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The University of Arusha

A STUDY OF EFFECTS OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY ON SABBATH


KEEPING: A CASE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ARUSHA COMMUNITY

A Research Project

Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course

RELP 326-Major Research Paper

By

Ulindula Ezekiel Mwandembo

July, 2016
DECLARATION

I, Ulindula E. Mwandembo, do hereby declare to the Senate of University of Arusha that this

dissertation is my own original work, and has never been submitted for undergraduate degree

in any other University.

Ulindula Ezekiel Mwandembo

July 8, 2016

i
COPYRIGHT

No part of this dissertation may be used for any business purpose without permission of the

researcher although this dissertation may be produced, stored in any retrieval system, or

transmitted in any form for educational purposes only.

ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am grateful for the following colleagues for their strong encouragement and insightful

comments during the preparation of this research project: My supervisor, Pr. Dr. Benjamin

Muzabazi Moyo (Senior Lecturer-UOA) for his supervision and guidance, and Pr. Mishael C.

Mutaki for his appreciation to the idea and encouragement to keep on working on the idea I

developed concerning integration of faith and technology.

In a special way I am very thankful to University of Arusha Seventh-day Adventist Workers,

University of Arusha Seventh-day Adventist Students, and other regular members within the

community of University of Arusha who are Seventh-day Adventist believers for their strong

support and confidence in responding to research questions and provision of their different

recommendations.

Finally, I pass my sincere thanks to all academic members of University of Arusha specifically

the academic members from the faculty of Theology and Religious Studies for the academic

role they played during my study in the Bachelor degree of art in Theology.

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DEDICATION

This dissertation is dedicated to the Southern Tanzania Union Mission (STUM) of Seventh-day

Adventist Church for supporting all research budget and by provision of complete bursary

during my academic years at the University of Arusha in my Bachelor degree of Art in

Theology from 2013 to 2016.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Declaration.................................................................................................................................... i

Copyright ..................................................................................................................................... ii

Acknowledgement ...................................................................................................................... iii

Dedication ................................................................................................................................... iv

Table of Contents..........................................................................................................................v

List of Tables ............................................................................................................................ viii

Abbreviations.............................................................................................................................. ix

Definition of Terms.......................................................................................................................x

Abstract ....................................................................................................................................... xi

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Problem ....................................................................................................1

1.2 Statement of the Problem........................................................................................................3

1.3 Research Objectives................................................................................................................3

1.3.1 General Objective ................................................................................................................3

1.3.2. Specific Objectives .............................................................................................................4

1.4 Research Questions.................................................................................................................4

1.5 Significances of the Study ......................................................................................................4

1.6 Limitations ..............................................................................................................................5

1.7 Delimitation of the Study........................................................................................................5

1.8 Presupposition.........................................................................................................................5

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1.9 Hypothesis...............................................................................................................................5

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction.............................................................................................................................6

2.1 Sabbath Practices in the Old Testament..................................................................................7

2.2 Sabbath Practices in the New Testament ................................................................................8

2.3 Literature Review on Sabbath and Technology......................................................................9

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction...........................................................................................................................16

3.1 Research Design....................................................................................................................16

3.2 Approaches to Research........................................................................................................16

3.3 Population, Sample ratio, Sample size, and Sampling procedures. ......................................17

3.3.1 Population ..........................................................................................................................17

3.3.2 Sample ratio and Sample size ............................................................................................17

3.3.3 Sampling Procedures .........................................................................................................18

3.4 Data Collection Methods and Tools .....................................................................................18

3.5 Data Analysis, Validity and Reliability ................................................................................18

3.5.1 Data Analysis .....................................................................................................................18

3.5.2 Validity and Reliability......................................................................................................19

3.6 Ethical Consideration............................................................................................................19

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CHAPTER 4: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

4.0 Introduction...........................................................................................................................20

4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis ............................................................................................20

4.2 Findings and Discussions......................................................................................................28

4.2.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................28

4.2.2 Respondents’ Opinions about the Sabbath ........................................................................28

4.2.3 Respondents’ Opinions about the Sabbath and Technology..............................................31

CHAPTER 5: SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS

Suggested Solutions ....................................................................................................................38

CHAPTER 6: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 Summary ...............................................................................................................................41

6.1 Recommendations.................................................................................................................45

APPENDICES

Appendix 1: Questionnaire Sheet ...............................................................................................46

Appendix 2: Schedule of Research Activities (January–July 2016)...........................................52

Appendix 3: Research Budget ....................................................................................................52

REFERENCES

References ............................................................................................................................................... 53

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: 4.1: Identification information of males and females respondents per age-interval....20

Table 2: 4.2: Males responses to the Sabbath day based on their education level.....................22

Table 3: 4.3: Females responses to the Sabbath day based on their education level .................22

Table 4: 4.4: Combined information of both genders’ responses to the Sabbath day ...............23

Table 5: 4.5: Overall responses of all 65 respondents about the Sabbath and Technology.......26

Table 6: A01: Schedule of Research activities ..........................................................................52

Table 7: A02: Research budget..................................................................................................52

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ABBREVIATIONS

ICT-Information and Communication Technology

IT-Information Technology.

SDA-Seventh Day Adventist

STUM-Southern Tanzania Union Mission

TV-Television

UOA-University of Arusha

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DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

Sabbath: Is the Lord’s Day, the seventh day of the week among His people, the day counted

from sunset to sunset, that is, from Friday evening to Saturday evening. (Source: Bible)

Technology: Is the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical

means and their interrelation with life, society, and the environment, drawing upon such

subjects as industrial arts, engineering, applied science, and pure science. (Dictionary.com)

Information Technology (IT): A term that encompasses the physical elements of computing

including servers, networks and desktop computing which enable digital information to be

created, stored, used and shared. (Knowledge Research Institute, Inc.)

Information and Communication Technology (ICT): Technology that combines computing

with high-speed communications links carrying data, sound and video. (Knowledge Research

Institute, Inc.)

Halakhic: Derived from the Hebrew word Halakhah, the word "halakhah" is usually translated

as "Jewish Law," although a more literal (and more appropriate) translation might be "the path

that one walks." The word is derived from the Hebrew root Hei-Lamed-Kaf, meaning to go, to

walk or to travel. (www.jewfaq.org/halakhah.htm)

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ABSTRACT

Under increasing technological innovations, the world is rapidly advance technologically in

different disciplines of life, this do not leave aside the practices of faith and spiritual matters as

far as technology is concerned.

The focus of this research was to find out the effects of advanced technologies on Sabbath

keeping. There are many advantages of advanced technologies in an individual’s life and in our

ministries, Sabbath keeping is very simple practice if observed careful by focusing on the

instructions and practices of Jesus Christ while he was in this world, but currently due to the

technological advancements, there are some practices which seem to be minor but result to the

breaking of the Sabbath knowingly or unknowingly.

It was an assumption of this research that there are some practices of advanced technologies

which are resulting in breaking of the Sabbath, the hypothesis of this research was proved to be

correct according to the collected information from various Seventh-day Adventist believers

within the community of University of Arusha.

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

The world is undergoing tremendous transformations that have been occasioned largely by

advanced technologies. As the culture of the world change, the church does not left aside and

this implies that can be affected positively or negatively. Sabbath as the commandment of God

has to observed throughout all ages without any exception generated from any kind of changes

of life on the earth’s surface because God is unchangeable yesterday, today, tomorrow, and

forever; now there is important concept to deliberate about here, it is necessary to understand

whether the church members are in a danger of breaking the Sabbath either knowingly or

unknowingly as a result of advanced technologies the church is passing through.

Before defining what Sabbath means, first it is important to have the understanding of the

following terms; technology, advance, and advanced technological world which will be the key

terms of discussion in the effects of technologies in the practices of keeping the Sabbath in this

modern era. Technology defined as the practical application of knowledge especially in

a particular area (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/technology) while the

terminology “advance” is defined in Webster dictionary as to go forward or to make

progress or to continue in a process of development, aging, etc. According to the

definitions of “advance” and “technology”, advanced technological world, can be

understood as the world of developed applications of knowledge in different

disciplines of life. According to Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Sabbath is defined as a

day set aside for rest and worship. According to Exodus 20:8, the Sabbath

is commanded by God to be kept as a holy day of rest, as God rested from creation. In Judaism,

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Sabbath is the seventh day of the Hebrew calendar week, which in English is known

as Saturday. The term has been used to describe a similar weekly observance in several other

traditions.

The Sabbath was the consecration of one day of the weekly period to God as the Author of

the universe and of time. The day thus being the Lord's, it required

that man should abstain from working for his own works and interests, since by working he/she

would appropriate the day to himself/herself, and that he/she should devoted his/her activity to

God by special acts of positive worship. After the Sinaitic covenant God stood to Israel in the

relation of Lord of that covenant. The Sabbath thereby also became a sign, and its observance

an acknowledgment of the contract: "See that you keep my Sabbath; because it is a sign

between me and you in your generations; that you may know that I am the Lord, who sanctify

you" (Exodus 31:13).

Under increasing technological innovations, the world rapidly advance technologically in

different perspectives of life, this do not leave aside faith and spiritual matters as far as

technology is concerned. The focus of this research to was to find out the effects of advanced

technologies on Sabbath keeping. There are many advantages of advanced technologies in an

individual’s life and in our daily ministries, Sabbath keeping is very simple practice if observed

careful by focusing on the instructions and practices of Jesus Christ while he was in this world,

but currently due to technological advancement there are some practices which seem to be

minor but result to the breaking of the Sabbath knowingly or unknowingly. It was an

assumption of the researcher that there are some practices of advanced technologies which are

resulting in breaking of the Sabbath, and this assumption was worked out in this research.

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1.2 Statement of the problem

The problem that is observed on Sabbath keeping as far as advanced technology is concerned is

that there are some practices of applications of technologies that result to the breaking of the

Sabbath. Some individuals for instance use information and communication technologies to do

a lot of things that please themselves on the Sabbath day; some examples of those practices are

such as chatting with friends on Facebook, twitter, WhatsApp, Instagram, or e-mails for

individually pleasing issues that do not honor God.

Jesus Christ says that the Sabbath was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath" (Mark

2:27). He cured on the Sabbath, and defended His disciples for plucking ears of corn on that

day. In His arguments with the Pharisees on this account He showed that the Sabbath is not

broken in cases of necessity or by acts of charity (Matthew 12:3; Mark 2:25; Luke 6:3; 14:5).

But in our today’s world, there are some individually pleasing applications of advanced

technologies which are resulting in breaking of the Sabbath, by understanding this, the research

was designed to find out the negative effects of advanced technologies and to come out with

the proposed solutions to in order to solve the problem.

1.3 Objectives

1.3.1 Main Objective

The main objective for this study was to assess how advanced technologies can affect the

practices of Sabbath keeping and what measures are to be taken in order to avoid the practices

of breaking the Sabbath among Adventist believers in University of Arusha community on one

side and all over the world on the other side.

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1.3.2 Specific Objectives

Along with the main objective of the research which was worked out, next up is the list of six

specific objectives that were specifically looked out in order to systematically integrate the

relationship between technology and Sabbath keeping in order to meet the main objective.

1. To assess the practices of Sabbath keeping in the Old Testament in a general picture

2. To assess the practices of Sabbath keeping in the New Testament before and after ascension

of Jesus Christ.

3. To assess the observance of the Sabbath in advanced world.

4. To check how advanced technologies can facilitate the practices of Sabbath keeping.

5. To check how technologies can contribute to the practices of Sabbath breaking.

6. To propose measures to be taken in order to avoid the breaking of Sabbath technologically.

1.4 Research Questions

In order to achieve the objective of the study, the following questions were raised;

1. What was the intention of Sabbath before Christ on this earth?

2. Does the Sabbath commandment remains the same after birth of Jesus on this world as it

was previous?

3. Was Sabbath keeping observed in any era of technological variations to be difficult in

keeping?

4. What are the advantages of advanced technologies on Sabbath keeping?

5. What are the negative effects of advanced technologies on Sabbath keeping?

1.5 Significances of the study

This research was specifically conducted to help Seventh-day Adventist believers in the

community of University of Arusha to understand the proper use of advanced technologies on

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the Sabbath day in order to please our God and avoid the practices of breaking the Sabbath

through individually pleasing applications of technologies during the Sabbath day.

1.6 Limitations

The time limitation and shortage of fund obliged the researcher to work on tight budget and

utilizing extra hours for other timetables to deal with the questions raised by this research in

order to accomplish the intended goals. This research was conducted to the low level literate

and high level literate respondents, therefore to need extra force to educate low level literate

individuals before they were to respond to the research questions.

1.7 Delimitation of the Study

The focal point of this research was only on the University of Arusha community. This means

that the researcher was only dealing with the problematic issues to Sabbath keeping as resulted

from the effects of advanced technologies only bounded with the ideas from that community.

1.8 Presupposition

Prior to the conducted research, it was assumed by the researcher that apart from the

significances of advancement of technologies on Sabbath activities there are some individually

pleasing applications of technologies during the Sabbath day that result to the practices of

breaking the Sabbath; those activities are such as cooking on Sabbath-day with electrical

cookers in regular situations, or chatting with friends on face-book.

1.9 Hypothesis

The hypothesis of this research assumed that due to technological advancements there are some

technological practices which seem to be minor but result to the breaking of the Sabbath

knowingly or unknowingly.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

Literature review is concerned with reading literatures of other authors in order to get their

ideas relating to current researched idea. Within few decades, technology took a number of

changes from analogy technology to digital technology as seen in Image 2.1 and Image 2.2.

Different literatures relating to Sabbath keeping and technology were read in order to get the

understanding of what others have said about the effects of advanced technologies on Sabbath

keeping.

Image 2.1: Analogy Technological World

Source: http://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/105202

Image 2.2: Digital Technological World

Source: https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-illustration-modern-communication-technology-
mobile-phone-high-tech-world-map-image44428062

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2.1 Sabbath Practices in the Old Testament

The Bible terms the Sabbath as the day of rest "sanctified to the Lord" (Exodus

16:23; 31:15; Deuteronomy 5:14). All works were forbidden, the prohibition including

strangers as well as Israelites, beasts as well as men (Exodus 20:8-10; 31:13-17; Deuteronomy

5:12-14). The following particular actions are mentioned as forbidden: cooking (Exodus

16:23); gathering manna (Exodus 16:26); plowing and reaping (Exodus 34:21); lighting a fire

(for cooking, Exodus 35:3); gathering wood (Numbers 15:32); carrying burdens (Jeremiah

17:21-22); pressing grapes, bringing in sheaves, and loading animals (Nehemiah 13:15);

trading (Nehemiah 13:15). Travelling, at least with a religious object, was not forbidden, the

prohibition of Exodus 16:29, referring only to leaving the camp to gather food; it is implied in

the institution of holy assemblies (Leviticus 23:2-3), and was customary in the time of the

kings (2 Kings 4:23). At a later period, however, all movement was restricted to a distance of

2000 cubits (between five and six furlongs), or a "Sabbath day's journey" (Acts 1:12).

Total abstention from work was prescribed only for the Sabbath and the Day of Atonement; on

the other feast-days servile work alone was prohibited (Exodus 12:16; Leviticus

23:7). Willful violation of the Sabbath was punished with death (Exodus 31:14-15; Numbers

15:32-36).

The prohibition of work made it necessary to prepare food, and whatever might be needed, the

day before the Sabbath, hence known as the day of preparation (Matthew 27:62; Mark 15:42).

Alongside abstention from work, special religious observances were prescribed. (a) The

daily sacrifices were doubled, that is two lambs of a year old without blemish were offered up

in the morning, and two in the evening, with twice the usual quantity of flour tempered with oil

and of the wine of libation (Numbers 28:3-10). (b) New loaves of proposition were placed

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before the Lord (Leviticus 24:5; 1 Chronicles 9:32). (c) A sacred assembly was to be held in

the sanctuary for solemn worship (Leviticus 23:2-3, Hebrew text; Ezekiel 46:3).

2.2 Sabbath Practices in the New Testament

First of all, it is important to understand that when Christ died on the cross, the Bible says,

"Then, behold, the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom; and the earth quaked,

and the rocks were split" (Matthew 27:51), this shows that Christ's death fulfilled all the

sacrifices of lambs or oxen, that had been offered as sin offerings for atonement from Adam

sinned. Therefore, the sacrificial system in the earthly sanctuary was no longer necessary,

thereby abolishing the ceremonial laws. Thus, the "handwriting of ordinances" which Paul

refers to here do not relate to the Ten Commandments which were written by the finger of God

(Exodus 31:18) and which cannot be changed (Exodus 20:1-17), but as the Bible's original

wording says, the "handwriting in the decrees" ( Deuteronomy 31:24) and this relates to Col.

2:16, "Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or respect of an holyday, or of the

new moon, or of the Sabbath days: which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of

Christ". In Numbers 28-29, God spoke to Moses, who wrote down these instructions for the

priests on how to offer offerings every morning and evening, Sabbath, new moon, and feast.

These are the "handwriting of ordinances" which is also referred to as the Mosaic Law.

In Ephesians 2:15, which says, "Having abolished in His flesh the enmity, that is, the law of

commandments contained in ordinances, so as to create in Himself one new man from the two,

thus making peace", Paul indicated that Christ's crucifixion fulfilled the sacrifice for

atonement, so that the Mosaic Law concerning the priesthood, sanctuary service, and

circumcision were abolished and nailed to the cross.

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By the act of crucifixion of Jesus there are some practices of Sabbath keeping from Old

Testament which were left aside in the New Testament, although the Bible is clear when Jesus

says in Mathew 5:17-18 that, “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I

am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. For verily I say unto you, till heaven and earth pass, one

jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.” Therefore Jesus did not

abolish the commandment of keeping the Sabbath holy as Paul describes, Jesus himself affirm

that he came to fulfil the law, but the good news is that Jesus came to put everything clear

that’s why He says Sabbath was made for man and not man for Sabbath (Mark 2:27) and He

says this in order to tell His followers that they are not restricted to do good things on Sabbath

day which meant to please God even if others can term them as Sabbath breakers.

2.3 Literature Review on Sabbath Keeping and Technology

In 1898, Ellen G. White wrote in the book of The Desire of Ages concerning the prophesized

life of people who are living in these end times of the increased knowledge:

As the message of Christ's first advent announced the


kingdom of His grace, so the message of His second advent
announces the kingdom of His glory. And the second
message, like the first, is based on the prophecies. The
words of the angel to Daniel relating to the last days were
to be understood in the time of the end. At that time, "many
shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased."
"The wicked shall do wickedly: and none of the wicked
shall understand; but the wise shall understand." Daniel
12:4, 10. The Savior Himself has given signs of His
coming, and He says, "When ye see these things come to
pass, know ye that the kingdom of God is nigh at hand."
"And take heed to yourselves, lest at any time your hearts
be overcharged with surfeiting, and drunkenness, and cares
of this life, and so that day come upon you unawares."
"Watch ye therefore, and pray always, that ye may be
accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come
to pass, and to stand before the Son of man." Luke 21:31,
34, 36 (p. 234).

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In Business Ethics in Biblical Perspective: A Comprehensive Introduction, Cafferky (2015)

explained the biblical basis of Sabbath from two themes: creation and covenant. Some see that

Sabbath is the biblical basis of the Christian view on sustainable development. In creation

account (Genesis) the commission to subdue the earth (development) is coupled with the

purpose of serving the earth (sustainability). Also, the giving of the covenant (Exodus-

Deuteronomy) includes directions for economic and technological development (work,

pruning, harvest) that are constrained by keeping the weekly Sabbath and the sabbatical

(p.338).

In Doing Right: Practicing Ethical Principles, Gill (2009) admits that Technology has the

potential to help us communicate with our loved ones more fully, frequently and faithfully, but

it also amplifies our human potential for perversity. Using information technology we can

more easily bear false witness, spread disinformation, profane and degrade God and others, and

hide behind anonymity. Technology can bring great creativity into our work lives, in effect

helping redeem and set people free from drudgery. But technology also introduces the dullness

of data entry and proliferation of computer addictions of various sorts. Technology can help

liberate us for better, fuller Sabbath celebration and rest, but it can also invade and corrupt our

Sabbath since work is no longer confined to the office. The critical issue in the technological

domain is to decide who will be the God (the center, the purpose, the telos) of our technology.

If technology serves money, power, selfishness or nationalism, look out. But if it serves the

God of Israel and Jesus Christ, we will know the God of good technology in both our work and

our Sabbath (p.160).

The Sabbath is a time of rest, a time for recovery from cultivation, a time to promote health

and switch off. More recently, this idea of Sabbath has been applied to technology. Virtual

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sabbaticals have been recommended recently in various online and offline media. The idea is

that turning off can be liberating; that untying an electronic umbilical cord can allow deeper

exploration of those people and experience that are perhaps more close (Savage & McGoun,

2013, p.142).

While Sabbath day is taken as the time for rest, (Schuurman, 2013) argue that time for rest and

reflection has become more difficult in the computer age. He goes on to state, “Computer

technology is very good at providing continual streams of information and nearly instantaneous

communications” (p.38). For this reason, Schuurman sees that it can be difficult to set

electronic communications aside and unplug ourselves because it seen as the electronic devices

keep the users tethered to work and entertainment and demand somebody’s constant attention.

One author bemoans the fact that the digital revolution has plunged us into a state of

“continuous partial attention,” and in this state people “no longer have time to reflect,

contemplate, or make thoughtful decisions. Using the words of John Culkin, “We shape our

tools and thereafter they shape us” and our modern tools never rest. As according to John

Culkin, as we become shaped by our always on technology, we lose the ability to rest and

reflect and enjoy Sabbath.

In Creating a Tech Sabbath Habit: Unplug Your Mind, Restore Your Spirit, and Transform

Your Technology Lifestyle, Brooks (2011) claims that living a technology-driven life that has no

boundaries is becoming the standard, and it has to stop. He keeps on claiming that,

“Technology can be powerful to keep people busy and driving them aside in the sight of true

worship and letting people to prioritizing in it reaching the point to see life cannot be meaning

without it, Eph 5:15(NIV) says, Be very careful (or culture will drag you away) then how you

live, not as unwise but as wise” (p.55). According to McKibben-Dana (2012) If Sabbath is

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about not being indispensable about resting “in the fact that the world goes on without us then

should not that impact our consumption of media and news? I know many folks go without

television and internet on Sabbath, this means it is to try even if it will be difficult in the

beginning” (p.85).

In carrying out the mitzvah of observing Shabbat, modern Jews are freed from the trappings of

technology for one day each week, subsequently strengthening their interpersonal connections

with family and friends, their connection with themselves, and their connection to God. Jewish

Sabbath, or Shabbat, is considered the holiest Jewish holiday and is observed each week from

sundown each Friday evening to sundown Saturday evening. Shabbat is considered a holy day

of rest and spiritual enrichment, as is reflected in the root of the Hebrew word Shabbat, Shin

Beit Tav, which means to rest or to cease (Rich, 2005, www.jewfaq.org/shabbat.htm).

Discussing to Sabbath observance, Berlin (2011) is deliberating that modern technologies have

made Sabbath observance both easier and harder in comparison to a century ago, and whole

new areas of ritual law analysis have been created to respond to them. For example, the exact

parameters for the use of electricity on Jewish holidays remains an area of considerable debate.

From surrogate motherhood to Sabbath observance, significant efforts have been made to

understand advances in technology and to develop suitable responses to them (p.724).

Asserting on the issue of Technology and Jewish life as far as Sabbath observance is concerned

it was argued that:

The use or even handling of electricity or electronics is


restricted during Shabbat. Nonetheless, the advent of
technology has raised a variety of questions in the Jewish
community as to the nature and spirit of Halakhic law. For
instance, in a room where a sensor detects an entrant, which
subsequently triggers the turning on of a light, does an

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entrant break the laws of Halakha even if he or she has not
directly touched any switch to turn on this light? (Manfred
&Wyler, 2006, http://jcpa.org/jewish-political-studies-
review/).

It is not unimaginable that in the near future, technology will allow the religious Jew to

perform on Shabbat all of the tasks he or she performs during the week without technically

breaking any laws of Halakha. The question, then, becomes whether the extent to which the

spirit of the Sabbath and the meaning behind the holiness of the day is, in fact, more important

than the actual Halakhic rules and restrictions that delineate its observance.

Sabbath from sundown on Friday to sundown on Saturday is a time of rest and focus on God

and family in the Jewish tradition. In the last century the prohibition against making fire on the

Sabbath, as it is classified as a type of prohibited work, has been interpreted by Orthodox Jews

as a prohibition against making a spark or electrical connection. Consequently, they do note

operate electrical switches on the Sabbath. As Carma Gorman notes, twentieth century

Orthodox Jews have often modified technologies to be able to upload Sabbath restrictions

while using technology, for example, they might take the light bulb out of the fridge so it does

not light up on the Sabbath, or leave food on the stove on a very low setting for the whole

twenty four hours to ensure the possibility of a warm meal. Digital kitchen appliances, along

with lobbying the manufactures, has enabled and encouraged appliance manufacturers to

design “kosher” settings for appliances. These settings, available in about half of kitchen

appliances in 2006, are initiated by pressing such complex sequences of buttons that non-

Jewish consumers are not even aware of them. Orthodox Jews, however, use this information

to program appliances to turn off displays and automatic lights on the Sabbath and enable

delays for oven temperature changes (Johnson & Bauman, 2014, p.256).

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When Jews are debating on whether works that were supposed to be done by a human being to

be done by automated systems is a way of avoiding doing works on Sabbath or is just another

way or doing works technologically, Baab (2010) says that, “perhaps a short session with a

video game or a quick Internet search can be fun, but all too easily technology draws us into a

place where we can no longer experience thankfulness or listen to God” (p.85).

It is clear that God wants His people to enjoy the presence of Sabbath to them, that’s why Jesus

said that Sabbath was made for man and not man for Sabbath (Mark 2:27), but also the Bible

instructs us to go on ways which are pleasing God on the Sabbath day (Isaiah 58:13), based on

these principles here is an argument from one of the scholars who argues that:

God invites us to find “delight in the Sabbath. That is not


always an instant experience for someone newly come to the
Sabbath. How can you find delight in the Sabbath when you
are told that it involves “not going your own way and not
doing as you please”? Some of these instructions apply to
business-related activity and some, to make a modern-day
application, probability to activities such as watching sports
and other secular media, playing video games, surfing the
internet, and so on. We don’t have checklists these days, for
good reason. The principle is to eliminate from our lives
those things that distract us to worship Him in a Christian
gathering, get some healthful rest, get out in nature, become
involved in ministry activities that will bless others and
show them God’s love, and share wholesome time with
family and friends who have similar goals. God never
intended the Sabbath to be a burden but to be a delight
(Arand et al., 2011, p.69).

In a time when few people seem to be making specific choices to put any limit on texting,

social media, or other uses of digital technology, Sabbath may in fact call for some limits if we

are to experience Sabbath’s deepest blessings (Muthiah, 2015, p.30). Muthiah goes on

supporting his argument by quoting (Lawrence, 2010) who said that, “Karen’s spiritual director

suggested a technology Sabbath. One day a week she does not use computer, read-emails,

14
watch television, listen to the radio, answer the cell phone, use the IPod, or her other

technologies. She has one day with no electronic technology filling her senses. At first, a

technology Sabbath was difficult. Six months later, she was looking forward to the Sabbath

and used the time to disengage, she could engage fully during the week”. This implies that

technology has to be carefully utilized in order to please our God, and in addition to this it

seems that someone who decided to fast from technology during the Sabbath day increase his

or her chance to seriously concentrate and be close to his or her God.

In Gold from the Land of Israel: A New Light on the Weekly Torah Portion from the Writings

of Rabbi Abraham Isaac Hakohen Kook, Kook (2006) asserts that human technology, on the

other hand, is artificial and perhaps alien to the true purpose of the universe. Therefore, the

Torah specifically prohibits lighting fire on the Sabbath, emphasizing that our progress in

science and technology is also a part of creation. He goes on to state, “Everything is included

in the ultimate design of the universe. Our advances and inventions contribute towards the goal

of creation in accordance with God’s sublime wisdom” (p.164-165). To keep on stressing on

this, Kook declares that along with the recognition that all of our accomplishments are in

essence the work of God, we must also be aware that we have tremendous power to change and

be source of improving the world. This change will be for a blessing if we are wise enough to

utilize our technology within the guidelines of integrity and holiness (p.165).

Jesus claims in John 14:15 that if we love him we will abide with His commandments.

Although different scholars argued differently concerning the effects of advanced technologies

on Sabbath keeping, but most of them agreed on careful application of technologies on Sabbath

day in order to be in harmony with our God.

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CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction

To have appropriate research methodologies, research design must be carefully and

systematically structured to have a clear picture of relevant methods to be applicable with

respect to the problem observed in accomplishing the research to be conducted. Methodologies

used in this research were grounded on a research design formulated which was a plan of how

the research was conducted.

3.1 Research Design

Research design is a plan or blueprint of how a researcher intends to conduct a study. It is the

general blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data with the central goal of

solving the research problem. In this research, the design includes the outline of what the

researcher was supposed to do from formulating the hypothesis and its operational implications

to the final analysis of data.

3.2 Approaches to Research

Research methodologies revolve around two major approaches, namely quantitative and

qualitative. But for the case of this research, large part of the research revolved itself in

quantitative approach. Quantitative approach measures a phenomenon using numbers in

conjunction with statistical procedures to process data and summarize the results.

Survey research is very appropriate for research design in the quantitative research paradigm.

Typically survey used to gather data at a particular point in time with the intention of

describing the nature of existing conditions or identifying standards against which the existing

16
conditions compared and determined the relationship that were existing between specific

variables.

3.3 Population, Sample ratio, Sample size, and Sampling procedures

3.3.1 Population

The target population was SDA Church believers within the University of Arusha Community

with regardless of their church membership in UOA SDA Church, this targeted population was

crosscutting from UOA workers, UOA students, and other UOA SDA Church members.

3.3.2 Sample Ratio and Sample Size

Sample ratio was obtained by taking sample size over total population and was indicated as

n/N where “n” represents sample taken and “N” represents the target population. For the case

of this research based on the estimated population with consideration of mentioned constraints,

only one tenth sample ratio of the population was used to get a sample size.

Under assumption that UOA workers who were active Seventh-day Adventist believers do not

exceed 50 members, a number of workers who were given questionnaires were 5 members.

By predicting that a number of students who were active Seventh-day Adventist believers do

not exceed 500 students, a number of students who were given questionnaires for interview

was 50 members. Knowing that the group of students constitutes to a big number of UOA SDA

believers’ community, those 50 students were not given a chance to be interviewed face to face

due to time constrain but rather they were interviewed by using self-completion questionnaire

with open and closed questions.

17
Understanding that there are other SDA Church believers in UOA community who are neither

UOA workers nor UOA students, the researcher assumed that the active believers did not

exceed 100 and by this means a number of those believers who were given the questionnaires

was 10 members and some of them interviewed face to face.

3.3.3 Sampling procedures

To ensure reliability of data for the case of UOA workers, purposive sampling procedure was

used to form sample, mostly, this involved administration workers and academic members of

the staff. But for the case of UOA students and ordinary church members simple random

sampling was used.

3.4 Data Collection Methods and tools

In the conducted research, self-administered questionnaire and face to face interview methods

were used. Most of the questions in a questionnaire were closed questions in forms of Yes and

No, and in level of variation, although there were some open questions in order to allow

different ideas of respondents concerning the particular item. Face to face interview method

was so helpful to the perfection of filling of the questionnaire in a fact that some questions in a

questionnaire were easily filled by some respondents after having some conversations with a

researcher to get the exactly intended meaning for the aroused contradictions.

3.5 Data Analysis, Validity and Reliability

3.5.1 Data Analysis

After data being edited, coded, classified and tabulated, they were analyzed through computer

program of Excel. Through this computer program, measures of asymmetry, measures of

relationship, and correlation were performed.

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3.5.2 Validity and Reliability

To ensure validity of the collected data a sample ratio of 1/10 was used, and some open

questions were used during the process of data collection and most intersecting answers were

considered to have more valid and reliable data. Together with effects of other technologies on

Sabbath keeping, most questions on Sabbath keeping were asked by focusing on the current

effects of ICT in the practices of Sabbath keeping.

3.6 Ethical Consideration

Ethics in data collection were considered in order to make sure that respondents were free to

respond to the questions asked to them. Respondents were not asked to mention their names in

order to increase their chance to freedom in responding to research questions, information from

respondents were by either means not disclosed to another part rather than being kept

confidential and used only for the purpose of the research.

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CHAPTER 4

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND FINDINGS

4.0 Introduction

This chapter is about data presentation, analysis, and findings from 65 SDA Church believers

in the community of UOA. Face to face interview method and Self-administered questionnaires

with three sections of respondents’ identifications, respondents’ opinions about the Sabbath,

and respondents’ opinions about the Sabbath and technology were used for data collection.

4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis

Basic identifications of all respondents are presented in Table 4.1 to show a total number of 65

respondents in each age interval per sex and total number of both genders per age-interval.

Table 4.1: Respondents identification’ information of both males and females respondents
showing total number of all 65 respondents per age-interval
AGE INTERVAL SEX GRAND TOTAL

MALES Percent FEMALES Percent Both Genders Per Percent


Frequency Frequency Age-Interval

15-20 0 0.0 2 8.33 2 3.08

21-30 24 58.54 16 66.66 40 61.54

31-40 8 19.50 4 16.67 12 18.46

41-50 5 12.2 1 4.17 6 9.23

OVER 50 4 9.76 1 4.17 5 7.69

TOTAL 41 100 24 100 65 100

Source: Information from section one of the Survey Questionnaire for Seventh - day Adventist
Believers at University of Arusha Community (Appendix 1)

In section two of the questionnaire, respondents were asked to give their opinions about the

Sabbath, this section contained five questions which are presented in Table 4.2, Table 4.3, and

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Table 4.4 in short forms of QN1 to mean question number one, QN2 to mean question number

two, QN3 to mean question number three, QN4 to mean question number four, and QN5 to

mean question number five while other short forms used are ‘Y’ to mean ‘YES’, ‘N’ to mean

‘NO’, ‘OT’ to mean ‘Old Testament’, and ‘NT’ to mean ‘New Testament’.

The five questions in section two of the questionnaire which wanted to know the opinions of

the respondents about the Sabbath are as follows;

QN1. Sabbath is the Lord’s Day, the seventh day of the week, the forth

commandment of God which requires human beings to rest and focus on God. Can

this commandment be irrelevant to any period of earth’s existence? (YES/NO).

QN2. Jesus said that Sabbath was made for human and not human for Sabbath, do

you think that by saying so; does the Sabbath current have the same weight as of

that of the Old Testament? (YES/NO).

QN3 (a) From the practices of Sabbath keeping in the Old Testament and New

Testament, do you think that those practices of Sabbath keeping are found to be

difficult in either of these Testaments? (YES/NO).

(b) If your answer is YES, in which Testament were the practices of Sabbath

keeping seem to be difficult? (OLD TESTAMENT (OT)/NEW TESTAMENT (NT)).

QN4. After ascension of Jesus Christ in the 1st century up to now in the 21st

century whereby many technological changes took place, do you think that

technological changes have significances to the practices of Sabbath keeping?

(YES/NO).

QN5. Can advanced technology have negative effects on Sabbath keeping?

(YES/NO).

21
Responses from those five questions are classified in Table 4.2 and Table 4.3 to portray the

summarized information of both males and females respondents respectively by demonstrating

the correlation of their education levels with respect to their responses on those questions.

Table 4.2: Summarized information of males’ respondents showing the correlation of their
education levels with their opinions to five different questions about the Sabbath day
SEX EDUCATION QN 1 QN 2 QN 3 QN 4 QN 5
M LEVEL TOTAL Y N Y N Y OT NT N Y N Y N
A PRIMARY 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
L SECONDARY 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
E HIGH SCHOOL 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CERTIFICATE 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
DIPLOMA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
UNDERGRADUATE 35 11 24 25 10 13 8 5 22 27 8 26 9
POST GRADUATE 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MASTERS 5 2 3 4 1 1 0 1 4 5 0 5 0
PHD 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1
ILLITERATE 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
GRAND TOTAL 41 13 28 30 11 14 8 6 27 32 9 31 10
Source: Information from section two of the Survey Questionnaire for Seventh - day Adventist
Believers at University of Arusha Community (Appendix 1)

Table 4.3: Summarized information of females’ respondents showing the correlation of their
education levels with their opinions to five different questions about the Sabbath day
SEX EDUCATION QN 1 QN 2 QN 3 QN 4 QN 5
F LEVEL TOTAL Y N Y N Y OT NT N Y N Y N
E PRIMARY 2 0 2 0 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
M SECONDARY 3 0 3 2 1 0 0 0 3 2 1 2 1
A HIGH SCHOOL 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
L CERTIFICATE 3 2 1 3 0 0 0 0 3 1 2 0 3
E DIPLOMA 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
UNDERGRADUATE 15 11 4 10 5 6 4 2 9 11 4 10 5
POST GRADUATE 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MASTERS 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
PHD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ILLITERATE 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
GRAND TOTAL 24 14 10 16 8 7 5 2 17 15 9 14 10
Source: Information from section two of the Survey Questionnaire for Seventh - day Adventist
Believers at University of Arusha Community (Appendix 1)

22
Data from Table 4.2 and Table 4.3 are grouped to form Table 4.4 which gives the combined

information of both males and females’ respondents in demonstrating the correlation of their

education levels with respect to their responses on the five questions which wanted to seek

their opinions about the Sabbath day.

Table 4.4: Combined information of both males and females’ respondents showing the
correlation of their education levels with their opinions to five different questions about the
Sabbath day
BOTH EDUCATION QN 1 QN 2 QN 3 QN 4 QN 5
SEXES
65 LEVEL TOTAL Y N Y N Y OT NT N Y N Y N
R PRIMARY 2 0 2 0 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
E SECONDARY 3 0 3 2 1 0 0 0 3 2 1 2 1
S HIGH SCHOOL 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
P CERTIFICATE 3 2 1 3 0 0 0 0 3 1 2 0 3
O
DIPLOMA 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
N
D
UNDERGRADUATE 50 22 28 34 15 19 12 7 31 38 12 36 14
E POST GRADUATE 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
N MASTERS 5 2 3 4 1 1 0 1 4 5 0 5 0
T PHD 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1
S ILLITERATE 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
GRAND TOTAL 65 27 38 46 19 21 13 8 44 47 18 45 20
Source: Information from section two of the Survey Questionnaire for Seventh - day Adventist
Believers at University of Arusha Community (Appendix 1)

The presentation of combined information of both males and females respondents are given in

histogram chart 4.1 to show the correlation of their education levels with responses to five

different questions based on their opinions about the Sabbath-day. The first part of combined

columns in the histogram shows total number of respondents per education level out of 65

respondents while the rest of five parts of combined columns show how respondents with

respect to their education levels responded to the five questions about Sabbath day.

23
Histogram Chart 4.1: Information of all respondents showing the correlation of their
education levels with their opinions to five different questions about the Sabbath day

Histogram Chart 4.2: Specific number of respondents in distinguished items and their
percentages based on total sample of 65 respondents who gave their opinions to different five
questions about the Sabbath day

In the section two of the questionnaire, 65 respondents responded to different five questions

and give their different views about the Sabbath day. In histogram chart 4.1 data are

24
presented to show the correlation of respondents’ education levels with their responses to those

five questions. In order to get reliable data from different members of the community of

University of Arusha, members of different levels of education from primary school level up to

the PHD level were given opportunity to respond to research questions. To keep on

deliberating in each of the specific question from those five ones, data were presented in

histogram chart 4.2 to show different number of respondents and their percentage out of 65

respondents with regardless to their education on how they responded and give their

understanding about the Sabbath day.

The main objective of this research was to assess to which extent the practices and processes of

Sabbath keeping are affected negatively by advanced technologies, this research intended to

systematically assess the possibilities of advanced technologies to impose the practices from

technology applications that may result to the breaking of the Sabbath following with

recommendations and developed working suggestions in order get rid out of that. Mechanical

technology, electrical and electronics technology, and the technology of communication and

information have advanced abruptly in few decades, with wide range of its devices, channels,

and applications. The devices such as electrical cookers, radios, videos, computers, mobile

phones, tablets, iPad and other have developed and advanced day to day. In the section three of

the questionnaire, respondents were asked to give their opinions about the Sabbath with respect

to technology, Table 4.5 shows how respondents replied to the given twenty five questions in

which they were required to choose one number from each row and encircle the appropriate

answer according to their understanding in which ‘1’ stands for ‘fully agree’, 2= ‘Somehow

agree’, 3= ‘I don’t know’, and 4= ‘Disagree’.

25
Table 4.5: Overall information from different levels of education of all 65 males and females
Respondents’ opinions about the Sabbath and Technology
SN Questions of technologies with respect to the Degree of agreeing/understanding
practices of Sabbath keeping
1= 2= 3=I 4=Dis
Don’t agree
Fully Somehow Know
agree agree
01 Listening to the radio or watching any of secular 31 12 2 20
programs on TV on the Sabbath day is not OK
02 Listening to the radio or watching any of moral 24 19 0 22
secular programs on TV on Sabbath day is OK
03 Listening to the radio or watching any of secular 14 14 5 32
News Programs on TV on Sabbath day is OK
04 Listening to the radio or watching any of moral 20 15 5 25
secular News Programs on TV on Sabbath day is
OK
05 Listening to the radio or watching religious 53 7 0 5
programs on TV after church sessions on Sabbath
day is OK
06 Individual listening to the radio or watching 6 8 0 51
religious programs on TV while other church
sessions are going on during the Sabbath day is OK
07 Listening to the radio or watching on TV on 11 14 4 36
Sabbath day is not OK at all
08 Using internet for moral secular uses on Sabbath 15 17 2 31
day is OK
09 Using internet for religious issues on Sabbath day is 51 8 1 5
OK
10 Chatting with friends on Facebook, WhatsApp, 7 6 5 47
Instagram, or twitter, for moral issues that pleasing
yourself Ok
11 Chatting with friends on religious issues with social 40 19 2 4
network on Sabbath day is OK
12 Conducting phone calls on Sabbath that morally 5 12 5 43
pleasing yourself is OK

26
Table 4.5: Overall information from different levels of education of all 65 males and females
Respondents’ opinions about Sabbath and Technology
SN Questions of technologies with respect to the Degree of agreeing/understanding
practices of Sabbath keeping 1= 2= 3=I 4=
Fully Somehow Don’t Dis-
agree agree Know agree
13 Conducting phone calls on Sabbath for religious 51 10 1 3
issues is OK
14 Charging laptops, phones, digital cameras or other 26 12 5 22
related devices on Sabbath day for other uses after
the Sabbath is OK
15 Charging laptops, phones, digital cameras or other 22 12 4 27
related devices on a Sabbath day for religious
purposes is OK even if there was a possibility of
charging those devices one day before the Sabbath
16 Doing transactions on ATMs, M Pesa, Tigo Pesa, 2 8 4 51
Airtel Money, V Money on Sabbath day for morally
issues that please yourself is OK
17 Doing transactions on ATMs, M Pesa, Tigo Pesa, 25 20 5 15
Airtel Money, V Money on Sabbath day for morally
religious issues is OK
18 To borrow a balance from mobile networks or 6 12 6 41
buying airtime via M Pesa, Tigo Pesa, Airtel money
for secular morally pleasing issues is OK
19 To borrow a balance from mobile networks or 26 23 4 12
buying airtime via M Pesa, Tigo Pesa, Airtel money
for religious issues is OK
20 Taking photos on Sabbath day using Smart Phones, 22 25 6 12
IPads, Tablets, or Digital Cameras for memories is
OK
21 Using ovens to prepare simple food on Sabbath day 23 17 6 19
is OK
22 Using ovens to heat food prepared one day before 51 11 2 1
the Sabbath is OK
23 To cook simple foods by using electrical cookers on 20 14 6 25
Sabbath day is OK
24 Switching on and off electrical switches in our 38 10 8 9
homes during the Sabbath day is OK
25 Switching on and off electrical switches in our 46 10 1 8
churches during the Sabbath day is OK
Source: Information from section three of the Survey Questionnaire for Seventh - day
Adventist Believers at University of Arusha Community (Appendix 1)

27
4.2 Findings and Discussions

4.2.1 Introduction

The research entitled ‘A Study of Effects of Advanced Technology on Sabbath Keeping’ a case

of University of Arusha Community was conducted among S.D.A church believers. The main

objective of the study was to assess how advanced technologies can affect the practices of

Sabbath keeping and what measures are to be taken in order to avoid the practices of breaking

the Sabbath among church members in University of Arusha community in particular and all

over the world in general.

Apart from the main objective of the research which was worked out, there were other specific

objectives which were specifically looked out in order to systematically integrate the

relationship between technology and Sabbath keeping for the purpose of achieving the

expected goals of the research. These specific areas were; (1) To assess the practices of

Sabbath keeping in the Old Testament in a general picture, (2) To assess the practices of

Sabbath keeping in the New Testament before and after ascension of Jesus Christ, (3) To

assess the observance of the Sabbath in advanced world, (4) To check how technologies can

facilitate the practices of keeping the Sabbath, (5) To check how technologies can contribute to

the practices of Sabbath breaking, and (6) To propose the relevant measures to be taken to in

order avoid breaking the Sabbath technologically.

4.2.2 Respondents’ Opinions about the Sabbath

In section two of the questionnaire, respondents were asked to give their opinions about the

Sabbath, this section contained five questions in which histogram chart 4.2 shows specific

number of respondents in distinguished items and their percentages based on total sample of 65

respondents who gave their opinions to different five questions about the Sabbath day.

28
Question number one mentioned Sabbath as the Lord’s Day and seventh day of the week which

as the forth commandment of God requires human beings to rest and focus on God,

respondents were asked to provide their opinions if this commandment can be irrelevant to any

period of earth’s existence. 27 respondents equivalent to 41.54% of 65 respondents said this

can be irrelevant to some periods of earth’s existence while 38 respondents equivalent to

58.46% of 65 respondents said that Sabbath cannot be irrelevant to any time of earth’s

existence and the major recommendations they made were as follows; the first reason is that

Sabbath is a sign of agreement of people of God to God Himself as explained in Ezekiel 20:12,

and the second one is that because the LORD who said in the Old Testament is the same God

in the New Testament and will always be the same God of all the times and He will never

change (Psalms 89:34). By those variations on percentages it was observed and supported by

38 respondents who are equivalent to 58.46% of all respondents that Sabbath day cannot be

irrelevant to any period of earth’s existence.

Responding to the second question which wanted to know if Jesus by saying that Sabbath was

made for human and not human for Sabbath He maintained the same weight of the Sabbath in

the New Testament as it was the Old Testament, 19 respondents who are equivalent to 29.23%

of 65 respondents said no while 46 respondents who are equivalent to 70.77% of 65

respondents said yes He maintained the same weight and their major reason behind was that

Jesus did not come to abolish the law but to fulfill it as it is explained in Mathew 5:17. By

those analysis it is clear that according to 46 respondents who are equivalent to 70.77% of 65

respondents Jesus did not reduce the weight of the Sabbath but maintained the weight with

clear explanations on how to go through with Sabbath observance.

29
The third question intended to know if there is the possibility that the practices of Sabbath

keeping in the Old Testament and in the New Testament were found to be difficult in either of

these Testaments. 21 respondents who are equivalent to 32.31% of 65 said yes somewhere in

either of these Testaments the practices of Sabbath keeping were found to be difficult, and 13

respondents said that in the Old Testament the practices of Sabbath keeping were found to be

difficult while 8 respondents said that in the New Testament is where the practices of Sabbath

keeping were found to be difficult; those who mentioned the Old Testament said that Jews

imposed some extra laws which made Sabbath keeping to be difficult while those who

mentioned the New Testament see the current world of science and technology as a challenge

which makes difficult for Sabbath to be kept. But 44 respondents who are equivalent to 67.69%

of 65 respondents said that the practices of Sabbath keeping were not found to be difficult in

either of these two Testaments because the Sabbath brought for humans’ advantages and it is

always good to the faithful people. Based on those 67.69% of respondents out of 65

respondents it shown that Sabbath keeping is not difficult in either of these Testaments.

Due to many technological changes that took place after the ascension of Jesus Christ in the 1st

century up to now in the 21st century, question number four aimed to know if those changes

have significances to the practices of Sabbath keeping. 18 respondents who are equivalent to

27.69% of 65 respondents said that technological changes do not have any significance on

Sabbath keeping while 47 respondents who are equivalent to 72.31% of 65 respondents said

yes technological changes have some significances to the practices of Sabbath keeping and

some significances they mentioned are; use of technological tools such as computers,

projectors, and satellites in conducting services during the Sabbath in simplified ways, also to

simplify the activities during the preparation day before the Sabbath such using iron to prepare

30
dresses and using electrical cookers to prepare foods within the short time and in a simple way

so to enter into Sabbath hours with all necessary preparations already done.

Finally about respondents’ opinions on the Sabbath day, respondents were asked in a question

number five if advanced technologies can have negative effects on Sabbath keeping; 20

respondents who are equivalent to 30.77% of 65 respondents said that advanced technologies

have no any negative effects on Sabbath keeping while 45 respondents who are equivalent to

69.23% of 65 respondents believe that advanced technologies have negative impacts on

Sabbath keeping and some of the negative effects are; listening to the radio or watching on TV

secular programs such as football during the Sabbath day, cooking by electrical cookers or

ironing by electrical irons on the Sabbath day by understanding that there is electricity which

simplify those activities hence to assume that they do simple works which cannot be thought to

be difficult works to people hence believing that they are not doing the practices which break

the Sabbath, and other activity is such as leisure chatting with friends on Facebook, twitter,

Instagram, or WhatsApp inside the church while worship sessions are going on. By this

analysis it is clear that advanced technologies have negative impacts on Sabbath keeping as

described by 45 respondents who are equivalent to 69.23% of all 65 respondents.

4.2.3 Respondents’ Opinions about the Sabbath and Technology

As described in the main objective of this research, the research was intentionally conducted to

systematically assess to which extent the practices and processes of Sabbath keeping are

affected negatively by advanced technologies, the research aimed to evaluate the possibilities

of advanced technologies to enforce the practices of technology applications that may possibly

lead to the breaking of the Sabbath, also the research intended to come out with

recommendations and developed working suggestions in order get rid out of that.

31
A number of advanced technologies ranging from mechanical to automated technologies have

been developed and advanced sharply, technologies such as electrical and electronics

technology, and the technology of communication and information have been improved to

comply with the contemporary world, a number of technological devices such as electrical

cookers, computers in different variations, mobile phones, videos and radios have been

invented with a lot of applications like cooking by electrical cookers and making phone calls

through ICT devices such as smart phones.

Section three of the questionnaire gives a number of applications of technologies that can

possibly take place during the Sabbath and respondents were asked to give their opinions

concerning their acceptance for those technological applications to take place on the Sabbath

day as far as Sabbath observance is concerned. Table 4.5 portrays how respondents responded

to the given twenty five questions whereas they were required to choose one number from each

row and encircle the appropriate answer according to their understanding in which ‘1’ stands

for ‘fully agree’, 2= ‘Somehow agree’, 3= ‘I don’t know’, and 4= ‘Disagree’.

The hypothesis of this research assumes that due to technological advancements there are some

technological practices which seem to be minor but result to the breaking of the Sabbath

knowingly or unknowingly. It was an assumption the researcher had prior to the starting of the

survey research that there are some practices of advanced technologies which are resulting in

breaking of the Sabbath, so it was purposely planned by the researcher to use outcomes of the

findings to describe the scenario in a way that it will be of high significance to Sabbath

keepers.

32
With consideration to the hypothesis of the research, the observations from the respondents as

they responded to the questions from section three of the questionnaire which required them to

give their opinions about the Sabbath and technology show how those practices of technology

applications may result or may not result to the breaking of the Sabbath. There were twenty

five questions in the area of Sabbath and technology which were asked to 65 respondents in

order to get their opinions about the negative effects of technology applications on the Sabbath

day.

The selected sample of a total number of 65 respondents were brought forward to the argument

in question number one that listening to the radio or watching any of secular programs on TV

on the Sabbath day is not OK, 31 respondents who are equivalent to 47.69% of all respondents

replied for ‘fully agree’, 12 respondents who are equivalent to 18.46% of all respondents

replied for ‘Somehow agree’, 2 respondents who are equivalent to 3.08% of all respondents

replied for ‘I don’t know’, while 20 respondents who are equivalent to 30.77% of all

respondents replied for ‘Disagree’. Those who say that they somehow agree are in between of

agreeing and disagreeing, but a number of the ones who fully agree is 31 respondents and the

ones who disagree is 20 respondents, therefore according to this analysis it shows that a

number of respondents who replied to the variable ‘fully agree’ is 31 which is a large

proportion among the rest of other three variables, therefore according to this analysis it is

taken that listening or watching any of secular programs on TV on the Sabbath day is the act of

breaking the Sabbath.

Question number two brought forward the argument that listening to the radio or watching any

of moral secular programs on TV on the Sabbath day is OK, and to reply to this argument 24

respondents opted the variable ‘fully agree’ while 22 respondents opted for the variable

33
‘Disagree’ and this seems to contradict the observation from question number one but question

number three wanted to know if listening to the radio or watching any of secular News

Programs on TV on the Sabbath day is OK, and 14 respondents said that they fully agree

while 32 respondents said that they disagree. Question number four aimed to know if listening

to the radio or watching any of moral secular News Programs on TV on the Sabbath day is OK,

and in responding to this statement 20 respondents said that they fully agree while 25

respondents said that they disagree. Questions number one up to four are relating questions,

although question number two contradicts the rest of three questions, but because statistically

three questions; the question number one, question number three and question number four

constitute to a large number among the first four related questions, and majority of their

respondents disagree the act of listening to the radio or watching any of secular Programs on

TV on the Sabbath day whether it is immoral or moral secular program even if it is a News

Program to them is the act of breaking the Sabbath and this lead to be proved by this research

that there are some practices of technologies on the Sabbath day that result to break the

Sabbath.

Checking in question number eight on the issue of using internet for moral secular uses on the

Sabbath day; 15 respondents said that they fully agree that it is OK while 31 respondents said

that they disagree, in question number ten which was presenting the idea of chatting with

friends on Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram, or twitter, for moral issues that pleasing an

individual; 7 respondents said that they fully agree that it is OK while 47 respondents said that

they disagree, the question number twelve wanted to know if conducting phone calls on the

Sabbath day that morally pleasing somebody is OK; 5 respondents said that they fully agree

that it is OK while 43 respondents said that they disagree, question number sixteen asked if

34
doing transactions on ATMs, M Pesa, Tigo Pesa, Airtel Money, or V Money on the Sabbath

day for morally issues that please an individual is OK; 2 respondents said that they fully agree

that it is OK while 51 respondents said that they disagree, in question number twenty three

respondents were asked if to cook simple foods by using electrical cookers on the Sabbath day

is OK; 20 respondents said that they fully agree that it is OK while 25 respondents said that

they disagree. According to those observations it is shown that apart from some respondents to

agree that some technological applications for private issues on the Sabbath day is not a

problem but majority of the respondents disagree with some technological applications for

private issues on the Sabbath day as observed from the findings and this proves the hypothesis

that due to technological advancements there are some technological practices which seem to

be minor but result to the acts of breaking the Sabbath knowingly or unknowingly.

Even though most of the respondents accept that technological applications that please an

individual are not in harmony with the principles of Sabbath keeping still most of the

interviewed respondents admit that there is no problem with the applications of technologies on

religious issues that please God. For instance question number five asked if listening to the

radio or watching religious programs on TV after church sessions on the Sabbath day is OK;

53 respondents said that they fully agree that it is OK while 7 respondents said that they

somehow agree and 5 respondents said that they disagree, question number nine also asked if

using internet for religious issues on the Sabbath day is OK; 51 respondents said that they fully

agree that it is OK while 8 respondents said that they somehow agree and 5 respondents said

that they disagree, moreover question number thirteen argued if conducting phone calls on the

Sabbath day for religious issues is OK; 51 respondents said that they fully agree that it is OK

while 10 respondents said that they somehow agree and 3 respondents said that they disagree,

35
furthermore question number seventeen intended to know if doing transactions on ATMs, M

Pesa, Tigo Pesa, Airtel Money, or V Money on the Sabbath day for morally religious issues is

OK; 25 respondents said that they fully agree that it is OK while 20 respondents said that they

somehow agree and 15 respondents said that they disagree, to add on religious issues question

number nineteen brought forward the argument that purposely intended to understand if to

borrow a balance from mobile networks or buying airtime via M Pesa, Tigo Pesa, or Airtel

money for religious issues on the Sabbath day is OK; 26 respondents said that they fully agree

that it is OK while 23 respondents said that they somehow agree and 12 respondents said that

they disagree. Based on these findings, majority of the respondents are fully agree with the

application of technologies for religious issues on the Sabbath day and this show that there is

no any problem if technology is used properly in a way it is pleasing our God.

Although using technologies for religious issues is accepted by majority of the respondents but

it was observed that those technological applications should not interfere scheduled programs

of the Sabbath and this was noticed from the argument posed by question number six to the

target respondents in order to seek their understanding if it is correct for an individual to listen

to the radio or watching religious programs on TV while other church sessions are going on

during the Sabbath day; 6 respondents said that they fully agree that it is OK while 8

respondents said that they somehow agree and 51 respondents said that they disagree, and this

proved that technological applications for religious issues should be in harmony with the

timetable and activities of the church during the Sabbath day otherwise someone will find

himself or herself in breaking the Sabbath.

Apart from having analyzed positive and negative effects of advanced technologies on Sabbath

keeping, there are some technological applications that were found to have no effects on the

36
practices of Sabbath keeping, for instance question number twenty four and question number

twenty five wanted to understand if switching on and off electrical switches in our homes and

our churches respectively during the Sabbath day is OK, responding to these two questions, 38

respondents replied for fully agree in question number twenty four and 46 respondents replied

for fully agree in question number twenty five, in each question separately the number of

replied respondents is more than a half number of all respondents and this proves that the act of

switching on and off electrical switches for the purpose of getting light whether it individually

or religiously during the Sabbath day is not a problem. While other technologies seem to have

no effects on Sabbath keeping, some seem to lack total commitment of agreement or

disagreement as a result of majority of the respondents responding to somehow agree variable,

for instance in responding to the question number twenty which proposed forward the

statement that taking photos on the Sabbath day using Smart Phones, IPads, Tablets, or Digital

Cameras for memories is OK, 22 respondents replied for fully agree, 25 respondents replied

for Somehow agree, and 12 respondents replied for Disagree.

According to the presented discussion, the hypothesis of this research has proved that due to

technological advancements there are some technological practices which seem to be minor but

result to the breaking of the Sabbath knowingly or unknowingly.

37
CHAPTER 5

SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS

Referring to the data presentation and discussion, research findings have proved and agreed

with the formulated hypothesis which was suggesting that due to technological advancements

there are some technological practices which seem to be minor but result to the breaking of the

Sabbath knowingly or unknowingly. The focal point for this study was to assess how advanced

technologies can affect the practices of Sabbath keeping and what measures are to be taken in

order to avoid the practices of breaking the Sabbath among church members in the University

of Arusha community specifically and all over the world generally.

Technologies have undergone tremendous changes within few decades ago and result to the

different changes of life styles from local settings to global settings, these changes affected

different areas of life such as social settings, cultural settings, political settings, economic

settings, geographical settings, and religious settings. Based on the observed findings which

show that apart from advanced technologies being of some significances to the practices of

Sabbath keeping but there are also some negative effects if they will be improperly applied.

The following are the suggested solutions once considered positively will be of high

significances to the Sabbath keepers to be in the right track of keeping the Sabbath without

being affected by the technological applications;

1. Technology for an individual’s pleasing issues on Sabbath day should be

avoided; For instance referring to the section three of the questionnaire which

populated a list of questions based on Sabbath and technology, question number

ten placed forward the issue of chatting with friends on Facebook, WhatsApp,

Instagram, or twitter, for moral issues that pleasing individuals themselves

38
during the Sabbath; 7 respondents said that they fully agree that it is OK while

47 respondents said that they disagree. Question number twelve wanted to

know if conducting phone calls on the Sabbath day that morally pleasing

somebody is OK; 5 respondents said that they fully agree that it is OK while 43

respondents said that they disagree, question sixteen asked if doing transactions

on ATMs, M Pesa, Tigo Pesa, Airtel Money, or V Money on the Sabbath day

for morally issues that please an individual is OK; 2 respondents said that they

fully agree that it is OK while 51 respondents said that they disagree. Based on

those findings from the responses it is clear that one has to do what is pleasing

God on the Sabbath day and not what is pleasing himself or herself.

2. Technology for religious is ok; Most of the respondents agree that there is no

any problem with technology on Sabbath keeping if that technology is

applicable for religious issues, some recommended that the application of

devices such as computers, projectors, or satellite communications simplify the

work of communicating the message of God to his people within a short time in

a wide coverage area of the world.

This means that individuals should understand that on Sabbath day the

application of technologies should uplift Jesus in whatever area of technological

application, technological applications should please God by understanding that

everything done should be in harmony with God’s instructions as Paul says in 1

Corinthians 10:31 that, “Whether therefore we eat, or drink, or whatever we do,

we have to do all to the glory of God.”

39
3. Application of technologies for religious issues should observe church

timetable; Apart from being agreed by most of the respondents that application

of technologies for religious issues on the Sabbath day is ok, but most of them

only accept the application of technologies religiously in a harmoniously way

with the timetable of the church, for instance question number six in the section

three of the questionnaire which was concerned with Sabbath and technology

wanted to know if an individual listening to the radio or watching religious

programs on TV while other church sessions are going on during the Sabbath

day is OK; 6 respondents said that they fully agree that it is OK while 8

respondents said that they somehow agree and 51 respondents said that they

disagree.

Solomon says in Ecclesiastes 3:1 that to everything there is a season and a time

to every purpose under the heaven, this means that Adventist believers should

observe the time for church and if anyone has to stay home during the Sabbath

day doing any technological activity like watching programs on TV, there must

be a concrete reason to stay home such as staying for sickness and making sure

that technological activities conducted are not contrary to the Sabbath practices.

In any application of technology, Adventist believers should always first seek to understand the

will of God in their lives on those applications of technologies. By understanding that the Bible

says in Daniel 12:4 that to the time of the end knowledge shall be increased, Adventist

believers as fulfilling the history of the world must be very careful with applications of

technologies to avoid the practices of breaking the Sabbath knowing that Sabbath is a seal of

God to His people throughout the eternity.

40
CHAPTER 6

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 Summary

The world of science and technology is not technologically static rather it is technologically

dynamic with remarkable transformations in continuing advanced technologies in different

disciplines of life. As the technological changes of the world keep on taking place, the church

does not left behind with those technological changes and this implies that the church is either

positively or negatively affected by those changes. Sabbath as one of the ten commandments of

God has to observed throughout all ages without any exception resulted from the world

changes because God is unchangeable yesterday, today, tomorrow, and forever; due to those

technological changes it was found necessary to conduct a research in order to get the

understanding whether the Adventist believers are in a danger of breaking the Sabbath either

knowingly or unknowingly as a result of advanced technologies the world is passing through.

The problem that was observed on Sabbath keeping as far as advanced technologies are

concerned shows that there are some practices of applications of technologies that result to the

breaking of the Sabbath. Some individuals for instance use information and communication

technologies to do a lot of things that please themselves on the Sabbath day; some examples

are such as chatting with friends on Facebook, twitter, WhatsApp, Instagram, or e-mails for

individually pleasing issues that do not honor God.

Although Jesus Christ puts clear that the Sabbath was made for man, and not man for the

Sabbath (Mark 2:27). He cured on the Sabbath, and defended His disciples for plucking ears of

corn on that day and in His arguments with the Pharisees on this account He showed that

the Sabbath is not broken in cases of necessity or by acts of charity (Matthew 12:3; Mark

41
2:25; Luke 6:3; 14:5), those acts on Sabbath day should be carefully observed by Sabbath

keepers to know if they fulfill the will of God and if God is pleased with those acts.

This research was proposed to have a serious look on the process and practices of Sabbath

keeping by letting the research to focus out on the effects of technologies on Sabbath keeping.

It cannot be despised that there are many advantages of advanced technologies in an

individual’s life in a particular way and in ministry generally, technological changes are of

high significances to Adventist believers although believers have to be careful with some

practices of technological applications which seem to be minor but result to the practices of

breaking the Sabbath knowingly or unknowingly. It was an assumption of the researcher that

apart from technologies being of high values to our daily lives there are some practices of

advanced technologies which are resulting in the acts of breaking the Sabbath.

The chief objective of this study was to assess how advanced technologies can affect the

practices Sabbath keeping and proposing measures to be taken in order to avoid the acts of

breaking the Sabbath among Adventist believers in the University of Arusha community and

all over the world in general. In order to systematically integrate the relationship between

technology and Sabbath keeping, the research conducted also worked out in six specific

objectives in order to meet the core objective of the research and these specific objectives

worked out were; (1) To assess the practices of Sabbath keeping in the Old Testament in a

general picture, (2) To assess the practices of Sabbath keeping in the New Testament before

and after ascension of Jesus Christ, (3) To assess the observance of the Sabbath in

contemporary world, (4) To check how technologies can facilitate the practices of keeping the

Sabbath, (5) To check how technologies can contribute to the practices of Sabbath breaking,

and (6) To propose measures to be taken in avoiding breaking the Sabbath technologically.

42
In the contemporary world, technology has almost touched every part of life to the extent that

people see that life lose its meaning without technology. Understanding that technology can

play double role to any Adventist believer, either positive or negative reaction depends on how

the technology is applicable on the Sabbath day, the hypothesis of this research was formulated

by assuming that there are some practices of applications of technologies that result to the

breaking of the Sabbath, for instance the use of ICT on the Sabbath day to do a number of

things that are only there to please an individual and not God; some examples of such issues

are such as chatting with friends on Facebook, twitter, WhatsApp, Instagram, or e-mails. A

total number of 65 Seventh-day Adventist believers within the community of the University of

Arusha were reached to get their opinions in order work on the formulated hypothesis that

assumes that due to technological advancements there are some technological practices which

seem to be minor but result to the acts of breaking the Sabbath knowingly or unknowingly.

By looking on the respondents’ opinions about the Sabbath day in which respondents were

asked a total number five questions in the second section of the questionnaire which dealt with

the understanding of Sabbath in a general picture, most of the respondents agreed that

advanced technologies have negative effects on Sabbath keeping, for example in question five

which wanted to know if advanced technologies can have negative effects on Sabbath keeping;

20 respondents who are equivalent to 30.77% of 65 respondents said that advanced

technologies have no any negative effects on Sabbath keeping while 45 respondents who are

equivalent to 69.23% of 65 respondents believe that advanced technologies have negative

impacts on Sabbath keeping and some negative effects they mentioned are such as; listening to

or watching secular programs such as football during the Sabbath day, cooking by electrical

cookers or ironing by electrical irons on the Sabbath day by assuming that electricity simplify

43
those activities hence to assume that they do simple works which cannot be considered by God

as the acts of working hence believing that they are not performing the practices of breaking

the Sabbath, also another activity is such as a leisure chatting with friends on Facebook,

twitter, Instagram, WhatsApp inside the church while worship sessions are going on.

According to the analysis done, it is clear that advanced technologies have negative impacts on

Sabbath keeping as observed from 69.23% of all 65 respondents.

In order to get different views from Seventh-day Adventist believers about the Sabbath and

technology, a total number of twenty five questions were formulated in section three of the

questionnaire in which one of those questions was question number ten which seeking to

understand if chatting with friends on Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram, or twitter, for moral

issues that pleasing an individual himself or herself on the Sabbath day is OK; 7 respondents

said that they fully agree that it is OK while 47 respondents said that they disagree, other

question related to Sabbath and technology in this section was the question number twenty

three in which respondents were asked if to cook simple foods by using electrical cookers on

the Sabbath day is OK; 20 respondents said that they fully agree that it is OK while 25

respondents said that they disagree.

Although it was observed that some respondents agree that there is no any problem for Sabbath

keeping with applications of technologies for private issues on the Sabbath day, but majority of

the respondents disagree with some technological applications for private issues on the Sabbath

day and this proves the formulated hypothesis to be correct which was presupposing that due to

technological advancements there are some technological practices which seem to be minor but

result to the practices of breaking the Sabbath knowingly or unknowingly.

44
6.2 Recommendations

The findings obtained have proved that due to technological advancements there are some

technological practices which seem to be minor but result to the practices of breaking the

Sabbath knowingly or unknowingly.

In question number five of the section two of the questionnaire concerning with respondent’s

opinions about the Sabbath, respondents were required to argue if technologies can have

negative effects on Sabbath keeping; 45 respondents who are equivalent to 69.23% of 65

respondents believe that advanced technologies can have negative impacts on Sabbath keeping

and some negative effects they mentioned are such as; listening to or watching secular

programs such as football during the Sabbath day, or cooking by electrical cookers or ironing

by electrical irons on the Sabbath day.

As we are approaching to the end of this world, Adventist believers have to be very careful and

understand that the words of the angel to Daniel were relating to our last days and have to be

understood by all people in the time of the end as the Bible says in Daniel 12:4, 10, "many

shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased." "The wicked shall do wickedly: and

none of the wicked shall understand; but the wise shall understand." So Adventist believers

should be very careful with advanced technologies to make sure that they are always in the

right track of keeping the Sabbath holy as it is intended to be, Adventist believers have to

worship their God in spirit and truth while using advanced technologies on the Sabbath day.

White (1902) declares that, “The increasing knowledge of Christ that is gained by a study of

the Scriptures, under the teaching of the Holy Spirit, enables the receiver to distinguish

between right and wrong in all the affairs of life” (p.196).

45
APPENDICES

Appendix 1: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST

BELIEVERS AT UNIVERSITY OF ARUSHA COMMUNITY

My name is Ulindula E. Mwandembo, a third year student at the University of Arusha pursuing

a Bachelor of Art in Theology. I am conducting a survey to gather information from members

at University of Arusha Seventh-day Adventist Church; on the topic: “A Study of Effects of

Advanced Technology on Sabbath Keeping.” I humbly request you to provide your

information on questions related to the topic.

I. RESPONDENT IDENTIFICATION (Kindly provide the following information)

1. Sex Male [ ] Female [ ]

2. Age 15-20[ ] 21-30[ ] 31-40[ ] 41-50[ ] Over 50[ ]

3. Education Level

Primary Education [ ] Secondary Education [ ] High School [ ]

Certificate [ ] Diploma [ ] Undergraduate [ ]

Postgraduate [ ] Masters [ ] PHD [ ]

Illiterate [ ]

4. Occupation…………………………………………………………..………………

46
II. YOUR OPINION ABOUT THE SABBATH-DAY

1. Sabbath is the Lord’s Day, the seventh day of the week, the forth commandment of God

which requires human beings to rest and focus on God. Can this commandment be irrelevant to

any period of earth’s existence? YES [ ] NO [ ]

2. Jesus said that Sabbath was made for human and not human for Sabbath, do you think that

by saying so; does the Sabbath current have the same weight as of that of the Old Testament?

YES [ ] NO [ ]

What is your reason behind?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3 (a) From the practices of Sabbath keeping in the Old Testament and New Testament, do you

think that those practices of Sabbath keeping are found to be difficult in either of these

Testaments? YES [ ] NO [ ]

(b) If your answer is YES, in which Testament were the practices of Sabbath keeping seem to

be difficult? OLD TESTAMENT [ ]

NEW TESTAMENT [ ]

What are your the reasons behind?

……………………………………………………………………………………………….……

………………………………………………………………………………………….…………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

47
4. After ascension of Jesus Christ in the 1st century up to now in the 21st century whereby

many technological changes took place, do you think that technological changes have

significances to the practices of Sabbath keeping? YES [ ] NO [ ]

If YES, mention the significances you observed

i. ……………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
ii. ……………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
iii. ……………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
iv. ……………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
v. ……………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………….

5. Can advanced technology have negative effects on Sabbath keeping?

YES [ ] NO [ ]

If YES, Can you mention some with brief remarks?

i. ……………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
ii. ……………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
iii. ……………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
iv. ……………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
v. ……………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………….

48
III. YOUR OPINION ABOUT SABBATH AND TECHNOLOGY

Mechanical technology, electrical and electronics technology, and the technology of

communication and information have advanced abruptly in few decades, with wide range of its

devices, channels, and applications. The devices such as electrical cookers, radios, videos,

computers, mobile phones, tablets, iPads and other have developed and advanced day to day.

With respect to the Sabbath day as far as technological advancement is concerned; choose one

number according to your understanding from each row and encircle it.

(1=fully agree, 2=Somehow agree, 3= I don’t know, 4= Disagree)

1. Listening to the radio or watching any of secular programs on TV on the Sabbath day is not

OK 1234

2. Listening to the radio or watching any of moral secular programs on TV on Sabbath day is

OK 1234

3. Listening to the radio or watching any of secular News Programs on TV on Sabbath day is

OK 1234

4. Listening to the radio or watching any of moral secular News Programs on TV on Sabbath

day is OK 1234

5. Listening to the radio or watching religious programs on TV after church sessions on

Sabbath day is OK 1234

6. Individual listening to the radio or watching religious programs on TV while other church

sessions are going on during the Sabbath day is OK 1234

7. Listening to the radio or watching on TV on Sabbath day is not OK at all 1234

8. Using internet for moral secular uses on Sabbath day is OK 1234

9. Using internet for religious issues on Sabbath day is OK 1234

49
10. Chatting with friends on Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram, or twitter, for moral issues that

pleasing yourself on Sabbath day is Ok 1234

11. Chatting with friends on religious issues with social network on Sabbath day is OK

1234

12. Conducting phone calls on Sabbath that morally pleasing yourself is OK 1234

13. Conducting phone calls on Sabbath for religious issues is OK 1234

14. Charging laptops, phones, digital cameras or other related devices on Sabbath day for other

uses after the Sabbath is OK 1234

15. Charging laptops, phones, digital cameras or other related devices on a Sabbath day for

religious purposes is OK even if there was a possibility of charging those devices one day

before the Sabbath 1234

16. Doing transactions on ATMs, M Pesa, Tigo Pesa, Airtel Money, V Money on Sabbath day

for morally issues that please yourself is OK 1234

17. Doing transactions on ATMs, M Pesa, Tigo Pesa, Airtel Money, V Money on Sabbath day

for morally religious issues is OK 1234

18. To borrow a balance from mobile networks or buying airtime via M Pesa, Tigo Pesa,

Airtel money for secular morally pleasing issues is OK 1234

19. To borrow a balance from mobile networks or buying airtime via M Pesa, Tigo Pesa,

Airtel money for religious issues is OK 1234

20. Taking photos on Sabbath day using Smart Phones, IPads, Tablets, or Digital Cameras for

memories is OK 1234

21. Using ovens to prepare simple food on Sabbath day is OK 1234

22. Using ovens to heat food prepared one day before the Sabbath is OK 1234

50
23. To cook simple foods by using electrical cookers on Sabbath day is OK 1234

24. Switching on and off electrical switches in our homes during the Sabbath day is OK

1234

25. Switching on and off electrical switches in our churches during the Sabbath day is OK

1234

Your remarks (specifically)


…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
.……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Your remarks (generally)


…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Thanks for your cooperation

51
Appendix 2: SCHEDULE OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES (JANUARY-JULY 2016)

This is a schedule of research activities from formulation of the proposal to the submission of

the research paper, in which the activities scheduled to last for seven months from January to

July 2016 as shown in Table A01.

Table A01: Schedule of Research activities


ACTIVITIES TIME FRAME ►►►

▼ Jan 2016 Feb 2016 Mar 2016 Apr 2016 May 2016 Jun 2016 Jul 2016

Research Proposal
formulation
Data collection

Data entry, analysis


and validation
Data presentation
and discussion
Report Submission

Appendix 3: RESEARCH BUDGET

Research budget as per time frame from January to July 2016 as indicated in Table A02.

Table A02: Research budget


REQUIREMENTS COST (TZS) DESCRIPTIONS
Transportation during distribution 40,000 TZS 10,000 per week
of questionnaires and data collection
Meals and accommodation 420,000 TZS 105,000 per week
during data collection
Communication during data collection 40,000 TZS 10,000 per week
Stationary and extra expenses throughout the 176, 000 All stationary requirements and extra
research time expenses throughout the research time
GRAND TOTAL 676,000

52
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