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TUTORIAL 3: PERIODIC TABLE ( ANSWER )

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1 (a) P : 1s2 2s2 2p3


Q : 1s2 2s2 2p6
R : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
S : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p5
T : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p4
(b) P3- : 1s2 2s2 2p6
R+ :
1s2 2s2 2p6
S- :
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p4
(c) s block - R
p block – P, Q, S, T

Elements Period Group Block

A 3 18 P

B 4 17 P

C 4 2 S

D 4 5 d
E 4 18 P

3 Y : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5


(a) Number of valence electron = 7
(b) Y accepts one electron to achieve octet configuration, Y-
The oxidation number is -1
(c) Y is chlorine

4 Ionization energy ratio :-


IE2 = 1540 = 2.03
IE1 760

IE3 = 6300 = 4.09


IE2 1540

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TUTORIAL 3: PERIODIC TABLE ( ANSWER )
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IE4 = 4399 = 1.33


IE3 3300

IE5 = 9950 = 1.19


IE4 8399

IE6 = 11900 = 1.20


IE5 9950

Thus, X is an element from Group 2.

Elements IE2 IE3 IE4 IE5


IE1 IE2 IE3 IE4

J 3.03 1.50 6.83 1.31


K 2.16 1.97 1.34 6.11
L 2.01 2.04 1.35 3.66
M 7.30 1.44 1.34 1.35
N 1.96 5.33 1.36 1.30

(a) M , because the ratio of IE2 with IE1 is the highest


(b) i. Element K and L
ii. The first ionization energy for element K is greater than L because K is in
lower period than L. The atomic size of L is bigger and the screening
effect is greater than K. Thus, the attraction of nucleus on the outer
electron is weaker.
(c) Group 14

6 (a) A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.


(b) A vertical column of elements in the periodic table.
(c) A subgroup which electrons are being added to the orbital s.

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TUTORIAL 3: PERIODIC TABLE ( ANSWER )
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6 (d) A subgroup which electrons are being added to the orbital p.


(e) A subgroup which electrons are being added to the orbital d.
(f) A subgroup which electrons are being added to the orbital f.

7 (a) The first ionization energy of an atom is the energy for the removal of one mole
electron from one mole of neutral, gaseous atom.
Energy + X(g) X + (g) + e-
The second ionization energy of an atom is the energy required to remove one
mole electron from one mole positive ion in the gaseous state.
Energy + X +(g) X 2+ (g) + e-

(b) There are three main factors that affect the ionization energy of an atom :
i. As the distance from the outermost electron (valence electron) to the
positive nucleus increases, the attraction of the nucleus for electron
decreases. The ionization energy gets smaller as the atomic radius
increases.
ii. The magnitude of the positive nuclear charge also has an effect. More
positive nucleus will have greater attraction for the valence electrons and
the ionization energy of an atom will be greater.
iii. The inner shells of electrons repel the valence electrons, thus screening
or shielding them from the positively charged nucleus. The more
electron shells there are between the valence electrons and the nucleus,
the lower will be the ionization energy of the atom, as the valence
electrons will be less firmly held.

8 (a) Alkali metal


19 K : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1
3 Li : 1s2 2s1
4 Be : 1s2 2s1
56 Ba : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 6s2 = [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6 6s2
(b) Halogens
9 F : 1s2 2s2 2p5
53 I : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p5 = [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5
(c) Inert gases
18 Ar : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6
TUTORIAL 3: PERIODIC TABLE ( ANSWER )

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9 (a) Arrange in the order of increasing proton number.


(b) Both elements B and C have the same number of valence electrons.
(c) Both elements C and E have the same principal quantum number, n.
(d) Metals : A, B, C Non – metals : D, E

10 i. The electron affinity is the change in energy of the reaction when an electron is
added to a gaseous atom or ion.
X(g) + e- X - (g) ΔE = negative

X - (g) + e- X 2- (g) ΔE = positive


Electron affinity increases across a period - it becomes easier to gain an electron.
This is the result of the increase in nuclear charge and the decrease in atomic
radius.
Electron affinity decreases down a group - it becomes harder to gain an electron.
As the number of electron shells builds up, the attractive positive nucleus is
increasingly screened by electron and the atomic radius also increases. Therefore,
it is less likely for a new electron to be attracted and held by the nucleus.
ii. Electronegativity is the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself
when chemically combined with another atom.
Electronegativity increases across a period – this is due to the increasing positive
charge on the nucleus in combination with the decrease in atomic radius.
Electronegativity decreases down a group – although the positive charge on the
nucleus increases, this is more than the offset by the increase in the atomic radius
and the additional screening effect of the extra electron shells.

11 (a) 7 M : 1s2 2s2 2p3


8 N : 1s2 2s2 2p4
9 O : 1s2 2s2 2p5
11 P : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
13 O : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
(b) i. O, N, M, Q, P
Moving across a period, the nuclear charge becomes increasingly
positive as the number of protons in the nucleus increases. Although the
number of electrons also increases, the valence electrons are all in the
same shell. The electrons are attracted more strongly to the increasingly
positive nucleus, thus reducing the total atomic radius.
TUTORIAL 3: PERIODIC TABLE ( ANSWER )
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11 (b) ii. P, Q, N, M, O
Moving across a period, positive nuclear charge increases due to the
increasing number of protons. The atomic radius gets smaller and the
electrons are held firmly, therefore it requires more energy to remove an
electron.

12 7 N : 1s2 2s2 2p3 (Stability of the half-filled p orbital)


8 O : 1s2 2s2 2p4
N+ : 1s2 2s2 2p2
O+ : 1s2 2s2 2p3 (Stability of the half-filled p orbital)

13 (a) Al
(b) Cl2
(c) Na
(d) Al
As a base:
Al2O3(s) + 6HCl(aq) 2 AlCl3(aq) + 3H2O(l)

As an acid:
Al2O3(s) + 2NaOH(aq) + 3H2O(l) 2 NaAl(OH)4(aq)

14 Basic oxide: MgO, Na2O


Acidic oxide: SiO2, P4O10, SO3, Cl2O
Amphoteric oxide: Al2O3

15 18 X : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6


Higher energy is needed to remove the first electron compared to the second electron
because of the stability of the full-filled p orbital.

16 (a) Si4+ < Al3+ < Mg2+ < Na+


(b) Moving from Na to Si, the nuclear charge increases as the number of protons in
the nucleus increases. The electrons are attracted more strongly to the increased
positive nucleus, thus reducing the total ionic radius.
TUTORIAL 3: PERIODIC TABLE ( ANSWER )
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17 11 Na : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
12 Mg : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
14 Si : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2
Sodium has the highest second ionization energy because the second electron that has to
be removed from the ion comes from the full-filled p orbital.

18 (a) Na2O (s) + H2O (l) 2 NaOH (aq)


(b) P4O10 (s) + 6H2O (l) 4 H3PO4 (aq)
(c) SO3 (g) + H2O (l) H2SO4 (aq)

19 (a) i. W : [Ne]3s1
X : [Ne] 3s23p4
The first ionization energy for W is lower than X because across a
period, the valence electron is more difficult to remove as the atomic
radius decrease.
ii. X2- : [Ne] 3s23p6
Y2+ :[Ar]
The ionic radius of Y2+ is smaller than X2- because the effective nuclear
charge of Y2+ is higher than X2- .
(b) i. element Y
ii. element X
(c) 2Y(s) + O2 (g) 2YO(s)
YO(s) + H2O(l) Y(OH)2 (aq)
Substance formed is an alkaline solution.

20 (a) Group13, period 3


(b) Aluminium
(c) Because the fourth electron is from the inner period (close to the nucleus)
(d) Atomic radius decreases
(e) Atomic radius increases
(f) +3

TUTORIAL 3: PERIODIC TABLE ( ANSWER )


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Examination Question

(a) Across the period, Na, Mg and Al have metallic bonds between their delocalized
valence electrons and the ions. The boiling point increases from Na to Al because
of the increase in the strength of the metallic bonding due to the increase in the
number of the valence electrons.
Silicon has the gigantic molecular structure formed by infinite covalent bonding.
Each silicon is tetrahedral bonded to four other silicon atoms. P, S, Cl and Ar
have the simple molecular structures. Only Van der Waals forces are present
between the molecules and the melting point increases from P to Ar due to the
increase in the size of molecule.

(b) Melting point for Al is higher than Mg because the existing metallic bond in Al is
very strong. Al has three valence electrons that contribute to the metallic bond
compare to Mg that has only two valence electrons.

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