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CHAPTER 1.

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FUNDAMENTALS OF DATABASE DFC 2083
Database Design
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
COURSE LEARNING OUTCOME
CLO1: Apply the fundamentals concepts and structures of
database management and relational data model in
database development process.
(C3, PLO1)
LEARNING OUTCOME FOR TODAY
 Evolution of the database and give an example of its role in the
business world.
 Database development process.
 Properties of databases
 Database management system (DBMS).
 Data model.
 Logical Data Model:
- object base
- record base
 Three-schema architecture of DBMS
 Client-server architecture of DBMS.
WHAT IS DATABASE & SQL?

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1.1 UNDERSTAND DATABASE
Data
 Known facts that can be recorded and have implicit meaning
Database
 Database offers an organized mechanism for storing, managing
and retrieving information from a computer system.
Database System
 Composed of 5 major parts: Hardware, Software (DBMS),
People, Procedures and Data
Database Management System (DBMS)
 Collection of components that support data acquisition,
dissemination, storage, maintenance, retrieval, and formatting
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DATABASE SYSTEM ENVIRONMENT

Figure 1: Simplified database system environment E(ElMasri & Navathe, 2011)


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EVOLUTION OF THE DATABASE

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EVOLUTION OF THE DATABASE (CONT)

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IMPORTANT HISTORICAL CONTRIBUTIONS
IN DATABASE DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN.
1968 File-Based: predecessor of database, Data was
maintained in a flat file.
Flat Files:
Earlier, punched cards technology was used to store data –
later, files. But the files have no as such advantage, rather
have several limitations.

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IMPORTANT HISTORICAL CONTRIBUTIONS IN
DATABASE DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN.
(CONT)
[1968-1980] Era of Hierarchical Database: Prominent
hierarchical database model was IBM’s first DBMS
called IMS (Information Management System).
Hierarchical Data Model:
Mid 1960s Rockwell collaborates with IBM to create the
Information Management System (IMS), IMS lead the
mainframe database market in 70’s and early 80’s.
In this model, files are related in a
parent/child manner, with each
child file having at most one
parent file.
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IMPORTANT HISTORICAL CONTRIBUTIONS IN
DATABASE DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN.
(CONT)
Network Data Model:
Early 1960s, Charles Bachmann developed first DBMS
at Honeywell, Integrated Data Store (IDS)
It standardized in 1971 by the CODASYL group
(Conference on Data Systems Languages).
In Network data model, files are related as owners and
members, similar to the common network model except
that each member file can have more than one owner.

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IMPORTANT HISTORICAL CONTRIBUTIONS IN
DATABASE DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN.
(CONT)
Hierarchical Model and the Network Model were in use in
almost the same era.
[1970-present] Era of Relational Database and Database
Management: The relational database model was conceived
by E. F. Codd in 1970. It can be defined using the following
two terminologies:
1. Instance – a table with rows or columns.
2. Schema – specifies the structure (name of relation, name
and type of each column)
The model is based on branches of mathematics called set
theory and predicate logic. 12
ROLE IN BUSINESS WORLD

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DISCUSSION

List database system roles in the following fields:


 Enterprise Information
 Banking and finance
 Universities

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IMPORTANCE OF DATABASES TO
EVERYDAY LIFE.

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STEPS IN THE DATABASE DEVELOPMENT
PROCESS.
1

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SHARING CONCEPT OF DATA IN DATABASE

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PROPERTIES OF DATABASES

1. Completeness
2. Integrity
3. Flexibility
4. Efficiency
5. Usability
COMPLETENESS

Ensures that users can access the data they want


includes ad hoc queries, which would not be
explicitly given as part of a statement of data
requirements.
Database has to support all requirements
It requires the complete understanding of
database structure, relationship and constraint.
INTEGRITY

Ensures that data is both consistent (no contradictory


data) and correct (no invalid data), and ensures that
users trust the database.
Database integrity ensures that data entered into the
database is accurate, valid, and consistent.
Any applicable integrity constraint and data
validation rules must be satisfied before permitting a
change to the database.
FLEXIBILITY

Ensures that a database can evolve (without


requiring excessive effort) to satisfy changing user
requirements.
Ability to upgrade or change the functionality of
database up to the current need.
Ability to support wide area of data types
EFFICIENCY

Ensures that users do not have unduly long response


times when accessing data.
The database should be able to perform effectively.
The designer has to choose the right DBMS, the right
access path in order to improve the efficiency.
USABILITY
Ensures that data can be accessed and manipulated in
ways which match user requirements.
The database design significantly impacts the quality and
usability of the data.
A database design that is not properly normalized will
introduce data update anomalies and data errors.
A poorly designed database may place the entire
organization at risk due to the incomplete or incorrect
information.
DESIRABLE PROPERTIES OF A DATABASE
Completeness: Ensures that users can access the data they want. Note
that this includes ad hoc queries, which would not be explicitly given as
part of a statement of data requirements.
Integrity: Ensures that data is both consistent (no contradictory data)
and correct (no invalid data), and ensures that users trust the database.
Flexibility: Ensures that a database can evolve (without requiring
excessive effort) to satisfy changing user requirements.
Efficiency: Ensures that users do not have unduly long response times
when accessing data.
Usability: Ensures that data can be accessed and manipulated in ways
which match user requirements.