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Chemical Energy

Ex 5.1

Remember

1. Exothermic increases the temperature by releasing energy to the surroundings. Endothermic


lower the temperature by absorbing energy from the surroundings.
2. A. Exothermic
B. Endothermic
3. The second one, gas to liquid.

Think

1. A. The process of releasing energy is exothermic.


B. Water + Calcium Chloride  Energy + Calcium Chloride Solution
C. There is no chemical reaction, the calcium chloride powder simply dissolves into water,
there is no chemical change.
2. Endothermic as it lowers the temperatures
3. A. Exothermic
B. Exothermic
C. Endothermic
D. Endothermic

From lower energy to higher energy, it is endothermic. If you freeze water, water has higher energy
compared to ice because it is liquid. So, you take the energy out, which goes into the surroundings.

Combustion produces heat and light, which is exothermic. If you produce heat that is exothermic.

Endothermic or exothermic is a physical change, the other is a chemical reaction. Physical change is
no new substance is produced. Chemical change is where a new substance is produced. Physical
change is change of state or dissolving. Chemical change is like photosynthesis or respiration.

If you remove energy, then it is exothermic. If you add energy then it is endothermic.

Add energy, Endothermic

Solid  Liquid  Gas

Remove energy, exothermic

Gas  Liquid  Solid


Ex 5.2

Remember

1. A. Kinetic
B. Heat
C. Gravitational Potential
2. A. Battery
B. Fireworks

Think

1. Petrol can cause unwanted heat or light energy. Coal can cause unwanted light and sound
energy.
2.

Chemical Reaction Chemical Energy is transformed to:


Sparklers are lit on a birthday cake Light, Heat, Sound
Kerosene is burnt in an engine Kinetic, Heat
Petrol is burnt in an engine Kinetic, Heat
Dynamite is exploded in a rock Kinetic, Sound
A battery is connected to a Walkman Sound, Heat
Wood is burnt Heat, Light
3. A. stored energy  light and heat energy
B. light energy  kinetic and heat energy
C. stored energy  light and heat energy
D. gravitational potential energy  kinetic energy
E. elastic potential energy  kinetic energy

Ex 5.3

Remember

1. Airbags inflate after an explosion. A device detects the car has slowed down rapidly, a
chemical reaction inside the bag occurs, filling it with nitrogen gas.
2. Sodium azide  sodium + nitrogen gas
3. He invented dynamite as well as inventing the Nobel prize.
4. The reaction which occurs releases large amounts of energy and gas, exerting great
pressure. In fact, they can cause enough energy to cause a small earthquake.
5. Hydrogen + oxygen  water

Think

1. He didn’t think that dynamite would have such terrible effects and was plagued by his
invention, thus deciding to create something for the good of the world.
2. It is obvious that energy would be let out, as every reaction releases energy
3. This is so that the sodium can’t react with anything else and create another reaction, which
could off put the effects of the nitrogen gas.
Ex 5.4

Remember

1. To become an ion, it can either gain or lose an electron. By gaining an electron it is called a
cation and if it loses an electron it is an anion.
2. A negatively charged ion, or an anion.
3. A positively charged ion, or a cation.
4. An electric current causing a chemical reaction to occur is called electrolysis.

Think

1.

Atom Gains or Losses and Electron Positive or Negative ion


Fluorine +1 N
Zinc -2 P
Oxygen +2 N
Sodium -1 P
Silver -1 P
Chlorine +1 N
2. Salt water and swimming pools contain many dissolved ions or positive sodium chloride ions
and negative chloride ions, thus being an excellent conductor of electricity. During a storm,
especially a lightning strike, the electrical energy of the strike could be transferred to the
pool and the swimmer.

Experiment 5.1

Aim: Find out the difference between several experiments and determine whether they are
exothermic or endothermic.

Hypothesis: I believe that part 1 will be exothermic, part 2 will be endothermic and part 3 will be
exothermic.

Materials:

 Safety Glasses
 Bench Mat
 4 Large Test tubes
 10ml Measuring Cylinder
 Balance
 Thermometer (-10°C to 110°C)
 Stirring Rod
 Magnesium Ribbon
 Sandpaper
 0.5M hydrochloric acid
 Lithium Chloride
 Potassium Chloride
Method:

1. Prepare the reactants if necessary.


2. Place the reactants into the solution.
3. Observe the temperature changes that occur such as temperature change, gas formation,
colour changes, bubbling etc.

Questions

1. Magnesium + hydrochloric acid  heat + magnesium and hydrochloric acid solution (+)
Lithium chloride + water  heat + lithium chloride solution (+)
Potassium chloride + water  potassium chloride solution + energy (-)
2.

Process Initial Final Change in Exothermic or


Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C) Endothermic
Process
Magnesium + 28 32 4 Exothermic
Hydrochloric Acid
Lithium Chloride 27 32 5 Exothermic
+ Water
Potassium 27 24 3 Endothermic
Chloride + Water

3. You can tell if a process is a chemical reaction if you see bubbles, heat change, colour change
etc. A physical change is like salt dissolving in water, it is a change of state but nothing
occurred on a molecular scale.

Ex 5.6

Remember

Experiment 5.2

Aim: Testing for electrical conductivity of different solutions

Materials:

 Power supply or cell


 Torch globe or milliammeter
 3 wires with alligator clips
 2 carbon electrodes
 100ml beaker
 Distilled water, tap water
 Salt, sugar
 Paper towel
 Spatula or teaspoon
Method:

1. Place 80ml distilled water in beaker and connect the equipment


2. Observe the reading on the milliammeter
3. Repeat
4. Add two tablespoons of salty to the water and record the reading
5. Replace the salty water and repeat
6. Add two tablespoons of sugar to the water and record the reading
7. Replace the sugary water and repeat

Solution Conductivity (mA)


Distilled Water 350
Water 300
Salt Water 560
Sugar Water 450

Movement of cations  Movement of Anions 

Zn (s)  Zn2 + (aq) + 2e- Cu2 + (aq) + 2e-  Cu (s)


Oxidation Reduction
Anode Cathode
(-) (+)

An electric cell experiment ex 5.5

Aim: To make an electric cell and observe how it works.


Equipment:

 Safety glasses
 Copper strip
 Zinc strip
 Strip of filter paper
 0.5 potassium chloride
 1M coper sulfate solution
 1M zinc nitrate solution
 2 connecting leads with alligator clips
 Galvanometer or ammeter
 100ml beaker

Method:

1. Pour 50ml copper sulfate into one beaker and 50ml zinc nitrate into the other.
2. Soak the filter paper into potassium chloride.
3. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.
4. Record the reading on the galvanometer.

Results: The ammeter read 4mA, and it moved slightly. This shows that the circuit is completed and
works.

Questions:

1. There was evidence because it generated electricity, which is a sign of a chemical reaction.
Energy output is a sign of a change.
2. Yes, as we saw an electric circuit happening and that the ammeter had a reading.
3. A. The circuit would slow down and eventually the ammeter won’t be able to pick up a
reading. This is because the chemical reaction has ended.
B. The circuit wouldn’t be connected and there wouldn’t be any reading. The ammeter
would read 0.

Conclusion: There was a chemical reaction that occurred and electricity was generated because of
this. What we formed was an electric cell.