli’s theorem, 356
Television, 621,830-32,94 3 ^ 4 badge, 1149 Torsion balance, 563
Temperature, 456-59,464,469,548-59 Thermometers, 457-58 Torsion pendulum, 382
absolute, 464,469-70,548-59 bimetallic-strip, 457 Total angular momentum, 1059
Celsius (or centigrade), 457-58 constant-volume gas, 458-59 Total binding energy, 985 pr, 1108
critical, 483 liquid-in-glass, 457 Total cross section, 1135
Curie, 746,750 mercury-in-glass thermometer, 457-58 Total internal reflection, 854-56,1038
distinguished from heat and internal resistance, 660 Total magnifying power, 888
energy, 498 Thermonuclear devices, 1144 Total reaction cross reaction, 1135
Fahrenheit, 457-58 Thermonuclear runaway, 1203 Townsend, J. S., 723
Fermi, 1102 pr Thermos bottle, 521 pr Tracers, 1151-52
human body, 458,505 Thermostat, 471 pr Traffic light, LED, 1096
ideal gas scale, 469-70,534 Thin lens equation, 870-73 Transfer-RNA (t-RNA), 1079-80
Kelvin, 464,469-70,548 ^ 9 Thin lenses, 867-77 a n d # Transformation of energy, 196,201
molecular interpretation of, 476-80 Thin-film interference, 909-14 Transformations:
operating (of heat engine), 530 Third law of motion, 89-91 Galilean, 968-69
relation to molecular kinetic energy, Third law of thermodynamics, 539 fn, Lorentz, 969-71
478-79,498-99,512-13 548-49 Transformer, 770-73,787
relation to molecular velocities, 476-82 Thomson, G. P., 998 Transformer equation, 771
scales of, 457-58,464,469-70,534 Thomson, J. J., 722-23,998,999 Transient ischemic attack (TIA ), 357
of star, 1198 Thought experiment, 958 a n d # Transistors, 1094,1097-98
transition, 668 definition, 958 Transition elements, 1054
Temperature coefficient of resistivity, Three Mile Island, 1139 Transition temperature, 668
658,659-60 Three-dimensional waves, 402-3 Transitions, atoms and molecules, allowed
Tennis serve, 81 pr, 216,220 Three-phase ac, 803 and forbidden, 1048-49,1061 fn,
Tensile strength, 322 Three-way lightbulb, 704 pr 1080-81,1083,1084
Tensile stress, 320-21 Threshold energy, 1134,1163 pr Translational kinetic energy, 172-73
Tension (stress), 320-21 Threshold of hearing, 431 Translational motion, 18-239
Tension in flexible cord, 97 Threshold of pain, 431 and center of mass (CM), 234-36,
Terminal, of battery, 653,655 Thrust, 237 268-69

A -68 Index
Transmission coefficient, 1037,1143 pr Unified atomic mass units (u), 7,455, Vaporization, latent heat of, 502,503,
Transmission electron microscope, 1000 1106,1107 505
Transmission grating, 933 # Unified theories, grand (G UT), 155, Variable acceleration, 39-43
Transmission lines, 772-73,825 1187-88 Variable mass systems, 236-38
Transmission of electricity, 772-73 Uniform circular motion, 119-25 Variable stars, 1204
Transmutation of elements, 1111,1132-35 dynamics of, 122-25 Vector cross product, 289-90
Transuranic elements, 1134 kinematics of, 119-22 Vector displacement, 20,52-54,59-60
Transverse waves, 398 f f Uniformly accelerated motion, 28 ff, Vector field, 575
EM waves, 819 62# Vector form of Coulomb’s law, 567
and earthquakes, 401 Uniformly accelerated rotational motion, Vector kinematics, 59-74
velocity of, 399 255 Vector model (atoms), 1069 pr, 1070 pr
Traveling sinusoidal wave, mathematical Unit conversion, 8-9, inside front cover Vector product, 289-90
representation of, 404-6 Unit vectors, 59 Vector sum, 52-58,95,143,217
Triangle, on a curved surface, 1207 Units of measurement, 6 Vectors, 2 0,52-62,167-68,289-90
Triangulation, 11,1203 fn converting, 8-9, inside front cover addition of, 52-58
Trigonometric functions and identities, prefixes, 7 angular momentum, 288,291
56,57, A -4-A -5, inside back cover in problem solving, 9,30,102 average acceleration, 60
Trigonometric table, A-5 Units and standards, 6-7 components of, 55-59
Triple point, 469,483 Universal gas constant, 466 cross product, 289-90
Tritium, 1105,1129 pr, 1144-45 Universal law of gravitation, 1 39,140^ 3, instantaneous acceleration, 60
Tritium dating, 1129 pr 199-201,564,1205 instantaneous velocity, 60
t-RNA, 1079-80 Universe: kinematics, 59-74
Trough, 397 age of, 1188 fn, 1213 magnetization, 750
Trusses, 324-27 Big Bang theory of, 1188, 1212 f f multiplication of, 55,167-68,289-90
Tsunami, 397 CDM model of, 1224 multiplication, by a scalar, 55
Tubes: critical density of, 1221-22 parrallelogram method of adding,
flow in, 353-55,357,358-59 curvature of, 1207-8,1220-21 54
vibrating column of air in, 431 f f entire, 1216 position, 59-60,62
Tunnel diode, 1038 expanding, 1209-13,1221-23 Poynting, 826-27
Tunneling: finite or infinite, 1194,1208-9,1213, pseudo-, 254 fn
of light wave, 1038 1221 resolution of, 55-58
through a barrier, 1036-39,1113 future of, 1221-23 resultant, 52-54,57-58
Tlirbine, 549,767 homogeneous, 1212 scalar (dot) product, 167-68
Turbulent flow, 352,357 inflationary scenario of, 1217,1219-21 subtraction of, 54-55
Turn signal, automobile, 691 isotropic, 1212 sum, 52-58,95,143
Turning points, 204 matter-dominated, 1219-21 tail-to-tip method of adding, 53-54
Twin paradox, 963 observable, 1215-16 torque, 290
Two-dimensional waves, 402 origin of elements in, 1201-2 unit, 59
Tycho Brahe, 149 radiation-dominated, 1218-19 vector (cross) product, 289-90
Type la supernovae (SNIa), 1203,1204, Standard M odel of, 1216-19 Velocity, 20-24,60
1223 steady-state model of, 1213 addition of, 71-74,970-71
Tyrolean traverse, 106 pr, 338 pr Unobservable (universe), 1221 angular, 250-55
Unpolarized light (defit), 941 average, 20-22,60
Unstable equilibrium, 205,317 drift, 666-68,723,724
UA1 detector, 1173 Unstable nucleus, 1 1 1 0 # escape, 201,1222
Ultimate speed, 974 Up quark, 1182 of EM waves, 819-22
Ultimate strength, 319,322 Uranium: gradient, 358
Ultracapacitors, 644 pr in dating, 1121-24 instantaneous, 22-24,60
Ultracentrifuge, 122 enriched, 1138 of light, 6,822,825-26,850,902,953,
Ultrasonic frequencies, 426,445 fission of, 1136-41 957,975
Ultrasonic waves, 426,442,445-46 in reactors, 1136-41 molecular, and relation to
Ultrasound, 445 Uranus, 150,152 temperature, 479-82
Ultrasound imaging, 445-46 Useful magnification, 932-33 phase, 404-5
Ultraviolet (U V ) light, 823,824,852 U V light, 823,824,852 relative, 71-74
Unavailability of energy, 545-46 relativistic addition of, 970-71
Uncertainty (in measurements), 3-5, rms (root-mean-square velocity),
1020-23 Vacuum energy, 1223 479-82
estimated, 3 Vacuum pump, 361 of sound, 425
percent, 3 -4, 5 Vacuum state, 1174-75,1220 supersonic, 426,443
Uncertainty principle, 1020-23,1036, Valence, 1054 terminal, 35 fn, 129-30
1072 Valence band, 1091-92 of waves, 397,399-401
and particle resonance, 1181 Van de Graaff generator, 607,627 pr Velocity selector, 717
and tunneling, 1113 van der Waals, J. D., 486 Velocity-dependent forces, 129-30
Underdamped system, 383 van der Waals bonds and forces, 1077-80, Ventricular fibrillation, 638,692
Underexposure, 879 1086 Venturi meter, 357
Underwater vision, 885 van der Waals equation of state, 486-87 Venturi tube, 357
Unification distance, 1192 pr van der Waals gas, 487 Venus, 150,158 pr, 887
Unification scale, 1187 Vapor (defn), 483 (see also Gases) Vertical (defn), 92 fh
Unified (basis of forces), 1186 Vapor pressure, 484-85 Vibrating strings, 412-15,431-33

Index A -69
Vibration, 369-86 saturated vapor pressure, 484 square, 409
of air columns, 434-36 specific gravity of, 341,351 standing, 412-15,431-35
forced, 385-87 thermal expansion of, 462 on a string, 412-15,431-33
molecular, 499,512-13,1082-85 triple point of, 469,483 surface, 402,410
as source of waves, 397 Watson, J., 939 three-dimensional, 402-3
of spring, 370 f f Watt, James, 202 fn tidal, 397
on strings, 412-14,431-3 Watt (W) (unit), 202,661 transmission of, 409
(see also Oscillations) Wave(s), 395-416,817 ff, 823 ff, transverse, 398 ff, 399,401,819,940
Vibrational energy, 377-78 900-45 traveling, 404-6
molecular, 499,513,1082-85 amplitude of, 371,397,402,404,426, two-dimensional, 402
Vibrational quantum number, 1083 430,1019 and tunneling, 1038
Vibrational transition, 1082-85 bow, 443-44 types of, 398-99 (see also Light)
Virtual image, 840,870 complex, 408,436 ultrasonic, 426,442,445-46
Virtual particles, 1172 composite, 408,436 velocity of, 397,399-401,819-22
Virtual photon, 1172 compression, 398,401 water, 395 f f
Viscosity, 352,353 fn, 358-59 continuous (defn), 397 (see also Light)
coefficient of, 358 diffraction of, 416,901,921-39 Wave displacement, 404 ff, 1019
Viscous force, 358-59 dispersion, 409,853 Wave equation, 406-8,822
Visible light, wavelengths of, 823,852-54 displacement of, 404 f f Schrodinger, 1025-36,1045-46,1082,
Visible spectrum, 852-54 earthquake, 401,402,403,416 1090
Volt (V) (unit), 608 electromagnetic, 817-32 (see also Wave front, 410,901
Volt-Ohm-Meter/Volt-Ohm- Light) Wave function, 1018-20,1025-39
Milliammeter (VOM ), 696 energy in, 402-3 for H atom, 1045,1046,1049-51,1072
Volta, Alessandro, 608,629,652 expansions in, 398 for square well, 1030-36
Voltage, 607,608 ff, 653 ff, 678 f f frequency, 397 Wave intensity, 402-3,427-31,826-27,
base bias, 1097 front, 410,901 906-9,924-29
bias, 1095 function, 1018-20,1025-37,1045, Wave motion (see Wave(s); Light;
breakdown, 612 1049-51 Sound)
electric field related to, 610-11, gravity, 1224 Wave nature of electron, 1020
617-19 harmonic (defn), 405 Wave nature of matter, 997-99,
Hall, 1094 incident, 410,415 1009-10
hazards of, 692-94 infrasonic, 426 Wave number (defn), 404
measuring, 695-97 in-phase, 411 Wave packet, 1029
p eak ,664 intensity, 402-3,427-31,826-27 Wave theory of light, 900-45
ripple, 1096 interference of, 410-11,437-38, Wave velocity, 397,399-401,819-22
rms, 664 903-14 (see also Light; Sound)
terminal, 678-79 light, 821-26,900-45,1038 (see also Wave interference phenomenon, 903
(see also Electric potential) Light) W ave-particle duality:
Voltage drop, 684 (see Voltage) linear, 402 of light, 997
Voltage gain (defn), 1097 longitudinal (defn), 398 of matter, 997-99,1009-10,1018-22
Voltaic battery, 652 mathematical representation of, 404-6, Wavelength:
Voltmeter, 695-97,721 426-27 absorption, 1008
digital, 695,697 of matter, 9 9 7 -9 9 ,1 0 0 9 -1 0 ,1 0 1 9 // Compton, 994
Volume change under pressure, 321 mechanical, 395-416 cutoff, 1055-56
Volume expansion (thermal), 460, motion of, 395-416 de Broglie, 997-98,1009-10,1019,
461-62 number, 404 1025,1165-66
coefficient of, 461 one-dimensional, 402-3 definition, 397
Volume formulas, A -l, inside back cover out-of-phase, 411 depending on index of refraction, 853,
Volume holograms, 1065 P, 401,403,416 902
Volume rate of flow, 353 packet, 1029 as limit to resolution, 932,1165-66
VOM, 696 period of, 397 of material particles, 997-9,1009-10
von Laue, Max, 939 periodic (defn), 397 Weak bonds, 1077-80,1086
phase of, 404,411 Weak charge, 1185
plane, 410,818,819,1028-29 Weak nuclear force, 155,1110,1115,
W± particles, 1173,1178-80,1183, power, 402 1173-89,1205
1185 pressure, 401,426 f f Weather, 302,525 pr
Walking, 90 pulse, 396 Weber (Wb) (unit), 760
Water: radio, 823-24,931 Weight, 84,86,92-94,143
anomalous behavior below 4°C, 462 rarefactions in, 398 as a force, 86,92
cohesion of, 360 reflection of, 409-10 force of gravity, 84,92-94,143
density of, 340-41,351 refraction of, 415-16 mass compared to, 86,92
dipole moment of, 617 S, 401 Weightlessness, 148-49
and electric shock, 693 shock, 443-44 Weinberg, S., 1186
expansion of, 462 sinusoidal traveling, 404-6 Well, finite potential, 1035-36
heavy, 1138 sound, 424-46,824 Well, infinite potential, 1030-34
latent heats of, 503 source of, oscillations as, 397 Wess, J., 1189
molecule, 1074,1075 speed of (see Speed of light; Speed of W heatstone bridge, 704 pr
polar nature of, 561,579,617,1074 sound) W heel balancing, 296
properties of: inside front cover spherical, 403,410 Whirlpool galaxy, 1196

A -70 Index
White dwarfs, 1197,1199,1201,1228 pr done by a varying force, 168-71 YBCO superconductor, 668
White light, 852-53 in first law of thermodynamics, Yerkes Observatory, 888
White-light holograms, 1065 505-7 Young, Thomas, 903,906
Whole-body dose, 1149 from heat engines, 530 f f Young’s double-slit experiment, 903-9,
Wide-angle lens, 882,892 and power, 201 927-29,1019-20
Width, of resonance, 1181 relation to energy, 172-74,186-89,197, Young’s modulus, 319
Wien, W., 988 201,266 Yo-Yo, 271,281 pr
W ien’s displacement law, 988,1198 rotational, 266 Yttrium, barium, copper, oxygen
W ien’s radiation theory, 988 units of, 164 superconductor (YBCO), 668
Wilkinson, D., 1214 Work function, 990-91,1090 Yukawa, Hideki, 1171-73
Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Work-energy principle, 172-73,176,266, Yukawa particle, 1171-73
(W MAP), 1193,1214 974,978
Wilson, Robert, 1168 fn, 1213-14 energy conservation vs., 197
Wind instruments, 433-36 general derivation of, 176 Z (atomic number), 1052,1054-56,
Wind power, 550 as reformulation of N ewton’s laws, 1105
Windings, 720 173 Z° particle, 1042 pr, 1173,1178-80,1183,
Windshield wipers, 691 Working substance (defn), 530 1185
Wing of an airplane, lift on, 356-57 Wright, Thomas, 1194 Z-particle decay, 1173
Wire, ground, 693,694 Zeeman effect, 731 pr, 1047,1057,1059
Wire drift chamber, 1125,1164 Zener diode, 1095
Wireless communication, 812,829-32 Xerox (see Photocopier) Zero, absolute, temperature of, 464,
Wire-wound resistors, 657 Xi (particle), 1179 549
WMAP, 1193,1214 X-rays, 823,824,938-39,1054-56,1117, Zero-point energy, 1031,1036-37,
Work, 163-76,199,266,497,505-10 1153-54 1042 pr, 1083
to bring positive charges together, and atomic number, 1054-56 Zeroth law of thermodynamics, 459
613 characteristic, 1055 Zoom, digital, 882
compared to heat, 505 in electromagnetic spectrum, 823 Zoom lens, 882
defined, 164,169,505 f f spectra, 1054-56 Zumino, B., 1189
done by a constant force, 164-66 X-ray crystallography, 939 Zweig, G., 1182
done by a gas, 508 f f X-ray diffraction, 938-39
done by a spring force, 170-71 X-ray scattering, 994-95

Index A-71
Photo Credits
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25-33 Alexandra Truitt & Jerry Marshall 25-34 Scott T. Smith/Bettmann/Corbis 25-37 Jim Wehtje/Photodisc/Getty Images
CO-26 Dino Vournas/Reuters Ltd. 26-15a Alamy Images 26-22 Charles O ’Rear/Corbis 26-25a Photodisc/Getty Images
26-25b William E. Ferguson 26-25c Ed Degginger/Color-Pic, Inc. 26-27a Paul Silverman/Fundamental Photographs, NYC
26-27b Paul Silverman/Fundamental Photographs, NYC CO-27 Richard Megna/Fundamental Photographs, NYC 27-1 Michael Newman/
PhotoEdit, Inc. 27-4a Stephen Oliver/Dorling Kindersley Media Library 27-6 Mary Teresa Giancoli 27-8a Richard Megna/
Fundamental Photographs, NYC 27-18 Richard Megna/Fundamental Photographs, NYC 27-2b Steven Hausler/Hays Daily News/
AP Wide World Photos CO-28 Richard Megna/Fundamental Photographs, NYC 28-24 Richard Megna/Fundamental Photographs, NYC
28-32 Clive Streeter/Dorling Kindersley Media Library CO-29 Richard Megna/Fundamental Photographs, NYC 29-8 Diva de Provence/
DIVA Induction froid 29-13 Jeff Hunter/Image Bank/Getty Images 29-17 Rick Bowmer/AP Wide World Photos
29-22 Jack Hollingsworth/ Photodisc/Getty Images 29-23 Robert Houser 29-29b Terence Kearey 29-32a Richard Megna/
Fundamental Photographs, NYC 29-32b Christian Botting C 0-30 Corbis Royalty Free CO-31 Douglas C. Giancoli
31-1 American Institute of Physics 31-13 The Image Works 31-22 Spencer Grant/PhotoEdit, Inc. 31-25 World Perspectives/Stone/
Allstock/Getty Images CO-32 Douglas C. Giancoli 32-6 Douglas C. Giancoli 3 2 -lla Mary Teresa Giancoli and Suzanne Saylor
3 2 -llb Francesco Campani 32-20 Travel Pix Ltd./Super Stock, Inc. 32-23 Giuseppe Molesini, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Florence
32-27 David Parker/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc. 32-30b Lewis Kemper/Photolibrary.com 32-35b Mitterer/
Mauritus, G M BH /Phototake NYC 32-41 Douglas C. Giancoli 32-44 Mary Teresa Giancoli CO-33 Richard Megna/Fundamental
Photographers, NYC 33-1 Douglas C. Giancoli 33-2c Douglas C. Giancoli 33-2d Douglas C. Giancoli 33-4 Kari Erik Marttila/Kari Erik
Marttila Photography 33-7a Douglas C. Giancoli 33-7b Douglas C. Giancoli 33-13a Scott Dudley 33-13b Scott D udley
33-21 Mary Teresa Giancoli 33-22a Mary Teresa Giancoli 33-22b Mary Teresa Giancoli 33-35a Franca Principe/Istituto e Museo di
Storia della Scienza 33-35b Franca Principe/Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza 33-37 Yerkes Observatory 33-38c Sandy Huffaker/
Getty Images 33-38d Roger Ressmeyer/Corbis 33-40b Olympus America Inc. 33-45 Ron Chapple/Ron Chappie Photography
33-49 NO A A Space Environment Center CO-34 Giuseppe Molesini, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Florence 34-4a John M. Duany
IV/Fundamental Photographs, NYC 34-9a Giuseppe Molesini, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Florence 34-16a/b/c Giuseppe Molesini,
Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Florence 34-18b Giuseppe Molesini, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Florence 34-20b/c Bausch & Lomb Inc.
34-22 Kristen Brochmann/Fundamental Photographs, NYC CO-35 Richard Megna/Fundamental Photographs, NYC
35-2a P. M. Rinard/American Journal of Physics 35-2b Ken Kay/Fundamental Photographs, NYC 35-2c Ken Kay/Fundamental
Photographs, NYC 3 5 -lla /b Richard Megna/Fundamental Photographs, NYC 35-12a/b Springer-Verlang GmbH & Co. KG
35-15 Space Telescope Science Institute 35-16 David Parker/Photo Researchers, Inc. 35-20 Spike Mafford/Photodisc/Getty Images
35-22 Wabash Instrument Corp./Fundamental Photographs, NYC 35-27 Burndy Library 35-30 Rosalind Franklin/Photo
Researchers, Inc. 35-37 Diane Schiumo/Fundamental Photographs, NYC 35-40a/b Douglas C. Giancoli 35-45 Texas Instruments Inc.
CO-36 Cambridge University Press; “The City Blocks Became Still Shorter” photo from page 4 of the book “Mr Tompkins in
Paperback” by George Gamow. Reprinted with the permission of Cambridge University Press 36-1 Albert Einstein and related rights
TM/© of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, used under license. Represented exclusively by Corbis Corporation 36-15 Cambridge
University Press; “Unbelievably Shortened” photo from page 3 of the book “Mr Tompkins in Paperback” by George Gamow.
Reprinted with the permission of Cambridge University Press CO-37 P. M. Motta & F. M. Magliocca/Science Photo Library/Photo
Researchers, Inc. 37-10 Photo by Samuel Goudsmit, courtesy AIP Emilio Segre Visual Archives, Goudsmit Collection
37-11 Education D evelopm ent Center, Inc. 37-15a Lee D. Simon/Science Source/Photo Researchers, Inc. 37-15b Oliver Meckes/
Max Planck Institut Tubingen/Photo Researchers, Inc. 37-19b Richard M egna/Fundamental Photographs, N YC 37-20 Wabash
Instrument Corp./Fundamental Photographs, NYC. CO-38 Institut International de Physique/American Institute of Physics/Emilio
Segre Visual Archives 38-1 Niels Bohr Archive, courtesy AIP Emilio Segre Visual Archives 38-2 Photograph by F. D. Rasetti,
courtesy A IP Emilio Segre Visual Archives, Segre Collection 38-4 Advanced Research Laboratory/Hitachi, Ltd. CO-39 © Richard
Cummins/Corbis 39-16 Paul Silverman/Fundamental Photographs, NYC 39-23 Yoav Levy/Phototake NYC 39-24b Philippe Plaily/
Photo Researchers, Inc. C 0-40 Intel Corporation Pressroom Photo Archives 40-41 © Alan Schein Photography/CORBIS A ll Rights
Reserved CO-41 Reuters Newmedia Inc./Corbis/Bettmann 41-3 French Government Tourist Office 41-8 Enrico Fermi Stamp
Design © 2001 United States Postal Service. A ll Rights Reserved. Used with Permission from the U.S. Postal Service and Rachel Fermi
41-16 Fermilab Visual Media Services CO-42 ITER International Fusion Energy Organization (IIFEO) 42-7 Archival Photofiles,
Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library 42-10 Igor Kostin/Corbis/Sygma 42-11 Novosti/ZUM A

Photo Credits A -73


Press-Gamma 42-12 Corbis/Bettmann 42-19a Robert Ttirgeon, Cornell University 42-19b Courtesy of Brookhaven National
Laboratory 42-20b Sovereign/Phototake NYC 42-24a Martin M. Rotker 42-24b Scott Camazine/Alamy Images 42-27 ISM/
Phototake NYC 42-31b Southern Illinois University/Peter Arnold, Inc. 42-33 Sovereign/Phototake NYC CO-43 Fermilab/Science
Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc. 43-1 Smithsonian Institution, Science Service Collection, photograph by Watson Davis/
Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, courtesy AIP Emilio Segre Visual
Archives, Fermi Film 43-3a/b Fermilab Visual Media Services 43-5 CERN/ Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.
43-6 ATLAS Experiment/CERN-European Organization for Nuclear Research 43-10a/b Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers
43-12a Brookhaven National Laboratory 43-13 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory CO-44 WMAP Science Team/NASA
Headquarters 44-la Space Telescope Science Institute 44-lb Allan Morton/ Dennis Milon/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.
44-2c NASA/Johnson Space Center 44-3 U.S. Naval Observatory Photo/NASA Headquarters 44-4 National Optical Astronomy
Observatories 44-5a Reginald J. Dufour, Rice University 44-5b U.S. Naval Observatory 44-5c National Optical Astronomy Observatories
44-9a/b © Anglo-Australian Observatory 44-9c The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/ N A SA ) 44-9c (in se t) STScI/NASA/
Science Source/Photo Researchers, Inc. 44-15a N A SA Headquarters 44-22 N A SA , ESA, S. Beckwith (STScI) and the H U D F Team
44-22 (in se t) N A SA , ESA, R. Bouwens and G. Illingworth (University of California, Santa Cruz) 44-24 © Roger
Ressmeyer/CORBIS A ll Rights Reserved 44-26 Fredrik Persson/AP Wide World Photos 44-27 N A SA /W M A P Science Team

Tab le o f Contents Photos p. iii le ft © Reuters/Corbis; rig h t A gence Zoom/Getty Images p. iv le ft Ben Margot/AP Wide World
Photos; rig h t Kai Pfaffenbach/Reuters Limited p. v Jerry Driendl/Taxi/Getty Images p. v i le ft Richard Price/Photographer’s
Choice/Getty Images; rig h t Frank Herholdt/Stone/Getty Images p. v iii Richard Megna/Fundamental Photographs, NYC
p. ix le ft Richard Megna/Fundamental Photographs, NYC; rig h t Giuseppe Molesini, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Florence
p. x © Richard Cummins/Corbis p. x i le ft Fermilab/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.; rig h t The Microwave Sky:
NASA/W M AP Science Team p. x v ii Douglas C. Giancoli

A -74 Photo Credits