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TENSES

I. Present Tense
Rumus : 1. Verb I : untuk subyek I, we, you, they
2. Verb I + s/es : untuk subyek he, she, it
3. To be : is am are
Keterangan waktu : - every …
- semua adverb of frequency (always, frequently/often, usually/generally,
sometimes/ occationally, seldom/rarely/hardly ever, never)
Kata kerja bantu yang dipakai :
- To be : is, am, are
- Verb-to do : do, does
Digunakan untuk :
a. Menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang terjadi berulang kali atau merupakan suatu kebiasaan
(habit)
o I leave for school at 06.30 every morning.
o Mother cooks nice food every Sunday.
o I study English twice a week.
b. Menyatakan suatu fakta (fact) atau suatu kebenaran umum (general truth)
o The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
o Cows give milk and sheep give wool.
o Vegetarians don’t eat meat and fish.
c. Menyatakan sesuatu yang akan terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang, misalnya jadwal,
program, dll.
o The last train leaves at 5.50 pm .
o The art exhibition opens at 10 o’clock.
o Tomorrow is Sunday.
Contoh-contoh kalimat interrogative dan negative
o Mother cooks delicious food every Sunday.
(?) Does mother cook delicious food every Sunday?
(-) Mother does not cook delicious food every Sunday.

o The nurses usually read at at night.


(?) Do the nurses usually read at night?
(-) The nurses do not usually read at night.

o The man and I are always late.


(?) Are the man and you always late?
(-) The man and I are not always late.
Cara menjawab kalimat tanya yes-no lengkap dan singkat
o Are you a nurse?
Yes, I am a nurse.
No, I am not a nurse.
Yes, I am.
No, I am not.

o Does the cat drink milk every morning?


Yes, the cat drinks milk every morning.
No, the cat does not drink milk every morning.
Yes, it does.
No, it does not.

o Do the students often come late?


Yes, the students often come late.
No, the students do not often come late.
Yes, they do
No, they do not

II. Present Continuous Tense


Rumus : To be (is, am, are) + Verb I + ing
Keterangan waktu : - now
- at the moment
- at present
- still
Kata kerja bantu yang dipakai :
- To be : is, am, are
Digunakan untuk :
a. Menyatakan peristiwa yang sedang terjadi pada saat kalimat diucapkan.
o My sister is playing with her dolls.
o Listen! The neighbours are quarelling again.
o I am preaparing luch for you.
b. Menyatakan seatu peristiwa yang sedang terjadi dalam periode.
o We are living at my mother’s house at the moment
o The child’s condition is improving
o The cost of living is increasing. Every month thing is dearer
c. Menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang akan terjadi di waktu yang akan datang dan telah
direncanakan atau ditentukan sebelumnya.
o I am meeting the new teacher at the station tomorrow morning.
o She is spending her vacation in Australia next month.
o I am inviting Emma to the party on Friday.

Catatan:
Beberapa kata kerja tidak dipakai dalam present continuous tense. Kata kata itu adalah love,
forget, know, need, understand, see, seem, hear, hate, belong, want, prefer, believe, prefer,
realize, remember, etc. sebagai ganti bentuk simple present tense.
Contoh-contoh kalimat interrogative and negative
o The girl is reading a story book now.
(?) Is the girl reading a story book now?
(-) The girl is not reading a book now.
o I am teaching English at the moment.
(?) Are you teaching English now?
(-) I am not teaching English now.
o The children are reapeating the sentences at present.
(?) Are the children repeating the sentences at present?
(-) The children are not repeating the sentences at present.
Cara menjawab kalimat yes-no lengkap dan singkat.
o Are the men opening the boxes?
Yes, the men are opening the boxes.
No, the men are not opening the boxes.
Yes, they are.
No, they are not.

o Am I writing some answers?


Yes, I am writing some answers.
No, I am not writing some answers.
Yes, I am.
No, I am not.

o Is the dog eating the bones?


Yes, the dog is eating the bones.
No, the dog is not eating the bones.
Yes, it is.
No, it is not.
III. Present Perfect Tense
Rumus : have/has + Verb III
Keterangan waktu : - since … - before
- for … - after
- already - up till now
- yet(-,?) - just/just now
- ever/never - recently/lately/these days
- so far
Digunakan untuk :
a. Menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang terjadi di waktu lampau dan masih berlangsung / masih
ada hubungannya dengan sekarang.
o We have occupied this house for seven years.
o She has worked for this company for three years.
o My brother has got married.
o I have bought a new dictionary.
b. Meyatakan suatu peristiwa yang terjadi di wakti lampau tetapi waktu tepatnya tidak
diketahui.
o I have lost my notebook.
o She has seen that old lady before.
o The man has forgotten his promise.

IV. Present Continuous Tense


Rumus : have / has been + Verb + ing
Keterangan waktu : - for …
- since …
- all …
Digunakan untuk :
Menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang terjadi di waktu lampau dan masih berlangsung / masih ada
hubungannya dengan sekarang dan berlangsung terus menerus.
- Jack has been studying English for six months.
- She has been waiting for her brother since this morning.
- It has been raining all night long.
V. Past Tense
Rumus : 1. Verb I + ed
2. Verb II
3. To be : was, were
Keterangan waktu : - yesterday
- last …
- … ago
- this morning
- in … (waktu lampau)
Digunakan untuk :
a. Menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang terjadi di waktu lampau.
o The children enjoyed the party last night.
o Columbus discovered America in 1492.
o His father died when he was ten years old.
b. Menyatakan satu rangkaian peristiwa yang terjadi di waktu lampau.
o He got up, dressed and went to school.
o I stepped on a banana peel, fell down and hurt my knees.

VI. Past Continuous Tense


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Rumus : 1. verb I + ing …
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2. verb I + ing … , verb II.
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3. verb I + ing … , verb I + ing.
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Keterangan waktu : - when


- while
- as
Digunakan untuk :
a. Menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang sedang terjadi pada suatu saat di waktu lampau.
o They were having a meeting at 2 pm yesterday.
o I was watching television at 8 o’clock last night.
o We were playing football at 5 pm yesterday.
b. Menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang sedang terjadi di waktu lampau ketika peristiwa lain
menyela.
o My little sister was studying when I came home last night.
o They were waiting for the bus when I met them.
c. Menyatakan dua atau lebih peristiwa yang sedang terjadi pada saat yang sama di waktu
lampau.
o While father was watching television, I was reading a book.
o Jane was cooking lunch while her brother was washing the dishes.
o They were doing the test as the children were shouting at one another.

VII. Past Perfect Tense


Rumus : had Verb III … , Verb II
Keterangan waktu : - after
- before
- when
- as soon as
- until
Digunakan untuk :
a. Menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang telah terjadi di waktu lampau dan selesai ketika peristiwa
lain menyusul terjadi di waktu lampau juga.
o Before I arrived at the station, the first train had left.
o We wanted until the rain had stopped.
o As soon as the bell had rung, we went into the classroom.

VIII. Past Perfect Continuous Tense


Rumus : had been Verb I + ing
Keterangan waktu : - for … when/by/before + verb II
Digunakan untuk :
Suatu peristiwa yang tengah berlangsung selama waktu tertentu di waktu lampau ketika peristiwa
lain terjadi di waktu lampau juga.
o They had been playing tennis for one hour when the rain dropped heavily.
o Before she gave up, she had been trying to open the tin for some time.
o I had been reading the novels for two hours by the time he came.
IX. Future Tense
Rumus : 1. Shall / will verb I
2. be (is, am, are) + going to + verb I
Keterangan waktu : - tomorrow - tonight
- soon - next …
- immediately - in (waktu yang akan datang)
- at once - in …’s / ‘times
Kata kerja bantu yang dipakai : Shall – will
Digunakan untuk :
a. Menyatakan sesuatu yang akan dilakukan tanpa dirancang dulu.
o I will have some coke, please.
o She will lend the child her jacket.
b. Menyatakan suatu ramalan (prediction).
o It will rain hard this afternoon.
o They will not win the game because the don’t have good players.
c. Menyatakan suatu permintaan (request), undangan (invitation) atau kesediaan melakukan
sesuatu (willingness).
o Will you hold the door open for me, please?
o Will you stay with us tonight, please?
o I will answer the phone.
Be going to
Digunakan untuk :
a. Menyatakan sesuatu yang akan dilakukan yang telah direncanakan.
o He is going to bring his sister to the party tonight.
o We are going to have the meeting again this afternoon.
b. Menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang akan terjadi di waktu yang akan datang berdasarkan
suatu pertanda yang ada pada waktu sekarang.
o Look at the black clouds. It is going to rain heavily.
o It’s 7 o’clock and you are still here. You are going to be late.

X. Future Continuous Tense


Rumus : shall / will + be + Verb I+ing
Keterangan waktu : at / by / + future tense
Digunakan untuk :
Menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang akan sedang terjadi di waktu yang akan datang.
o At noon tomorrow, I’ll be taking my English lesson.
o By this time next week, he’ll be returning to his village.

XI. Future Perfect Tense


Rumus : shall / will + have + verb III
Keterangan waktu : at / by … + future tense
Digunakan untuk :
Menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang akan sudah selesai di waktu yang akan datang.
o At 10 pm tonight, I will have shut all the windows.
o They will have moved away by the time you come.

XII. Future Perfect Continuous Tense


Rumus : shall / will + have been + Verb I+ing
Keterangan waktu : - for … when + present tense
- for … by + future tense
Digunakan untuk :
Menyaatakan suatu peristiwa yang akan tengah berlangsung selama waktu tertentu di waktu yang
akan datang.
o When she comes, I will have been doing the job for fifteen minutes.
o By the next month, he will have been teaching in my school for ten years.
Exercises!

I. Put the verbs in the brackets into the correct tenses forms.
1. The child (burn) himself while he (play) with the matches. His mother (apply) some ointment
to the injured area.

____________ ____________ ____________

2. Lighting (strike) last night and (fuse) all the lights in the house. My father (inspect) the
damage and (call) electrician the next day.

____________ ____________ ____________

3. Somebody (ask) for you just now. As you (be) out, we (tell) him to come back in the
evening.

____________ ____________ ____________

4. A very strong wind (blow) when the train arrived at the station. It (begin) to rain very
heavily just as the passengers (get) off the train.

____________ ____________ ____________

5. A burst of applause (greet) him when he (appear) on the stage. He (be) out of the limelight
for ten years.

____________ ____________ ____________

6. Where (be) the rest of the coffee? I (drink) only one cup from the pot. Someone must
(finish) up the rest.

____________ ____________ ____________

7. We used to work there; but a year ago, the shop (close) down and we (be forced) to seek
employment else-where.

____________ ____________

8. He (practice) as a private doctor for twenty years now. He (say) that he (retire) from the
profession next year. ____________ ____________ ____________
9. Since 1967, she (live) in that house. Her father (buy) a new house in Green Acre Park and
they (shift) there next month.

____________ ____________ ____________

10. Though he (win) a lot of money through gambling he (be) still not statisfied with what he
already (have). He (not realize) yet that it (not pay) to gamble.

____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

____________

11. Every night, he (take) a sleeping pill before he (go) go to bed. He (do) this for the past few
years to get himself sleep.

____________ ____________ ____________

12. She (sleep) while we (watch) a film on television last night. We (try) to wake her up but she
(sleep) but she sleep on. This morning, she (scold) us for not waking her up.

____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

____________

13. All the pupils (be told) by their teacher to go the library during the free period. I (go) to join
them now.

____________ ____________

14. The caretaker (lock) the gates. No one (be allowed) to enter or to leave the grounds until the
conference (be) over.

____________ ____________ ____________

15. I (try) to get her on the phone all morning but without any success. I (not think) that she
(hear) about her lucky win in the lottery.

____________ ____________ ____________

16. Honey (be obtained) from bees. The bees (collect) nectar from the flowers and this (turn)
into honey.

____________ ____________
17. Mary and her sister (go) to the market now. Their mother (go) to visit a sick relative, so the
two sisters (have) to care of the house.

____________ ____________ ____________

18. Robert examined the pebble which he (pick) up on the shore. It (look) like a piece of crystal
and it (glitter) when the light (fall) on it.

____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

19. I (write) a letter to my parenets tonight to ask for their permission. I (be) never on a hike
before and I’m not sure if they (allow) me to go.

____________ ____________ ____________

20. My sister is a quiet girl. She usually (keep) to herself and never (harm) a fly. Although she
(look) timid, she (have) a strong protective instinct.

____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

____________

21. Many people (go) to the beach on Sundays and on public holidays. The nearness of the
sandy beach (enable) many local people to reach it by car.

____________ ____________

22. You (enjoy) yourself at the party last night? I heard that it (end) early. Something go wrong?

____________ ____________ ____________

23. We (sleep) when it started to rain. The rain (come) in through the windows, so I (get) up to
shut them.

____________ ____________ ____________

24. It (rain) since last night. I (wonder) if it (stop) in the afternoon. The sky (look) so grey that I
don’t think the sun (shine) today.

____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

____________
25. Peter (kick) the ball over the force so we (have) to go and look for it. While we (search)
among the bushes, we found this briefcase.

____________ ____________ ____________

26. The boys took the letter to the headmaster. The headmaster (go) to attend a meeting and they
(be told) to return later or leave a message behind.

____________ ____________ ____________

27. What she (want)? She keeps weeping in a corner and (refuse) to answer my questions. I
(think) I (give) her a good beating.

____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

28. When I (reach) the scene of the accident, I saw that one of the cars (overturn) by the side of
a ditch. The other car (have) a big dent on its bonnet.

____________ ____________ ____________

29. One of the drivers was injured and (be taken) to the hospital. The other driver (have) some
minor injuries but he (not want) to go to the hospital.

____________ ____________ ____________

30. I asked him what (happen) and he (say) the other car (skid) on the wet road and (knock)
into his car.

____________ ____________ ____________

31. The sack of potatoes (be loaded) into boats when the inspector arrived. He (command)
the men to stop work and (order) one of the sacks to be opned.

____________ ____________ ____________

32. When the rainy season comes, the farmer (prepare) his field for planting. He (use) a
plough to cut and turn the soil.

____________ ____________

33. “Look! The sun (shine) brightly and the tall grass (wave) gently in the breeze. It’s a fine
day. The butterflies (flit) from one flower to another. We (go) to play? She said to the
little girl. ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________
34. As evening drew nearer, I (watch) a group of deer which (graze) the woods beyond. They
(follow) the leader to a pool and (drink) the water contentedly. When something (alarm)
them, they (speed) away.

____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

____________ ____________