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Spring 2008

6-2 & 3 Properties of the Normal Distribution

of different normal distributions. For the standard

score, the mean is zero, and one standard devia-

tion is 1, two standard deviations is 2, etc.

distribution curve from the mean (zero) to any z-value (in

this case, z=.61. In other words, a z-value (which repre-

sents a standardized standard deviation of .61, reflects an

area of .2293 under the normal distribution curve. This

also represents a probability of .2293. Note also that a

positive z-score reflects areas on the right of zero and a

negative z-score reflects areas on the left of zero. The total

area to the right of zero is .5000, and to the left is .5000.

Homework: p.298-300, odd no. 1-25, 35, 41, 43, 45, 47 (due, Fri. March 20)

Chapter 6 - The Normal Distribution Student Handout - MAT 103 - Page

6-4 Applications of the Normal Distribution

Finding the percentage/probabilities for a normally distributed variable:

1. Identify the parameters from the problem for computing the z-score

3. Draw the normal distribution and the area represented by the value, X

1. Compute the z-score and find the associated area from Table E

2. Compute the area for the value

3. This area then represents a percentage of the total. Multiply by the total sample.

1. Find the area (percentage) desired from the problem

2. Find the z value that corresponds to the area

3. Compute, X, from the z value found: X = z • σ + µ

3( X − median) X = sample mean

s s = sample standard deviation

a. Divide the data into four even groups (see Chapter 3, page 148 in your text). Label the median of the lower half, Q1

and the median of the upper half, Q3. Find the Interquartile Range: Q3 - Q1. Multiply by IQR by 1.5. Subtract this value from

Q1 to see if any data values are less than this. Add 1.5 (IQR) to Q3 to see if any data values are greater than this. Any data

values lying outside these calculations are outliers and could effect the normality.

Due: Monday, March 24

Chapter 6 - The Normal Distribution Student Handout - MAT 103 - Page

When we take a sample from data that is normally distributed, we can use the same procedure for calculating probabilities as in the

last section (6-4), with an adjustment to the standard deviation, called the standard deviation of the sample mean. Note the following

two example problems as a comparison of the difference.

Meat Consumption The average number of pounds of meat that a person consumes a year is 218.4 pounds. Assume that the

standard deviation is 25 pounds and the distribution is approximately normal.

a. Find the probability that a person selected at random consumes less than 224 pounds per year.

b. If a sample of 40 individuals is selected, find the probability that the mean of the sample will be less than 224 pounds per

year.

a. In this part, the procedure is the same as in section 6-4. Find the z-value for a mean of 218.4 and a standard

deviation of 25 pounds and a value of 224.

b. In part b, note the distinctively different language for a Central Limit Theoarem type of problem. First the

problem considers a sample of 40 individuals is selected. In part a, the problem asked for an individual person in the

sample. Then notice that part b is asking to find the probability that the mean of the sample will be less than 224 pounds

per year.

The calculation procedure is similar but now in this case we need to make a correction to the standard deviation,

called the standard error of the mean, σx. It is found by dividing the standard deviation, σ, given in the main body of the

problem, by the number of the sample in part b, n.

The z-value calculation must be adjusted for the standard error of the mean: σx = σ/√n

And finally, note the difference in the shape of the normal distribution curve. This difference is because of the

smaller standard deviation of the sample means.

standard deviation by the sample size, not the entire original z-

score equation.

Not X −µ But X −µ

σ

this this

n σ/ n

Homework Assignment: (Due Friday, March 27) Exercises, page 325-326, Do odd# 1-19

Chapter 6 - The Normal Distribution Student Handout - MAT 103 - Page

6-6 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution

Review the characteristics of a binomial distribution. Remember these are true/false conditions (see 5-4, pages 262-8)

a. A fixed number of trials

b. Outcome of each trial must be independent

c. Each experiment can have only two outcomes or outcomes that can be reduced to two outcomes

d. The probability of success must remain the same for each trial

The mean in binomial distributions is calculated as: µ = n • p (where n is the number of trials and p the success rate)

The normal approximation can be used for binomial distributions when the following conditions are met:

n • p > 5 and n • q > 5

In addition, a correction factor must be introduced when a continuous distribution is used to approximate a discrete distribution.

The correction factor is employed according to the following table:

exactly 25 ...” use #1.

• If the problem says, “find the probability that

X or more ... or at least ...” use #2.

• If the problem says, “find the probability that

more than, ...” use #3.

• If the problem says, “find the probability that

X or less than ... or ... at the most ...” use #4.

• If the problem says, “find the probability that

less than ... “, use #5.

Note how binomial distribution problems are presented when you are to use the normal distribution approximation:

A magazine reported that 6% of American drivers read the newspaper while driving. If 300 drivers are selected

at random, find the probability that exactly 25 say they read the newspaper while driving.

In contrast to other normal distribution problems, no mean or standard deviation values are given. In this

problem, those values must be calculated from the equations above.

n = 25

p = .06

Since the problem is asking for exactly 25, then the continuity correction factor #1 is used

P(X = a) is corrected to: P( 24.5 < X < 25.5)

in section 6-5.

Use the Review Exercises on p. 335-336 and the Chapter Quiz on p. 337-338 to review for the Chapter 6 quiz on Thursday, April 3

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