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# Chapter 01

## ALGEBRA Of MATRICES & DETERMINANTS

If you have the belief that you can do it, you will acquire all the capacity to do it
even if you may not have it at the beginning!

## In this chapter, we shall learn

 Definition of Matrix, notation and, related terminologies & type of matrices
 Algebraic operations on matrices viz. addition, subtraction and multiplication
 Understanding various properties viz. commutative, associative properties
for various algebraic operations on matrices, Equality of matrices
 Transpose of matrix, Symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices
 Existence of inverse of a matrix, Elementary row and column operations
 Defining determinant of a square matrix (up to 3rd order matrices)
 Properties of determinants
 Minors, Co-factors, Application of determinants in finding the area of 
 Adjoint of matrix and inverse of square matrix by determinant method
 Consistency and inconsistency of system of linear equations (two or three
variable system of linear equations) and their solutions using inverse of
matrix
 Real life - Application based problems
 BASIC ALGEBRA Of MATRICES
INTRODUCTION
Matrices are very powerful tools not only in the field of Maths but also in Economics, Computers, and
Cryptography etc. In computer based programming, these matrices play a vital role in the projection of
three-dimensional image into a two-dimensional screen, creating the realistic motion pictures. Matrices
and their inverse matrices are used by a programmer for coding or encrypting a message. A message
consists of a sequence of numbers in a binary format that is used for the communication. The process
of coding and decoding requires coding theory that involves solving the linear equations. These
equations are solved with the help of matrices. With these encryption only, the internet is functioning
and even financial institutions are able to transmit sensitive and private data securely.
IMPORTANT TERMS, DEFINITIONS & RESULTS
01. Matrix - a basic introduction :
A matrix is an ordered rectangular array of numbers (real or complex) or functions which are known as
elements or the entries of the matrix. It is denoted by the upper case letters i.e. A, B, C etc.
 a11 a 12 ... a1j ... a1n 
a a 22 ... a 2 j ... a 2n 
 21 
     
Consider a matrix A given as, A    .
 a i1 a i2 ... a ij ... a in 
     
 
a m1 a m2 ... a mj ... a mn  mn

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Here in matrix A depicted above, the horizontal lines of elements are said to constitute rows of the
matrix A and vertical lines of elements are said to constitute columns of the matrix. Thus matrix A has
m rows and n columns. The array is enclosed by brackets   , the parentheses   and the double
vertical bars .

##  A matrix having m rows and n columns is called a matrix of order m  n (read as ‘m by n’

matrix). And a matrix A of order m  n is depicted as A   aij  ; i, j  N .
mn
 Also in general, aij means an element lying in the i th row and j th column.

##  No. of elements in the matrix A   aij 

  mn is given as (m)(n) .

## 02. Types Of Matrices :

a) Column matrix : b) Row matrix :
A matrix having only one column is called a column A matrix having only one row is called a row
matrix or column vector. matrix or row vector.
0
8  e.g.  1 2 3 4  ,  2 5 0 13
e.g.  1  , 5  . 14
 2  31   21

##  General notation: A  [aij ]m1 .  General notation: A  [a ij ]1n .

c) Square matrix :
It is a matrix in which the number of rows is equal to the number of columns i.e., an m  n matrix is
said to constitute a square matrix if m  n and is known as a square matrix of order ‘n’.
1 2 5
e.g.  3 7  4  is a square matrix of order 3.
 
 0  1  2  3 3
 General notation : A  [aij ]nn .

d) Diagonal matrix :
A square matrix A  [a ij ]mm is said to be a diagonal matrix if a ij  0 , when i  j i.e., all its non-
diagonal elements are zero.
2 0 0
e.g.  0 5 0  is a diagonal matrix of order 3.

 0 0 4  33

 Also there is one more notation specifically used for the diagonal matrices. For instance,
consider the matrix depicted above, it can be also written as diag  2 5 4  .
 Note that the elements a11 ,a22 ,a33 ,...,amm of a square matrix A   aij  of order m are said to
m n
constitute the principal diagonal or simply the diagonal of the square matrix A. And these
elements are known as diagonal elements of matrix A.

e) Scalar matrix :
A diagonal matrix A  [a ij ]mm is said to be a scalar matrix if its diagonal elements are equal i.e.,

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 0, when i  j
a ij   .
k, when i  j for some constant k
5 0 0
e.g.  0 5 0  is a scalar matrix of order 3 .
 0 0 5  33
f) Unit or Identity matrix :
A square matrix A  [a ij ]mm is said to be identity matrix if the element a ij is given by
1, if i  j
a ij   .
0, if i  j
A unit matrix can also be defined as the scalar matrix each of whose diagonal elements is unity. We
denote the identity matrix of order m by I m or I .
1 0 0 
1 0 
e.g. I  0 1 0  , I   .
 0 1 
0 0 1 
Here first identity matrix is of order 3 whereas the second is of order 2.
g) Zero matrix or Null matrix :
A matrix is said to be a null matrix if each of its elements is ‘0’ (zero). It is denoted by English
alphabet ‘O’.
0 0 0
0 0
e.g.  0 0 0  ,  ,  0 0 .
 0 0 
 0 0 0 
h) Horizontal matrix :
A m  n matrix is said to be a horizontal matrix if m < n i.e., if number of rows is less than the number
of columns in the matrix.
1 2 0 
e.g.   .
5 4 7  23
i) Vertical matrix :
A m  n matrix is said to be a vertical matrix if m > n i.e., if number of rows is more than the number
of columns in the matrix.
 2 5
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e.g.  0 7  .
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 3 1  32
j) Triangular matrix :
Lower triangular matrix Upper triangular matrix
A square matrix is called a lower triangular A square matrix is called an upper triangular
matrix if a ij  0 when i  j . matrix if a ij  0 when i  j .
 1 0 0  1 0 0   2 0 0   1 2 4  1 3 9 
e.g.  2 2 0  ,  0 0 0  ,  3 2 0  . e.g.  0 5 8  ,  0 0 0  .
         
 0 5 3   0 5 0   4 5 7   0 0 3   0 0 5 

## 03. Equality of Matrices :

Two matrices A and B are said to be equal and written as A = B, if they are of the same orders and
their corresponding elements are identical i.e. a ij  bij for all i and j.

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That is a11  b11 , a 22  b 22 , a 32  b32 etc.
If A and B are two m  n matrices, then another m  n matrix obtained by adding the corresponding
elements of the matrices A and B is called the sum of the matrices A and B and is denoted by ‘A + B’.
Thus if A  [a ij ], B  [bij ]  A  B  [a ij  bij ] .

##  Properties of matrix addition :

• Commutative property : A  B  B  A
• Associative property : A  (B  C)  (A  B)  C
• Cancellation laws : i) Left cancellation - A  B  A  C  B  C
ii) Right cancellation - B  A  C  A  B  C .
05. Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar :
If an m  n matrix A is multiplied by a scalar k (say), then the new kA matrix is obtained by
multiplying each element of matrix A by scalar k. Thus if A  [a ij ] and it is multiplied by a scalar k
then, k A  [k a ij ] , i.e., A  [ a ij ]  k A  [k a ij ] .
 2 1   6 3 
e.g. A     3A   .
6 4  18 12 
06. Multiplication of two matrices :
Let A  [a ij ] be a m  n matrix and B  [b jk ] be a n  p matrix such that the number of columns in A
n
is equal to the number of rows in B, then the m  p matrix C  [cik ] such that Cik   a ijb jk is said to
j1

be the product of the matrices A and B in that order and it is denoted by AB i.e. “C = AB’. For better
illustration, you need to follow a few examples (to be discussed in class).
 Properties of matrix multiplication :
• Note that the product AB is defined only when the number of columns in matrix A is
equal to the number of rows in matrix B.
• If A and B are m  n and n  p matrices respectively then the matrix AB will be an
m  p matrix i.e., order of matrix AB will be m  p .
• In the product AB, A is called the pre-factor and B is called the post-factor.
• If two matrices A and B are such that AB is possible then it is not necessary that the
product BA is also possible.
• If A is a m  n matrix and both AB as well as BA are defined then B will be a n  m
matrix.
• If A is a n  n matrix and In be the unit matrix of ‘order n’ then, A In  I n A  A .
• Matrix multiplication is associative i.e., A( BC)  (AB)C .
• Matrix multiplication is distributive over the addition i.e., A( B  C)  AB  AC .

##  Idempotent matrix : A square matrix A is said to be an idempotent matrix if A2  A .

1 0 0
 0 1
For example,  0 1 0  ,  .
 0 1
 0 0 1 

## 07. Transpose of a Matrix :

If A  [a ij ]mn be a matrix of order m  n , then the matrix which can be obtained by interchanging the
rows and columns of matrix A is said to be a transpose of matrix A.

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T c
The transpose of A is denoted by A or A or A i.e., if A  [a ij ]mn then, A T  [a ji ]nm .

T 3 1 
 3 2 0
For example,     2 2  .
1 2 6  
 0 6 

##  Properties of Transpose of matrices :

• (A  B)T  A T  BT • (A  B)T  A T  BT
• (A T )T  A • (k A)T  k A T where, k is any constant
• (AB)T  BT A T • (ABC)T  CT BT A T
08. Symmetric matrix :
A square matrix A  [a ij ]mm is said to be a symmetric matrix if A T  A .
That is, if A  [a ij ] then, A T  [a ji ]  [a ij ]  A T  A .

a h g 2  i 1 3 
  
For example:  h b f  ,  1 2 3  2i  .

 g f c   3 3  2i 4 

## 09. Skew-symmetric matrix :

A square matrix A  [a ij ] is said to be a skew-symmetric matrix if A T   A i.e., if A  [a ij ] then,
A T  [a ji ]   [a ij ]  A T   A . To view the remaining portion of
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 Facts you should know :
• For a skew symmetric matrix, [a ji ]   [a ij ] . For its diagonal elements, we have
[a ii ]   [a ii ] which implies, 2[a ii ]  0 (Replacing j by i ).
That is, all the diagonal elements in a skew-symmetric matrix are zero.
• The matrices AA T and A T A are symmetric matrices.
• For any square matrix A, the matrix A + AT is a symmetric matrix and A – AT is a skew-
symmetric matrix always.
• Also note that any square matrix can be expressed as the sum of a symmetric and a
1 1
skew-symmetric matrix i.e., A  (P)  (Q) , where P  A  A T is a symmetric matrix
2 2
and Q  A  A T is a skew-symmetric matrix.
10. Orthogonal matrix :
A matrix A is said to be orthogonal if A.AT = I where AT is transpose of A.
11. Invertible Matrix :
If A is a square matrix of order m and if there exists another square matrix B of the same order m, such
that AB = BA = I, then B is called the inverse matrix of A and it is denoted by A–1. A matrix having an
inverse is said to be invertible.

It is to note that if B is inverse of A, then A is also the inverse of B. In other words, if it is known that
AB  BA  I then, A1  B  B 1  A .

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12. Elementary Operations or Transformations of a Matrix :
The following three operations applied on the row (or column) of a matrix are called elementary row (or
column) transformations-
(a) Interchange of any two rows (or columns) : When i th row (or column) of a matrix is
interchanged with the jth row (or column), it is denoted as R i  R j (or Ci  C j ).
(b) Multiplying all elements of a row (or column) of a matrix by a non-zero scalar : When the
ith row (or column) of a matrix is multiplied by a scalar k, it is denoted as R i  k R i (or
Ci  k Ci ).
(c) Adding to the elements of a row (or column), the corresponding elements of any other row
(or column) multiplied by any scalar k: When k times the elements of jth row (or column) is
added to the corresponding elements of the i th row (or column), it is denoted as R i  R i 
k R j (or Ci  Ci  k C j ).

NOTE: In case, after applying one or more elementary row (or column) operations on A = IA (or A
= AI), if we obtain all zeros in one or more rows of the matrix A on LHS, then A–1 does not exist.
13. Inverse or reciprocal of a square matrix :
If A is a square matrix of order n, then a matrix B (if such a matrix exists) is called the inverse of A if
AB  BA  I n . Also note that the inverse of a square matrix A is denoted by A–1 and we write,
A 1  B .

 Inverse of a square matrix A exists if and only if A is non-singular matrix i.e., / A /  0 (explained
later in the Determinant section).
 If B is inverse of A, then A is also the inverse of B.

## 14. Algorithm to find Inverse of a matrix by Elementary Operations or Transformations :

 By Row Transformations :
STEP1- Write the given square matrix as A = InA.
STEP2- Perform a sequence of elementary row operations successively on A on the LHS and
pre-factor In on the RHS till we obtain the result In  BA .
STEP3- Matrix B is the inverse of A. So, write A 1  B .
 By Column Transformations :
STEP1- Write the given square matrix as A = AIn.
STEP2- Perform a sequence of elementary column operations successively on A on the LHS
and post-factor In on the RHS till we obtain the result In  AB .
STEP3- Matrix B is the inverse of A. So, write A 1  B .

## WORKED OUT ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES

(i  2j)2
Ex01. Construct a 2  2 matrix A  [a ij ] whose elements are given by a ij  .
2
a a12 
Sol. Consider A  a ij    11  be the required matrix.
a 21 a 22 
[i  2 j] 2 [1  2(1)] 2 9 25
a
As ij  , so we have 11a   , a12  , a 21  8, a 22  18 .
2 2 2 2
9/2 25/2 
So the required matrix is A   .
8 18 

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 a  b 2a  c   1 5 
Ex02. Find the value of a if   .
 2a  b 3c  d   0 13
 a  b 2a  c   1 5 
Sol. We have   
 2a  b 3c  d   0 13
By equality of matrices, we get : a – b = –1, 2a + c = 5, 2a – b = 0 and 3c + d = 13.
Solving these equations, we get : a = 1.
 7 0  3 0
Ex03. Find the matrix X, if X  Y    and X  Y   .
 2 5  0 3
 7 0  3 0
Sol. We have X  Y    and X  Y   .
 2 5  0 3
7 0 3 0
On adding these two, we get :  X  Y    X  Y     
 2 5 0 3
 10 0  5 0
 2X    X   .
 2 8 1 4
 3 1
Ex04. If A    , show that A 2  5A  7I  O .
 1 2 
 3 1  3 1  3 1
Sol. We have A     A 2  A.A   
 1 2   1 2   1 2 
 9  1 3  2   8 5
 A2     …(i)
 3  2 1  4   5 3
 3 1   15 5 
5A  5    …(ii)
 1 2   5 10
1 0  7 0 
And, 7 I  7    …(iii)
0 1 0 7
8 5  15 5   7 0 
Adding these three equations, we get : A 2  5A  7I    
 5 3  5 10   0 7 
 8  15  7 5  5  0  0 0 
 A 2  5A  7I      A 2  5A  7I  O . H. P.
 5  5  0 3  10  7  0 0 
 3 2 3
Ex05. Express A   4 5 3  as the sum of a symmetric and a skew-symmetric matrix.
 2 4 5 
 3 2 3 3 4 2

Sol. We’ve A  4 5 3   A  2 5 4
T
   
 2 4 5  3 3 5 
6 6 5   0 2 1 
 A  A  6 10 7 and A  A   2 0 1
T   T
   
 5 7 10   1 1 0 
 3 3 5/2   0 1 1/2 
1   1 
Let P   A  A    3
T
5 7/2 and Q   A  A   1
T
0 1/2  .
2  2  
5/2 7/2 5   1/2 1/2 0 

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T
 3 3 5/2   3 3 5/2 
T 
We observe that, P   3  
5 7/2    3 5 7/2   P
5/2 7/2 5  5/2 7/2 5 
T
 0 1 1/2  0 1 1/2   0 1 1/2 
T
and, Q   1  
0 1/2    1 0 
1/2  T
Q  1  0 1/2   Q
 
 1/2 1/2 0  1/2 1/2 0   1/2 1/2 0 
Thus, it is clear that P is symmetric matrix and Q is skew-symmetric matrix.
 3 3 5/2   0 1 1/2   3 2 3
Hence we have, P  Q   3  
5 7/2  1  0 1/2   4 5 3  A .
    
5/2 7/2 5   1/2 1/2 0   2 4 5
Thus, we’ve expressed matrix A as the sum of a symmetric matrix & a skew-symmetric matrix.
 3 4  1  2n 4n 
Ex06. If A    , then show that A n    n N .
 1 1   n 1  2n 
Sol. We shall be using principle of mathematical induction to prove this.
1  2n 4n 
Let P(n) : A n   n  N
 n 1  2n 
1  2(1) 4(1)  3 4 3 4 
For n = 1, P(1) : A1      A [Given A   
 1 1  2(1)  1 1 1 1
 P(1) is true.
1  2k 4k 
Assume that P(k) is true for k  N i.e., P(k) : A k    k  N …(i)
 k 1  2k 
We have to show that P(k + 1) is also true whenever P(k) is true i.e.,
1  2(k +1) 4(k  1)  3  2k 4  4k 
P(k + 1) : A k 1   
 k +1 1  2(k+1)   k  1 1  2k 
1  2k 4k  3 4 
Consider LHS : A k 1  A k A   [By using (i)
 k 1  2k  1 1
3  6k  4k 4  8k + 4k  3  2k 4  4k 
    RHS.
 3k +1  2k 4k  1  2k   k  1 1  2k 
 P(k + 1) is also true.
Hence by principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is always true for all natural numbers n.
 1 3 2 
 
Ex07. Using elementary transformations, find the inverse of the matrix :  3 0 1  .
 2 1 0 
 
 1 3 2 
 
Sol. Let A   3 0 1 
2 1 0
 
By using elementary row transformations, we have : A  IA
 1 3 2   1 0 0 
   
 3 0 1    0 1 0  A [Applying R2 → R2 + 3R1, R3 → R3 – 2R1
 2 1 0  0 0 1
   

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 1 3 2   1 0 0 
    1
 0 9 7    3 1 0  A [Applying R2 →
9
R2
 0 5 4   2 0 1 
   
1 3 2   1 0 0
   
 0 1 7/9    1/3 1/9 0  A [Applying R1 → R1 – 3R2, R3 → R3 + 5R2
 0 5 4   2 0 1 

 1 0 1/3   0 1/3 0 
   
 0 1 7/9    1/3 1/9 0  A [Applying R3 → 9R3
 0 0 1/9   1/3 5/9 1 
   
 1 0 1/3   0 1/3 0 
    1 7
 0 1 7/9   1/3 1/9 0  A [Applying R1 → R1 – R3, R2 → R2 + R3
3 9
0 0 1   3 5 9 

 1 0 0   1 2 3   1 2 3 
     
 0 1 0    2 4 7  A  I   2 4 7  A
 0 0 1   3 5 9   3 5 9 
     
 1 2 3 
 I  A A . So, A   2 4 7  .
1 1

 3 5 9 
 
 1 3 2   1 2 3 
   
Hence, the inverse of matrix  3 0 1  is  2 4 7  .
 2 1 0   3 5 9 
   
 cos  sin    T T
Ex08. (a) If A    , find  satisfying 0    when A  A  2 I 2 ; where A is
  sin  cos   2
the transpose of A.
 2 3
 1 2 3   
(b) If A    and B   4 5  and BA  (b ij ) , find b 21  b 32 .
 4 2 5   2 1
 
 cos  sin    cos   sin  
Sol. (a) Here A     AT   
  sin  cos    sin  cos  
 cos  sin    cos   sin  
Since A  A T  2 I2    2 I
  sin  cos    sin  cos  
 2 cos  0  1 0  2 0 
  2  0 1    
 0 2 cos      0 2 
1 
By def. of equality of matrices, we get 2cos   2  cos     .
2 4
 2 3  10 2 21 
   1 2 3   
(b) Here BA   4 5      16 2 37   (bij )
 2 1  4 2 5   
   2 2 11 
So b 21  b32  16  (2)  18 .

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 1 0 2
 
Ex09. If A   0 2 1  and A 3  6A 2  7A  k I 3  O , find k.
 2 0 3
 
1 0 2 1 0 21 0 2  5 0 8 
      
Sol. We have A   0 2 1   A 2  AA   0 2 1   0 2 1    2 4 5 
 2 0 3  2 0 3   2 0 3   8 0 13 
      
 1 0 2  5 0 8   21 0 34 
3 2     
Also, A  AA   0 2 1  2 4 5    12 8 23 
 2 0 3  8 0 13   34 0 55 
    
3 2
Now A  6A  7A  k I3  O
 21 0 34   5 0 8   1 0 2  1 0 0
       
  12 8 23   6  2 4 5   7  0 2 1   k  0 1 0   O
 34 0 55   8 0 13   2 0 3  0 0 1
       
 21 0 34   30 0 48   7 0 14   k 0 0 
       
  12 8 23    12 24 30    0 14 7    0 k 0   O
 34 0 55   48 0 78  14 0 21  0 0 k 
       
 2 0 0   k 0 0  k 2 0 0   0 0 0
       
  0 2 0    0 k 0   O  0 k2 0    0 0 0
 0 0 2   0 0 k   0 0 k  2   0 0 0 
    
By equality of matrices, we get : k  2  0 k  2 .

## EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE

 Based On Algebra Of Matrices
2 4  2 5 
Q01. (a) If A    and B    , then find (3A  B) .
3 2  3 4
6
(b) If A  1 3 2 and B   2  , find the matrix AB.
 3 
2 (9i  j)
Q02. (a) What is the element a 23 in the matrix A    a ij  33 s.t. a ij  ?
3
i
(b) For a 2  2 matrix A  [a ij ] , whose elements are given by a ij  , write the value of a12 .
j
(c) Write the element a 23 of a 3  3 matrix A  (a ij ) whose elements a ij are given by
| i  j|
a ij  .
2
(d) Write the element a12 of the matrix A  [a ij ]22 , whose elements a ij are given by
a ij  e 2ix sin jx .
Q03. (a) How many matrices of order 2  3 are possible with each entry 0 or 1?
(b) What is the number of all possible matrices of order 3  3 with each entry as 0 or 1?
(c) Write the number of all possible matrices of order 2  2 with each entry 1, 2 or 3.

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3 0 0
Q04. Let A   0 x 0  . For what value of x, A will be a scalar matrix?
 0 0 3 
Q05. If a matrix has 12 elements, what are the possible orders it can have?
Q06. A matrix X has a+b rows and a+2 columns while the matrix Y has b+1 rows and a+3 columns.
Both the matrices XY and YX exist. Find the values of a and b.
T
Q07. (a) If A is a matrix of 2  3 and B is of 3  5 , what is the order of  AB  ?
(b) If A is 3  4 matrix and B is a matrix such that A T B and BA T are both defined. Then what
is the order of matrix B?
 i 0
Q08. If it is given that A    then, find A 2 . Here i  1 .
0 i 
i j
Q09. (a) Construct a matrix [a ij ]43 such that a ij  .
i j
| i  2j|
(b) Construct a 3  2 matrix B such that bij  .
3
 i  2 j, if i  j

(c) Construct a 2  3 matrix A whose elements are given by a ij   i  j, if i  j .
 i  3j, if i  j

 1 0  x 
Q10. (a) Solve the matrix equation:  x 1      O.
 2 3  5 
 3  3 7x  y 
(b) Find the values of x from the matrix equation:   1 5    .
 2  2y 10 
 1 0
(c) Solve the following matrix equation for x : [x 1]  O.
 2 0 To view the remaining
1 2 0 0  portion of this chapter
(d) For what values of x : [1 2 1]  2 0 1   2   O ? and other chapters, please
 1 0 2   x  Buy Our Study Packages
1 0 2  x  here
(e) Find x, if [x  5  1]  0 2 1   4   O . http://theopgupta.com/
  
 2 0 3  1  2-buy-package/
 4 6   1 0 
Q11. (a) Find matrix A and B if 2A  B    and A  2B   .
 4 2   1 1
 2 3  2 2 
(b) Find matrix X and Y if 2X  3Y    and 3X  2Y   .
 4 0  1 5 
Q12. If A  diag 1 1 2  and B  diag  2 3 1 , find 3A  4B .
8 0   2 2 
Q13. If A   4 2 and B   4 2  , then find the matrix X, such that 2A  3X  5B .
 
 3 6   5 1 
 cos   sin  
Q14. If A    , then for what value of  is A an identity matrix?
 sin  cos  

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cos   sin 
Q15. If A    and A  A T  I2 then, what is the value of  ?
 sin  cos  
 sin x cos x 
Q16. If A  
 cos x sin x  then, verify that AA  I .
 
 cos  sin    sin   cos 
Q17. Simplify: cos     sin  cos  sin   .
  sin  cos   
   
Q18. Evaluate: 1  2   if A    satisfies the equation A 2  I .
  
Q19. (a) If A is a square matrix such that A 2  A then, what is the value of (I  A)3  7A ?
(b) If A is a square matrix such that A 2  I , then find the simplified of (A  I) 3  (A  I)3  7A .
Q20. Show that the elements on the main diagonal of a skew-symmetric matrix are all zero.
 a  b 2a  c   1 5 
Q21. (a) Find the value of a and b if   .
 2a  b 3c  d   0 13
 9 1 4  1 2 1
(b) If   A  , then find the matrix A.
 2 1 3  0 4 9 
 a  4 3b   2a  2 b  2 
(c) If   , write the value of a – 2b.
 8 6   8 a  8b 
 2 4 2   1 2 6 
(d) If   A   , then find the matrix A.
3 7 3  4 5 0
2 5  0 2
(e) If   A    , then find the matrix A.
 3 7  1 3
Q22. Solve for the unknown variables viz. w, x, y, z, a, b, c (as the case may be) in the followings:
 7 14  x 5  3 4  x  y 3  1 3 
a) 15 14   2  7 y  3  1 2 b)  7 
       xy  7 12 
 x 2  5x   2   x 2   x   2 
c)  2      3  d)  2 3    
 y  6y   3   y   2y   9 
 x  y 2x  z   1 5   2x  y 3y   x  3 y 2  2 
e) 
 2x  y 3z  a   0 13 f)  0  
     y 2  5y   0 6 
 x  3 z  4 2y  7   0 6 3y  2 
g)  4x  6 a  1  
0    2x 3 2c  2 

 b  3 3b z  2c   2b  4 21 0 
 1 1 x 1 
h) A  , B   such that A 2  B2  (A  B )2
 2 1  y 1
 2 1 1 1
x y  x 6   4 x  y
i) 3   j)  x 2 1 1 3 0  1  O
z w   1 2w   z  w
 3 
 2 2 4  1
 2 0 7    x 14x 7x 
Q23. For what value (s) of x, the matrix product  0 1 0   0 1 0  equals an identity

 1 2 1   x 4x 2x 
matrix?

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 0 2y z 
Q24. Find the values of x, y, z if the matrix A   x y  z  satisfies the equation A T A  I .
 x  y z 
 0 2y z 
OR Find the value of x, y and z, if A   x y z  satisfies A  A 1 .
 x  y z 
 1 0 1 1 
  
Q25. If (2 1 3)  1 1 0  0   A , then write the order of matrix A.
 0 1 1  1
  
Q26. Prove that every square matrix can be uniquely expressed as the sum of a symmetric matrix and
a skew-symmetric matrix.
Q27. If A and B are symmetric matrices of the same order, then show that AB is symmetric if and
only if A and B commute. [A and B commute means AB  BA .]
Q28. If A and B are symmetric matrices, prove that AB  BA is a skew-symmetric matrix.
Q29. Show that the matrix BT AB is symmetric or skew-symmetric according as A is symmetric or
skew-symmetric.
Q30. If B is skew-symmetric matrix, write whether ABA is symmetric or skew-symmetric.
 0 5 3 
 
Q31. (a) Write the values of p and q such that the matrix A is skew symmetric, A   5 p 4  .
 q 4 0 
 
 0 2b 2 
(b) Matrix A   3 1 3  is given to be symmetric, find the values of a and b.
 
3a 3 1
 3 5
(c) If the matrix A    is written as A  P  Q , where P is a symmetric matrix and Q is
7 9
skew symmetric matrix, then write the matrix P.
10 2
Q32. If Z  then find Z1 , if it exists. Use elementary operations.
5 1
0 1 To view the remaining portion of
Q33. If A    then, write the matrix A4.
1 0 this chapter and other chapters,
Q34. If A    , then find the value of A 20 .
 3 0 here http://theopgupta.com/2-
3 4 1 y  7 0 buy-package/
Q35. (a) If 2       , then find (x – y).
5 x   0 1   10 5 
0 3   0 4a 
(b) If A    and kA    , find the values of k and a.
 2 5   8 5b 
(c) Find the value of (x + y) from the following matrix equation :
x 5   3 4   7 6 
2   .
 7 y  3 1 2  15 14 
Q36. Use elementary column operations C2  C2  2C1 in the matrix equation
 4 2   1 2  2 0 
 3 3    0 3  1 1  .
    

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 2 0
Q37. Find the matrix A, if it is given that   A  A2 .
 3 2
Q38. Give an example of two non-zero 2  2 matrices A and B such that AB  O .

## SHORT & LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q01. If li , m i , n i ; i  1, 2, 3 denote the direction cosines of three mutually perpendicular lines in the
 l1 m1
n1 
space, then prove that AA  I such that A  l2
T
m2 n 2  .

l3
m3 n 3 
[Based on the concept from Three Dimensional Geometry, NCERT Chapter 11.]
 0 6 7 0 1 1  2
Q02. (a) If A   6 0 8  , B   1 0 2  and C   2  , then verify that  A  B  C  AC  BC .
   
 7 8 0   1 2 0   3 
 0 6 7 0 1 1  2 
(b) If A   6 0 8  , B   1 0 2  , C   2  , then calculate AC, BC and (A + B) C.
   
 7 8 0   1 2 0  3 
Also verify that (A + B) C = AC + BC.
 This property is known as the distributive property of matrix addition.
 1 2 3   7 8 9 
Q03. Find the matrix A, if A   .
 4 5 6  2 4 6 
 2 1  1 8 10 
Q04. If it is known that  1 0  A   1 2 5  , find A.
 
 3 4   9 22 15 
Q05. Define a symmetric and skew-symmetric matrix.
Prove that for the matrix X, X  X T is skew-symmetric matrix whereas X  X T , XX T and X T X
 1 1 
is symmetric matrix, where X   .
 2 4 
 2 1
Q06. Express the matrix   as the sum of symmetric and skew-symmetric matrix.
4 5 
 0 a b
1 1
Q07. Find  A  A  and  A  A  where A   a 0 c  .
2 2  
  b c 0 
1 2   3 1
Q08. If A    and B   1 3  , show that AB – BA is a skew-symmetric matrix.
2 3  
 3 2 3
Q09. (a) Express  4 5 3 as the sum of a symmetric and a skew-symmetric matrix.
 
 2 4 5
 3 6 0 
(b) Express A   4 5 8  as the sum of a symmetric and a skew-symmetric matrix.
 0 7 1

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 2 4 6 
(c) Express the matrix  7 3 5  as the sum of a symmetric and skew-symmetric matrix.
 
 1 2 4 
 4 2
Q10. If A    and f (x)  x 2  5x  6 then, find f (A).
 1 1 
2 0 1
Q11. If A   2 1 3  and f (x)  x 2  5x  6 then, find f (A).

 1 1 0 
2 0 1
 
OR If A   2 1 3  , find A 2  5A  16 I .
1 1 0 

1 0 2
Q12. If A   0 2 1  then, show that A is a root of the cubic equation x 3  6x 2  7x  2  0 .

 2 0 3 
3 2  1 0
Q13. (a) If A    and I    , find the value of k so that A 2  kA  2 I .
4 2  0 1
2 3
(b) If A    be such that A 1  kA , find the value of k.
5 2 
2 3 1
(c) If A    , show that A 1  A .
5 2  19
2 3
Q14. (a) Let A    and f (x)  x 2  4x  7 . Show that f (A)  O . Use this result to find A5.
 1 2
2 3
(b) Let A    , then show that A2 – 4A + 7I = O. Using this result calculate A3 also.
 1 2
1 2 
Q15. If A    and A 2  2 B  7 I  O then, find the matrix B.
 2 1
 1 2 3
Q16. If A   3 2 1 then, prove that A3  23A  40 I  O .
 4 2 1
3 2 0
Q17. (a) If A  1 4 0  then, prove that (A  5I)(A  2I)  O . Hence find A–1.
 0 0 5 
 2 1 1 
 
(b) For the matrix A   1 2 1 , show that A 2  5A  4I  O . Hence find A 1 .
 1 1 2 
 
1 2 2
(c) If A   2 1 2  , then show that A 2  4A  5I  O , and hence find A 1 .
 2 2 1 

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1 1 1 
Q18. For the matrix A   1 2 3 , verify that A3  6 A 2  5A  11 I  O . Hence find A–1.
 2 1 3 
5 3
Q19. (a) Show that   satisfies the equation x 2  3x  7  0 .
 1 2 
Thus find the inverse of given matrix.
 2 1 2
(b) If A    and I is the identity matrix of order 2, then show that A  4A  3I . Hence
  1 2 
find A 1 .
3 1 2 1
Q20. (a) If A  
7 5  then, find x and y so that A  x I  yA  O . Hence find A .
 
 2 1 2
(b) If A    and A  A  I  O, then find the values of  and .
  1 2 
3 2  2 1
Q21. If A  
1 1  then, find a and b so that A  a A  b I  O . Hence find A .
 
 0 1
 2 1 2 
Q22. If A    and B   1 3  then, verify that (AB)T  BT A T .
 4 2 1   4 5 
Q23. Prove the followings by the Principle Of Mathematical Induction :
 cos n sin n   cos  sin  
a) A n    , n  N if A   
  sin n cos n    sin  cos  
 cos n i sin n   cos  i sin  
b) A n    for all n  N if A   
i sin n cos n  i sin  cos  
n
c)  a I  b A   a n I  n a n 1b A  n  N , where I is the identity matrix of 2nd order, if it is given
0 1
that matrix A   .
0 0
1  2n 4n  3 4  To view the remaining portion of
d) A n    , n  Z if A    this chapter and other chapters,
 n 1  2n  1 1
3n 1 3n 1 3n 1  1 1 1
 n 1 n 1 n 1  here http://theopgupta.com/2-
n
e) A  3 3 3  , n  N if A  1 1 1
3n 1 3n 1 3n 1  
1 1 1
 
 b  a n  1 
n a n   a b 
f) A   a  1  , n  0, n  Z  {0} if A   where a  1
 0 1 
 0 1 

n a n n a n 1  a 1 
g) A    for every positive integer n if A  0 a 
0 an   

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 n (n  1) 
1 n
2  1 1 1
 
h) A n  0 1 n  , n  N if it is given that A  0 1 1
0 0 1  0 0 1
 
 
1 n 1 1
i) A n   for all the positive integers n if A   .
0 1  0 1
Q24. (a) If A  diag  a b c  , show that A n  diag  a n bn c n  for all positive integer n.
(b) If A and B are square matrices of the same order such that AB = BA, then prove by using
induction that ABn  Bn A . Further, prove that (AB) n  A n Bn for all n  N .
 x
 0  tan 
2 & is an identity matrix then, show that
Q25. If A    I
 tan x 0 
 2 
cos x  sin x 
(I  A)  (I  A)  .
 sin x cos x 
cos x  sin x 0 
Q26. If (x)   sin x cos x 0  then, show that (x)(y)  (x  y) .
 
 0 0 1 
Q27. By using elementary operations (transformations), find the inverse of matrix A (if it exists) in
the followings :
1 2   3 10   1 1  6 3
a)   b)   c)   d)  
 2 1 2 7  2 3   2 1 
0 1 2 1 1 2
 2 3 3   1 2 2 
e)  1 2 3

f)  0 2 3 
g)  2 2 3

h)  1 3 0 
 3 1 1   3 2 4 
 3 2 2  0 2 1 
00 1 3 2  1  1 1 0   2 0 1
 
i)  3
4 5
 j)  3
0 1
 k)  2 5 3  l)  5 1 0 
 2
4 7  1 0   2  0 2 1  0 1 3 
 
 cos 2 θ cosθ sin θ  cos 2 β cosβsin β 
Q28. Prove that the product of matrices  2  and   is a null
 cosθ sin θ sin θ   cosβsin β sin 2 β 
π
matrix when θ and β differ by an odd multiple of .
2
  1  2    2 1    1   0
   
Q29. Using 1    2  0 and 3  1 , show that :    2 1    2 1        0 .
 2 1     2 1   2   0
       
 The identities 1     2
 0 and 3  1 are known as complex cube root of unity.
1 2 2 
Q30. If A   2 1 2  is a matrix satisfying AA T  9 I3 , then find the values of a and b.
 a 2 b 

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Q31. In XII class examination, 25 students from school A and 35 students from school B appeared.
Only 20 students from each school could get through the examination. Out of them, 15 students
from school A and 10 students from school B secured full marks. Write down this information in
matrix from.
 8 16 
Q32. Let matrix A    , where first row represents the number of table fans and second row
32 48
represents the number of ceiling fans which two manufacturing units x and y makes in one day.
Compute 7A and, state what does it represents?
 2 0 1
 
Q33. If A   2 1 3  find A 2  5A  4 I and hence find a matrix X s. t. A 2  5A  4 I  X  O .
 1 1 0 
 

##  DETERMINANTS, ITS PROPERTIES & APPLICATIONS

INTRODUCTION
The study of determinants is linked with the study of algebra of matrices. Determinants have many
important applications. They are used to find the inverse of a matrix, to obtain the area of a triangle, to
verify whether three given points are collinear, to solve system of linear equations etc. Later on, in the
chapter Vector Algebra, we shall use determinants to find scalar triple product of vectors as well.
IMPORTANT TERMS, DEFINITIONS & RESULTS
01. Determinants, Minors & Cofactors :
(a) Determinant :
A unique number (real or complex) can be associated to every square matrix A  [a ij ] of order m.
th
This number is called the determinant of the square matrix A, where a ij   i, j element of A.
a b  a b
For instance, if A    then, determinant of matrix A is written as A   det.(A ) and its
 c d  c d
value is given by “ ad  bc ".
(b) Minors :
Minors of an element a ij of a determinant (or a determinant corresponding to matrix A) is the
determinant obtained by deleting its ith row and jth column in which a ij lies. Minor of a ij is denoted by
Mij .
Hence we can get 9 minors corresponding to the 9 elements of a third order (i.e., 3  3) determinant.
(c) Cofactors :
Cofactor of an element a ij , denoted by Aij , is defined by, Aij  (1)i j M ij , where Mij is minor of a ij .
Sometimes Cij is used in place of Aij to denote the cofactor of element a ij .

## 02. Adjoint of a square matrix :

Let A  [a ij ] be a square matrix. Also assume B  [Aij ] where Aij is the cofactor of the elements a ij in
matrix A . Then the transpose BT of matrix B is called the adjoint of matrix A and it is denoted by

a b   d b 
To find adjoint of a 2  2 matrix : Follow this, A     adj.A   .
c d  c a 

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1 2 3
For example, consider a square matrix of order 3 as A   2 3 4  then, in order to find the adjoint of
 2 0 5 
matrix A, we find a matrix B (formed by the cofactors of elements of matrix A as mentioned above in the
 15 2 6   15 10 1
definition) i.e., B   10 1 4  . Hence, adj.A  B   2 1 2  .
  T

 1 2 1  6 4 1

## 03. Singular matrix & Non-singular matrix :

a) Singular matrix : b) Non-singular matrix :
A square matrix A is said to be singular if A  0 A square matrix A is said to be non-singular if
i.e., its determinant is zero. A 0.
1 2 3  0 1 1
 3 4   3 4 
e.g.  4 5 12  ,  . e.g.  1 0 1  ,  .
 3 4   1 1 
 1 1 3   1 1 0 
 A square matrix A is invertible if and only if A is non-singular.
04. Algorithm to find A 1 by Determinant method :
STEP1- Find |A|.
STEP2- If |A| = 0 then, write “A is a singular matrix and hence not invertible”. Else write “A
is a non-singular matrix and hence invertible”.
STEP3- Calculate the cofactors of elements of matrix A.
STEP4- Write the matrix of cofactors of elements of A and then obtain its transpose to get adj.A
1
STEP5- Find the inverse of A by using the relation A 1  adj.A .
|A|
05. Properties associated with various operations of Matrices & the Determinants :
a) AB = I = BA b) AA–1  I or A–1A  I, A–1I  A–1
1
c) (AB)1  B1A 1 d)  ABC   C 1B1A 1
e) (A 1 )1  A f) (A T )1  (A 1 )T
k) adj.A  | A |n 1 , , where n is order of A (if | A |  0 i.e., A is a non-singular matrix)
l) |AB|  |A||B| m) |A. adj.A|  |A|n, where n is order of A
1
n) A 1  , iff matrix A is invertible o) |A|  |AT|
A
p) kA  k n A where n is order of square matrix A and k is any scalar.
n 2
q) If A is a non-singular matrix of order n, then adj.(adj.A)  A A.
( n 1) 2
r) If A is a non-singular matrix of order n, then adj.(adj.A)  A .
n 1
s) If A is a matrix of order n then, adj.(k A)  k (adjA) .
06. Properties of Determinants :
a) If any two rows or columns of a determinant are proportional or identical, then its value is
equal to zero.

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a1 b1 c1
e.g.   a2 b2 c2  0 [As R1 and R3 are the same.
a1 b1 c1
b) The value of a determinant remains unchanged if its rows and columns are interchanged.
a1 b1 c1 a1 a2 a3
e.g.   a2 b2 c2  b1 b2 b3 .
a3 b3 c3 c1 c2 c3
Here rows and columns have been interchanged, but there is no effect on the value of determinant.
c) If each element of a row or a column of a determinant is multiplied by a constant k, then the
value of new determinant is k times the value of the original determinant.
a1 b1 c1 ka1 kb1 kc1 a1 b1 c1
e.g.   a2 b2 c2 , 1  a2 b2 c2  k a2 b2 c2  1  k  .
a3 b3 c3 a3 b3 c3 a3 b3 c3
d) If any two rows or columns are interchanged, then the determinant retains its absolute value,
but its sign is changed.
a1 b1 c1 a3 b3 c3
e.g.   a2 b2 c2 , 1  a2 b2 c2  1   [Here R 1  R 3 .
a3 b3 c3 a1 b1 c1
e) If every element of some column or row is the sum of two terms, then the determinant is equal
to the sum of two determinants; one containing only the first term in place of each sum, the other
only the second term. The remaining elements of both determinants are the same as given in the
original determinant.
a1   b1 c1 a1 b1 c1  b1 c1
e.g.   a2   b2 c2  a2 b2 c2   b2 c2 .
a3   b3 c3 a3 b3 c3  b3 c3

## 07. Area of triangle :

Area of a triangle whose vertices are  x1 , y1  ,  x2 , y2  and  x3 , y3  is given by,
x1 y1 1
1
  x2 y2 1 Sq.units . …(A)
2
x3 y3 1

 Since area is a positive quantity, we take absolute value of the determinant in (A).
 If the points ( x1 , y1 ), ( x2 , y2 ) and ( x3 , y3 ) are collinear then   0 .
 The equation of a line passing through the points  x1 , y1  and  x2 , y2  can be obtained by the
x y 1
expression given here : x1 y1 1  0 .
x2 y2 1

## 08. Solutions of System of Linear equations :

(a) Consistent and Inconsistent system :
A system of equations is said to be consistent if it has one or more solutions otherwise it is said to be an
inconsistent system. In other words an inconsistent system of equations has no solution.
(b) Homogeneous and Non-homogeneous system :
A system of equations AX  B is said to be a homogeneous system if B  0 . Otherwise it is called a
non-homogeneous system of equations.

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09. Solving of system of equations by Matrix method [Inverse Matrix Method] :
Consider the following system of equations,
a1x  b1 y  c1 z  d1 ,
a2 x  b2 y  c2 z  d 2 ,
a3 x  b3 y  c3 z  d3 .
 a1 b1 c1   d1   x
STEP1- Assume A   a2 b2 c2  , B   d 2  and X   y  .
     
 a3 b3 c3   d 3   z 
STEP2- Find |A|. Now there may be following situations:
a) A  0  A 1 exists. It implies that the given system of equations is consistent and
therefore, the system has unique solution.
In that case, write AX  B
 1 1
Pre-multiplying by A 1 both sides, we get : X  A 1B  where A   adj.A 
 A
Then by using the definition of equality of matrices, we can get the values of x, y and z.
b) A  0 implies A 1 doesn’t exist. It implies that the given system of equations may
be consistent or inconsistent. In order to check proceed as follow:
Find (adj.A)B. Now we may have either  adj.A  B  O or  adj.A  B  O .
 If  adj.A  B  O , then the given system may be consistent or inconsistent.
To check, put z  k in the given equations and proceed in the same manner in the new
two variables system of equations assuming d i  ci k , 1  i  3 as constant.
 And if  adj.A  B  O , then the given system is inconsistent with no solutions.

## WORKED OUT ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES

Ex01. If the points (2, –3), (k, –1) and (0, 4) are collinear, find the value of k.
Sol. The points (2, –3), (k, –1) and (0, 4) are collinear. So we must have,
2 3 1
k 1 1  0 (Applying R 2  R 2  R1 , R 3  R 3  R 1 )
0 4 1
2 3 1
k2 2
 k2 2 0 0 1 0 (We’ve expanded the det. along C3 )
2 7
2 7 0
That is, 7  k  2   4  0  k  10/7 .
x1 x1 4 1
Ex02. If  , then write the value of x.
x 3 x 2 1 3
x  1 x  1 4 1
Sol. We have 
x 3 x  2 1 3
 (x  1)(x  2)  (x  1)(x  3)  4  3  (1) 1 x  2 .
Ex03. Using properties of determinant, prove that :
a b c
a 2
b 2
c 2   a  b  b  c  c  a  a  b  c  .
bc ca ab

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a b c
2 2
Sol. LHS : Let   a b c2 (Applying R 3  R 3  R 1 )
bc ca ab
a b c
2 2
 a b c2 (Taking a  b  c common from R 3 )
a bc abc a bc
a b c
2 2
 a  b  c a b c2 (Applying C1  C1  C 2 , C 2  C2  C3 )
1 1 1
ab bc c
2 2 2 2
 a  b  c a  b b c c2
0 0 1
(Taking (a  b ) & (b  c) common from C1 & C 2 respectively)
1 1 c
  a  b  b  c  a  b  c  a  b b  c c 2 (Applying C 2  C 2  C1 )
0 0 1
1 0 c
  a  b  b  c  a  b  c  a  b c  a c 2 (Taking (c  a ) common from C 2 )
0 0 1
1 0 c
  a  b  b  c  c  a  a  b  c  a  b 1 c 2 (Expanding along R 3 )
0 0 1
 1 0 
  a  b  b  c  c  a  a  b  c   1 
 ab 1 
  a  b  b  c  c  a  a  b  c 1(1  0) 
  a  b  b  c  c  a  a  b  c   RHS. H. P.
 a2 ab ac
2
Ex04. Prove that : ba b bc  4a 2b 2 c 2 .
ac bc c2
a 2 ab ac
Sol. LHS : Let   ba b2 bc (Taking a, b and c common from R 1 , R 2 , R 3 respectively)
ac bc c 2
a b c
 abc a b c (Taking a, b and c common from C1 , C 2 , C3 respectively)
a b c
1 1 1
2 2 2
a b c 1 1 1 (Applying C1  C1  C 2 , C 2  C2  C3 )
1 1 1

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0 2 1
2 2 2
a b c 0 0 1 (Expanding along R 2 )
2 0 1
 0 2 
 a 2 b 2 c 2  1 
 2 0 
   a 2 b 2 c 2  1(0  4)   4a 2 b 2 c2  RHS. H. P.
Ex05. For what values of k, the system of linear equations x  y  z  2, 2x  y  z  3, 3x  2y 
kz  4 has a unique solution?
1 1 1 
 
Sol. Let A   2 1 1 , which is matrix formed by the coefficients of x, y & z in the system of eqs.
3 2 k 
 
1 1 1
For unique solution, | A |  0 so, 2 1 1  0  1(k  2)  1(2k  3)  1(4  3)  0
3 2 k
 k  2  2k  3  1  0 k  0 .

## Ex06. Solve the following system of equations using matrix method :

x  2y  z  7, x  3z  11, 2x  3y  1 .
Sol. The given system of equations is :
x  2y  z  7,
x  3z  11,
2x  3y  1
1 2 1 x  7
Let A   1 0 3 , X   y  , B  11 .
   
 2 3 0   z   1 
1 2 1
Now, A  1 0 3  1(0  9)  2(0  6)  1(3  0)  18  0 . So, A 1 exists.
2 3 0
Let Aij be the cofactors of elements a ij in A  [a ij ] . Then, we have :
A11  9, A 21  3, A 31  6
A12  6, A 22  2, A 32  2
A13  3, A 23  7, A 33  2
 9 3 6   9 3 6 
1 1 
 adjA   6 2 2   A 1
 adjA    6 2 2
  A 18
 3 7 2   3 7 2
Now as AX  B  A 1AX  A 1B [Pre-multiplying by A–1 both the sides
 I X  A 1B  X  A 1B
 9 3 6   7   63  33  6  36   2  x   2
1     1   1    
So, X   6 2 2  11 i.e., X   42  22  2   18    1    y   1
18 18 18    
 3 7 2   1   21  77  2  54   3  z   3
Hence by equality of matrices, we get : x  2, y  1 and z  3 .

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Matrices & Determinants By O.P. Gupta [INDIRA Award Winner]
Ex07. A school wants to award its students for the values Honesty, Regularity and Hard-work
with a total cash award of `6000. Three times the award money for Hard-work added to
that given for Honesty amounts to `11000. The award money given for Honesty and Hard-
work together is double the one given for Regularity. Represent the above situation
algebraically and find the award money for each value, using matrix method. Apart from
these values, namely, Honesty, Regularity and Hard-work, suggest one more value which
the school must include for the awards.
Sol. Let the award money for the values of Honesty, Regularity and Hard-work be x, y and z (in `)
respectively.
According to question, we get : x  y  z  6000, x  3z  11000, x  2y  z  0 .
1 1 1  6000  x 
Let A  1 0 3 , B  11000  , X   y 
   
1 2 1  0   z 
1 1 1
Now, |A|  1 0 3  6  0  A 1 exists.
1 2 1
Consider Cij be the cofactors of element aij in matrix A, we have
C11  6, C12  2, C13  2
C 21  3, C 22  0, C23  3
C31  3, C32  2, C33  1
 6 3 3   6 3 3 
1 1
So, adj.A   2 0 2  .  A  1

2 0 2  .

|A| 6
 2 3 1  2 3 1
 6 3 3   6000   3000   x   500 
1    1 
1
As X  A B , X 2 0 2 11000  12000   y    2000
6     6      
 2 3 1  0   21000   z   3500 
By equality of matrices, we get: x  500, y  2000, z  3500 .
Hence, award money given for the value of Honesty = `500, award money given for the value of
Regularity = `2000 and, award money given for the value of Hard-work = `3500.
The school must include the value of Obedience for the awards.
1 a 1 1
1 1 1
Ex08. If a, b and c are all non-zero and 1 1 b 1  0 , then prove that    1  0 .
a b c
1 1 1 c
1 a 1 1
Sol. Here 1 1  b 1 0
1 1 1 c
Take a, b and c common from R1 , R 2 and R 3 respectively.
11 a 1a 1a
 abc 1 b 11 b 1 b  0 By R1  R1  R 2  R 3
1c 1 c 11 c

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1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1   1   1  
a b c a b c a b c
1 1 1
 abc 1 0
b b b
1 1 1
1
c c c

1 1 1
 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1
Taking  1     common from R1, abc  1     1 0
 a b c  a b c b b b
1 1 1
1
c c c

0 0 1
 1 1 1 1
By C1  C1  C2 & C2  C2  C3 ,  1     abc 1 1 0
 a b c b
1
0 1 1 
b
 1 1 1
Now expanding along C1 , abc  1      0  1 0  1  0   0
 a b c
 1 1 1
As so, a  0, b  0, c  0 so,  a      0 .
 a b c
Ex09. On her birthday Seema decided to donate some money to children of an orphanage home.
If there were 8 children less, every one would have got ` 10 more. However, if there were
16 children more, every one would have got ` 10 less. Using matrix method, find the
number of children and the amount distributed by Seema. What values are reflected by
Seema’s decision?
Sol. Let the number of children be x and the amount distributed by Seema for one child be ` y.
So, (x  8)(y  10)  xy  5x  4y  40...(i)
and (x  16)(y  10)  xy  5x  8y  80...(ii)
 5 4   40  x
To solve (i) and (ii), let A    , B  , X   AX  B  X  A 1B
 5 8   80   y
1  8 4  1  8 4  1  8 4  40   x   32 
Now A 1   5 5    5 5  X       
40  20   20   20  5 5  80   y   30 
Clearly x  32, y  30 .
Hence the number of children = 32 and the amount distributed by Seema = ` 30.
Value reflected : Helpfulness towards the needy people.
 1 1 2 
Ex10. Verify : A(adjA)  (adjA)A  A I for matrix A   3 0 2  .
 1 0 3 
1 1 2  1 1 2
Sol. Here A  3 0 2 A 3 0 2  11  A I  11I...(i)
 
1 0 3  1 0 3

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 0 3 2
Now adj.A   11 1 8  .

 0 1 3 
1 1 2   0 3 2 11 0 0 
Therefore, A(adj.A)  3 0 2 11 1 8    0 11 0   11 I …(ii)
  
    
1 0 3   0 1 3  0 0 11
 0 3 2  1 1 2  11 0 0 
Also, (adj.A)A   11 1 8  3 0 2    0 11 0   11 I …(iii)

 0 1 3  1 0 3   0 0 11
By (i), (ii) and (iii), we see that, A(adjA)  (adjA)A  A I .

## EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE

 Based On Algebra Of Determinants
a  ib c  id
Q01. (a) Determine the value of the determinant: .
c  id a  ib
1  2
(b) If  is a complex cube root of unity, then find the value of :  2 1 .
2 1 
sin 20o cos 20o
(c) Write the value of .
 sin 70o cos 70o
p 0 0
(d) Find the value of a q 0 .
b c r
 cos  sin  
(e) If A    , then for any natural number n, find the value of Det (A n ) .
  sin  cos  
1 1 1
(f) Find the maximum value of 1 1  sin  1 .
1 1 1  cos  To view the remaining portion
of this chapter and other
3x 3 8
Q02. Find the value of xy , if  4 . chapters, please Buy Our Study
4 4y3 Packages here
3x 1 1 1 http://theopgupta.com/2-
Q03. (a) If  , find the value(s) of x.
x  1 x  1 4 1
(b) If  , then write the value of x.
x 3 x  2 1 3
2x 5 6 2
(c) If  , write the value of x.
8 x 7 3
 2sin x 1 3 0
Q04. If x  R, 0  x  , and  , then find the values of x.
2 1 sin x 4 sin x

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Q05. If A  [a ij ] is a 3  3 matrix and Aij denotes the co-factors of the corresponding elements a ij ’s
then, what is the value of a 21A11  a 22 A12  a 23 A13 ?
Q06. If A  [a ij ] is a 3  3 matrix and M ij ’s denotes the minors of the corresponding elements a ij ’s
then, write the expression for the value of A by expanding A by third column.
Q07. (a) It is known that A  2B , where A and B are square matrices of third order and B  5 . What
is the value of A ?
(b) If A is a square matrix such that A  adjA   5 I then determine the value of A .
(c) If A is a square matrix of order 3 such that A  5 then determine the value of adjA .
(d) If A is a square matrix of order 3 such that adjA  64 then find A .
(e) If A is a non-singular square matrix such that A  10 then determine the value of A 1 .
(f) If A is a square matrix of order 3 such that A  adjA   5 I , find adjA .
(g) Assume that A is a square matrix of order 3, then what will be the value of k A .
(h) If adjA  36 then, find 3A 1 if A is a square matrix of order 3.
(i) If A is a non-singular square matrix of order 3 then, determine the value of adjA .
(j) If A is a 3  3 matrix, |A|  0 and |3A| = k |A|, then write the value of k.
(k) If A is a square matrix such that | A |  5 , write the value of | AA T | .
(l) A and B are square matrices of order 3 each, A  2 and B  3. Find 3AB .
5  x x  1
Q08. (a) For what value of x, the matrix  is singular?
 2 4 
 2  x 3
(b) For what value of x, the matrix   is non- invertible?
 5 1 
 7  2x x  5
(c) For what value of x, the matrix  is singular?
 3 7 
 3 2sin x 
(d) If 0  x   and the matrix  is singular, write the value(s) of x.
 2sin x 1 
 2sin x 3 
(e) In the interval  /2  x   , find the value of x for which  is singular.
 1 2sin x 
Q09. Prove that (A–1)′ = (A′)–1, where A is an invertible matrix.
2 3 
Q10. If A    , then write A 1 .
 5 2 
1
 x 0 0
Q11. If x, y, z are all non-zero real numbers then, find  0 y 0 .
 0 0 z 
2 4 7
Q12. Find the minor of the element 8 in the following determinant :   3 6 8 .
2 3 1
Q13. (a) Find the equation of line joining the points (1, 2) and (3, 6) using determinants.
(b) Show that the points (a, b  c), (b, c  a) and (c, a  b) are collinear.
(c) Find the value of x, if area of a  is 35 sq.units with the vertices (x, 4), (2,  6) and (5, 4) .

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sin  A  B  C  sin B cos C
Q14. If A, B, C are angles of a triangle, find the value of  sin B 0 tan A .
cos  A  B   tan A 0
sin(A  B  C) sin B cos C
OR If A  B  C   , then find the value of  sin B 0 tan A .
cos(A  B)  tan A 0
1 2 3 
Q15. Find A(adj.A) without finding adj.A if A  3 1 2  .
1 0 3 
Q16. Without actually expanding, evaluate the determinants given below:
3 2 3 2 7 65 102 18 36
a) 2 2 3 b) 3 8 75 c) 1 3 4
3 2 3 5 9 86 17 3 6
1 a bc bc ca ab a b c
d) 1 b c  a e) c  a a  b b  c f) a  2x b  2y c  2z
1 c ab a b bc ca x y z
xy yz zx a b bc ca 1 bc a(b  c)
g) z x y h) b  c c  a a  b i) 1 ca b(c  a)
1 1 1 ca a b bc 1 ab c(a  b)
0 a b a c
j) b  a 0 bc
ca cb 0
Q17. Evaluate the followings using properties of determinants:
1 a bc 1 1 1 x y xy
a) 1 b ca b) x y z c) y xy x
1 c ab yz zx xy xy x y
xa a a yz x x 0 b c
d) b xb b e) y zx y f) b 0 a.
c c xc z z xy c a 0
0 a b cos  cos  cos  sin   sin 
g) a 0  c h)  sin  cos  0 To view the
b c 0 sin  cos  sin  sin  cos  remaining portion of
1 x y sin  cos cos(  ) this chapter and
i) 1 x  y y j) sin  cos  cos(  )
other chapters,
1 x xy sin  cos  cos(   )
Study Packages here
1 x x2 1 1 1 http://theopgupta.
2
Q18. If Δ = 1 y y , Δ1 = yz zx xy , then prove that Δ  Δ1  0 . com/2-buy-
1 z z2 x y z package/

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MATHEMATICIA Of Class XII By O.P. Gupta (+91-9650350480)
SHORT & LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS – TYPE A
 1 1 0 1  1 2
Q01. (a) If A    , B   , C and AB  CD  O then, find the matrix D.
2 1   2 4 1 4 
 2 1  5 2 2 5
(b) Let A    , B   , C . Find a matrix D such that CD  AB  O .
3 4   7 4 3 8
 2 1   3 2 
Q02. Find the matrix A, satisfying the matrix equation:  A  I.
 3 2  5 3
2 3   1 2 
Q03. (a) If A    , B  , verify that (AB)1  B1A 1 .
1 4   1 3 
 1 2   1 1
(b) If A    and B    then, verify that A 1B1  (BA) 1 .
 3 0 2 2 
2 1   1 0 
Q04. If A    and B1    then, find (AB)1 .
3 4  3 4
 2 1 
Q05. (a) Let A    . Then verify A(adjA)  (adjA)A  | A | I .
 3 4
1 3 3 
(b) If A  1 4 3  then, verify that A(adj.A)  A I . Also find A 1 .
1 3 4 
 1 2 2 
 
(c) Find the adjoint of the matrix A   2 1 2  and hence show that A. (adj A)  | A | I3 .
 2 2 1 
 
1
 θ θ
 1  tan   1
2
tan 
2  cos θ  sin θ  .
Q06. Show that:     sin θ cos θ 
 tan θ 1    tan
θ
1   
 2   2 
 1 sin α 1 
Q07. Let A    sin α 1 sin α  , where 0  α  2π . Then which of the following is true:
 
 1  sin α 1 
a) det.(A )  0 b) det.(A )  [2, 4] c) det.(A )  (2, 4) d) det.(A )  (2, )
1 sin  1
OR Evaluate the determinant    sin  1 sin  . Also prove that 2    4 .
1  sin  1
 1 2 3 
Q08. If A   0 1 4  , find (A)1 .
 2 2 1 
Q09. Find matrix A in the followings :
 3 1   2 4 1 2  1 4  1 2 
(a) A   (b) A   6 I2 (c)   A 
 4 2   1 3  1 4   2 5  0 4
1 4   16 6   2 1   3 2   2 4 
(d) 3 2  A   7 (e)  3 2 A  5 3   3 1
   2       

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 3 1 1 
 
Q10. Find the inverse of matrix A   15 6 5  and hence show that A 1 . A  I .
 5 2 2 
 
 cos   sin  0 
 
Q11. If A   sin  cos  0  , find adj.A and verify that A(adj.A)  (adj.A)A  A I3 .
 0 0 1 

## SHORT & LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS – TYPE B

x sin  cos 
Q01. Prove that  sin  x 1 is independent of  .
cos  1 x
x sin  cos 
OR If  sin   x 1  8 , write the value of x.
cos  1 x
a2 a 2  (b  c) 2 bc
Q02. Prove that : b2 b 2  (c  a) 2 ca  (a  b)(b  c)(c  a)(a  b  c)(a 2  b 2  c2 ) .
c2 c 2  (a  b) 2 ab
(b  c) 2 a2 bc
OR Prove that : (c  a) 2 b2 ca  (a  b)(b  c)(c  a)(a  b  c)(a 2  b 2  c 2 ) .
(a  b) 2 c2 ab
Q03. Prove the followings:
1 a a 2  bc b2c2 bc b  c
a) 1 b b 2  ac  0 b) c 2 a 2 ca c  a  0
1 c c 2  ab a 2 b2 ab a  b
a2 1 ab ac xyz 2x 2x
2 2 2 2 3
c) ab b 1 bc  1  a  b  c d) 2y yzx 2y  x  y  z
ac bc c2  1 2z 2z zxy
1   2   xy zx yz
2
e) 1  2    2              f) y z x    x  y  z  z  x 
1   2   z x y
a 2  b2
c c
13  3 2 5 5 c
b2  c2
g) 15  26 5 10  5 3 [ 6  5] h) a a  4abc
a
3  65 15 5 a 2  c2
b b
b
2ab a2 b2 a ab abc
3 2
i) a 2 2
b 2ab    a  b 3
 j) 2a 3a  2b 4a  3b  2c  a 3
b2 2ab a 2 3a 6a  3b 10a  6b  3c

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3a a  b a  c
k)  b  a 3b  b  c  3  a  b  c  ab  bc  ca 
c  a c  b 3c
xy x x 0 b2a c2a
l) 5x  4y 4x 2x  x 3 m) a 2 b 0 c 2 b  2a 3 b3c3
10x  8y 8x 3x a 2c b2c 0
x xy x  2y a  bx c  dx p  qx a c p
n) x  2y x x  y  9y  x  y  2
o) ax  b cx  d px  q  1  x 2
b d q
x  y x  2y x u v w u v w
bc ca ab a b c bc a b a
p) q  r r  p pq  2 p q r q) c  a b  c b  3abc  a 3  b 3  c3
yz zx xy x y z a b ca c
a2 bc ac  c 2 x 2  2x 2x  1 1
3
r) a 2  ab b2 ac  4a 2 b 2 c 2 s) 2x  1 x  2 1   x  1
ab b 2  bc c2 3 3 1
bc a a a 2 ab ac
2
t) b ca b  4abc u) ba b bc  4a 2 b 2 c 2  (2abc) 2
c c ab ca cb c 2
2
1 x x2  y  z xy zx
2 3
v) x 2 1 x  (1  x 3 ) 2 w) xy x  z yz  2xyz  x  y  z 
x x2 1 xz yz  x  y
2

a a2 bc 1 a2 a3
x) b b 2 ca  1 b 2 b3   a  b  b  c  c  a  ab  bc  ca 
c c2 ab 1 c 2 c3
abc c b
y) c abc a  2  a  b  b  c  c  a 
b a abc
x  y  2z x y
3
z) z y  z  2x y  2  x  y  z
z x z  x  2y
To view the remaining
x y z
portion of this chapter and
aa) x 2 y2 z 2   x  y  y  z  z  x  x  y  z 
yz zx xy Our Study Packages here
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2 3
ab) 2xy 1 x  y 2 2
2x  1  x  y 2
2 2
2y 2x 1 x  y

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1 a 1 1
 1 1 1
ac) 1 1 b 1  abc 1      abc  bc  ca  ab
 a b c
1 1 1 c
a  b  nc na  a nb  b
3
ad) nc  c b  c  na nb  b  n a  b  c
nc  c na  a c  a  nb
2 2
 x  2   x  1 x2 x a b c
2 2
ae)  x  1 x2  x  1  8 af) a xb c  x 2  x  a  b  c
2 2
x2  x  1  x  2  a b xc

x y z
2 2
ag) x y z 2   x  y  y  z  z  x  xy  yz  zx 
yz zx xy
b2  c2 ab ac 1 a a3
ah) ba c2  a 2 bc  4a 2 b 2 c 2 ai) 1 b b3   a  b  b  c  c  a  a  b  c 
ca cb a 2  b2 1 c c3
b2  c2 a2 a2 (b  c)2 a2 a2
aj) b2 c2  a 2 b 2  4a 2 b 2 c 2 ak) b2 (c  a) 2 b2  2abc(a  b  c)3
c2 c2 a 2  b2 c2 c2 (a  b)2

2y yzx 2y
al) 2z 2z z  x  y  (x  y  z)3
xyz 2x 2x
ax y z x 2x 2x
2
am) x ay z  a (a  x  y  z) an) 2x x 2x  (5x   )(  x)2
x y az 2x 2x x
1 1 p 1 p  q a3 2 a
3
ao) 3 4  3p 2  4p  3q  1 ap) b 2 b  2(a  b)(b  c)(c  a)(a  b  c)
4 7  4p 2  7p  4q c3 2 c
1 x x 1
aq) 2x x(x  1) x(x  1)  6x 2 (1  x 2 ) .
3x(1  x) x(x  1)(x  2) x(x  1)(x  1)
x x 2 1  px 3
Q04. Prove that: y y 2 1  py3  1  pxyz  x  y  y  z  z  x  .
z z 2 1  pz 3
x x 2 1  px 3
Q05. If y y2 1  py3  0 then, show that 1  pxyz  0 . Assume that x  y  z, where x, y, z, p  R .
z z 2 1  pz3

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a bc bc
Q06. Using properties of determinants, prove that : a  c b c  a  (a  b  c)(a 2  b 2  c 2 ) .
ab ba c
Q07. If a, b and c are all positive and p th , q th and, r th terms of a G.P. then, prove that
log a p 1
log b q 1  0.
log c r 1
x 1 x 3 x a
Q08. a) If a, b and c are in arithmetic progression, then prove that x  2 x  5 x  b  0 .
x 3 x 7 x c
2p  4 5p  7 8p  a
b) If a, b and c are in A.P. then, find the value of the determinant 3p  5 6p  8 9p  b .
4p  6 7p  9 10p  c
a b c

Q09. If a, b, c  R and a  b  c then, show that b c a  0 i.e., the value of the given
c a b
determinant is negative.
bc ca ab
Q10. (a) If a, b, c are real numbers, and it is known that c  a a  b b  c  0 .
ab bc ca
Show that either a  b  c  0 or, a  b  c .
a b c
(b) If a  b  c  0 and b c a  0 , then using properties of determinants, prove that
c a b
a  b c.
a b c
(c) If a  b  c and b c a  0 , then using properties of determinants, prove that
c a b
a bc  0.
xa x x ax ax ax
Q11. Solve the equation : x xa x  0, a  0 . Q12. Solve: a  x a  x a  x  0 .
x x xa ax ax ax
ab pq x y a p x a b bc ca a b c
Q13. Prove that : a) b  c qr yz 2 b q y b) b  c c  a a  b  2 b c a .
ca rp zx c r z ca a b bc c a b
Q14. Using properties of determinants, show that :
bc ca ab
c  a a  b b  c  2  a  b  c   ab  bc  ca  a 2  b 2  c 2  .
a b bc ca

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1 a a2
Q15. Show that 1 b b 2  (a  b)(b  c)(c  a) .
1 c c2
 This determinant (Q15) is called a circular determinant.
 bc b 2  bc c 2  bc
3
Q16. If none of a, b and, c is zero, then show that a 2  ac ac c 2  ac   ab  bc  ca  .
a 2  ab b 2  ab ab
3 5 2 7 7
Q17. Using the properties of determinants, prove that: 35  6 7 14  7 5 ( 10  7) .
5  21 35 7
ax c b
Q18. If a  b  c  0 , solve : c bx a  0.
b a cx
αx γ β
OR Using properties of determinants, show that, if α  β  γ  0 and γ βx α  0 , then
β α γx
3[α 2  β 2  γ 2 ]
x  0 or x   .
2
b2c2 bc b  c
2 2
Q19. Using properties of determinants, prove that c a ca c  a  0 .
a 2 b2 ab a  b
Q20. If x, y, z are the 10th, 13th and 15th terms of a GP, find the value of
log x 10 1 
det.(A) if A  log y 13 1  .
 
 log z 15 1 
Q21. If [.] denotes the greatest integer function, and 1  x  0, 0  y  1, 1  z  2 then, find value of
 x   1  y  z
the determinant:  x   y  1  z .
x  y  z  1
1 1
1 ab 
a b
1 1
Q22. Write the value of the determinant: 1 bc  .
b c
1 1
1 ca 
c a
x 3i 1
Q23. Find the values of x and y if y 1 i  6  11i .
0 2i i

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a 1 0
Q24. If f (x)  ax a 1 , using properties of determinants find the value of f (2x)  f (x) .
ax 2 ax a
0 2 3
Q25. Without expanding the determinant at any stage, prove that 2 0 4  0.
3 4 0
Q26. If x, y, z are in GP, then using properties of determinants, show that
px + y x y
py + z y z  0, where x  y  z and p is any real number.
0 px + y py + z
x2 x6 x 1
Q27. Using the properties of determinants, solve for x : x  6 x  1 x  2  0 .
x 1 x  2 x  6
yz  x2 zx  y2 xy  z2
Q28. Prove that zx  y2 xy  z2 yz  x2 is divisible by (x  y  z) , and hence find the quotient.
xy  z2 yz  x 2 zx  y2
Q29. Using properties of determinants, show that ABC is isosceles if :
1 1 1
1  cos A 1  cos B 1  cos C  0 .
cos2 A  cos A cos2 B  cos B cos2 C  cos C
(a  b) 2
c c
c
(b  c)2 3
Q30. Using properties of determinants, prove that a a  2 a  b  c .
a
(c  a)2
b b
b
p q p  q
Q31. If p  0, q  0 and q r q  r  0 , then, using properties of determinants, prove
p  q q  r 0
that at least one of the following statements is true :
(a) p, q, r are in G.P.
(b)  is a root of the equation px 2  2qx  r  0 .
To view the remaining
portion of this chapter
 Based On Application Of Matrices & Determinants and other chapters, please
Q01. Solve the given system of equations for x, y and z : here
a) x  y  4, 2x  3y  9 http://theopgupta.com/
b) x  2y  3z  3, 2x  3y  2z  5, 3x  y  4z  11 2-buy-package/
c) x  2y  z  7, x  3z  11, 2x  3y  1
d) 2x  y  3z  9, x  y  z  6, x  y  z  2

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2 3 10 4 6 5 6 9 20
e)    4,    1,    2 ; x, y, z  0
x y z x y z x y z
f) 5x  3y  z  16, 2x  y  3z  19, x  2y  4z  25
4 1 2
g) 3x   7xz  14, 2x   3xz  4, x   3xz  0
y y y
h) 2x  y  z  4, 3x  y  2z  6, x  z  2
1 2 5
Q02. If A   2 1 1  then, find A 1 . Hence solve the following system of equations:
 3 4 1
x  2y  3z  8, 2x  y  4z  8, 5x  y  z  16 .
 2 0 1
Q03. Find the inverse of the matrix  1 2 3  . Hence solve the following system of equations:
 2 2 1
2x  z  4, x  2y  3z  0, 2x  2y  z  2 .
Q04. (a) A shopkeeper has 3 varieties of pens ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’. Meenu purchased 1 pen of each
variety for a total of ` 21. Jeevan purchased 4 pens of ‘A’ variety, 3 pens of ‘B’ variety and 2
pens of ‘C’ variety for ` 60. While Shikha purchased 6 pens of ‘A’ variety, 2 pens f ‘B’ variety
and 3 pens of ‘C’ variety for ` 70. Using matrix method, find cost of each variety of pen.
(b) The sum of three numbers is 6. If we multiply third number by 3 and add second number to
it, we get 11. By adding first and third numbers, we get double of the second number. Find these
three numbers by using matrix method.
 2 3 5 
Q05. Given that A   3 2 4  then, find A 1 . Using A 1 , solve the following system of
1 1 2 
equations : 2x  3y  5z  11, 3x  2y  4z  5, x  y  2z  3 .
 2 1 1   3 1 1
Q06. If A   1 2 1 , B   1 3 1  then, find AB. Use this product to solve the system of
 

 1 1 2   1 1 3 
equations : 2x  y  z  1,  x  2y  z  4, x  y  2z  3 .
 1 1 2   2 0 1 
Q07. Use the product  0 2 3  9 2 3 to solve the following system of equations:
 3 2 4   6 1 2 
x  y  2z  1, 2y  3z  1, 3x  2y  4z  2 .
 4 4 4  1 1 1 
Q08. Find the matrix product  7 1 3  1 2 2  .
 5 3 1  2 1 3 
Hence or otherwise solve the system of equations given as:
x  y  z  4, x  2y  2z  9, 2x  y  3z  1 .
 3 4 2   3 4 26 
Q09. If A   2 3 5  , B   3 1 11 then, find AB.
 
1 0 1   3 4 17 
Using this product, solve the system of equations given as :
3x  4y  2z  1, 2x  3y  5z  7, x  z  2 .

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 1 2 3 
Q10. If A   2 3 1  , find A 1 . Hence solve the following system of equations:
 3 2 4 
x  2y  3z  3, 2x  3y  2z  5, 3x  y  4z  11 .
 3 2 3 
Q11. Given A   2 1 1 , find A 1 .
 4 3 2 
Hence solve the system of equations: 3x  2y  3z  8, 2x  y  z  1, 4x  3y  2z  4 .
1 1 1   2 2 2
Q12. Let A   2 2 0  and B   2 4 2  , verify that BA  4 I , where I is a unit matrix.
 

 3 3 1  0 6 4 
Hence solve the given system of equations: 2y  2x  2z  0, 2x  4y  2z  2,  6y  4z  8 .
Q13. Solve the following system of equations:
a) 2x  3y  5, 6x  9y  15
b) 5x  3y  7z  4, 3x  26y  2z  9, 7x  2y  10z  5
c) x  y  z  3, 2x  y  z  2,  x  2y  2z  1
d) x  y  z  6, x  2y  3z  14, x  4y  7z  30
e) 2x  2y  2z  1, 4x  4y  z  2, 6x  6y  2z  3
f) 2x  y  3z  5, 3x  2y  z  7, 4x  5y  5z  9
g) x  2y  z  0, x  y  z  0, 3x  6y  5z  0
h) 3x  y  2z  0, x  y  z  0, x  2y  z  0
Q14. For city A, the cost of 4kg wheat, 3kg onion and 2kg rice is `60. For city B, the cost of 2kg
wheat, 4kg onion and 6kg rice is `90. Also for city C, the cost of 6kg wheat, 2kg onion and 3kg
rice is `70. Find the cost of each item per kilogram by using matrices. Also state which city
spends more for buying onions? In recent times, general public was affected due to heavy price
rise in the onions. What could be reasons for this in your opinion? Can you suggest any
measures to be taken to prevent this issue in future?
Q15. Two schools P and Q want to award their selected students on the values of Tolerance,
Kindness and Leadership. The school P wants to award `x each, `y each and `z each for the
three respective values to its 3, 2 and 1 students respectively with a total award money of
`2200. School Q wants to spend `3100 to award its 4, 1 and 3 students on the respective values
(by giving the same award money for the three values as school P). If the total amount of award
for one prize on each value is `1200, using matrices, find the award money for each value.
Apart from the above these three values, suggest one more value which should be considered for
award.
Q16. There are three families. First family consists of 2 male members, 4 female members and 3
children. Second family consists of 3 male members, 3 female members and 2 children. Third
family consists of 2 male members, 2 female members and 5 children. Male member earns `500
per day and spends `300 per day. Female member earns `400 per day and spends `250 per day,
child member spends `40 per day. Find the money each family saves per day using matrices?
What is the necessity of saving in the family?
Q17. Two schools A and B decided to award prizes to their students for three values honesty (x),
punctuality (y) and obedience (z). School A decided to award a total of `11000 for the three
values to 5, 4 and 3 students respectively while school B decided to award `10700 for the three
values to 4, 3 and 5 students respectively. If all the three prizes together amount to `2700, then:
i. Represent the above situation by a matrix equation and form linear equations using
matrix multiplication.

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ii. Is it possible to solve the system of equations so obtained using matrices?
iii. Which value you prefer to be rewarded most and why?
Q18. Two schools P and Q want to award their selected students on the values of Discipline,
Politeness and Punctuality. The school P wants to award `x each, `y each and `z each for the
three respective values to its 3, 2 and 1 students with a total award money of `1000. School Q
wants to spend `1500 to award its 4, 1 and 3 students on the respective values (by giving the
same award money for the three values as before). If the total amount of awards for one prize
on each value is `600, using matrices, find the award money for each value.
Apart from the above three values, suggest one more value for awards.
Q19. Mr. Nakul Saini has invested a part of his income in 10% (bond A) and another part of his
income in 15% (bond B). His interest during a certain period is `4000. Had he invested 20%
more in bond A and 10% more in bond B, his interest would have been increased by `500 for
the same period. Then: (i) Represent the above situation by a matrix equation and form linear
equations using matrix multiplication. (ii) Is it possible to solve the system of equations so
obtained by matrices? If yes, solve it too.
Q20. For keeping fit, X people believe in morning walk, Y people believe in yoga and Z people join
gym. Total number of people are 70. Further 20%, 30% and 40% people are suffering from any
diseases who believe in morning walk, yoga and gym respectively. Total number of such people
is 21. If morning walk costs `0, yoga costs `500/month and gym costs `400/month and total
expenditure is `23000.
(i) Formulate a matrix problem.
(ii) Calculate the no. of each type of people.
(iii) Why exercise is important for health?
Q21. (a) In a parliament election in our country, a political party hired a public relation firm to
promote its candidates in 3 ways – telephone, house calls and letters. The cost per contact (in
paise) is given in matrix A as
140  Telephone
A   200  House Call
 
150  Letters
The number of contacts of each type made in two cities X and Y is given in the matrix B as
Telephone House Call Letters
1000 500 5000  City X
B
3000 1000 10000  City Y
Find the total amount spent by the party in the two cities.
What should one consider before casting his/her vote – party’s promotional activity or their
social activities?
(b) In a Legislative assembly election, a political party hired a public relation firm to promote its
candidate in three ways: telephone, house calls and letters. The numbers of contacts of each type
in three cities A, B & C are (500, 1000, 5000), (3000, 1000, 10000) and (2000, 1500, 4000),
respectively. The party paid `3700, `7200, and `4300 in cities A, B & C respectively. Find the
costs per contact using matrix method. Keeping in mind the economic condition of the country,
which way of promotion is better in your view?
Q22. (a) A trust fund has `35,000 is to be invested in two different types of bonds. The first bond
pays 8% interest per annum which will be given to orphanage and second bond pays 10%
interest per annum which will be given to an N. G. O. (cancer Aid Society). Using matrix
multiplication, determine how to divide `35,000 among two types of bonds if the trust fund
obtains an annual total interest of `3,200. What are the values reflected in this question?
(b) A trust fund has `30,000 is to be invested in two different types of bonds. The first bond
pays 5% interest per annum which will be given to orphanage and second bond pays 7% interest
per annum which will be given to an N.G.O. cancer aid society. Using matrix multiplication,

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determine how to divide `30,000 among two types of Bonds if the trust fund obtains an annual
total interest of `1800. What are the values reflected in this question?
Q23. A school has to reward the students participating in co-curricular activities (Category I), with
100% attendance (Category II) and brave students (Category III) in a function. The sum of the
numbers of all the three category students is 6. If we multiply the number of students of category
III by 2 and add to the number of students of category I to the result, we get 7. By adding II and
III category students to three times the I category students, we get 12. Form the matrix equation
and, hence solve it as well.
Q24. Two farmers Ramkrishna and Hari Prasad cultivated three varieties of rice namely Basmati,
Permal and Naura. The sale (in Rupees) of these varieties of rice by both the farmers in the
month of September and October are given by the following matrices ‘A’ and ‘B’ :
September Sales (in Rupees) October Sales (in Rupees)
Basmati Permal Naura Basmati Permal Naura
 10000 20000 30000  Ramkrishna  5000 10000 6000  Ramkrishna
A  and B   
 50000 30000 10000  Hari Prasad  20000 10000 10000  Hari Prasad
(i) Find the combined sale in September and October for each farmer in each variety.
(ii) Find the decrease in sales from September to October.
(iii) If both farmers receive 2% profit on gross sales, compute the profit for each farmer and for
each variety sold in October.
(iv) Which farmer gets more profit in the overall sales for both the months?
(v) Which farmer in your opinion is more resourceful and why?
Q25. A total amount of `7000 is deposited in three different savings bank accounts with annual
1
interest rates of 5%, 8% and 8 % respectively.
2
The total annual interest from these three accounts is `550. Equal amounts have been deposited
in 5% and 8% savings accounts. Find the amount deposited in each of the three accounts, with
the help of matrices.
Q26. Three schools A, B and C organized a mela for collecting funds for helping the rehabilitation of
flood victims. They sold hand made fans, mats and plates from recycled material at a cost of
`25, `100 and `50 each. The number of articles sold are given below :

School A B C
Article

Hand fans 40 25 35
Mats 50 40 50
Plates 20 30 40

Find the funds collected by each school separately by selling the above articles. Also find the
total funds collected for the purpose. Write one value generated by the above situation.
Q27. There are 2 families A and B. There are 4 men, 6 women and 2 children in family A, and 2 men,
2 women and 4 children in family B. The recommended daily amount of calories is 2400 for
men, 1900 for women, 1800 for children and 45 grams of protein for men, 55 grams for women
and 33 grams for children.
Represent the above information using matrices. Using matrix multiplication, calculate the total
requirement of calories and proteins for each of the 2 families. What awareness can you create
among people about the balanced diet from this question?
Q28. To promote the making of toilets for women, an organization tried to generate awareness
through (i) house calls (ii) letters, and (iii) announcements. The cost for each mode per attempt
is given as :
(i) `50 (ii) `20 (iii) `40

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The number of attempts made in three villages X, Y and Z are given below :
(i) (ii) (iii)
X 400 300 100
Y 300 250 75
Z 500 400 150
Find the total cost incurred by the organization for the three villages separately, using matrices.
Write one value generated by the organization in the society.
Q29. A trust caring for handicapped children gets `30000 every month from its donors. The trust
spends half of the funds received for medical and educational care of the children and for that it
charges 2% of the spent amount from them, and deposits the balance amount in a private bank
to get the money multiplied so that in future the trust goes on functioning regularly. What
percent of interest should the trust get from the bank to get a total of `1800 every month?
Use matrix method, to find the rate of interest. Do you think people should donate to such trusts?
Q30. To promote the making of toilets for ladies (women) in villages, an N. G. O. hired an
advertising agency for generating awareness for the cause through house calls, letters and
announcements through speakers. The cost per mode of communication is given below :
Cost per visit/communication House calls Letters Announcements (speakers)
(in `) 10 5 15
The number of contacts made were as follows in the three villages X, Y and Z :
Village House visited Letters dropped No. of announcements
X 200 400 200
Y 350 600 300
Z 225 375 150
Find the total expenditure incurred by the N. G. O. for the three villages separately for making
the community aware of the cause using matrices.
Also write the value generated in the general public by the agency.
Q31. Three schools A, B and C want to award their selected students for the values of Honesty,
Regularity and Hard work. Each school decided to award a sum of ` 2500, ` 3100 and ` 5100
per student for the respective values. The number of students to be awarded by the three schools
is given below in the table :

School A B C
Values
Honesty 3 4 6
Regularity 4 5 2
Hard work 6 3 4
Find the total money given in awards by the three schools separately, using matrices.
Apart from the above given values, suggest one more value which should be considered for
giving the award.
2 3  4 6 
Q32. Let A    and B    . Then compute AB. Hence, solve the following system of
1 2  2 4 
equations : 2x  y  4, 3x  2y  1 .
8 4 3
 
Q33. (a) Using elementary transformations, find the inverse of the matrix A   2 1 1  and use it
1 2 2
 
to solve the following system of linear equations :
8x  4y  3z  19 , 2x  y  z  5 , x  2y  2z  7 .

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 3 3 4 
 
(b) Using elementary row operations, find the inverse of the A   2 3 4  and hence solve
 0 1 1 
 
the following system of equations : 3x  3y  4z  21, 2x  3y  4z  20,  y  z  5 .
Q34. The monthly incomes of Aryan and Babban are in the ratio 3 : 4 and their monthly expenditures
are in the ratio 5 : 7. If each saves `15,000 per month, find their monthly incomes using matrix
method. This problem reflects which value?
Q35. A coaching institute of English (subject) conducts classes in two batches I and II and fees for
rich and poor children are different. In batch I, it has 20 poor and 5 rich children and total
monthly collection is ` 9000, whereas in batch II, it has 5 poor and 25 rich children and total
monthly collection is ` 26,000. Using matrix method, find monthly fees paid by each child of
two types. What values the coaching institute is inculcating in the society?
Q36. Ishan wants to donate a rectangular plot of land for a school in his village. When he was asked
to give dimensions of the plot, he told that if its length is decreased by 50 m and breadth is
increased by 50 m, then its area will remain same, but if length is decreased by 10 m and breadth
is decreased by 20 m, then its area will decrease by 5300 m2. Using matrices, find the
dimensions of the plot. Also give reason why he wants to donate the plot for a school.
Q37. A typist charges ` 145 for typing 10 English and 3 Hindi pages, while charges for typing 3
English and 10 Hindi pages are ` 180. Using matrices, find the charges of typing one English
and one Hindi page separately. However typist charged only ` 2 per page from a poor student
Shyam for 5 Hindi pages. How much less was charged from this poor boy? Which values are
reflected in this problem?
Q38. A trust invested some money in two type of bonds. First bond pays 10% interest and second
bond pays 12% interest. The trust received ` 2800 as interest.
However, if trust had interchanged money in bonds, they would have got ` 100 less as interest.
Using matrix method, find the amount invested by the trust. Interest received on this amount
will be given to Helpage India as donation. Which value is reflected in this question?

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## TEST For SELF EVALUATION - 01 

Time Allowed : 60 Minutes Max. Marks : 40
(3i  j)2
Q01. Construct an order 2 matrix A  [a ij ] where a ij  .
2
a 
b 
c 
Q02. Evaluate:  a b      a b c d    . [1 2
d  c 
 
d 
x 1 x  2 x  a
Q03. If a, b, c are in arithmetic progression, prove that x  2 x  4 x  b  0 .
x 3 x 6 x c
3x  8 3 3
OR Solve: 3 3x  8 3 0.
3 3 3x  8
x x 2 1  px 3
Q04. Prove that: y y 2 1  py3  (1  pxyz)(x  y)(y  z)(z  x) .
z z 2 1  pz 3
 4 2 1
Q05. Express the matrix A   3 5 7  as the sum of symmetric and a skew-symmetric matrix.
 1 2 1 
3 1
Q06. Find the value of p and q such that A 2  pI  qA where A   .
 7 5 
 1 2   3 2 
Q07. Determine a matrix X such that 2A  B  X  0 , where A    and B    . [4  5
 3 4   1 5 
 2 1 1
Q08. Find the value of x, x  Z such that  x 4 1  1 0 0   x 4 1  O .
 2 2 4 
1  2n 4n  3 4 
OR Using induction, prove that A n    , n  N if A   .
 n 1  2n  1 1
0 1 1
–1   A 2  3I
Q09. Find A , if A   1 0 1  . Also show that A 1  .
1 1 0 2
 
bc b 2  bc c 2  bc
Q10. Using properties of determinants, prove that: a 2  ac ac c 2  ac  (ab  bc  ca)3 .
a 2  ab b 2  ab ab
2 3 10 4 6 5 6 9 20
OR Solve:    4,    1,     2. [6  3
a b c a b c a b c

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 2 1/2 
Q01.  25/2 8  Q02.  ac  bd  a 2  b 2  c 2  d 2 
 
 4 5/2 0   0 1/2 1 
2 11 5/2 5 5/2   1/2
Q03. , Q05.    0 9/2 
3 3
 0 5/2 1   1 9/2 0 
 1 2 
Q06. pq8 Q07. X 
 7 13 
 1 1 0 
1 
Q08. x  4 Q09.  1 1 1  Q10. a  2, b  3, c  5 .
2 
 0 1 1

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MATHEMATICIA’s
Exercises Young man, in mathematics you don't understand things.
For Practice You just get used to them.
CHAPTER 01
BASED ON ALGEBRA Of MATRICES
8 7 
Q01. (a)   Q01. (b) 18  Q02. (a) 10 Q02. (b) 1/2 Q02. (c) 1/2 Q02. (d) e 2x sin 2x
 6 2
Q03. (a) 26 Q03. (b) 29 Q03. (c) 81 Q04. 3 Q05. 112, 2  6,3  4, 4  3, 6  2,12 1
 1 0 
Q06. a  2, b  3 Q07. (a) 5  2 Q07. (b) 3  4 Q08.  
 0 1
1 
3 1
 0 1/3 1/2
1/3  
0 1/5 0 2 0 5 8 
Q09. (a)  Q09. (b) Q09. (c)   Q10. (a) x  5, 3
1/2 1/5 0   3 0 0 7 
   
3/5 1/3 1/7  1 1
 3 3 
Q10. (b) x  2, y  1 Q10. (c) 2 Q10. (d) 1 Q10. (e) 4 3
 2 13 
1  7 12  1  6 6   2/5 12/5 5 5
Q11. (a) A    ,B   Q11. (b) X    ,Y   
5  7 5  5  6 0   11/5 3  14 2
 5 
 10 
 2  3 
 
 14  
Q12. diag 11 9 2  Q13. X  4 Q14.   2n, n  Z Q15.   2n  , n  Z
 3  3
 
  31  7 
 3 3 
Q17. I Q18. 0 Q19. (a) I Q19. (b) A Q21. (a) a = 1, b = 2
 8 3 5  1 2 8  2 3 
Q21. (b)   Q21. (c) 0 Q21. (d)   Q21. (e)  
 2 3 6 1 2 3  2 10
Q22. (a) x  2, y  9 Q22. (b) x  4, 3; y  3, 4 Q22. (c) x  2,3; y  3 Q22. (d) x  1, 2; y  3  3 2
Q22. (e) x  1, y  2, z  3, a  4 Q22. (f) x  1, y  2
Q22. (g) a  2, b  7, c  1, x  3, y  5, z  2 Q22. (h) x  1, y  4
Q22. (i) w  3, x  2, y  4, z  1 Q22. (j) x  0 Q23. 1/5
1 1 1
Q24. x   ,y   ,z   Q25. 1 1 Q30. Skew-symmetric
2 6 3
 3 6
Q31. (a) p  0, q  3 Q31. (b) a  2/3, b  3/2 Q31. (c)  
6 9
Q32. Z1 does not exist. Q33. I Q34. O Q35. (a) 10 Q35. (b) k  4, a  3 Q35. (c) 11

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 4 6   1 2  2 4   2 0 1 0 0 0
Q36.     Q37.   Q38. A    , B  0 1 
 3 3   0 3  1 1   3 2 0 0  

## (SHORT & LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS)

9  1  10 
 1 2  1 2 5  2 3/2  0 5/2 
Q02. (b) 12  , 8  ,  20  Q03.   Q04. 3 4 0  Q06.  
2 0    3/2 5  5/2 0 
30   2   28 
0 0 0  0 a b  3 3 5 2  0 1 1 2 
  
Q07.  0 0 0  ,  a 0 c   
Q09. (a)  3 5 7 2  1   0 1 2
  
 0 0 0    b c 0  5 2 7 2 5   1 2 1 2 0 
 3 5 0  0 1 0   2 11/2 5/2   0 3/2 7/2 
 
Q09. (b)  5 5 1 2    1  0 15 2  Q09. (c) 11/2 3 3/2    3/2 0 7/2 
    
 0 1 2 1   0 15 2 0   5/2 3/2 4   7/2 7/2 0 
 1 1 3 
1
Q10. 12 I Q11.  1 1 10 Q13. (a) k  1 Q13. (b) k 
19
 5 4 4 
 2/5 1/5 0 
118 93   10 27 
Q14. (a)   Q14. (b)   Q15. 6 I Q17. (a)  1/10 3/10 0 
 31 118  9 10   0 0 1/5
 3 1 1   3 2 2   3 4 5 
1  1  1
Q17. (b)  1 3 1  Q17. (c)  2 3 2  Q18. 9 1 4 
4 5 11  
 1 1 3   2 2 3   5  3  1 
    
1 2 3  1 2 1 1  5 1
Q19. (a)   Q19. (b)   Q20. (a) x  y  8 ; A 1  
7  1 5 3 1 2 8  7 3 
1 2 
 1 2  5 5 
Q20. (b) 4, 3 Q21. a  4, b  1 ; A 1    Q27. (a)  
 1 3  2 
1
 5 5 
 7 10  1 3 1
Q27. (b)   Q27. (c) Q27. (d) Inverse does not exist
 2 3  5  2 1
1/2 1/2 1/2   2 0 1  2 0 3 
1
Q27. (e)  4 3 1  Q27. (f) 9 2 3  Q27. (g) 1 1 0 
    5 
5/2 3/2 1/2   6 1 2   2 1 2 

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Chapter 01
SOLUTIONS Of EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE
 Based On Algebra Of Matrices
2 4  2 5   2 4   2 5   8 7 
Q01. (a) We have A    and B     (3A  B)  3    .
3 2  3 4  3 2  3 4  6 2 
6  6
 
(b) Given A  1 3 2 and B  2  AB  1 3 213  2   1 6  3  2  2  3  1811
   
 3   3  31
2  9i  j 2 9  2  3
Q02. (a) A    a ij  & a ij   a 23    a 23     10
33 3 3
i 1
(b) Elements of A   a ij  are given by a ij   a12  .
2 2 j 2
| i  j| | 23| 1
(c) We have a ij   a 23   .
2 2 2
2ix 2x
(d) Since a ij  e sin jx so, a12  e sin 2x .
a a12 a13 
Q03. (a) Let A be the matrix of order 2  3  A   a ij  23   11 
 a 21 a 22 a 23 
Since there are 2 choices  0 or 1 to fill each places aij and repetition is allowed as well.
 Total no. of matrices  26  64 .
 a11 a12 a13 
(b) Let A be the matrix of order 3  3  A   a ij    a 21 a 22 a 23 
33  
 a 31 a 32 a 33 
Since we have 2 entries  0 and 1 to fill 9 places of aij and repetitions is allowed as well.
 Total no. of all possible matrices = 29 = 512.
(c) No. of all possible matrices of order 2  2 with each entry 1, 2 or 3 is 34 or 81.
3 0 0
Q04. A  0 x 0   Matrix A is a scalar matrix  x 3
 
0 0 3 
Q05. Possible orders : 112, 2  6, 3  4, 4  3, 6  2, 12 1
Q06. No. of rows in matrix X  a  b , No. of columns in Matrix X  a  2
No. of rows in matrix Y  b  1 , No. of columns in matrix Y  a  3
Given that XY & YX both exist.
If XY exists, a  2  b  1  a  b  1 …(i)
If YX exists, a  b  a  3  b  3
By (i), a  1  3  2  a  2 and b  3 .
Q07. (a) Order of A  2  3 , Order of B  3  5
T
 Order of AB  2  5 . So, order of  AB   5  2 .
(b) Order of A  3  4 , so order of A T  4  3 . Let the order of B  x  y .
If A T B is defined, then x  3 .
And if BA T is defined, then y  4  Order of B  3  4 .

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 i 0  i 0  i 0  i 2 0   1 0 
Q08. A 
2
 A  A.A      2
   I [ i 2  1
0 i  0 i  0 i   0 i   0 1
 a 11 a12 a13 
a a 22 a 23 
Q09. a) Let A be the matrix of order 4  3 , so A   a ij    21 .
43  a 31 a 32 a 33 
 
 a 41 a 42 a 43 
i j
Given that a ij 
i j

 a11 
11
 0 , a12 
1  2 1
 , a13 
1  3 1
 , To view the
11 1 2 3 1 3 2
2 1 1 22 2  3 1 remaining portion of
a 21   , a 22   0 , a 23   ,
2 1 3 23 23 5 this chapter and
3 1 1 3 2 1 33
a 31   , a 32 
3 1 2 32 5
 , a 33 
33
0, other chapters,
a 41 
4 1 3
 , a 42 
42 1
 , a 43 
43 1
4 1 5 42 3 43 7
 0 1/3 1/2 
Study Packages here
A 
1/3
 0 1/5  http://theopgupta.c
 
3/5 1/3 1/7 
| i  2j|
b) Let B be the matrix of order 3  2. Given that [bij ]  .
3
 b11 b12 
Assume that, B   bij    b 21 b 22 
3 2  
 b31 b32 
1  2 1 1 1 2 2 2  2 1 2  2 2 2
 b11   , b12   1 , b21   0 , b22  
3 3 3 3 3 3
1/3 1 
3  2 1 1 3 2 2 1
b31   , b32    B   bij32   0 2/3
3 3 3 3  
1/3 1/3 
 a11 a12 a13 
c) Let A be the matrix of order 2  3 .  A   a ij  23  
 a 21 a 22 a 23 
 a11  1  1  0 , a12  1  3  2   5 , a13  1  3  3  8
a 21  2  2 1  0 , a 22  2  2  0 , a 23  2  3  3  7
0 5 8
 A  a ij  
23
0 0 7
 1 0  x  x 
Q10. (a)  x 112    O   (x  2)  3    O   x 2  2x  15  O
 2 3 22  5  5
  x 2  2x  15   0  x 2  2x  15  0  x 2  5x  3x  15  0
  x  3 x  5   0  x  3 & x  5

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 3  3 7x  y   3 15  3 7x  y 
(b)   1 5     
 2  2y 10   2 10   2y 10 
By equality of matrices, 2y  2  y  1 , 7x  y  15  7x  14  x  2  x  2 & y  1 .
 1 0
(c) Given [x 1]  O  [x  2 0]  [0 0]
 2 0 
By equality of matrices, x – 2 = 0 x  2 .
(d) Do yourself. Value of x : –1. (e) Do yourself. Value of x : 4 3 .
 4 6   1 0 
Q11. (a) Given 2A  B    ...  i  , A  2B    ...  ii 
 4 2   1 1
 8 10   1 0   7 12 
By 2(i) + (ii), 2  2A  B   A  2B        5A   
 8 4   1 1   7 5 
 7/5 12/5
A .
 7/5 1 
 4 6   2 0   6 6 
Also by (i) – 2 (ii),  2A  B  2  A  2B      5B   
 4 2   2 2   6 0 
 6/5 6/5
B
 6/5 0 
 2 3  2 2 
(b) Given 2X  3Y    ...(i) , 3X  2Y    ...(ii)
 4 0  1 5 
 4 6   6 6   2 12 
By 2  i   3  ii  , 4X  6Y  9X  6Y      5X   
8 0   3 15   11 15
 2 12 
 5 5
X
 11 3 
 5 
 6 9   4 4   2 13 
Also by 3  i   2  ii  , 6X  9Y  6X  4Y      5Y   
12 0   2 10  14 10 
2 13 
Y  5 5
14 2 
 5 
1 0 0 2 0 0
Q12. A  diag 1 1 2   0 1 0 and, B  diag  2 3 1   0
  3 0
   
 0 0 2   0 0 1
 3 0 0  8 0 0 11 0 0 
 3A  4B   0 3 0    0 12 0  3A  4B   0 9 0 
     
 0 0 6   0 0 4   0 0 2 
Therefore, 3A  4B  diag 11 9 2
8 0   2 2 
Q13. A  4 2 , B   4 2  and 2A  3X  5B
 
   
 3 6   5 1 

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 2 10 
16 0   10 10   6 10  3
 8 4  3X   20 10 
   
 3X  12 14 So, X   4 14 
       3 
 6 12   25 5   31 7   31 7 
 3 3 
 cos sin 1 0 
Q14. According to question, A    
 sin cos   0 1 
Now by equality of matrices, cos  1, sin  0  cos   cos 0 ,sin   sin 0
  2n, n  Z and,   n, n  Z So,   2n, n  Z
 cos sin
Q15. A    Given that A  A T  I 2
 sin cos 
 cos sin  cos sin  1 0   2cos  0  1 0
       
 sin cos   sin cos 0 1   0 2cos  0 1 
By equality of matrices, 2cos  1  cos  1/2
 
 cos  cos     2n  , n  Z
3 3
 sinx cosx   sinx cosx 
Q16. A     A   
 cosx sinx   cosx sinx 
 sinx cosx   sinx cosx 
LHS : AA    
 cosx sinx   cosx sinx 
 sin 2 x  cos 2 x sin x cos x  sin x cos x  1 0
      I  RHS
sin x cos x  sin x cos x sin 2 x  cos2 x  0 1
 cos sin   sin cos
Q17. cos    sin  cos sin 
 sin cos  
 cos2  cos sin  sin 2  sin cos
 2  
 cos sin cos   sin cos sin 2 
 cos 2  sin 2 cos sin  cos sin 1 0 
 2 2   I
  cos  sin  cos  sin  cos   sin    0 1 
  
Q18. A  and, A 2  I
  
       1 0   2       1 0
 A 2  A.A   .    2 
 
      0 1          0 1 