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Geotechnical Engineering & Soil Testing

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Geotechnical
Engineering
and Soil
Testing
Geotechn ica I
Engineering
and Soil
Testing
AMIR WADI AL-KHAFAJI ORLANDO B. ANDERSLAND
Bradley University Michigan State University

New York Oxford


OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

Oxford New York


Athens Auckland Bangkok Bombay
Calcutta Cape Town Dar es Salaam Delhi
Florence Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi
Kuala Lumpur Madras Madrid Melbourne
Mexico City Nairobi Paris Singapore
Taipei Tokyo Toronto

and associated companies in


Berlin Ibadan

Copyright © 1992 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

Published by Oxford University Press, Inc.


198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016

Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press.

CIP data available upon request

ISBN 0-19-510719-5

3 5 7 9 8 642

Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper


To my wife and to my mother -

Whose sincerity has taught me to appreciate honest critics


and to surmount the betrayal of false friends, and whose
lives have been and always will be emblems of total
dedication and unparalleled faith.

Amir Wadi Al-Khafaji


Preface

Geotechnical Engineering and Soil Testing is intended for use in the first of a two-
course sequence usually taught to third- and fourth-year civil engineering stu-
dents. The text introduces students to soil materials as they relate to geotechnical
engineering problems. Soil exploration with retrieval of samples permits evalua-
tion of the soil behavior by use of laboratory tests . With preparation of a general
picture of the underlying soil conditions at a site (soil profile) and a working
knowledge of how soil behaves as a material, civil engineering technology can be
applied to the design of foundations , slope stability problems, earth dams, and re-
taining structures. The design aspects are introduced in the final chapters and are
covered extensively in subsequent courses. Students are assumed to have a work-
ing knowledge of undergraduate mechanics (statics , mechanics of materials, and
fluids ). Some knowledge of basic geology is desirable.

APPROACH
An introduction to the nature and properties of soil materials builds on the knowl-
edge of mechanics and geology. The language of geotechnical engineering is pre-
sented in terms of the classification and engineering properties of soils. A working
knowledge of how soil behaves is acquired from a study of known behavior along
with laboratory work on properties important to geotechnical engineering prob-
lems. Innovative instructors can add supplementary design examples to the final

VII
VIII PREFACE

chapters should they so desire. The integration of introductOlY geotechnical topics


along with laboratory methods into one textbook attempts to meet a longtime
need in the field. The laboratory portion of a first course is an essential part of the
new engineer's experience with soils as a unique engineering material. An empha-
sis on laboratory and field testing is provided by the 29 experiments. The order of
laboratory experiments or fi eld tests closely follows the organization and develop-
ment of the text materi al.

ORGANIZATION
The early chapters introduce soil materials, soil exploration , and index properties
of soils. Laboratory topics parallel cl ass work with initial e mphasis on phase rela-
tions, classifications of soils, and simple classification tests. A practical discussion
of compaction is given in Chapter 4. Permeability and seepage selve as back-
ground on effective stress (Chapter 6), on volume change in soils (Chapter 7) , and
on shear strength (Chapter 8). Stresses within a soil mass are thoroughly reviewed
in Chapter 6. The stress deformation and strength characteristics of soils are dis-
cussed relative to practical engineering applications. Immediate and consolidation
settlement theories are introduced in Chapter 8. Closed form and numerical solu-
tions are thoroughly discussed. The finite difference and Eigen methods for solv-
ing time rate of settlement problems are presented. Both single and multilayer
tim e rate of settlement problems are covered. LaboratOlY work is directed to the
more common compression and strength tests . A discussion of eX'}Jerimental work
with example results is provided for each laboratOlY test. Design aspects , includ-
ing lateral earth pressure problems, bearing capacity, and slope stability are intro-
duced in Chapters 9, 10, and 11. Laboratory data sheets and a glossary of soil
terms are found at the end of the textbook.

LEARNING AIDS
The many fully worked example problems and laboratory experiments make the
book user friendly. In a form al course, this aspect of the book will free the instruc-
tor from the necessity of working examples during lectures. The instructor will
have more time to concentrate on basic principles and specific engineering appli-
cations. Problems are provided at the end of each chapter. Questions for furth er
study are included at the end of each experiment and may be used for indepen-
dent study topics , honors work, or to provide a challenge to the more advanced
students. The instructor's solution manual provides full documentation of the so-
lution to the problems found at th e end of each chapter. For convenience to the
reader, engineering properties for a wide variety of soils are included in the text .
Also, basic definitions of terms used in geotechnical engineering are included with
information on SI units and conversion factors. Examples are worked using SI or
U.S. customary units enabling the reader to gain inSights into the concepts irre-
spective of th e units being used. Most of the figures and the tables have both SI
PREFACE IX

and V.S. customary units. The data forms used in each of the 29 laboratory exper-
iments are included at the end of the textbook. Students should make copies of
these forms when conducting an eX'Periment. It is suggested that the forms be
copied and, if necessmy, enlarged by the instructor, then made available to stu-
dents. The basis and recommendations relative to several commercially available
geotechnical computer programs are provided.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors are grateful to the many colleagues and students who have con-
tributed Significantly and often indirectly to tlleir understanding of geotechnical
engineering. Contributions by many individuals are given credit by reference to
their published work and by quotations. The source of photographs is indicated in
each case. This book has been written on the proposition that good judgment
comes from experience and that experience comes from poor judgment. The
quality of this book has been and will continue to be judged by our students and
colleagues whose comments and suggestions have contributed greatly to the suc-
cessful completion of the final manuscript. We are indebted to Professor Ted Vin-
son of Oregon State V niversity who provided several examples and insights during
the development of this book. We are grateful to Professor Farzad Shah-
bodaghlou of Bradley V niversity and his wife Moji for their Significant help in fi-
nalizing the manuscript. Our sincere thanks to Julie Dell for her help in preparing
some of the figures. Our families and especially our wives Wilma AI-Khafaji and
Phyllis Andersland deserve our appreciation and respect for their tolerance and
dedication. We would not have been able to co mplete this project without their
support and encouragement.
The authors appreciate the efforts of the following reviewers who, by their
criticisms and helpful comments, have encouraged us in the preparation and final-
ization of the manuscript.
Joseph Maltin, Drexel University
Wayne A. Charlie, Colorado State University
Bernard D. Alkire, Michigan Technological University
George P. Korfiatis, Stevens Institute of Technology
Sukhmander Singh, San ta Clara University
Robert D. Krebs, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Our thanks to Laura Shur; Barbara GingelY, and Martha Brown of Saunders
College Publishing. They deserve special acknowledgment for th eir dedication
and hard work.

Amir Wadi AI-Khafaji


Orl ando B. Andersland
F ebruary 1992
Contents

PREFACE vii

1 SOIL MATERIALS 1
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Soil Composition 5
1.2 Soil Deposits 15
1.3 Soil Profile 22
1.4 Soil Engineering Problems 24

2 SOIL EXPLORATION 33
2.0 Introduction 33
2.1 Scope of Subsurface Exploration 34
2.2 Exploratory Investigation Using Geophysical Methods 38
2.3 Exploratory Subsurface Investigation Using Direct Methods 43
2.4 Detailed Subsurface Investigation 47
2.5 Presentation of Results and Reports 59

3 INDEX PROPERTIES OF SOILS 64


3.0 Introduction 64
3.1 Water in Soils 65
3.2 Grain Size and Shape 75
3.3 Soil Aggregate 77
3.4 Consistency and Sensitivity of Clays 86
3.5 Organic Soils 90
3.6 Soil Classification 93
3.7 Typical Values and Uses of Soil Parameters 106

4 $OIL COMPACTION 113


4.0 Introduction 113
4.1 Compaction Theory 113
4.2 Properties of Compacted Soils 116
4.3 Field Compaction and Ground Modification 119
4.4 In-Place Determination of Soil Density 128

x
CONTE NTS XI

S WATER FLOW THROUGH SOILS 132


5.0 Introduction 132
5.1 Darcy's Law 133
5.2 Pe rmeability Measurement-Laboratory 136
5.3 Pe rmeability Measurement-Field 139
5.4 Hydraulic Heads in Soil 145
5.5 Basic Equation for Fluid Flow in Soil 152
5.6 Analytical Methods for Solving Fluid Flow Proble ms 155
5.7 Flow Net for One-Dimensional Flow 160
5.8 Flow Net for Two-Dimensional Confined Flow 164
5.9 Flow in Anisotropic Soil 168
5.10 Unconfined Flow 170
5.11 Seepage Force and Critical Gradient 178

6 STRESSES WITHIN A SOIL MASS 187


6.0 Introduction 187
6.1 The Effective Stress Concept 188
6.2 Mohr Circle of Stress 198
6.3 The Pole Method of Stress Computation 201
6.4 Stress Due to a Point Load 204
6.5 Stress Due to an Infinite Line Load 208
6.6 Stress Due to an Infinite Strip Load 212
6.7 Stress Due to a Linearly Increasing Infinite Strip Load 213
6.8 Stress Distributions Due to an Asymmetrical Triangular Load 216
6.9 Stress Due to a Vertical Embankment Load 217
6.10 Stress Due to a Uniformly Loaded Circular Area 218
6.11 Stress Due to a Uniformly Loaded Rectangular Area 221
6.12 Stress Incre ment Approximation Using Newmark's Chart 226
6.13 Stress Due to any Loaded Area 231

7 VOLUME CHANGE IN SOILS 244


7.0 Introduction 244
7.1 Soi l Compressibility 245
7.2 Consolidation and Oedometer Test 247
7.3 Constant-Rate-of-Strain Consolidation 261
7.4 Settle ment Analysis 264
7.5 Numerical Solution of Time Rate of Settlement 281

8 SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOILS 306


8.0 Introduction 306
8.1 Soil Deformation Behavior and Strength 307
8.2 Measurement of Soil Stress-Strain Properties 311
8.3 Shear Strength of Soil Materials 333
XII CONTENTS

9 LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE 353


9.0 Introduction 353
9.1 Earth Pressure at Rest 353
9.2 Rankine's Earth Pressure Theory 356
9.3 Coulomb's Earth Pressure Theory 364
9.4 Culmann's Graphical Method of Solving Coulomb's Theory 376
9.5 Point of Application of Earth Pressure Force 382
9.6 Wall Move ment versus Tilt 382
9.7 Effects of Water on Earth Pressure 384
9.8 Soil Properties 386

10 BEARING CAPACITY 392


10.0 Introduction 392
10.1 Factor of Safety 393
10.2 Terzaghi's Bearing Capacity Theory for Shallow Foundations 395
10.3 Effect of Groundwater Table and Eccentricity 401
10.4 Ultimate Bearing Capacity on Two-Layer Cohesive Soil 402
10.5 Nominal Bearing Pressure 405
10.6 Allowance Settlement versus Allowable Bearing Pressure 405
10.7 Bearing Capacity of Deep Foundations 410

11 SLOPE STABILITY 424


11.0 Introduction 424
ILl Slope Types and Failure Theories 425
11.2 Causes of Instability 427
11.3 Stability of Infinite Slopes in Cohesionless Soils 428
11 .4 Stability of Infinite Slopes in Cohesive Soils 431
11.5 Stability of Homogeneous Slopes 433
11.6 Method of Slices for Nonhomogeneous Slopes 435
11.7 Wedge Method of Analysis 444
11.8 Recommended Factors of Safety 445

Experiment 1 Refraction Survey 450

Experiment 2 Field Soil Sample Collection and Description 455

Experiment 3 Laboratory Water Content Determination 458

Experiment 4 Field Water Content Determination 462

Experiment 5 Salinity of Soil Pore Water 466

Experiment 6 Grain Size Analysis-Mechanical Method 472

Experiment 7 Grain Size Analysis-Hydrometer Method 482


CONTENTS XIII

Experiment 8 Specific Gravity of Soil Solids 493

Experiment 9 Volumetric-Gravimetric Relationships


for Cohesion less Soils 498

Experiment 10 Volumetric-Gravimetric Relationships


for Cohesive Soils S02

Experiment 11 Liquid Limit 507

Experiment 12 Plastic Limit 51 5

Experiment 13 Shrinkage Limit 519

Experiment 14 Ignition Test 526

Experiment 15 Standard Proctor Compaction Test 530

Experiment 16 Modified Proctor Compaction Test 535

Experiment 17 Relative Density 540

Experiment 18 Soil Density-Sand Cone Method 545

Experiment 19 Soil Density-Rubber Balloon Method 551

Experiment 20 Soil Density- Nuclear Method 556

Experiment 21 CoeHicient of Permeability-Constant-Head


Method 559

Experiment 22 CoeHicient of Permeability-Falling-Head


Method 564

Experiment 23 Oedometer Test 568

Experiment 24 IIQuick" Oedometer Test 579

Experiment 25 Direct Shear Test 585

Experiment 26 Unconfined Compression Test 591

Experiment 27 Consolidated-Undrained Triaxial Test 598

Experiment 28 Consolidated-Drained Triaxial Test 612


XIV CONTENTS

Experiment 29 Vane Shear Test 619

Appendix A 51 Units and Conversion Factors 623

Appendix B Laboratory Forms 627

Glossary 665

References 678

Index 684
Soil Materials

1.0 INTRODUCTION
The term soil is used by civil engineers and most geologists to describe the rela-
tively loose agglomeration of mineral and organic materials extending from the
ground surface down to solid rock. These soils were formed by weathering and
disintegration from solid rock and differ depending on the parent material and
the weathering processes involved. Subsequent transportation of these soils by
glaciers, wind, and/or water may alter the soil profile and is responsible for the
formation of various landforms. These landforms are topographic features that
can be recognized in air photos and are often used for engineering soils evaluation
of a site. Soil is the oldest building material known. It serves as the support for vir-
tually all structures. For detailed knowledge of soils at a site soil, samples must be
obtained on which physical and mechanical properties can be measured.
Geotechnical engineering concerns the application of civil engineering tech-
nology to some aspect of the earth. It is one of the very young disciplines within
civil engineering. Geotechnical engineering has two main broad areas of empha-
sis: soil mechanics and foundation engineering. Soil mechanics is concerned with
the engineering mechanics and properties of soil materials. Foundation engi-
neering applies soil mechanics, structural engineering, geology, and other related
sciences to the design of foundations for structures and the construction of
earthen structures. Soil mechanics is a science as compared to foundation engi-
Soil Exploration

2.0 INTRODUCTION
An engineer must have reasonably accurate information on the extent and physi-
cal properties of underlying soil strata before it is possible to properly design a
structure. The purpose of an exploration program is to ascertain that the ultimate
capacity of the underlying soil is greater than the loading to be imposed by the
foundations. In addition, the total and differential settlements must be limited to
within acceptable tolerances under the structure in question and under adjacent
buildings, roads, and other facilities. The types of structures normally encoun-
tered in practice may be divided into three separate categories:
1. Structures that interact with the surrounding ground. These include founda-
tions, retaining walls, bulkheads , tunnels , buried pipes, and underground in-
stallations.
2. Structures constructed of earthfills , such as earth dams, bases and subbases for
pavements , embankments, and backfill for foundations and retaining walls.
3. Structures of natural earth and rock such as natural slopes and cut slopes.

Besides selecting the most economical foundation system, the geotechnical


engineer must provide information relative to foundation behavior and antici-
pated construction problems . These problems may include but are not limited to
a high water table, an artesian condition, soft ground, frozen fill , the presence of

33
Index Properties of Soils

3.0 INTRODUCTION
Soils are a heterogeneous accumulation of mineral particles. The term soil in-
cludes almost every type of uncemented or paItially cemented inorganic and
organic material found in the ground. Only hard rock, which remains firm after
exposure, is excluded. To the engineer engaged in design and construction of
foundations and earthwork, the index properties of soils are of primary impor-
tance. These properties include their water content, unit weight, particle size and
shape, the soil aggregate including its texture and structure, soil consistency and
sensitivity, and organic content. To enable an engineer to describe and discuss a
soil with brevity and the assurance that the description would mean the same soil
to another engineer, it was necessary to establish a classification system. Logs of
explorations containing adequate soil classifications and descriptions can be used
in making preliminary design estimates, in determining the extent of additional
field investigations needed for final deSign, and in extending test results to addi-
tional explorations. A soil classification system can best be understood by consid-
ering the index properties of soils.

64
Soil Compaction

4.0 INTRODUCTION
The soils at a given site are often less than ideal from the viewpoint of soil en-
gineering. The site may require soil improvement for several reasons: reduced
compressibility (for structural foundations ), increased strength (for pave ment
structures), and reduced permeability (for earth dam foundations ). In the past,
potential soil problerris were avoided by relocating the structure or facility. Con-
siderations other than geotechnical ones often govern the location , so the design
must account for existing soil conditions. Soil improvement (or soil stabilization)
involves the alteration of a soil property to improve its engineering performance.
The more common techniques available for soil improvement are (1) com -
paction (densification with mechanical equipment), (2) pre loading (densifica-
tion by placement of a temporary surface load), and (3) dewate ring (the removal
of pore water and/or pore pressures). This chapter will be limited to soil improve-
ment by densification with mechanical equipment - including laboratory meth-
ods, field compaction control, and specifications.

4.1 COMPACTION THEORY


The theory pertaining to soil compaction is relatively new. While working for the
Bureau of Waterworks and Supply in Los Angeles, R. R. Proctor proposed the ba-
sic prinCiples of compaction. He established that compaction of soils involves four

113
Water Flow through Soils

5.0 INTRODUCTION
Water flow through soils is important in a variety of geotechnical engineering
problems. Leakage through an earth dam involves the rate of water flow, soil com-
pression and foundation settlement involves drainage of pore water, and the flow
pattern of pore water pressures with their influence on shear strength can be re-
sponsible for the development of critical stability conditions. Flow can be steady
or unsteady. Water flow underneath a large concrete dam or through an earth
dam will be unsteady at first, but will stabilize with time to steady flow. Flow will
occur in both saturated and unsaturated soils. In this chapter, emphasis will be
given to steady-flow conditions in saturated soils.
In general, all voids in soils are connected to neighboring voids. In coarse
soils - gravels, sands, and silts - the pores are continuous, with an individual wa-
ter particle following a path that can deviate erratically but only slightly from
smooth curves known as flow lines. In clays, a small percentage of the voids may
appear to be isolated, although in electron photomicrographs all of tl1e voids are
interconnected . The course of water moveme nt involves both gravitational forces
on an element of water and the force due to differences of hydrostatic pressure at
different points in the soil. Resistance to flow is determined by the soil pore space
and properties of the fluid . These topics are introduced in this chapter.

132

--
-

Stresses within a Soil Mass

6.0 INTRODUCTION
Stress imposed on soil due to its own weight or by structural loads is of primary
importance to the geotechnical engineer. When a mass of soil is subjected to
stresses, it undergoes changes in shape and volume. The changes in effective
stresses are significant when dealing with cohesive soils and are less pronounced
in cohesionless soils. The effective stress concept, first introduced by Terzaghi in
1920, is the foundation of geotechnical engineering. Terzaghi stated that all mea-
surable effects of compression, distortion, and change in shearing resistance are
attributable to changes in the effective stress.
The change in stress within soil masses due to point and line loads and regu-
lar and irregular lqaded areas acting at the surface of or within soil masses is
known as stress distribution. Generally, the state of stress within soil masses is of
utmost importance in settlement and stability analysis. However, because of the
influence of increase in vertical effective stress on consolidation settlement of clay
layers, the increase in the vertical stress distribution is of primary importance.
The majority of theories for stress distribution within soil masses assume that
the soil is homogeneous (i.e. , of the same type), is linearly elastic and obeys
Hooke's law, and is isotropic (i.e., properties of the soil are the same in all direc-
tions). The first assumption may be correct for soil layers, but not for entire lay-

187
Volume Change in Soils

7.0 INTRODUCTION
A soil may be considered to be a skeleton of solid particles enclosing voids (spaces
not occupied by solid mineral matter) that are filled with gas, liquid, or some com-
bination of gas and liquid. Placement of a load on this soil will result in a decrease
in volume due to three possible factors: (1) compression of the solid matter, (2)
compression of water and air within the voids, and (3) drainage of water and air
from the voids. For loads normally encountered in soil masses, the solid matter
and pore water, being relatively incompressible, will undergo little volume
change. For this reason, the decrease in volume of a saturated soil mass is due al-
most entirely to drainage of water from the voids. For soils with a low permeabil-
ity, considerable time may be required for water to drain. This is especially true
for deep clay deposits. The gradual adjustment of pore water pressures coupled
with escape of water and a slow compression is called consolidation. One-di-
mensional compression occurs in thin clay layers located directly beneath building
footings. Engineers are interested in predicting this soil compression and the re-
sulting footing settlement. The measurement of soil properties required for pre-
dicting soil volume change and their use in settlement analysis is the subject of
this chapter.

244
Shear Strength of Soils

8.0 INTRODUCTION
The application of load or stress on soil below a foundation, or in a slope, until de-
formations become unacceptably large is descIibed as failure. For this reason,
the limiting value of shear stress is often based on a maximum allowable strain or
deformation. Shear strength may be defined as the ability of soil to sustain load
without undue distortion or failure in the soil mass. The allowable deformation
will often control the design of structures, because the usual factors of safety re-
sult in shear stresses much less than those that would cause collapse or failure.
A number of stress-strain tests are available for measuIing the shear strength
of soils. Laboratory tests are designed to permit application of stress to a soil sam-
ple with measurement of the resulting deformation and pore water pressures. The
more common methods include direct shear, unconfined compression, and triax-
ial tests. In certain fi eld situations the water content of clays and some silts does
not change for an appreCiable time after application of stress. This undrained con-
dition permits use of the vane shear test and penetrometers for evaluation of shear
strength. This chapter describes the main features of the more common methods
used to evaluate the shear strength of soils.

306
Lateral Earth Pressure

9.0 INTRODUCTION
Earth pressure is the force per unit area exerted by the soil on a structure. Its
magnitude depends on the physical properties of the soil, the nature of the
soil-structure interface, and possible modes of deformation of the structural sys-
tem. In the case of cohesive soils, the earth pressure is influenced by the time-
dependent nature of soil properties.
Generally, an element of soil in the ground is acted on by three prinCipal
stresses. However, in most earth pressure problems , plain strain is assumed and
only the major and minor prinCipal stresses are required: (1) a vertical principal
stress and (2) a horizontal principal stress. The horizontal stress is linearly related
to the vertical stress by a proportionality constant called the coefficient of earth
pressure. However, the resulting pressure is dependent on the theories used and
the assumptions made relative to the nature of the structure, the soil, and the
soil-structure interface. This chapter is devoted to the study of several earth pres-
sure theories.

9.1 EARTH PRESSURE AT REST


Consider the soil element within the large soil mass depicted in Figure 9.l. As-
suming that the soil mass is completely dry, then at depth z the soil element is

353
Bearing Capacity

10.0 INTRODUCTION
Bearing capacity may be defin ed as the ability of the soil to carry a load without
failure within the soil mass. Failure in geotechnical engineeri ng is a relative term
in that it is not as well defi ned as is the case in structural engineering. Bearing ca-
pacity failure relates to the concept of excessive settlement without any increase
in applied pressure. This chapter is a brief introduction into the bearing capacity
of shallow and deep foundations.
Shallow f oundations are defin ed as any footing that has a width equal to or
greater than the depth at which it is buried (Figure 1O.1a). Deep f oundations are
defined as any footing that has a width that is smalle r than the depth to which it
extends (Figure 10.1b). These two definitions are significant in th at the theories
pertaining to each are different. Generally, a shallow footing has a relatively large
load-bearing area, which makes it possible to transfer the load from a column or a
wall to the underlying soil mass. That is, the stress at the footin g-soil interface is
controlled by how large the area is. In deep foundations , such as piles, the load
from the structure is transferred to the underlying soil either by the friction at the
pile surface to the surrounding soil ancIJor through the tip of the pile to a hard
stratum in which it is embedded. Both shallow and deep foundation systems must
satiSfY the follOwing three basic requirements.

392
Slope Stability

11.0 INTRODUCTION
Slope failures are similar to bealing capacity and lateral earth pressure failures in
that they involve movement along a surface within the soil mass. Generally, failure
occurs due to natural or man-made causes. Natural failures primarily occur be-
cause of stresses imposed by weight of the soil mass itself and by changing soil
properties. Man-made failures occur when the slope is physically altered. Irre-
spective of the mechanism causing failure, a slope ffils when the imposed stresses
exceed the shear strength of the soil along the failure surface. This is depicted in
Figure 11.1.
The purpose of stability analysis is to determine the factor of safety corre-
sponding to a potential failure surface. The shape of the failure surface may be
quite irregular, depending on the homogeneity of the material involved within the
failed region. This is particularly true in natural slopes, where weaker materials
dictate the location of failure surfaces. In the case of a homogeneous material, the
most critical failure surface will be cylindrical, because a circle gives the least area
along the failure surface. This surface offers the least resistance to the driving
force. If a large circle cannot be developed, such as when a slope has a depth
much smaller than its length , the most critical failure surface will be a plane par-
allel to the slope. If weak soil layers exist, the most critical failure surface may con-
sist of a series of planes passing through the wp,ak strata. A combination of plane,
cylindrical, and other irregular failure surfaces may also be possible.

424
EXPERIMENT 1
Refraction Survey

Purpose
The refraction survey provides wave propagation velocities and soil profile infor-
mation for in situ soil materials below the uppermost earth layers. Depths to dif-
ferent soil strata and rock can be determined on the basis of differences in
compression wave velocities.

Equipment
Re fraction seismograph
Geophone with connecting cable and accessories
Tamper (hammer) and switch with 60 m of cable
MeasUling tape

Field Procedure
Select the "course" over which each test is to be conducted. This would be from
wh ere the geophone is push ed firmly into contact with the earth and the last
tamping (or hammering) point. Since the calculation methods presented here ap-
ply only to horizontally layered soil and rock strata, avoid areas that include in-
clin ed strata. Disturbed earth locations should be avoided for a course location, as
they will give erratic results . Hard surfaces such as concrete, blacktop, and dense
gravel roads should also be avoided for the same reason. A course should have a
constant earth grade between its ends. More advanced work (Richart et aI. , 1970;

450
EXPERIMENT 2
Field Soil Sample Collection
and Description

Purpose
Sampling of subsurface materials involves a number of techniques varying in com-
plexities and applications . This experiment is designed to introduce the student to
one method of obtaining a set of disturbed soil samples. The samples are to be
saved in jars for later use.

Equipment
Hand auger or a small motorized auger
Extension rods (5 m or 15 ft )
Soil jars with lids (15)
Wrenches and a hammer to combine and separate the rod extensions
Magic marker
Piece of chalk
Straightedge ruler
lO-m (20-ft ) tape measure
Paper pad and pencil
Bag of sand (50 kg or 100 Ib)
2 large bags
455
EXPERIMENT 3
Laboratory Water
Content Determ ination

Purpose
This test covers laboratory procedures to be followed for determination of the wa-
ter content of a soil sample. The method is applicable to other tests where the
water content is needed for the purpose of evaluating other soil mechanical prop-
erties.

Equipment
Drying oven thermostatically controlled and capable of being heated continuously at a
tempe rature of 230 ± gOF (110 ± SOC)
Balance sensitive to 0.01 g for samples ofless than 100 g
Balance sensitive to 0.1 g for samples of 100 g to 1000 g
Containers with fitting lids made of materials resistant to corrosion
Tape and a dark marker reqUired for identjfying samples and containers

Procedure
Determine the number of soil samples to be tested, then deSignate an equal num-
ber of containers. Identify each container using the tape and the marker using let-
ters and numbers (e.g. , AI7, B59, and so on) . This should eliminate any possibility
of getting your samples mixed with those of your classmates.
Weigh each container along with its lid (M I ), then select a representative soil
sample in the amount indicated in the test method. If no information is provided,
the minimum sample mass may be taken as indicated in Tabl e £3.1. Place the

458
EXPERIMENT 4
Field Water Content
Determ ination

Purpose
Quality control is generally required for most construction projects. This is neces-
sary if expected performance of the various design components is to be assured.
The water content is determined in the field, so that the field density of fills is
controlled by calcium carbide gas pressure moisture testers ; heating a sample us-
ing a stove or a microwave; or by a nuclear densometer. The pressure moisture
tester is intended primarily for water content determination, where a drying oven
or a nuclear densometer are not available. It is also recommended whenever test
results are needed quickly.

Equipment
Calcium carbide pressure moisture tester (Figure E4.1)
Finely pulverized calcium carbide reagent
Balance sensitive to 0.01 g
Two Ii-inch (31.75-mm) steel balls
Cleaning brush and cloth
Cans
Scoop

Procedure
The water content of soil material to be tested is approximated using a number of
pressure testers, such as the 6-g, 20-g , 26-g, and the 200 D super tester. The 6-g

462
EXPERIMENT 5
Salinity of Soil Pore Water

Purpose
The test for salinity of soil pore water provides a measure of its salt content (g/cm 3
or giL) or its salinity in parts per thousand (ppt ). The evaluation of soil salinity is
generally required whenever ground freezing is specified. Ground freezing is
used in tunneling and other underground stabilization of soil formations.

Equipment
Pore water extraction cell (Figure E5.1 )
Me mbrane filters for aqueous solutions (e.g. , Schleicher and Schuell Type B-6)
Collecting flask with a small air ve nt
Conductivity meter (e.g., Yellow Springs Instrument Co. , S-C-T Meter Model 33, or
Beckman conductivity solubridge)
Beaker (50 mL )
Distilled water and potassium chloride (KCI)

Sample Recovery
Soil samples obtained for salinity testing may be unfrozen or frozen as long as
the natural water content remains unchanged. To minimize contam ination , dly
drilling methods or block samples should be used for recovel), of soil samples. If a
liquid drilling fluid is used, the inclusion of a lithium chloride tracer is recom-
mended so that the extent of contamination can be easily recognized . Sterile plas-

466
EXPERIMENT 6
Grain Size Analysis
Mechanical Method

Purpose
The classification of soils for engineering purposes involves a number of labora-
tory tests, one of which is the mechanical grain size analysis. The test provides in-
formation relative to grain size and distribution of the soil particles in a given soil
sample. The method is limited to identifYing the distribution and sizes of relatively
large aggregates such as gravel and sand. Test results can be used to predict soil
suitability for construction of roads , airfields , dams, and embankments.

Equipment
Set of standard sieves
Mortar and rubber-covered pestle
Balance sensitive to 0.1 g
Containers
Sieve shaker
Oven

Sample and Equipment Preparation

This test normally involves the use of standard brass sieves having inside diame-
ters of 20.32 cm (8 in.). Each sieve has a standard designation defining the size of
the opening of its mesh. For a given designation, the openings are of equal size
and shape. The soil sample passes through openings larger than its size; otheIWise

472
EXPERIMENT 7
Grain Size Analysis
Hydrometer Method

Purpose
This test is a continuation of the sieve analysis test in that it provides data on the
grain size of soil particles finer than those retained on the No. 200 sieve. The hy-
drometer test is applicable for particles having a grain size smaller than 2 mm
(passing No. 10 sieve). Soil samples with appreciable amount of particles passing
the No . 200 sieve are generally subjected to this test. The purpose of extending the
gradation curve is to determine the amount of silt and clay in a given soil sample.

Equipment
Balance sensitive to 0.01 g
Mortar and rubber-covered pestle
Mechanically operated stirring devices (Figure E7.1 )
Hydrometer models 151H or 152H
Glass cylinder 18 in. (45.7 cm) in height and 2.5 in. (6.35 cm ) in diameter. The cylinder
should be marked for a volume of 1000 mL
Glass cylinder with a volume of 250 mL
The rmometer accurate to 1°F (0.5°C )
Distilled or deminerali zed water
Dispersin g age nt (sodium hexametaphosphate)
Constant-temperature water bath
Timer

482
EXPERIMENT 8
Specific Gravity of Soil Solids

Purpose
This test deals with the determination of the speCific gravity of soil solid particles
with diameters smaller than the opening of the No . 4 sieve (4.75 mm) by means of
a pycnometer. The apparent specific gravity for larger particles is determined us-
ing the procedure outlined by ASTM C 127.

Equipment
Pycnometer with a volume of 100 mL
Balance sensitive to 0.01 g
Thermometer
Vacuum pump
Drying oven
Evaporating dish
Spatula
Beaker
Stirring device

Sample Preparation and Calibration of Pycnometer


The test sample may contain its natural moisture or be oven-dried. Its oven-dried
mass should be at least 25 g. For a sample containing its natural moisture, the

493
EXPERIMENT 9
Volumetric-Gravimetric
Relationsh ips for
Cohesion less Soi Is

Purpose
This experim ent will help the reader understand the concepts of dly and saturated
unit weights of cohesionless soils. It also provides a practical and an indirect pro-
cedure for determining various impOliant soil parameters such as void ratio and
speCific gravity. This is accomplished by measuring the mass of water in a given
soil sample.

Equipment
Glass jar with straight sides and a minimum diameter of 10 cm and a height of 15 cm
Stiff straightedge ruler
Balance sensitive to 0.1 g
Graduated cylinder with a minimum volum e of 500 mL
Drying oven thermostatically controlled and capable of being heated continuously at a tem-
perature of 230 ± gOF (110 ± 5°C )
Uniform coarse sand

Procedure
Mark the glass jar using either a tape or a magic marker for identification pur-
poses. Carefully weigh the jar, then measure its diameter and height using the
ruler. Fill th e jar with the air-dried soil provided by the instructor and shake until
the soil is stabilized. Carefully strike the soil surface flush with the top edge of the

498
EXPERIMENT 10
Volumetric-Gravimetric
Relationships for
Cohesive Soils

Purpose
. This experiment will help the reader understand what is meant by dry , bulk, and
saturated unit weights of cohesive soils. It also provides an indirect procedure for
determining various important soil parameters such as void ratio and degree of
saturation. This is accomplished by being able to evaluate the water content and
th e specific gravity for a given soil sample.

Equipment
Balance sensitive to 0.1 g
Graduated cylinder with a minimum volume of 1000 mL
Clay sample

Procedure
Select a cohesive soil sample that will not readily slake in water. Make sure that
the sample does not contain porous or extremely dry materials. The sample should
have a known water content wand speCific gravity G s' and a mass of 300 g or
more. The instructor may wish to provide reasonable G s and w values in advance
for the sample to be tested. Otherwise, tests should be performed to evaluate
them by the students or technician.
Record the diameter of the graduated cylinder D, then pour tap water into it
until it is about half full and record the initial water level R i • Carefully weigh the

502
EXPERIMENT 11
Liquid Limit

Purpose
The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate a number of techniques for
evaluating the liquid limit of a given soil sample containing appreciable amounts
of fine-grained particles. Two basic methods of testing are considered: (1 ) the
one-point test and (2) the multipoint test. Both wet and dry sample preparations
are discussed.

Equipment
Liquid limit device and flat grooving tool (Figure El1.1 )
Ground glass plate
Containers for water content determination
Balance sensitive to 0.01 g
Spatula
Storage dish
No. 40 sieve
Wash bottle for adding controlled amount of water to soil sample
Drying oven thermostatically controlled and capable of being heated continuously at a tem-
perature of 230 ± gOF (110 ± SOC)
Mortar and pestle

Sample and Equipment Preparation


Depending on the soil sample being tested, wet or dry sample preparation may be
used. In most cases fine-grained soils contain moisture. In such cases, the wet
sample preparation procedure is to be followed. If the soil sample in question is
dry or if it is to be air-dried, then the dry sample preparation procedure is recom-

507
EXPERIMENT 12
Plastic Li mit

Purpose
The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate a number of techniques for
evaluating the plastic limit of a given soil sample containing appreciable amounts
of fine-grained paIiicles.

Equipment
Ground-glass plate
Steel rod 3.2 mm (1/8 in .) in diamete r
Containers for water content determination
Balance sensitive to 0.01 g
Spatula
Storage dish
No. 40 sieve
Wash bottle for adding controlled amount of water to soil sample
Drying oven thermostatically controlled and capable of being heated continuously at a tem-
perature of230 ± gOF (1l0 ± 5°C )
Mortar and pestle

Sample Preparation
The sample preparation procedure is identical to that desclibed for the liquid
limit e>''Periment and is given here for convenience. Depending on the soil sample
being tested, wet or dry sample preparation may be used. In most cases, fine-
grained soils contain moisture. In such cases, the wet sample preparation proce-
dure is to be followed. Alternatively, if the soil sample in question is dry or if it is

515
EXPERIMENT 13
Shrinkage Limit

Purpose
This experiment covers the method used to obtain data from which the shrinkage
limit, shrinkage ratio, volumetric shrinkage, linear shrinkage, and even an approx-
im ation of the specific gravity may be calculated. A method suggested by A.
Casagrande is also discussed. The Casagrande method requires values for the liq-
uid and th e plastic limits to approximate the shrinkage limit. The shrinkage limit
relates primarily to fin e-grained soils.

Equipment
Evaporating dish , porcelain , 140 mm (5.5 in. ) in diameter
Spatula
Shrinkage apparatus (Figure E13.1 )
Shrinkage dish 44.4 mm (1.75 in. ) in diamete r and 12.7 mm (0.5 in .) in height
Glass cup 57.2 mm (2.25 in .) in diameter and 31.8 mm (1.25 in. ) in height
Glass plate with three metal prongs for immersing soil pat in mercury
Graduated glass cylinder havi ng a capacity of 25 mL and graduated to 0.20 mL
Metal straightedge
Balan ce sensitive to 0.20 mL

519
EXPERIMENT 14
19 nition Test

Purpose
This test covers measurement of the organic content of a given soil using ignition.
The procedure used includes a correction factor to account for dehydration of the
mineral fraction.

Equipment
Oven, regulated to a constant temperature of 105 ± 5°C (230 ± gOF )
Muffle furnace, regulated to a constant te mperature of 400 ± 25°C (752 ± 72°F )
Blender
Aluminum foil
Porcelain pan
Large tweezers
Kitchen gloves
Balance sensitive to 0.01 g

Sample Preparation
Select a representative field organic soil sample by placing the sample on a paper,
then redUCing its size to the quantity required by quartering. Mix the sample thor-
oughly using the blender, then select a specimen weighing approximately 50 g.
Weigh the porcelain dish with the aluminum foil cover, the n p lace the sample in
the porcelain pan and weigh. Oven-dry for 16 h at 10.SoC. Re move th e oven-dried
sample from the oven and cover it with the aluminum foil until it cools down to
room temperature, then weigh . Calculate the water content of th e sample tv and

526
EXPERIMENT 15
Standard Proctor
Compaction Test

Purpose
This test covers determination of the relationship between unit weight and water
content for a given soil using the standard procedure. Different procedures may
be applied depending on grain size. This test is also referred to as the l1wisture-
density test.

Equipment
Compaction mold, diameter 4 in. (101.6 mm ) and volume 1/30 ft 3 (944 cm 3 )
Compaction mold, cUameter 6 in. (152.4 mm ) and volume 1/13.33 ft 3 (2124 cm3 )
Drop hammer, 5.5 Ib (2.49 kg) that has a free hl11 of 12 in. (305 mm )
Sample extruder
Balance, 1000 g capacity sensitive to 0.01 g
Balance, 20 kg capacity sensitive to 1 g
Drying oven capable of maintaining a temperature of 230 ± 9°F (110 ± 5°C)
Metal straightedge
Sieves: 3" (75 mm ), 3/4" (19 mm ), and No.4 (4.75 mm )
Mixing tools, including pans, spoons, towels, spatula

Sample Preparation
There are four variations to the standard Proctor compaction test. These methods
apply to soils where 70% or more of the sample passes the 3/4" (19 mm ) sieve.
Methods A and B are limited to soil samples whe re the amount retained on the

530
EXPERIMENT 16
Modified Proctor
Compaction Test

Purpose
This test covers determination of the relationship between unit weight and water
content for a given soil using the modified compaction procedure. Different pro-
cedures are applied depending on grain size. This test is also referred to as th e
mOisture-density test.

Equipment
Compaction mold, diameter 4 in. (101.6 mm ) and volume 1/30 fe (994 cm 3 )
Co mpaction mold, diameter 6 in. (152.4 mm ) and volume 1/13.33 ft 3 (2124 cm 3 )
Drop hamm er weigh ing 10 lb (4.54 kg) with a free fall of 18 in. (457 mm )
Sample extruder
Balance, 1000 g capacity sensitive to 0.01 g
Balance, 20 kg capacity sensitive to 1 g
Drying oven capable of maintaining a temperature of 230 ± 9°F (1l0 ± 5°C)
Metallic straightedge
Sieves: 3" (75 mm ), 3/4" (19 mm ), and No.4 (4.75 mm )
Mixing tools, including pans , spoons, towels, spatula

535
EXPERIMENT 17
Relative Density

Purpose
These tests cover procedures for the determination of the minimum and maxi-
mum densities of cohesionless soils. The corresponding minimum and maximum
void ratios are then calculated in terms of the specific gravity using phase relation-
ships. The calculated void ratios or the densities can then be used to calculate the
relative density as a function of the natural void ratio or dry density.

Equipment
Standard molds having volumes of 0.1 ft 3 (2830 cm3 ) and 0.5 ft 3 (14,200 cm3 ) with
Guide sleeves
Surcharge base plates
Surcharge weights
Surcharge base-plate handle
Dial indicator
Balance
Drying oven
Sieves: 3", 1t", No.4 (4.75 mm ), and No. 200 (0.075 mm )
Metal straightedge
Mixi ng pans
Vibrating table

540
EXPERIMENT 18
Soil Density-
Sand Cone Method

Purpose
This method permits determination of the in-place field unit weight of soil. The
test is applicable in soil or other material that can be excavated with hand tools ,
provided the void or pore openings are small enough to prevent the sand used in
the test from entering the voids. The soil being tested should have sufficient cohe-
sion and/or stability to withstand the pressures applied in digging a hole without
collapsing. This method is not suitable when the water content is needed and if
the soil IS halloysite, montmorillonite, gypsum , or highly organic.

Equipment
Density apparatus as shown in Figure E1S.1
Dry uniform sand passing the No. 10 sieve with a uniformity coefficient C u < 2
Balance, 10 kg capacity and accurate to 2 g
Balance, 2 kg capacity and accurate to 1 g
Calcium carbide moisture tester or other types of drying equipment
Knife, piCk, chisel, spoon, brush , and buckets with lids

Equipment Preparation
This test involves digging a small hole and weighing the soil removed, then filling
the hole with sand of known density. Density of the sand is determined before any

545
EXPERIMENT 19
Soil Density-
Rubber Balloon Method

Purpose
This method permits determination of the in-place field unit weight of soil. The
test is applicable in soil or other material that can be excavated with hand tools,
provided the void or pore openings are small enough that accurate measurement
of the soil volume is possible. The soil being tested should have sufficient cohe-
sion andJor stability to withstand the pressures applied in digging a hole without
collapSing. This method is not suitable for fine-grained soils or granular soils with
appreciable amounts of rock or particles with sharp edges.

Equipment
Balloon apparatus consisting of a base plate, rubber balloon , device for applying and reduc-
ing pressure to the liquid (Figure E19.1)
Balance, 10 kg capacity and accurate to 2 g
Balance, 2 kg capacity and accurate to 1 g
Calcium carbide moisture tester or another type of drying equipment
Knife, pick, chisel, spoon, brush, and buckets with lids

Sample and Equipment Preparation


Th e fill soil to be compacted in the field should first be tested in the laboratory for
optimum moi sture content and optimum dl)' denSity or dry unit weight using the
standard or the modified Proctor compaction test. A range for the moisture con-

551
EXPERIMENT 20
Soil Density -
Nuclear Method

Purpose
These methods describe the evaluation of the dry density of in-place soil and soil
aggregate using nuclear devices. The total unit weight of the material being tested
is determined by placing a gamma ray source and gamma detector either on, into,
or adjacent to the material being tested. The test methods are suitable to depths
of 2 to 12 in. (50 to 300 mm ). These are quick and nondestructive methods for in-
place density measurements.

Equipment
Nuclear moisture density device consisting of a rod for penetrating the soil surface, guide
plate, hammer, and calibration block. (This equipment utilizes radioactive materials. Op-
erator instructions, health and safety guidelines, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission
procedures should be available and followed.)

Sample and Equipment Preparation


The fill soil to be compacted in the field should be tested in the laboratory for op-
timum moisture content and optimum dry density using the standard or modified
Proctor compaction test. A range for the moisture content should be established
so that the speCified percent compaction is achieved. If more than one fill type is
to be placed in the field, then each must be tested separately.
Unlike the sand cone or the balloon methods, the volume of excavated soil is
determined by the amount of gamma radiation absorbed by the soil. The amount

556
EXPERIMENT 21
Coefficient of Permeability
Constant-Head Method

Purpose
This test covers determination of the coefficient of permeability of cohesionless
soils using the constant-head method. This method is limited to soils containing
10% or less material passing the No. 200 sieve (0.075 mm) . The procedure mea-
sures values of the coefficient of permeability that may occur in natural granular
soil deposits as placed in embankments, base courses, or earth dams.

Equipment
Permeameter (Figure E2l.1 )
Constant-head filter tank
Large funn els fitted with cylindrical spouts 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter and 150 mm (6 in. ) in
length
Large funnels fitted with cylindrical spouts 13 mm (1/2 in.) in diameter and 150 mm (6 in. ) in
length
Specimen compaction equipment
Vacuum pump or water-faucet aspirator
Manometer tubes
Balances, 2 kg capacity sensitive to 1 g
Thermometer, clock, mixing pan, jar, and 250-mL graduate cylinder

559
EXPERIMENT 22
Coefficient of Permeability
Falling-Head Method

Purpose
This test covers determination of the coefficient of permeability of fine sand and
fin e-grained soils (silt and clay) using the falling-head method. The procedure
measures values of the coefficient of permeability that may occur in natural soil
deposits as placed in embankments , base courses, or earth dams.

Equipment
Permeameter (Figure E22.1 )
Specimen compaction equipment
Vacuum pump or water-faucet aspirator
Mano meter tubes
Balances, 2-kg capacity sensitive to 1 g
Thermometer, clock, mixing pan , jar, and a graduate cylinder

Sample and Equipment Preparation


Prepare the soi l sample followin g the procedure described in Experiment 21 for
cohesionless soil. Otherwise, use an undisturbed cohesive soil sample collected
using a Shelby tube or a spoon sample. The cohesionless soil specimen should be
placed in uniform layers approximately equal in thickness. Compact these layers
to the desired relative density. The mass of soil remaining after the specimen is
placed in the permeameter should then be recorded. Make initial measurements
of sample diameter D and length L. Place the porous disk on top of the soil sam-
ple, then press the top plate against the spring and attach it securely to the top of

564
EXPERIMENT 23
Oedometer Test

Purpose
The oedometer test provides a measure of the stress-strain relationships and the
rate at which one-dimensional compression occurs in soils under different vertical
axial loads and free drainage from the top and bottom sample surfaces. The results
are summarized in terms of void-ratio and coefficient of consolidation c" plotted
against log pressure.

Equipment
Consolidation cell and loading device (Figure E23.1)
Specimen trimming equipment
Timer
Moisture content equipment (see Experiment 3)

Specimen Preparation
Soil specimens are prepared from large undisturbed block samples (obtained
from exploratory cuts or excavations ) or from samples obtained from bOrings
using thin-walled tube sampling methods (Chapter 2). To avoid disturbance,
changes in cross section, or loss of moisture, specimens must be handled care-
fully when obtaining, transporting, storing, and preparing the sample. When pos-
sible, prepare specimens in a controlled humidity room to minimize change in
water content. Speci men size is dependent on the consolidation ring used (Fig-
ure E23.2) - 70 mm to 100 mm in diameter and 19 mm to 38 mm in height. The
specimen is prepared using the cutter ring as a template , carefully trimming until
the ring slides over the soil, the last fraction of soil being trimmed away by the cut-

568
EXPERIMENT 24
"Quick" Oedometer Test

Purpose
The "quick" oedometer test provides a measure of the stress-straiIyrelationships
and the rate at which one-dimensional compression occurs up to completion of
primary consolidation in soils under different vertical axial loads and free drain age
from the top and bottom sample surfaces. Results are intended primarily for the
void-ratio versus log pressure relationship.

Equipment
Consolidation cell and loading device (Figure E23.1 )
Specimen trimming equipment
Timer
Moisture content equipment (see Experiment 3)

Compression Test
Specimen preparation for the "quick" oedometer test is identical to that for the
conventional test (Experiment 23). The difference between tests is the use of a
time interval for the "quick" test th at is sufficient only for completion of primmy
consolidation. For many clay soils this time is often less than 30 min for the labo-
ratOlY specimen. Using, for example, 112 h in place of the convention al 24 h per-
mits the entire loading sequence to be completed in a normal work day or less.
Data are limited to the early portion of the time-compression CUlve, so only the
square root of time method can be used to evaluate the coefficient of consolida-
tion. Most of the secondary compression , associated with a conventional 24-h
loading period (Figure 7.12) cannot occur.

579
- - _ . _ - -- - - - - -

EXPERIMENT 25
Direct Shear Test

Purpose
The direct shear test provides data needed for evaluation of the shear strength pa-
rameters c and ~ for drained conditions and the undrained shear strength C u for
cohesive soils with low permeabilities.

Equipment
Direct shear apparatus with shear box (Figure E25.1 )
Two dial gauges
Small level
Balance, sensitive to 0.1 g
Equipment for water content determination

Procedure
The direct shear apparatus (Figure E25.1 ) should be checked as to assembly and
operation of the shear box, vertical load frame, load ring (or force transducer), and
mounting of the horizontal and vertical dial gauges (or displacement transduc-
ers ). For a motorized unit, the shear displacement rate should be set at about
0.5 mm/min or as needed to give the desired results. Required dim ensions of the
direct shear box (Figure E25.2) and loading ring constant should be obtained
and recorded on the data sheet (Figure E25.3).
Cohesion less Soil (dry or wet) Select a soil sample of mass sufficient for three
tests at the same denSity. Obtain additional material for a water content determi-
nation. Next assemble the shear box and place sand into the box to about 5 mm
from the top. Place the loading block (with porous stone) on top of the soil. Use

585
EXPERIMENT 26
Unconfined Compression Test

Purpose
The unconfined compression test provides a measure of the undrained strength
and stress-strain characteristics of undisturbed, remolded, and/or compacted co-
hesive soil samples.

Equipment
Unconfined compression test machine (hand-operated or motorized, Figure E26.1 )
Dial gauges, load ring, and/or electronic displacement and load transducers
Sample preparation apparatus: soil lathe, trimming saw, and cradle (Figure E26.2)
Moisture content equipment (see Experiment 3)

Specimen Preparation
Undisturbed Samples Soil specimens may be prepared from large undisturbed
block samples (obtained from exploratory shafts, cuts, or tunnels) or from samples
obtained from bOrings using thin-walled tube sampling methods (Chapter 2). For
instructional purposes laboratory samples may be furnished by the instructor.
Specimens must be handled carefully in order to prevent disturbance, changes in
cross section, or loss of moisture. To minimize change in water content, prepare
trimmed specimens in a room with controlled humidity, whenever possible. Spec-
imen size is determined on the basis that the largest particle size should be
smaller than one-sixth of the specimen diameter (ASTM D 2166-85). Common
specimen sizes involve a height/diameter ratio between 2 and 3 with diameters of
38 mm or 100 mm. Where sample condition permits, a soil lathe (Figure E26.2)
may be used as an aid in trimming the cylindrical specimen. The cradle helps cut

591
EXPERIMENT 27
Consolidated-Undrained
Triaxial Test

Purpose
Th e consolidated-undrained triaxial test provides a measure of the stress-strain
behavior for soils under various stress conditions and no dissipation of pore water
pressures after initial isotropic (or anisotropic) consolidation. Results are pre-
sented in terms of total strength parameters <PCll and Cell ' or effective strength pa-
rameters ~ and c when pore water pressure measure ments are made.

Equipment
Compression machine
Triaxial cell (Figures 8.8 and 8.9)
Constant pressure apparatus
Pore pressure measurement apparatus (Figure 8.9)
Sample preparation apparatus: soil lathe, trimming saw, and cradle (Figure E26.2) for
cohesive soils
Mold (Figure E27.1 ) for cohesionless soils
Moisture content apparatus (see Experiment 3)
Protective membranes, membrane stretcher (Figure E27.2), rubber bands (or O-rings),
porous disks, and a vernier caliper

Specimen Preparation
Cohesive Soil SpeCimens may be prepared in the same manner as described for.
the unconfined compression test. The undrained test is usually restricted to fully
saturated cohesive soil samples, either undisturbed or remolded. Where pebbles

598
EXPERIMENT 28
Consolidated-Drained
Triaxial Test

Purpose
The consolidated-drained triaxial test provides a measure of the stress-strain be-
havior and the effective strength parameters <1>" and Cd for soils under drained con-
ditions.

Equipment
Compression machine
Triaxial cell (Figures 8.8 and 8.9)
Constant pressure apparatus
Sample preparation apparatus: soil lathe, trimming saw, and cradle (Figure E26.2) for
cohesive soils
Mold (Figure E27.1 ) for cohesionless soils
Moisture content apparatus (see Experiment 3)
Protective membranes, membrane stretcher (Figure E27.2), rubber bands (or O-rings),
porous disks , and a vernier caliper

Specimen Preparation
For both cohesive and cohesionless soils, sample preparation and initial consolida-
tion of the soil specimens is carried out in exactly the same way as described for
consolidated-undrained triaxial tests (Experiment 27). For fully saturated sam-
ples, which are expected to dilate during shear, use of a back pressure in the pore
water will prevent formation of an air lock in the drainage channel below the
lower porous stone. The air lock can prevent water flow to the sample during dila-

612
EXPERIMENT 29
Vane Shear Test

Purpose
The vane test provides a measure of the stress-strain behavior, the undrained
shear strength, and the remolded strength of soft saturated cohesive soils.

Equipment
Laboratory vane apparatus (Figure E29.1)
Calibrated springs supplied with the vane apparatus
Standard vane, 12.7 mm by 12.7 mm
Attachment for holding soil sample tubes or glass sampling jars

Testing Procedure
The vane apparatus is asse mbled by mounting the vane and spring appropriate for
the soil to be tested. Instructions provided with the vane apparatus are to be fol-
lowed for adjustment of the pointer used in reading the spring and vane deflec-
t
tion . The soft clay to be tested may include tube samples - 38 mm (1 in. ) or U5
mm (4t in. ) - or soil in glass sampling jars or Proctor molds. The clamping at-
tachment will hold the soil container vertically below the vane shaft. The soil sur-
face should be trimmed so as to permit the vane to be lowered into the soil to a
depth sufficient to ensure that shearing will take place on the horizontal edges of
the vane without movement of the soil sample surface.
With the vane in position, apply torque to the vane at a rate that should not
exceed 0.1 degls. This rate will normally give a time to failure of from 2 to 5 min.
In very soft clays the time to failure may be longer. Record the maximum torque.
With a motorized apparatus, record values of spring and vane deflection at inter-

619
Appendix A
51 Units and Conversion Factors

SI Units

SI Base Units
Base Unit Name Symbol
Length meter m
Mass kilogram kg
Time second

SI Prefixes
Multiplication Factor PrefIX SI Symbol
1,000,000,000 giga G
1,000,000 mega M
1,000 kilo k
0.001 milli m
0.000001 micro fA,
0.000000001 nano n

623
Appendix B
Laboratory Forms

627
Glossary

Absorbed water Water held mechanically in a soil mass and having physical properties
not much different from ordinary free water at the same temperature and pressure.
Adhesion Shearing resistance between soil and another material such as steel, concrete,
etc., under zero externally applied pressure.
Adsorbed water Water in a soil held by physiochemical forces . Its physical properties
are substantially different from absorbed water at the same temperature and pressure.
Aeolian deposits Wind-deposited material such as dune sands and loess soil depOSits.
Alluvium soil Soil that has been transported in suspension by flOwing water and subse-
quently deposited by sedimentation.
Angle of friction Angle whose tangent is the ratio of the maximum shear stress that re-
sists slippage between two solid bodies at rest and the normal stress across the contact sur-
faces.
Angle of internal friction Angle between the axis of normal stress and the tangent to
the Mohr envelope at a point corresponding to a given failure-stress in soil.
Angle of obliquity Angle between the direction of the resultant stress acting on a given
plane and the normal stress to that plane.
Angle of repose Angle between the horizontal and the maximum slope that soil assumes
through natural processes. It generally applies to dry granular soils.

665
,.

Index

A-line, 94, 523 ratio, 95


AASHTO soil classification system, test deSCription, 507-513
102-106 liquidity index, LI, 88-89
activity, A c ' 15, 89-90, 108 plastiC limit, PL, 88- 89, 94
aggregate, soil, 77 test deSCription, 515-518
alluvium , 17 plasticity chart, 89, 94, 518
angle of internal friction, <1> , 311, 313. See plasticity index, PI, 15,88-89, 517-518
also shear strength. shrinkage limit, SL, 88
correlation with e, 334 test deSCription, 519-525
for clay minerals, 345 soil classification, use in, 94-95,
with soil classification, 334 103-106
summary of factors affecting, 334 toughness index, It, 511, 513
anisotropic soil properties, 168,321-323 auger
area ratio (sampling), AR, 52, Iwan, 44-45
Atterberg limits. See also liquid limit, rotary bucket, 47
plastiC limit, shrinkage limit. ship, 45-46
flow index, 511, 513 augite, 6
liquid limit, LL, 88, 510
device, 508-509 Bearing capacity
flow curve, 509-510 analYSiS, 396
flow index, I r, 511,513 corrections for
multipOint test, 507, 509-510 eccentricity, 401 , 403
one-point test, 507, 511 geometry, 396

684
INDEX 685

inclination, 403 carbonation, 5


defined, 392 Casagrande,
equations, 400 determination of preconsolidation
factor of safety, 393-395 pressure, 249, 254
factors , 397-400 liquid limit, test for, 89, 507-513
failure zones, 396 log-time fitting method, 258, 575
groundwater, effect of, 401-402 cations, 12
layered soils, 404 chemical decomposition, 9
nominal, 405-407 clay, 76-77, 93, 95
reduced, 74 consistency, 88, 95, 346
Terzaghi's theory, 395-397 index properties, 64
Bemouli's equation, 145 permeability, k, 31, 70, 119
bog, 19 sensitivity, 118, 308, 310, 346-347
borderline classification, 94 structure, 14
boring swelling, 118
auger, 43 varved, 19, 21
depth of, 34 clay minerals, 11, 345, 518
number of, 35 activity, 15, 89-90, 108
records of, 59-62 common clay minerals, 11-13
samplers crystal structure
Denison, 54 octahedral, 12
split-spoon, 48 tetrahedral, 12
stationary piston, 53 halloysite, 12-13, 89
tube, 47-48 illite, 11, 13, 89
samples kaolinite, 11, 13, 89
intervals, 36 montmorillonite, 12-13,89
type, 36 silica sheet, 11-12
spacing of, 35 soil structure
boulders, 75 dispersed, 14
Bousinesq method, See also stress distri- flocculated, 14
bution. cobble, 75
influence charts, 206, 210-211 , 220, coefficient of
228 active earth pressure, K. , 356-358
integrated over areas, 221-226 compressibility, a v , 250, 258
point load, 204-206 consolidation, cv , 251,257-258,264
determination of, 257-258, 575, 614
Caissons, 417-419 concavity, Cz , 94, 476, 478
in clay, 417 earth pressure at rest, ~, 353-354
in sand, 418 passive earth pressure, JS" 360-362
calcite, 6, 8 permeability, k, 31, 70,118-119,
capillarity 133-144
capillary pressure, 196 consolidation test, 264
capillary rise, he' 68-69, 151, 196 field measurement, 139-144
capillary zone, 196 laboratory tests, 559-567
effect of, 196 open-end tests, 139, 143-144
effective stress, 196 pumping tests, 139-142
frost action, 71-72 solubility, Henry's, 607
surface tension, T, 67-69, 196 uniformity, C u , 94, 475-476, 478
capillary rise, he' 68-69, 151, 196 volume compressibility, m", 250, 258
686 INDEX

coefficient of (continued) smooth wheel roller, 121, 123


wall friction, 0, 374-377 tamping foot roller, 123
cohesion, 14, 337-340, 342 rubber tired roller, 121, 123
cohesionless soils, 333-337 compaction tests
Coulomb analysis, 364-370 cUlVes, 116-118
earth pressure at rest, Ko, 354, 359 field density, 128--129
failure of, 308, 312 Proctor test (modified), 128,535-539
infinite slope stability, 42~29 Proctor test (standard), 118, 128,
wall friction, coefficient of, 0, 366 530-534
cohesive soils, 337-348 compactive effort, 115
active earth pressure, 358-360 compressibility, 245
components of shear resistance, coefficient of, av , 250
337-342 coefficient of volume, m y, 250
compressibility, 250-251 compression
Coulomb analysis, 367 index, C c 255,273-274
drained shear strength behavior, primary compression ratio, r,
342-346 258--259
overconsolidation, 249, 254-255 secondary 279-280
sample disturbance, 255 compression indices
shrinkage, 519-525 modified secondary, Cu" 260
slope stability recompression, C" 255, 273-274
center of critical circle, 437 secondary, C u , 259-260
cUlVed surface, 436 typical values, 260
infinite slopes, 431--433 concavity, coefficient of, C n 94, 476, 478
<I> = zero analYSiS, 436 cone penetration test. See Dutch cone
collapSing soils, 21 , 109 penetration test.
compaction, 113 confining pressure. See triaxial tests .
benefits of, 113 consistency limits, 88. See also Atterberg
by explosive, 124-125 limits.
cUlVe, 116 consolidated-undrained triaxial test. See
line of optimums, 116 triaxial tests.
optimum dry unit weight, 115--116 consolidation, 244
optimum water content, 116 average degree of, U, 253
dynamic, 122 boundary conditions, 251-252
effort, 114-115 coefficient of, cv , 251, 257-258, 575
impact, 114 constant-rate-of-strain, CRS, 261-264
kneading, 114, 117 degree of, Uz , 252-253
lift thickness, 121 effect of sample disturbance, 254-255
objectives, 119 percent, 252
percent, 128-129,547,553, 557 primary, 281, 574
relative density, 128, 540-544 secondary, 279-280
static, 117 spring analogy, 245--246
theory, 113-116 Terzaghi's 1-D theory, 249-253
vibratory, 117, 122, 125 boundary conditions, 251-252
zero air voids CUlVe, 115-117, 532-533, derivation, 249-253
538 solution, 252
compaction equipment time factor, 252-253, 257-259
motor grader, 123 test 247-249, 568-577. See also
sheepsfoot rollers, 121 oedometer test.
INDEX 687

theory, 249- 253 piles, 410-416


time factor, Tv, 252- 253 friction , 410
time rate of, 278, 281 point-bearing, 410, 412-413,
numerical solution , 281-285 415-416
consolidation parameters degree of saturation, S" 79, 87
coe fficient of delta, 17
compressibility, a v , 250, 258 Denison sampler, 54
consolidation , c v , 251 , 257-258, 264, denSity, 10, 79, 106-107
574-576 dry, 541 , 577
volume compressibility, 1)1,v, 250, 258, index, ld' 542-543
264 in-place determination, 128, 545-558
compression index, Ce . 255, 273-274 maximum, 542-543
consolidation ratio, Uz, 252-253 minimum, 542-543
modi fi ed secondary compression index, nuclear method, 556-558
Cn .. 260 optimum , 116-118,534,539,546
oedometer modulus, M, 264 relative, D" 106-107,540-544
percent of consolidation , Uz, 252 rubber balloon method, 551-555
recompression index, C" 255, 273-274 sand cone method, 545-550
secondary compression index, C n , 260 dewatering, 113
consolidation settlement dilatancy. See soil characteristics.
calculation of, 273- 274 direct shear test, 312-316, 585-590
multilayered soil , 295- 297 discharge velocity, v , 133-134
preconsolidation pressure, uP' 249, dispersed-type structure, 13-14, 76
254- 255 dispersion cups, 483-484
time rate, 281 distortion (immediate) settlement,
ultimate, 272- 274 265-267,269
consolidation testing disturbed sampling, 47
CRS oedometer test, 261-264 drainage, blanket, 17~176, 431-432
data presentation , 249, 255, 258, 262, dunes, 20
571- 573, 575- 576 dupuit assumption, 140
fixed-ling, 248, 570, 572 dutch cone penetration test, CPT,
floating-ring, 248 267-268, 324,328-330
test details, 568-577 correlation with SPT test, 330
consolidometer (oedometer)
fixed-ring, 248, 570, 572 Earth pressure
floating-ring, 248 active
CU -tests, 317 coefficient of active earth pressure,
Cu lmann's method, 376- 378 K." 356-358, 370
CUlve-fitting methods, 257-259 cohesive soils, 358-359
Casagrande's, 258, 575 pressure distribution, 375
Taylor's, 258, 575 at-rest
coefficient of earth pressure, ~,
Darcy's law, 31, 133- 134, 153, 161-164, 353-354
249 cohesive soils, 354
decomposition , degree of, Xd;, 91 Coulomb theory
deep foundations active, 364-367
caissons, 417-419 cohesionless soils, 365-367
in clay, 417 cohesive soils, 366, 371
in sand, 418 passive, 367, 370-371
688 INDEX

Coulomb theory (continued) failure theory. See Mohr-Coulomb


Culmann construction. See Culmann 's strength.
method. feldspars, 5, 11
effect of water, 384-385 fill , 23
failure surfaces fine-grained soil, 22
Coulomb, 365-367 finite difference method, 157- 159,
log spiral method, 374 281-284
Rankine, 365 finite element method, 157
horizontal pressure flocculated-type structure, 13- 14, 76
distribution of, 359-361, 384 floodplain , 17
effective, 384 flow index, Ir, 511 , 513
log spiral method, 374-375 flow line, 31, 132, 154, 165-166
passive, 360-362, 373 flow nets, 154, 161-162, 164-167
calculation, 360-361, 363, 371 and anisotropic permeability,
coefficient of passive earth pressure, 168-170
~ , 357 , 360,362 , 373 construction of, 156, 165-166
cohesive soils, 360 drawing rules, 165-166
pressure distribution, 375 electric analogy, 156-157
retaining walls, 385-386 equipotential drops, 165
point of application, 382 equipotential lines, 154, 165-166
Rankine theory, 358-362 flow channels, 165
assumptions, 357, 361 flow quantity calculation, 166-167
earth pressure coefficients, 361-362 seepage force, 178
wall friction, coefficient of, 8, 374-377 fluid flow
effective grain size, D IO , 69, 94 laminar, 145
effective stress, 151, 188, 191, 196 turbulent, 145
Eigenproblem method, 285-295 foundation engineering, 1
epidote, 6 foundations. See also shallow foundations .
equipotential caissons, 417--419
drop, 165 deep, 392-393
line, 154, 165-166 piles, 410--416
erosion, 9 settlement, 398, 407--408
esker, 21 shallow, 393-394, 395
excess pore water pressure, u e , 191, 249 types, 392, 411--412, 417
exchange capacity, 12-13 friction angle. See also shear strength; an-
expansive soils, 21 , 108 gle of internal friction.
exploration measurement, <I>
geophysical, 38 direct shear test, 314, 585
resistivity, 41 triaxial test, 319, 598, 610
seismic, 39 mineral-to-mineral, (j)", 340-342
soil, 33 peak, 333-337, 344
residual, (j)" 342, 344-345
factor of safety Friction ratio, F" 328
bearing capacity, 393-395 Frictional resistance, 340-342
infinite slope stability, 428--429, Frost
432--433 action, 70-72
method of slices, 439, 444 heave, 72
recommended, 445--446 ice layers, 70-71
sliding, 27 susceptibility, 72-75
trial failure circle, 434 Frozen soils. See also frost. 2
INDEX 689

gap- (or skip-) graded soil, 475-476 head


CARDS program , 444 capillary, 196
geologie cycle, 75 elevation, 145-147
geophysical methods, 38 pressure, 145-148, 151
geotechnical engineering, 1 tQtal, 145-148, 164-166
glacial soils, 15, 20 velocity, 145-146
gradation height ratio factor, 92
poorly graded, 475-476 hornblende, 6
skip- (or gap-) graded, 475 humus, 11
well-graded, 475-476 hydration, 5
gradient hydraulic gradient, i, 133, 137, 164-165
hydraulic, i , 133, 135, 137, hydrometer method, 75, 482-492
164-165 hydroxyls, 11, 12
threshold, io, 135
grain shape ice layers, 70-71
effect on (j), 334 igneous, 5
types ignition test, 90, 526--529
angular, 76 illite, 11, 13, 89
rounded, 76 immediate settlement, 265-270
subangular, 76 index
subrounded, 76 activity, Ac ' 15, 89
well rounded, 76 density, I d, 592
grain size, 75-76 flow, Ie. 511, 513
analysis, 472-479,482-492 liqUidity, LI, 88, 517-518
CUlVe 491-492 plasticity, PI, 88, 94, 517-518
distribution, 475-476 toughness, It, 511
effect on shear strength, 334 index properties, 64
effective, D IO , 94, 476 influence charts, See Stress distribution,
hydrometer method, 482-492 circular loaded area, 220
mechanical analysis, 472 line load, 210-211
passing, percent, 475, 478-479 Newmark's, 228
poorly graded, 475-476 point load, 206
retained, percent, 475, 478-479 rectangular loaded area, 223
sieve analysis, 75, 482, 485, 491-492, interlayer water, 67
541 iron ore, 6
skip- (or gap-) graded, 475-476 isomorphous substitution, 12
uniformly graded, 475-476 isotherm, 70-71
well graded, 475-476 isotropic soil, 308
granular soil, 23,107
gravel, 22, 76 Ko,353
ground modification, 119, 122 clays, 354
ground water defined, 354
artesion,57-58 relation to (j), 354
perched, 58 sands, 354
table, 59 kame, 21
group index, GI, 103 kaolin, 6, 11
grouting, 122, 127-128 kaolinite, 11, 13, 89
Kr, 319-320
halloysite, 12, 13, 67, 89 Mohr-Coulomb, relationship with,
hardness, rocks, 56 319-320
690 INDEX

Kr (continued) clays, 311, 313, 610


parameters, 319 effect of overconsolidation pressure,
Kozeny equation, 156 311,313
Kr line,319-320
lacustrine deposits, 17 sands, 311-312, 618
landform , 1 mOisture-density test, 530, 535
lateral earth pressure at rest, coefficient montmorillonite, 11-13, 15- 16, 67, 89
of,~, 354 moraine, 21
lattice water, 67
Laplace's equation, 153-154 NC. See normally consolidated soils.
limestone, 16 Newmark's chart, 228
limits, Atterberg, 88 N-value. See standard penetration test.
liquid, LL, 88--89, 94, 507-513 normally consolidated soils, defin ed, 254
one-point test, 507, 511 Nuclear density meters , 556
multipoint test, 507, 509-510
plastic, PL, 88--89, 94, 515-518 octahedral sheet, 12
shrinkage, SL, 88,519-525 octahedral unit, 11
line of optimums. See compaction curve. oedometer. See consolidometer.
liquid limit, LL. See Atterberg limits. oedometer modulus, M, 264
liquid limit ratio, 95 oedometer test
liquidity index, 88, 517-518 consolidation, 247- 249, 568-577
LIR. See load-increment ratio. constant-rate-of-strain, CRS , 261-264
LL. See Atterberg limits. "quick", 579-584
load increment ratio, LIR, 248, 570, 580 one-dimensional
loess, 20 compressibility, 245- 247
consolidation theory, 249-254
magma, 5 optimum water content, 116
marine sediments, 19 organiC fraction, Xr, 67, 90, 527
marsh, 19 organic matter, 11, 90
metamorphic rock, 5 organic soil, 4, 11, 22, 66, 75, 90
mica, 6 peat, 19, 75, 90, 93
microcline, 6 orthoclase, 6
mineral fraction, Xm , 90 outwash, glaCial, 22
modified compression index, secondary, overconsolidated soils
C a ., 260 defin ed, 254
modified Proctor test, 128 settlement calculations, 273-274
modulus overconsolidation ratio, OCR
oedometer, M, 264 defin ed, 354
tangent, 308-310 effect on ~ , 354
Young's, 56, 308, 310 oxidation , 5
Mohr circle
failure plane, 344 particle shape. See also grain shape.
pole method, 201-203 effect on shear strength , 334
Mohr circle of stress, 198-201, 344, 618 particle surface roughness, effect on
Mohr-Coulomb strength shear strength, 334
criterion, 309-311 peat, 19, 75, 90,93
parameters, 311-313 penetration test, standard, SPT, 49, 267,
Mohr failure envelope. See also shear 324,327-328
strength. permeability
INDEX 691

absolute (specific), K, 134 Casagrande construction, 249


anisotropic materials, 169-170 determination of, 249, 255
coefficient of, k, 31, 70, 118-119, effect of sample disturbance, 255
133-135, 138, 264 factors effecting determination of,
measurement of, 136-137, 139-144, 254-255, 584
559-567 methods to evaluate, 249, 254-255
of stratified soils, 163-164 quasi-preconsolidation pressure, 261
typical values, chart, 138 Schmertmann's method, 255
permeameter pressure meter test, PMT, 324, 330-333
constant-head, 136-137, 559-563 primary compression ratio, r , 259
falling-head, 136-137, 139, 564-567 primary consolidation. See consolidation.
permeant, 137 principle planes. See stress .
phase diagram, 10,77-78 proctor test. See compaction tests.
phase relations, 10, 78-80 profile, soil, 22-24
PI. See Atterberg limits; plasticity index. pumping tests, 139-141
piezometer, 59, 147, 151 pycnometer, 493-495
piezometric
head, 146 quartz, 6
level, 37, 133 qUick clays, 22
lines, 154 quicksand, 179, 195
surface, 139, 141
Piles Rankine analysis . See also earth pressure.
displacement, 411-412 active state, 358-360
friction , 410 passive state, 360-361
in clay, 413-414 recompression index, en 255, 273-274
in sand, 415-416 refraction survey 40-41 , 450-454
non-displacement, 411-412 residual soils, 5, 15-17
pOint-bearing, 410, 412-413, 415-416 resistivity
plastic limit, PL, 88-89, 94, 515-518 exploration, 41-43
plasticity meter, 43
chart, 94 retainer
A-line, 94, 523 lad sample, 48
U-line, 94, 523 spring valve, 48
index, PI, 15,88-89, 517-518 trap valve, 48
point resistance, qc, 328 retaining walls, 385-386
Poisson's ratio, 205, 213 rock quality designator, RQD, 55
pole. See also Mohr's circle. 201-203 rocks, mineral composition, 6
poorly-graded soil, 475-476 rollers. See compaction equipment.
pore pressure parameters
A parameter, 606-607 salinity, 67
A parameter, 309-310, 606-607 sampler
B parameter, 307, 606 Denison, 54-55
effect of saturation on B, 307, 607 Shelby tube, 52-53
pore water pressure solid tube, 47
back pressure, 607 split spoon, 48
excess, ti e' 191, 249 stationary piston, 53
hydrostatic, til" 191,249 thin-wall tube, 52
porosity, n, 10, 79, 87 sand, 22, 76, 93
preconsolidation pressure sand boil, 179, 195
692 INDEX

sand cone method, 545-550 total stress analYSiS, 435--439


saturation, degree of, S" 79, 87, 577 unconfined compression, 346, 596
Schmertmann method, 255 vane, 321-322, 619
secondary compression, 259 cohesion, C, 337, 339, 342
sedimentary rock, 5-6, 8 cohesion less soils, 333, 339
seepage definition, 306
Bernouli's equation, 145 dilatancy, 309, 315, 342
Darcy's law, 31, 133-134, 153, 161-164 drllined, 307, 342,618
anisotropic soil, 168-170 envelope, Mohr failure, 311-313, 343,
discharge velocity, v, 134 618
equipotential lines, 154, 165-166 factors of safety, 27, 432--433, 445--446
flow nets, 154, 161-162, 164--167 fllilure, 306, 344
force , 178-179 fllilure angle, a r, 313
hydraulic gradient, i, 133, 137, 164--165 failure criteria
Laplace's equation, 153-154 compressive strength, 309
transformed section, 169 maximum prinCiple stress difference,
velOCity, V s, 134, 142 308, 310
seismic survey, 39--41 maximum principle stress ratio,
sensitivity 343-344
defined, 346, 592 friction , 340-342
example of, 308, 310, 596 intrinsic, 338-339
typical values of, 347 parameters
settlement, S, 25, 92 c, 345, 598
calculations, 272-274 intrinsic, 337, 339
components of, 265 </>, 345, 598
consolidation, 244, 247-261 residual, 344-345
as a function of time, 253-254, undrained, 307,344,346-348, 585,594
277-278 shear strength tests. See also triaxial tests .
of multiple layers, 295 directshear, 312-315
distortion (immediate), 265 direct simple shear, 322-323
immediate, 265-271 typical results, 314, 590
overconsolidated soils, 249, 254--255, vane, 321,324, 619-621
273-274 sheet structure, 11
Schmertmann's method, 268-271 Shelby tube, 52-53
secondary compression, 279 shrinkage
shallow foundations . See shallow limit, SL, 88, 519-525
foundations . linear, LS , 519, 523
ultimate, 272-276 ratio, R, 519, 522-523
shallow foundations volumetric, VS, 519, 523
bearing capacity, 395--400 sieve analYSiS, 75, 482, 485, 491--492, 541
settlement, 398 silica sheet, 11- 12
shape factor, Nr/Ne , 167 Silicate, 11
shear strength silt, 22, 76, 93
angle of internal friction , </>, 334 sinkhole, 17
clays site
drained strength parameters, conditions, 37
342-343, 612 geology, 36
effective stress analYSiS, 439, seismicity, 36
441--444 slope
INDEX 693

failure, 425 samples


homogeneous, 433-435 depth interval, 36
infinite, 428-433 disturbed, 36, 47
instability, causes of, 427-429 types, 36
types, 425-426 undisturbed, 36, 50, 591
slope failure , 425 sensitivity, 64, 86, 120, 308, 310,
slope stability, 44, 433 346-347, 592
center of critical circle, 437 transported, 17-20
effective stress, 439, 442-444 water, 17-19
infinite slope, 428-433 wind, 19-20
influence of water, 65
submergence, 438 absorbed, 66
surcharge, 438 content, W , 65, 79, 87, 458-459,
tension cracks, 438 462-465
method of slices, 435, 439 density, 500, 504
<l> = zero method, 436 free, 65-66
pore pressures, 441-443 interlayer, 67
total stress, 441 lattice, 67
wedge method of analysis, 444-445 oriented, 66
soil (s), 1, 64, 75 salinity, 466-470
aggregate, 77 unfrozen, w u , 66
bOrings water transported, 17-19
depth, 34-35 wind transported, 19-20
number, 35-36 soil characteristics
spacing, 35-36 compressibility, 245-247, 250
classification, 90, 93-106 dilatancy, 309, 315, 335-337, 340, 342
coarse-grained, 93 permeability
cohesive, 65 absolute (specific), K, 134
collapsible, 21 , 109 anisotropic materials, 169-170
composition, 5 coefficient of, k, 31, 70, 118-119,
consistency, 64, 86, 346 133-135, 138, 264
density, 545-550 measurement of, 136-137, 139-144,
electrical resistivities, 42 559-567
expansive, 21 of stratified soils, 163-164
exploration, 34 typical values, chart, 138
resistivity exploration, 41-43 soil classification
scope of, 34 AASHTO system, 102-106
seismic survey, 39-41 Unified system (USeS), 93- 101
fi eld sample collection, 455-456 soil improvement
fin e-grained 93 compaction, 113
glacial origin , 20- 21 dewatering, 113
granular, 66 grouting, 127
identification, 89 preloading, 113
improvement, types, 113 soil mechanics, 1, 2
investigation program , 38 solids
organic, 11, 22,66, 75, 90,526 unit weight, 78
profile, 22-24 volume of, 499, 504
reconnaissance, 34 speCific gravity, G" 80, 87, 92, 495-496,
residual, 9, 15- 17 500, 522
694 INDEX

specific gravity, G s (continued) stress-strain behavior


apparent, 493, 495 confined compression, 307, 576, 584
average, 541, 543 direct shear, 312-316, 590
correction factor, a, 485-486 drained, 307- 308, 315
specific surface, 13, 15, 86 examples, 308, 310, 314- 315, 398
spread footing, 28 triaxial test, 316-321
stability analysis undrained, 307, 310, 596
charts, 436-438, 440 volumetric, 308, 315
effective stress, 439-444 structure, 13-14
infinite slope, 428-433 dispersed-type, 13
method of slices, 435 flocculated-type, 13
total stress, 435-439 macrostructure, 136
wedge method, 444-445 microstructure, 136
standard penetration test, SPT, 49, 267, surface of sliding, observation of, 27- 28
324,327-328 surface tension , T, 67-69, 196
correlation with CPT tests, 330 swelling of soils, 118
standard Proctor tests. See compaction
tests. tamping foot roller. See compaction
strain influence diagram, 271 equipment.
strength parameters, 444, 598, 612, 617 tension cracks
stress retaining walls, 360
at a point, 188-189,204-206 slopes, 438
due to surface loads, 204-233 tetrahedral unit, 11- 12
effective, 188, 191, 196,610 thaw-weakening, 72
Mohr's circle, derivation, 198-201 threshold gradient, io, 135
paths, 319-320 till, 20
plane (two-dimensional) , 198 toughness index, I, 511
prinCipal planes, 200-201 triaxial tests
principal stresses, 200 apparatus, 317- 319
intermediate, 324 consolidated- drained, CD, 317,
major, 200, 324 612- 618
minor, 200, 324 consolidated- undrained, CU, 317,
total, 191 598- 610
stress distribution unconsolidated- undrained, U U, 317
Bousinesq theory, 204-205 tube, capillary, 69
circular load, 218-220
influence charts U-line, 94, 523
circular loaded area, 220 unconfined compression
line load, 210-211 test, 591- 596
Newmark's, 228 test machine, 592
point load, 206 undisturbed sampling, 47, 50
rectangular loaded area, 223 undrained strength
line load, 208-211 from fi eld tests
long embankment, 217-218 Dutch cone penetration test, CPT,
point load, 204-206 267- 268, 324, 328- 330
rectangular load 221-223 standard penetration test, SPT, 49,
strip load, 212-213 267, 324, 327- 328
triangular load, 216-217 measurement. See also triaxial tests .
stress ratio. See Kf . direct shear test, 312- 315, 585
INDEX 695

unconfined compression test, water table, 24, 30, 57-59


591--596 water transported soils, 15, 17
vane shear test, 321-322, 346, waves
619-622 compression, 39, 42
strain rate effect, 348 direct, 39-40
Unified Soil Classification System, 5, head, 40, 453
93-101 weathering, 5, 9,56,346,475
uniformity, coefficient of, C u , 94, weight, unit, 78, 107, 115
475-476, 478 well graded. See grain size distribution.
unit weight, 78, 107, 118 well graded soil, 475-476
bouyant,79 Wenner electrode arrangement, 43
bulk, 78,87, 108, 502-504,534 wind-laid depOSits, 19-20
dry, 500, 502--504, 534
effective, 79 Young's modulus, E, 56, 453
of solids, 78 initial tangent, E i , 308
optimum, 534, 539, 542, 546 initial tangent, undrained, E iu , 310
saturated 79, 87, 500, 502-504 shear, 453
water, 78, 80, 134
uses. See Unified Soil Classification Zero air voids curve, 115-117,532-533,
System. 538

Van der Waals forces , 13


vane shear test, 321, 324
Bjerrums correction factor, 322, 324
varved clay, 19, 21
vermiculite, 13
vertical strain
area correction, 594, 609, 615
use in settlement calculations, 268, 272
viscosity, 'Tj, 486
void ratio, e, 10, 79, 87, 107, 500, 504,
574
effect on shear strength, 334
maximum, 107, 542
minimum, 107, 541
voids, volume of, Vv , 78

water
absorbed, 66
density, 500, 504
salinity, 466--470
viscosity,561-562
volume of, 499, 504
water content
determination of, 458-459, 462-465
optimum, 534, 539, 542
pore, w, 65, 79-80
unfrozen, w u , 66
water pressure. See pore water pressure.

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