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MAT 103 Statistics

Instructor: Joel MacDonald


Spring 2008
6-2 & 3 Properties of the Normal Distribution

The standard score or z-score allows comparison


of different normal distributions. For the standard
score, the mean is zero, and one standard devia-
tion is 1, two standard deviations is 2, etc.

This value (.2293) represents the area under the normal


distribution curve from the mean (zero) to any z-value (in
this case, z=.61. In other words, a z-value (which repre-
sents a standardized standard deviation of .61, reflects an
area of .2293 under the normal distribution curve. This
also represents a probability of .2293. Note also that a
positive z-score reflects areas on the right of zero and a
negative z-score reflects areas on the left of zero. The total
area to the right of zero is .5000, and to the left is .5000.

Homework: p.298-300, odd no. 1-25, 35, 41, 43, 45, 47 (due, Fri. March 20)
Chapter 6 - The Normal Distribution Student Handout - MAT 103 - Page 
6-4 Applications of the Normal Distribution
Finding the percentage/probabilities for a normally distributed variable:
1. Identify the parameters from the problem for computing the z-score

2. Compute the z-score

3. Draw the normal distribution and the area represented by the value, X

4. Find the area from Table E

5. Compute the area as needed

Finding “How many?” when computing the z-score


1. Compute the z-score and find the associated area from Table E
2. Compute the area for the value
3. This area then represents a percentage of the total. Multiply by the total sample.

Finding data values given specific probabilities


1. Find the area (percentage) desired from the problem
2. Find the z value that corresponds to the area
3. Compute, X, from the z value found: X = z • σ + µ

Determining Normality (Is the data normally distributed?)

Pearson’s index (PI) of skewness PI =


3( X − median) X = sample mean
s s = sample standard deviation

If -1 < PI < +1 , then normally distributed

If PI < -1 or PI > + 1, then skewed

Check for outliers:


a. Divide the data into four even groups (see Chapter 3, page 148 in your text). Label the median of the lower half, Q1
and the median of the upper half, Q3. Find the Interquartile Range: Q3 - Q1. Multiply by IQR by 1.5. Subtract this value from
Q1 to see if any data values are less than this. Add 1.5 (IQR) to Q3 to see if any data values are greater than this. Any data
values lying outside these calculations are outliers and could effect the normality.

Homework: p. 312-315, do odd# 1-15


Due: Monday, March 24
Chapter 6 - The Normal Distribution Student Handout - MAT 103 - Page 

6-5 The Central Limit Theorem


When we take a sample from data that is normally distributed, we can use the same procedure for calculating probabilities as in the
last section (6-4), with an adjustment to the standard deviation, called the standard deviation of the sample mean. Note the following
two example problems as a comparison of the difference.

Example 6-23 (page 323)


Meat Consumption The average number of pounds of meat that a person consumes a year is 218.4 pounds. Assume that the
standard deviation is 25 pounds and the distribution is approximately normal.
a. Find the probability that a person selected at random consumes less than 224 pounds per year.
b. If a sample of 40 individuals is selected, find the probability that the mean of the sample will be less than 224 pounds per
year.
a. In this part, the procedure is the same as in section 6-4. Find the z-value for a mean of 218.4 and a standard
deviation of 25 pounds and a value of 224.

b. In part b, note the distinctively different language for a Central Limit Theoarem type of problem. First the
problem considers a sample of 40 individuals is selected. In part a, the problem asked for an individual person in the
sample. Then notice that part b is asking to find the probability that the mean of the sample will be less than 224 pounds
per year.
The calculation procedure is similar but now in this case we need to make a correction to the standard deviation,
called the standard error of the mean, σx. It is found by dividing the standard deviation, σ, given in the main body of the
problem, by the number of the sample in part b, n.
The z-value calculation must be adjusted for the standard error of the mean: σx = σ/√n

And finally, note the difference in the shape of the normal distribution curve. This difference is because of the
smaller standard deviation of the sample means.

In performing this calculation make sure you divide only the


standard deviation by the sample size, not the entire original z-
score equation.

Not X −µ But X −µ
σ
this this
n σ/ n

Homework Assignment: (Due Friday, March 27) Exercises, page 325-326, Do odd# 1-19
Chapter 6 - The Normal Distribution Student Handout - MAT 103 - Page 
6-6 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution

Review the characteristics of a binomial distribution. Remember these are true/false conditions (see 5-4, pages 262-8)
a. A fixed number of trials
b. Outcome of each trial must be independent
c. Each experiment can have only two outcomes or outcomes that can be reduced to two outcomes
d. The probability of success must remain the same for each trial

The mean in binomial distributions is calculated as: µ = n • p (where n is the number of trials and p the success rate)

The standard deviation is (where q is the failure rate)

The normal approximation can be used for binomial distributions when the following conditions are met:
n • p > 5 and n • q > 5

In addition, a correction factor must be introduced when a continuous distribution is used to approximate a discrete distribution.
The correction factor is employed according to the following table:

• If the problem says, “find the probability that


exactly 25 ...” use #1.
• If the problem says, “find the probability that
X or more ... or at least ...” use #2.
• If the problem says, “find the probability that
more than, ...” use #3.
• If the problem says, “find the probability that
X or less than ... or ... at the most ...” use #4.
• If the problem says, “find the probability that
less than ... “, use #5.

Note how binomial distribution problems are presented when you are to use the normal distribution approximation:

A magazine reported that 6% of American drivers read the newspaper while driving. If 300 drivers are selected
at random, find the probability that exactly 25 say they read the newspaper while driving.

In contrast to other normal distribution problems, no mean or standard deviation values are given. In this
problem, those values must be calculated from the equations above.
n = 25
p = .06
Since the problem is asking for exactly 25, then the continuity correction factor #1 is used
P(X = a) is corrected to: P( 24.5 < X < 25.5)

The z value and area calculations are performed as


in section 6-5.

Homework Assignment: (Due Monday, Mar 31 ) Exercises, page 333-4, no. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9

Use the Review Exercises on p. 335-336 and the Chapter Quiz on p. 337-338 to review for the Chapter 6 quiz on Thursday, April 3