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Pressure Gradients Hydrostatic Pressure Formation Pressure Formation Balance Gradient Overburden Pressure Gradient
Typical Occurances of Abnormal Formation Pressures Underpressured Overpressured ....... .......
Hydrostatic Non Hydrostatic
Detection Techniques 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Rate of Penetration Drilling Exponent Gas Trends Drag and Torque Temperature Cuttings Analysis Mud Parameters Indications while Tripping
3.4 3.5 3.6
Analysis using Geophysical, MWD and Wireline Data Direct Measurements of Formation Pressure Summary of Typical Trends
Quantitative Analysis of Formation Pressure a.1 a.2 a.3 b. c. Correct Determination of the Drilling Exponent Compaction Trend Lithological Effects on Compaction Trend Causes of Trend Changes or Shifts Determination of Overburden Gradient Calculation of Formation Pressure 1. Eatons Method 2. Equivalent Depth Method
Calculation of Fracture Gradients a. b. c. Theory Eatons Method Daines Method
Use of the QLOG software Appendix
3.1 Pressure Gradients Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient The Hydrostatic Pressure at any given depth (vertical) is defined as the pressure exerted by the weight of a static column of fluid. Phyd = ρ g h KPa = kg/m3 x 0.00981 x TVDm PSI = ppg x 0.052 x TVDft
This gives the following normal hydrostatic gradients:-
Freshwater = 0.433 psi/ft Brine = 0.480 psi/ft Freshwater = 9.81 KPa/m Brine = 10.87 KPa/m
(8.33ppg emw, 1.0 sg) (9.23ppg emw, 1.11 sg) (1000 kg/m3 emw) (1108 kg/m3 emw)
Formation Pressure Gradient This is defined as the pressure of the fluid contained within the pore spaces of a sediment or rock, which will be dependent on the vertical depth and the density of the formation fluid. Normal formation pressure will be equal to the normal hydrostatic pressure of the region and will vary depending on the type of formation fluid.
eg North Sea 0.450 psi/ft (8.66ppg emw) or US Gulf 0.465 psi/ft (8.94ppg emw) or
10.20 KPa/m (1040 kg/m3 emw) 10.53 KPa/m (1074 kg/m3 emw)
if Formation Pressure < Hydrostatic...............underpressured if Formation Pressure > Hydrostatic...............overpressured
45 psi/ft.65 ppg emw The position of the rig in relation to the depth of the formation and local topography will cause the formation balance gradient to vary enormously. FBG = 1350 = 8.00ppg 2000x0.Formation Balance Gradient This is defined as the equivalent mud density required to balance the formation pressure at any given depth. example A B 3000ft 914.052 At Site B. FBG = 1350 = 13. Assuming normal formation pressure.4m 2000ft 609. example: If the hydrostatic gradient is 0. the hydrostatic pressure at 5000 ft TVD will be 2250 psi.65ppg 3000x0.052 x 5000) = 8.052 .6m Formation Pressure 1350 psi / 9308 KPa At Site A. The formation balance gradient would be:2250/(0.
00981 = 1038 kg/m3 At Site B.4x0. even though the same formation and pressure is the concern for both wells. .00981 = 1556 kg/m3 So. FBG = 9308 609. FBG = 9308 914. the mudweight required to balance that formation pressure will be different for each well.6x0.At Site A.
. porosity and pore fluid density.31 gm/cc can be used for bulk density until more accurate measurements or data becomes available. ρb = ∅ ρf + (1 − ∅)ρm ∅ = porosity 0 − 1 eg 12% = 0.Overburden Pressure Gradient At a given depth. the overburden pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of the overlying sediments. Overburden will increase with depth with a proportional decrease in porosity. Overburden S = ρb x TVD 10 where TVD is metres S = kg/cm2 ρb = average bulk density g/cm3 S = ρb x TVD x 9.12 ρf = pore fluid density ρm = matrix density In practice.433 TVD = ft S = psi ρb = g/cm3 Bulk density is a function of the matrix density. the bulk density can be taken directly from wireline logs or from sample measurements. An average value of 2. It is usually termed stress to distinguish fluid and matrix pressures.81 TVD = m S = Kpa ρb = g/cm3 S = ρb x TVD x 0.
31 air gap water depth .eg 2.31 Typical Onshore Profile ρb depth Typical Offshore Profile 2.
0 psi/ft 2.Taking an average value of bulk density to be 2. .48 psi/ft 8.11 gm/cc 9. Thus.433 to 0.0 psi/ft.23 ppg emw 1.33 to 9.79 to 10.0 to 1.31 gm/cc gives an overburden pressure gradient of 1.31 gm/cc Pform < Phyd underpressured Pform > Phyd overpressured Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient 0.81 KPa/m 998 to 1102 kg/m3 emw Accurate determination of the overburden gradient is critical for accurate formation and fracture gradient calculations. a typical profile would look like: Overburden Gradient 1.
For unconsolidated rocks. ρb = 3.Whilst drilling a well.6 50 67 47 47 is used as the default for other lithologies .75 − 2. where Default values for the matrix transit time: Dolomite Limestone Sandstone Anhydrite Salt Claystone 43. This would be done every 5 or 10m or whatever the sample interval is.6 (argillaceous) 47.11 (∆T − ∆Tm) ( ∆T + 200 ) ρb = gm/cc ∆T = formation transit time (actual sonic) µsec/ft ∆Tm = matrix transit time For consolidated rocks. Obviously.5 43.28 − ∆T 89 ρb = 2. the more accurate the gradient will be. the more frequent the measurements. If more accurate data becomes available from wireline logs.5 to 47. The Sonic log can be used to derive bulk density if no log is available. the overburden gradient can be derived from the Bulk Density log or from the Sonic Log. the Overburden Gradient can be directly calculated from surface bulk density measurements.6 (argillaceous) to 55.
9. What mud density would balance the following formation pressures ? a. d. 4000 psi at 5000 ft 4000 psi at 7000 ft 6500 psi at 4000 m 6500 psi at 3000 m 40000 KPa at 3000 m 40000 KPa at 4000 m (ppg) (ppg) (ppg) (ppg) (kg/m3) (kg/m3) . b. d. c. Convert the following mud densities into pressure gradients:a. e.Exercise 3a Gradient Calculations 1. 13.6 ppg 1.45 sg at 5000 ft 1150 kg/m3 at 4000m (psi) (psi) (psi) (KPa) 3. b.8 sg 1055 kg/m3 1250 kg/m3 (psi/ft) (psi/m) (psi/m) (KPa/m) (KPa/m) 2. b. c.5 ppg 12. d.2 ppg at 7500 ft 10. What hydrostatic pressure is exerted by the following mud densities at the given depths ? a.5 ppg at 2300 m 1. c. e. f.
again. the part of the formation penetrated will be above the water table. a reduction in the hydrostatic in comparison with a fluid column.t. 2) The position of the water table in relation to the land surface. the height of the fluid column (h) will be less than the actual total depth (D). 4) Large gas columns . Therefore the hydrostatic pressure caused by the fluid column would be less than expected for a complete water column. Therefore. water intake at outcrop w. If the location of the well is topographically above the water table. . Both of these situations could be common in uplifted regions.3. D 1 h 2 3) Depletion of water or hydrocarbon reservoirs leading to a reduction in the hydrostatic pressure.2 Typical Occurances of Abnormal Formation Pressures Underpressured formations 1) Water reservoir outcropping at a lower altitude than the elevation penetrated during drilling.
where the water intake is at a higher elevation than the local topography.Overpressured formations Hydrostatic causes 1) Hydrocarbon reservoirs . This pressure would therefore be transmitted to the uppermost part of the reservoir. the formation pressure throughout will be the same and will be equal to the pressure at the deepest part of the reservoir. therefore the actual height of the fluid column (h) is greater than the drilled depth. water intake h D .in a sealed reservoir. pressure sealed reservoir section depth 2) Aquifers .
. therefore having a higher pressure than surrounding formations. The situation may occur that this released water may not be able to escape leading to an increased fluid content and increased pressure.it will always try to move from high to low pressure). (fluid migration is normally governed by pressure gradient .during normal diagenesis. Due to rapid deposition with respect to geological time. permeable and impermeable layers may be juxtaposed by a fault restricting normal fluid migration. formation fluid will be squeezed out in to overlying sediments. 3) Clay Diagenesis . Faulting can cause overpressured formations in many ways:• • faults and fractures may provide a conduit allowing deeper fluid pressures to be released to shallower formations. Thin impermeable layers such as limestone could cause the same flow restriction to underlying sediments. faulting or folding of rocks. • Salt and shale diapirism can cause locallised zones of high pressure due to all 3 tectonic processes.Non Hydrostatic causes 1) Undercompaction Under normal deposition and compaction rates. montmorillonite is altered to illite. Detecting these zones by the interpretation of all available data is the major part of pressure analysis while a well is being drilled. Fluid will always try to move to zones of lower pressure. 2)Tectonic Loading caused by uplift. If a formation is sealed and uplifted. fluid flow becomes restricted and is not allowed to escape as normal. therefore unless an overpressured formation is perfectly capped. transition zones will exist. it will retain its original fluid pressure at the shallower depth. This is a normal process leading to interlayer-bound water being desorbed and becoming free.
relating the ROP to the ease at which a formation can be drilled. On its own. In 1964. the drilling exponent was formulated by Bingham : R N = a (W)d (D) where R = ROP N = RPM W= WOB D = bit diameter a = lithology constant d = compaction exponent . 2) Drilling Exponent This will demonstrate the drillability of a particular formation. a drilling exponent is used. the ROP cannot be taken as a direct indicator because it can be affected by many parameters such as lithology weight on bit rotary speed torque fluid hydraulics bit type bit wear differential pressure To compensate for as many as these parameters as possible.3 Detection Techniques 1) Rate of Penetration ROP will decrease normally with depth due to increased compaction and therefore reduced porosity. An overpressured zone will be undercompacted resulting in a relative increase in ROP.3.
resulting in an increase in Dexp. and as porosity decreases with depth. The drilling exponent must therefore be corrected for changes in mud weight so that it only reflects changes in formation pressure. This would affect the Dexp in the same way as an increase in formation pressure. DCexp = Dexp x d1 d2 where D1 = formation fluid density for the hydrostatic gradient D2 = mud weight . The Dexp evaluates the drillability of a particular formation. and changes in differential pressure will be indicated by a decrease in the Dexp.Jordan and Shirley developed this theory in 1966: Dexp = 1.26 − log (R÷N) ÷ 1. The differential pressure is obviously defined by the relation between the formation pressure at any given depth and the hydrostatic pressure caused by the mud column at that depth. Rehm and McClendon. A change in mud density would alter the hydrostatic pressure and therefore change the differential pressure.58 − log (W÷D) ÷ R = m/hr N = rpm W = tonnes D = inches This formula was designed for use in shale. developed the Corrected Drilling Exponent. in 1971. drilling will become proportionally more difficult. A normal trend (normal compaction trend or NCT) can therefore be established with depth. the Dexp is a good indicator of porosity (ie compaction) and differential pressure. and where the formation is constant.
.Affect on ROP and DCexp with changes in pressure Normal Pressure Gradient Transition Overpressured Depth ROP DCexp Formation Pressure Limitations to the drilling exponent a) Lithology type The drilling exponent was designed for and is only ideally suited for shale and claystone type lithologies. The porosity and grain size variabilty of other lithologies cannot be ideally accounted for. or repositioning of the drilling exponent trend eg limestones tend to shift the trend to the right sandstones tend to shift the trend to the left. Different lithologies will therefore tend to show up as a shift.
if they are uniform with depth. Another consideration is that for unconsolidated lithologies. different lithologies. therefore any significant change could affect the drilling efficiency to such a degree that the drilling exponent is affected. can be totally erroneous. so the drillability. the value of the drilling exponent will depend on the hardness. cementation. c)Bit Type and Wear These variabilities can significantly affect the value of the drilling exponent: • • • different bits are suited to different lithologies diamond or PDC bits tend to yield constant drilling exponents regardless of lithology type or depth. Even though the drilling exponent is only designed for shales.This is not always the case. the trend can be affected by any degree of siltyness. as a bit becomes worn. drilling obviously becomes harder. . Even with a shale interval. the jetting action of the bit is actually more important than the drilling action. in practice. can reveal reasonable trends. All of the above has to be taken into a great deal of consideration when evaluating a drilling exponent trend. causing the drilling exponent values to erroneously increase. b) Hydraulics These are not considered in the calculation of the exponent. degree of granularity and cementation etc. on how competent a lithology is. reflected in the drilling exponent. or presence of accessory minerals.
This will yield connection gas. the static overbalance (ie mud hydrostatic) may be insufficient. This may be further enhanced by the effects of swabbing causing a further reduction in the hydrostatic. .. the ROP would show a corresponding increase.. affectively releasing more gas over a given time interval reduction in mudweight increasing the differential pressure • The occurrance of connection gases . Knowing these 3 pressures ie bottom hole circulating pressure mud hydrostatic pressure swab reduced hydrostatic pressure . The dynamic overbalance (ie bottom hole circulating pressure) may be sufficient to balance the formation pressure.can lead to an accurate determination of the actual formation pressure. leading to an influx of formation fluid/gas.• • • • changes in lithology natural increase in formation gas removal of gas at surface ie whether its being recycled changes in penetration rate due to parameter change ie if the WOB is increased. but when the pumps are stopped for a connection...Detection Techniques continued 3) Gas Trends A steady increase in background gas level could be an indication of an increase in formation pressure resulting in an increased pressure differential...these occur when the formation pressure becomes close to/equal to/greater than the mudweight.. This trend would have to be considered against such things as.
4) Increased drag and torque. an increase in trip gas could indicate an increase in formation pressure. The shape and symmetry of the peak can also yield useful information about the pressure differential: close to or at balance underbalanced Trends in the value of trip gases can also be an indicator.Connection gas is generally short in duration and sharp in distinction. although the longer the bottoms up time.due to reduction in hole size from undercompacted/sloughing shales. If no significant change in trip time or mud weight. because they can be caused by many other factors such as: bit balling deviated holes doglegs or ledges differential sticking . overpull Indications of tight hole caused by overpressured formations:. .this will also show up as hole fill on bottom after connections and trips. The operator has to carefully consider the causes of drag and torque. the more drawn out the peak since the gas has more time to expand and become dispersed.due to shale cavings falling in on the hole .
The geothermal gradient will vary according to the thermal conductivity of the ‘components’ of a particular rock type or sedimentary sequence. For example:Pure Quartz Clay minerals Evaporites Pore fluid high conductivity low conductivity high conductivity low conductivity The lower the conductivity of a particular sequence. with temperature increasing with depth. It has been shown that such insulating bodies (porous reservoirs and thick coals are other examples) disturb the distribution of isotherms directly above them. a reduction in temperature may be seen. have greater porosity and therefore a relatively greater fluid content. the more resistance there is to the flow of heat away from the earth’s centre. a geothermal gradient. therefore formation fluids act as a natural barrier to the normal flow of heat. An overpressured zone will act as a barrier to heat flow and therefore behaves as an insulating body. producing a reduction in the geothermal gradient. Typical gradients may be in the range of between 2 and 5 °C per 100m but will not be constant throughout a well. This is illustrated over the page. therefore a greater geothermal gradient will exist. producing a higher geothermal gradient. as an overpressured or transitional (increasing pressure) zone is approached.5) Temperature Since heat eminates from the earth’s core. will exist as heat dissipates out towards the earth’s surface. being undercompacted. This temperature will then rapidly increase once the overpressured zone is penetrated. Thus. . Overpressured formations. This means that they are less conductive to the flow of heat. Measurements of mud temperature can be used to detect overpressured zones and even to anticipate their approach:The thermal conductivity of water is less than that of rock matrix.
additional processes such as drilling action and pump rate will be producing heat.Formation Temperature Normal Pressure Transition Zone Overpressured Normal Pressure Depth Even though we (the mudloggers) can’t directly measure the bottom hole temperature. . and a thermal ‘profile’ can be established as the depth increases. We can therefore measure the temperature of the mud leaving the hole. the heat generated by penetrated formations will be transferred to the drilling fluid. This profile will not be identicle to the actual geothermal gradient because as well as heat generated from the formation.
it is more useful to remove variations in flowline temperature that are actually caused by changes in the temperature of the mud entering the hole. especially at surface and in the upper part of the hole the larger the riser. there are many factors that can affect the temperature of the mud: type of mud hole/pit size duration of bit run drilling halts water depth trips - different degrees of conductivity volume of mud to heat periods allowing the mud to cool. To gain as much information as possible from temperature measurements. A period of 2 days or more may be required for this ‘equilibrium temperature’ to be reached . The start of bit runs will see a rapid increase in temperature as the mud warms back to equilibrium obvious cooling effect different degrees of cooling at surface surface additions climate - All of these factors will affect the actual value of the temperature of the mud leaving the hole. the flowline temperature will show a rapid increase as the cooler mud becomes heated principally by the drilling and pumping action but also by newly drilled formations. the larger the cooling effect the duration of which will determine how much the mud will cool off. Delta T By eliminating. as much as possible. variations due to surface changes. the differential temperature Delta T (temperature out minus temperature in) can be used to provide a trend indicator. increases in flowline temperature due to drilling and pumping will become more uniform so that increases in the temperature are representative of changes due to the geothermal gradient. Over a period of time. At the start of the bit run.However.
With the duration of a bit run. Temperature Parameter Duration of Bit Run / Depth ∆T MTO . A particularly long bit run may see Delta T become constant. the normal Delta T trend will be a gentle decrease. Delta T at the start of a bit run will be high and show a rapid decrease.The presence of an overpressured zone will be indicated by a greater degree of increase in the flowline temperature. An overpressured zone will be indicated by an increase in Delta T. Conversely.
note that the cation exchange can also be a cause of overpressure. clay minerals such as montmorillonite and smectite will transform to illite. Cavings are generally considerably larger than the observed cuttings and have two typical shapes. increased fluid pressure will result. but the engineer has to be careful in their interpretation because other stress conditions may be responsible. the shale factor will normally decrease with depth as the amount of illite increases. thus a reduction in CEC (cation exchange capacity) will be seen with depth.6) Cuttings Analysis a) Shale Density With increased depth and greater compaction. An approximation to CEC is achieved by using Methylene Blue to determine the shale factor. elongated and concave. size and shape The presence of shale cavings or increased volume of cuttings is usually a good indicator of overpressure. . therefore the shale factor would show a more rapid decrease. b) Volume. the increased temperature actual speeds up the process of cation exchange. shale density will show a normally increasing trend. In an abnormally pressured zone. c) Shale Factor With normal diagenesis and cation exchange. A lot of bound water is freed during the cation exchange and if this water is not released during compaction (as in the normal dewatering process). As with the CEC. An overpressured zone will be indicated by a decrease in shale density owing to decreased compaction and higher porosity ie a higher proportion of formation fluid in relation to rock matrix. blocky and fractured. NB as well as this ‘result of overpressure’ detailed above.
8) Indications while Tripping Incorrect mud displacements:a) Excessive mud returns while running in the hole. but excessive swabbing could be due to formation pressure being close to. . Other mud parameters will also indicate changes in pressure but are generally ‘later’ indicators. • Chloride content . this will be indicated by an increase in conductivity (NB this would correlate to a decrease in resistivity from wireline logs or MWD). A degree of swabbing may be acceptable depending on how fast the pipe is being pulled. • Mud flow and mud level . b) Lower than expected fill (or even a pit increase) while pulling out of the hole. • Density .any increase would clearly indicate the possibility of an influx. nature of pore fluid. This will be indicated by a gradual reduction in the standpipe pressure as the influx occurs. therefore an increased volume of pore fluid. because factors can affect the apparent resistivity/conductivity such as temperature. From a mudloggers point of view. Any swabbing effects should be analysed.an increased amount of formation fluid or gas within the mud would clearly be identified by a reduction in mud density. presence of hydrocarbons. changes in lithology or organic matter. This means an increase in salinity.an influx into the well bore of formation fluid or gas will decrease the mud density causing a reduction in the hydrostatic pressure.7) Mud Parameters We have already seen how mud temperature can be used to recognise changing trends in formation pressure. These parameters however have to be treated with a great deal of caution. mud type and filtration. or over balanced. occurring when an influx is already present:• Pressure .The presence of an undercompacted/overpressured zone would lead to an increased porosity.
A thick shale sequence that has undergone constant depositional conditions such as burial rate. MWD and Wireline indicators 1) Seismic Profile This will be done once the well has been drilled. 2) MWD and Wireline Parameters such as resistivity. will be subject to increased dewatering with compaction. ie as compaction increases and porosity decreases. . During the dewatering process. The normal trend would be one that decreases with depth. The two-way travel times used to produce the seismic profile can be recomputed to calculate interval transit times. This data becomes invaluable for future well planning when establishing pressure profiles. Gamma is a measurement of the natural radioactivity of rocks by detecting such elements as Uranium. NB be aware that the accuracy of all wireline readings is subject to the thickness of individual beds allowing a full response. so can be used to compare with data accumulated during drilling. then these indicators will provide accurate realtime data that should be used in conjunction with our own realtime measurements.4 Pressure analysis using Geophysical. so the data would be used to confirm or negate predictions already made. gamma. thus resembling sonic data.3. sonic. a) Gamma Ray Primarily for the accurate determination of lithology types. Clearly. so that an increase in Potassium and therefore gamma will be seen with depth. if this data is available from MWD. It could also be useful data when determing pressure profiles for future well planning. compaction and source material. Wireline data will be produced once the well or hole section has been drilled. Thorium and Potassium. Potassium ions adsorbed onto clay particles are not totally released. density may be measured by either of the above operations.
. It is often the case that the sonic trend is a good mirror image of the drilling exponent. when drilling exponent data is not reliable due to many possible reasons as already described. c) Resistivity Resistivity measures the ability of a formation to conduct electricity and is a function of the amount and nature of the pore fluid. resistivity will normally increase. Deep resistivity readings should be used in preference to shallow ones because the data is generally a true indication of formation fluid and not affected by mud filtrate invasion. with depth. The reliability of resistivity as a pressure indicator will be greatly affected by any changes in the salinity of the formation pore fluid. b) Sonic The sonic transit times are a function of lithology and porosity. thus sonic transit times will show a normal decrease with depth.As a reliable pressure indicator. d) Bulk Density As with shale density. With constant lithology. the sonic log can provide invaluable information for trend analysis. A decreasing trend will be an indication of undercompaction. this will reduce the conductive ability of the formation. undercompaction and possible overpressure. Under normal compaction. Therefore. Thus. therefore a function of porosity. an increasing sonic trend indicates increased porosity. With depth and increased compaction. Since fluid is a better conductor than rock matrix. Actual gamma values will also be affected by varying Thorium and Uranium content. the constant history required is generally unrealistic. porosity will decrease with depth. there is a reduction in the formation pore fluid. the trend should clearly increase with depth as the degree of compaction increases.
If the well has been shut in. Although not a direct measurement. Formation tests such as DST’s are generally only performed to determine pressures of potential reservoirs. on the other hand. only as a by-product. Therefore. If the mud weight is close to balance. and the affect of these trends with adjustments in the mudweight. RFT’s are a useful tool in pressure evaluation especially in wildcat areas. do they yield information that can be used in formation pressure evaluation. a bottom hole kick resulting in well shut in will obviously provide an accurate determination of the formation pressure. Only bottom hole kicks can be considered in this type of evaluation. This is possible by the monitoring of background gas and connection gas. . close consideration of gas trends can also provide accurate estimations of the formation pressure. together with swab gas. With many measurements possible on a single wireline run. are often used to confirm evaluations or to solve any doubts that may have arisen from previous evaluation techniques while drilling. kicks due to gas expansion from shallower depths cannot provide a direct evaluation of formation pressure. an accurate determination of the formation pressure can be made by using the shut in pressures as described in Part B of this manual.5 Direct Measurements of Formation Pressure The only direct measurements are provided by Repeat Formation Tests and Drill Stem Tests. RFT’s.3.
the mudweight would be increased at signs of underbalance. The drilling exponent may even be affected if the the increase in mud weight required was large. There would be a reduction in background and connection gas.3. The connection gas would disappear if the mudweight was increased above formation pressure (unless due to effects of swabbing). The temperature trends would be affected by surface additions to the mud system in order to increase the density. some of the trends would then be different.6 Summary of typical trends while drilling Normal Pressure Increasing Pressure (Transition Zone) Overpressured Dxc Sh. .Dens ∆T MTO Background/Conn Gas NOTE These trends are illustrated with the assumption that the mudweight is not increased while drilling through the undercompacted zones. Under normal situations. Clearly. This would obviously reduce the pressure differential and bring the well back on balance.
Summary of typical wireline trends Normal Pressure Transition Zone Overpressured Sonic Resistivity FDC .
Differences will be seen wherever there are ‘impurities’ such as siltiness and accessory minerals. the opposite will generally happen with a sequence of calcareous shale. Before the calculation method is looked at. Conversely. Wireline measurements can then be used after the event to compare or correct results. we have been looking at the way in which trends of various parameters and measurements can be an indication of increasing formation pressure ie Qualitive Analysis.3.1 Correct determination of the Drilling Exponent Compaction Trend As already discussed. • The selection of the compaction trend is therefore highly prone to different interpretations by different engineers. the Dxc was designed for.7a. Difficulty in accurately determining the trend will be experienced if there are no pure shales. The compaction trend for shale would actually be to the left of the observed trend. Our main tool for doing this while the well is being drilled is the Corrected Drilling Exponent. and influences requiring a shift in the trend. This information then needs to be processed in order to determine an accurate estimate of the actual formation pressure ie Quantitative Analysis. The compaction trend for shale would therefore actually be positioned to the right of the observed trend. preference should be given to pure shale points which will normally appear to the right of the data points. where there is a reasonable sequence of homogeneous shale. and is of most use.7 Quantitative Analysis of Formation Pressure Up to this point. 3. Therefore. should be explored in greater detail. the determination of the correct compaction trend. • A silty shale sequence for example will tend to move data points to the left. . There is no substitute for experience in this process.
although the engineer has to be aware of the typical differences in trends between different lithologies. the more cemented the lithology. Therefore. the trend should be selected from the observed points for each lithology. • • • • • tight. Thin stringers are difficult to compensate for. In general: The harder. for reasonable depth intervals. unconsolidated sandstone will move the trend to the left well cemented crystalline limestone will move trend to the right argillaceous or porous limestone will move the trend to the left siltstone will move the trend to the right These differences are illustrated over the page. The weaker.Although not considered when this method was first formulated. the tighter. NB the pressure program calculates actual formation pressure from the offset of the actual Dxc values from the selected compaction trend (which is assumed normal). well cemented sandstone will move the trend to the right weaker. when compared to the overburden gradient. the higher the porosity. . lithologies other than shale can still yield reasonable trends at times. the lower the Dxc value. the higher the Dxc value.
7a.3.2 Example of lithological effects on the corrected drilling exponent trend. Shale Cemented Siltstone Shale Cemented Limestone Calcareous Shale Unconsolidated Sst Cemented Siltstone Tight Sandstone Silty Shale NCT Normal Compaction Trend for shale .
If an overpressured zone was encountered at this point. As such. This would result in higher values of the drilling exponent. Unconformities An unconformity seperates formations of different stratigraphic ages which may have undergone a different burial and compactional history. the change could well be masked because the values of Dxc would not decrease as much as would be normally expected (diagram 2). DIAG 1 NCT DIAG 2 Normal Pressure Bit becoming worn NCT Transition Zone normal bit worn bit . NCT 1 Unconformity NCT 2 Trend changes due to bit wear As a bit becomes worn. with the trend increasing to the right (diagram 1).3.7a. a trend shift may be necessary. also. homogeeous lithology. that the trend may have a different slope.3 Causes of Trend shifts or changes. it would become progressively more difficult to drill the same. It is quite possible.
examples: 12 1/4” hole Opt hydraulics Tooth bit 8 1/2” hole Poor hydraulics Insert bit Hole Diameter Hydraulics Bit Type . This will most often be seen in directional drilling. but with new hole sections. Hole Diameter Not only the diameter has an affect here. the value of the drilling exponent will be affected. for the same lithology. Significant changes in the hydraulics may require a shift change. drilling parameters and hydraulics will affect the drilling exponent. together with different hardnesses. different types may well produce different values of drilling exponent for the same parameters. where not only high RPMs are present. Drilling Parameters Although accounted for in the drilling exponent calculation.Other situations requiring a shift change Bit Type Different bit types such as tooth or insert. different bits. This type of trend shift is common. Therefore. often producing constant drilling rates and drilling exponent regardless of depth and compaction. will be suited to different lithologies. any major change in weight or rotary speed may see a trend shift. but the WOB seen at surface is not representative of the weight at the bit due to poor weight transfer. Hydraulics If the hydraulics are not such that optimum bit and hole cleaning is not present. PDC bits are the extreme. A near vertical trend for large depth intervals is not unusual.
. the overburden gradient must be derived from our own bulk density measurements while the well is being drilled. Calculation Method As described before. Knowing the overburden gradient (OBG) is essential for accurate formation pressure and fracture gradient calculations. the bulk density will preferably be derived from FDC wireline data. Recalculation would be advisable when better data becomes available. Plotted on a log scale. As bulk density increases exponentially with depth. then stabilize with depth as compaction and density increases. straight lines will be produced (NCTs). For offshore wells.3. is essentially a function of the average bulk density of these sediments. the air gap and water depth must be taken into consideration when calculating the overburden for the first interval. The OBG tends to increase rapidly near surface. If offset data is not available prior to drilling a well. it can be derived from sonic transit times or seismic interval velocities.7b Determination of the Overburden Gradient The overburden pressure at any given depth is the pressure due to the cumulative weight of the overlying sediments and. Calculation of the overburden gradient is then based on the average bulk density for a given depth interval. for calculation purposes. If this is not available. so does porosity decrease. Shale points falling on these lines will be normally pressured.
calculate the overburden pressure for a given interval Calculate the cumulative overburden pressure Calculate the overburden gradient .433 where S = psi D = ft Procedure • • • From the average bulk density.81 (gm/cc) Metric where S = kg/cm2 D=m SI units where S = KPa D=m Imperial S = ρb x D x 0.let S = overburden stress ρb = average bulk density D = depth S = ρb x D 10 S = ρb x D x 9.
26 / 0.48 x 150 x 9.48 1.95 14.25 1.70 15.26 13.81 = 2178 KPa Cumulative Pressure = 0 + 613 + 2178 = 2791 KPa Overburden Gradient = 2791 / 200 = 13.81 = 613 KPa Cumulative Pressure = 0 + 613 = 613 KPa Overburden Gradient = 613 / 50 = 12.50 50 .39 1250 1422 1498 1569 For the interval 0 to 50m Overburden Pressure = 1.95 KPa/m O/B Gradient EMW = 13.95 / 0.Example 1 Interval Thickness (m) Av ρb (gm/cc) Interval OB Press (KPa) Cumul OB Pres (KPa) OBG (KPa/m) Grad EMW (kg/m3) 0 .00981 = 1250 kg/m3 emw For the interval 50 to 200m Overburden Pressure = 1.00981 = 1422 kg/m3 emw .26 KPa/m O/B Gradient EMW = 12.200 200 .78 613 2178 1619 1746 613 2791 4410 6156 12.400 50 150 100 100 1.300 300 .25 x 50 x 9.65 1.
71 1350 1550 1630 1710 For the interval 0 to 100m Overburden pressure = (1.65 x 200) / 10 = 33.100 100 .5 kg/cm2 Cumulative pressure = 0 + 13.63 1.5 1.5 73.3 13.35 x 1000 = 1350 kg/m3 For the interval 100 to 300m Overburden pressure = (1.0 26.5 kg/cm2 Overburden gradient = (cumulative x 10) /(0 + 100) = (13.55 x 1000 = 1550 kg/m3 .2 119.5 x 10) / 100 = 1.35 x 100) / 10 = 13.7 46.55 kg/cm2/10m O/B Gradient EMW = 1.700 100 200 150 250 1.35 kg/cm2/10m 1 kg/cm2/10m = 1 gm/cc = 1000 kg/m3 emw NOTE O/B Gradient EMW = 1.35 1.5 = 13.300 300 .Example 2 Interval Thickness (m) Av ρb (gm/cc) Interval OB Press (kg/cm2) Cumul OB Pres OBG Grad EMW (kg/m3) (kg/cm2) (kg/cm2/10m) (~ gm/cc) 0 .85 13.5 33.5 + 33.78 1.35 1.450 450 .5 kg/cm2 Overburden gradient = (46.5 46.55 1.5 x 10) / (0 + 100 + 200) = 1.0 kg/cm2 Cumulative pressure = 0 + 13.65 1.0 = 46.
9 23.0 psi Overburden Gradient = 87.58 For the interval 0 to 50ft Overburden Pressure = 1.46 x 100 x 0.0 / 150 = 0.350 350 .15 11.8 + 63.052 = 11.72 1.50 50 .476 psi/ft O/B Gradient EMW = 0.8 63.476 / 0.58 / 0.96 13.674 0.58 psi/ft O/B Gradient EMW = 0.580 0.052 = 9.8 0.433 = 23.500 50 100 200 150 1.46 1.2 psi Cumulative Pressure = 0 + 23.10 1.706 9.10 x 50 x 0.8 psi Overburden Gradient = 23.15 ppg emw For the interval 50 to 150 ft Overburden Pressure = 1.9 116.15 12.Example 3 Interval Thickness (ft) Av ρb (gm/cc) Interval OB Press (psi) Cumul OB Pres (psi) OBG (psi/ft) Grad EMW (ppg) 0 .8 / 50 = 0.0 235.15 ppg emw .8 psi Cumulative Pressure = 0 + 23.9 352.476 0.2 = 87.2 148.8 87.80 23.150 150 .433 = 63.8 = 23.
300 300 .1000 100 2.400 50 150 100 100 1.48 1.70 15.200 200 .25 1.39 1250 1422 1498 1569 400 .96 900 .89 600 .78 613 2178 1619 1746 613 2791 4410 6156 12.95 750 .Exercise 3b Overburden Gradient Calculations From the table shown in the first example.850 100 1.600 100 1.95 14.02 .83 500 .500 100 1.99 850 .50 50 .26 13.65 1. complete the calculation of the overburden gradient.900 50 1. Interval Thickness (m) Av ρb (gm/cc) Interval OB Press (KPa) Cumul OB Pres (KPa) OBG (KPa/m) Grad EMW (kg/m3) 0 .750 150 1.
1200 1200 .05 1.78 1.46 1.100 100 .400 400 .1400 1400 .36 1.69 1.80 Cumulative Pressure psi OB Gradient psi/ft OB Gradient EMW (ppg) 0 .67 1.300 300 .20 1.50 50 .1100 1100 .1500 .53 1.500 500 .55 1. complete the table for the following overburden calculation: This example will be used in future exercises.40 1.75 1.900 900 .1300 1300 .59 1.29 1.200 200 .1000 1000 .64 1.600 600 .Exercise 3c Overburden Gradient Calculation Using the procedure shown in example 3. Interval (ft) bulk density Interval OB (gm/cc) Pressure psi 1.700 700 .800 800 .77 1.
OVERBURDEN GRADIENT 0 Overburden Gradient 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 DEPTH (ft) 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 EQUIVALENT MUDWEIGHT (ppg) .
and is therefore widely used in the industry. Studies have shown that Eatons Method is the most accurate for formation pressures less than 1.66ppg emw) whereas the Equivalent Depth method has been shown to be the more accurate for formation pressures greater than 1. . It is also generally accepted to be the most accurate method when interpreting Corrected Drilling Exponent data.4sg. and assumes the direct relationship between the porosity and the pressure anomaly.3.7c Calculation of Formation Pressure There are several methods of calculation. Eatons Method is generally accepted as being the most applicable in most regions of the world. This requires the accurate determination of Normal Compaction Trends as already described. most of which are based on the comparison of undercompacted shale with normally compacted shale. Datalog uses this method.4sg (11.
2 (Rn) FP = S − (S − FPn) (DCo)1. observed Xn = Parameter.2 (DCn) FP = S − (S − FPn) (∆Tn)3. Let FP = Formation Pressure Gradient (psi/ft) FPn = Normal Formation Pressure Gradient (psi/ft) S = Overburden Gradient (psi/ft) Xo = Parameter.2 (Co) Resistivity Corrected drilling exponent Sonic transit time Conductivity . normal FP = S − (S − FPn) (Ro)1.1 Eatons Method This method can be used to calculate the formation pressure from the following parameters: Seismic interval velocities Corrected drilling exponent Resistivity / Conductivity Sonic transit times The method assumes that the relationship between the observed parameter and normal parameter (ie lying on the NCT) and the formation pressure is dependant upon changes in the overburden gradient.7c.0 (∆To) FP = S − (S − FPn) (Cn)1.3.
but if sufficient data was available.452 psi/ft (8.04 − (1.75)1.2) are reliable for universal use. let Normal Formation Pressure Gradient = 0.490 psi/ft = 9. DCn is the value of the exponent that would lie on the Normal Compaction Trend. .0ppg emw) let DCo = 1. they could be refined on a regional basis.7ppg emw) let Overburden Gradient = 1.04 − 0.85) = 0.Taking the Corrected Drilling Exponent equation as an example: For a given depth. DCo • • DCn NCT Dcexp At 10000ft.04 psi/ft (20.2 (1.42 ppg emw The exponents (in this case 1.75 let DCn = 1.452)(1.85 Actual Formation Pressure Gradient = 1. whereas DCo is the actual calculated exponent value.
is made the subject. the observed value of the parameter. Again. at 10000ft. The same formulae are used.04 psi/ft normal formation pressure = 0.2√ (S − FP)) (S − FPn) x DCn FP represents the value of the isodensity line being calculated DCo represents the DXc value where the isodensity line will be plotted From the numbers used in the previous example:At 10000ft.52 psi/ft DCo = (1.2√ (1.67. the process relies on the accurate determination of the overburden gradient and normal compaction trend (which represents the normal formation pressure isodensity line).Calculating Isodensity Lines Isodensity lines are a way of graphically representing the drilling exponent (or other parameter) alongside curves of increasing equivalent mudweights (representing increasing formation pressure). the 10. for the 10.0ppg Isodensity line 10.52)) (1.0ppg isodensity line at 10000ft would be plotted at a ‘drilling exponent’ value of 1. taking the drilling exponent as an example: DCo = (1.0ppg emw = 0. .67 Therefore. This represents the value that positions the isodensity line for a given equivalent mudweight at any given depth.452 psi/ft DCn = 1.04 − 0.452) x 1. Again.85 = 1.04 − 0. This calculation should be repeated for an entire depth interval to produce a complete isodensity line. but Xo. the overburden gradient = 1.85 Let us calculate the position.
seen gradually increasing to a depth of around 3700ft. .Plot illustrating Dxc with NCT and Isodensity Lines 0.0 1000 9. from where it is constant at 9.5 NCT 8. In the above example.4 2000 9.0 2.25 to 9. With the isodensity lines. any deviation from the normal trend can immediately be seen along with the estimation of formation pressure (equivalent mudweight).8 9.0 DXc 9.6 3000 4000 Depth Equivalent Density This type of graphical representation is ideal in that it shows the actual DXc along with the Normal Compaction Trend.30 ppg emw. the onset of the overpressured zone is clearly evident at around 2000ft.2 1.
04 1. giving a pressure gradient of 0.51 1. position a Normal Compaction Trend line.32 1.0ppg (0.04 = 0.0 ppg.452 psi/ft. Assume that the normal formation pressure is 8. . complete the following tasks. Assuming that the complete depth interval comprises an homogeneous shale. 1.468)) (0. Using the following values of the drilling exponent that would lie on the NCT line. 9.00 Example 9.487 − 0.487 − 0.0. 2. calculate and position isodensity lines for the equivalent formation pressures of 9.625 3.74 2.5 and 10.452) x 1.15 1. Verify the position of these isodensity lines by calculating the formation pressure at 1200 ft.09 1.468 psi/ft) isodensity line at 100ft:DCo = (1. Depth 100 200 300 600 900 1200 1500 ‘Normal’ Drilling Exponent 1.7 ppg emw.Exercise 3d Using the overburden gradient calculated in exercise 3c and the following Corrected Drilling Exponent plot.2√ (0.
1 1 10 DCexp .CORRECTED DRILLING EXPONENT 0 100 DCexponent 200 300 400 500 600 700 DEPTH (ft) 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 0.
1 1 10 DCexp .DCexp with Normal Compaction Trend 0 100 DCexponent NCT 200 300 400 500 600 700 DEPTH (ft) 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 0.
5ppg EMW 10.DCexp with Isodensity Lines 0 9.0ppg EMW 400 500 600 700 DEPTH (ft) 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 0.1 1 10 DCexp .5ppg 200 NCT 9.0ppg EMW 300 10.0ppg 100 DCexponent 9.0pp g 9.
For a given depth (DI) of the parameter. The method assumes that every point in an undercompacted shale (I) is associated with a normally compacted point (E) at a shallower depth. ie that the compaction at both points is identical. Taking a drilling exponent trend as an example:DXc DE --------------------.3.• E DI ---------------------• I Depth NCT Let FPI Let FPE Let SI Let SE = = = = formation pressure gradient at depth of interest DI formation pressure grad at equivalent depth DE (ie normal pressure) overburden gradient at depth of interest DI overburden gradient at depth of interest DE FPI = SI − DE (SE − FPE) DI gradients in psi/ft . the method works by extrapolating that value of the parameter back to a depth (DE) where that same value falls on the NCT.7c. the Equivalent Depth Method can be applied to all the main parameters.2 Equivalent Depth Method As with Eatons Method.
545 DE 1.Calculating isodensity lines DXc X DE E NCT DI Depth Z I Y Extend the normal compaction trend XY to the depth origin X Choose point E lying on the NCT For the selected isodensity value deqlI.2ppg emw) normal formation pressure = 0. they should be used in the formula. if more accurate data.0 psi/ft (19. calculate the depth DI using the formula: DI = 0.0 − deqlI Derivation of constants: Assume overburden gradient = 1.75ppg emw) (0.455 psi/ft (8. . or the actual values are known.545 = S − FPn) Naturally.
2 9.The isodensity lines produced by the Equivalent Depth method will look as follows: 0.4 9.0 3.0 DXc NCT Depth 9.0 Equivalent Density .4 0.6 9.5 1.0 2.
fractured or low pressured formations may well have a lower fracture gradient even though they occur at a deeper depth. However. We have already seen how the formation at the previous casing shoe depth is assumed to be the weakest zone of the following hole section (because it is the shallowest depth of that section) and how we calculate the fracture gradient for that depth. enables: • • • the planning of a drilling program. casing depths and maximum mud weights calculation of the maximum annular pressure (MAASP) when controlling a kick estimation of pressures required for stimulating by hydraulic fracturing .8 Calculation of Formation Fracture Gradient Knowing the fracture gradient of formations and weak zones is essential while planning or drilling a well. Accurate knowledge of the fracture gradient. we cannot automatically assume that that will be the weakest zone.3. it is important to have accurate fracture gradient calculations in the same way that it is important to have accurate formation pressure calculations. highly porous. in particular the weak zones. Thus.
so that these methods have to treated with caution. σ3 = S3 − FP The minimum stress S3 is generally assumed to be the horizontal component. This is obviously an unreasonable assumption. The relationship between K3 and µ: K3 = µ 1−µ . so that S3 = K3σ + FP where σ = effective vertical stress due to the overlying sediments K3 = ratio of horizontal to vertical effective stresses The main differences in the several theories of fracture gradient calculation arise from the determination of K3: • • evaluating K3 from regional studies of fracture measurements assuming that K3 depends on Poisson’s Ratio µ for the in situ material.8a General Theory To calculate the fracture gradient requires the knowledge of the minimum component of in-situ stresses (S3) Deformation and fracture is controlled by the effective stress (σ) which is the difference between the total stress (ie overburden S) and the formation pore pressure (FP) σ = S − FP For the minimum stress. This assumes that the formation has not undergone lateral deformation and that it has always deformed elastically.3.
3.8b Eatons Method Eatons method assumes that rock deformation is plastic, and on the basis that Poissons Ratio and overburden vary with depth, Poissons ratio has to be derived from regional data for the fracture gradient, formation pressure and overburden gradient. FG = ( µ ) σ + FP (1−µ)
where FG = fracture gradient FP = formation pressure σ = overburden − formation pressure µ = Poissons Ratio
Poissons ratio has to be calculated from offset data, preferably prior to drilling the well, from the following equation:µ = FG − FP S + FG − 2FP
Eatons method is furthered by Anderson et al, who calculate Poissons ratio on the basis of a Shaliness Index: µ = 0.125q + 0.27
where q = shaliness index
Hence, for a clean, shale free sand for example, the minimum for Poissons Ratio is 0.27 because q will be equal to zero. The shaliness index q can be determined from gamma logs:-
The maximum and minimum gamma value should be determined for each formation or geological time period. q can then be derived for given depth intervals eg 10 or 20m, from:q = GRlog − GRmin GRmax − GRmin where GRlog = the average gamma value over the selected depth interval.
3.8c Daines Method Daines takes Eatons formula as a basis and introduces a correction by way of a superimposed tectonic stress, so that... FG = σt + ( µ ) σ + FP (1−µ) where σt = superimposed tectonic stress σt is calculated from the first Leak Off Test, and is assumed to be constant for the whole well. The FG at this point will be the fracture gradient derived from the LOT. There is potential error here, depending on the value of Poissons Ratio selected.
Unlike Eatons method, where the Poissons ratio is depth dependant and calculated from known fracture gradient, formation pressure and overburden, Daines method assumes that the Poissons Ratio is dependant on lithology. The following values of Poissons ratio were derived experimentally:
Clay Conglomerate Dolomite Limestone micritic sparitic porous fossiliferous argillaceous Sandstone coarse medium fine poorly sorted fossiliferous
0.17 - 0.5 0.20 0.21 0.28 0.31 0.20 0.09 0.17 0.05 - 0.10 0.06 0.03 0.24 0.01
Shale calcareous dolomitic siliceous silty sandy Siltstone 0.14 0.28 0.12 0.17 0.12 0.08
For the purpose of deriving the superimposed tectonic stress, if the lithology at the depth of Leak Off is not accurately known, a default value of 0.25 should be selected for Poissons Ratio.
3.9 Use of the QLOG software
General Procedure:• • • • • Determine or obtain Bulk Density measurements Calculate the Overburden Gradient at regular intervals Select trend indicator and determine the Normal Compaction Trend for the given interval * Calculate the Formation Pressure * Calculate or select the appropriate Poissons Ratio and calculate the Fracture Gradient
* NOTE The Normal Compaction Trend selected and hence the accuracy of the calculated Formation Pressure will only be as good as the interpretations made by the engineer. Before selecting the NCT, the engineer will have already made an accurate estimation of the formation pressure by considering changes in all parameters such as gas trends, produced gases, temperature trends, shale density etc. The software cannot do this by itself. In otherwords, the software can be used to do the hard work of the actual calculations, but these calculations should only be confirming the conclusions already arrived at by the engineer.
a. Overburden Program (overburd) In order for the Formation Pressure and Fracture Gradient to be calculated, we have already seen that the Overburden Gradient must be known or have been calculated. The overburden program calculates the gradient for each log interval and will update it into the database. The program can normally be run directly from a command line with no user input required. However, the first time that the program is run, the command overburd +m (for manual) should be used. This allows you to specify the start and end depths and is, in fact, the version of the program that is run from the QLOG menu. The overburden gradient is calculated from the Bulk Density. There must therefore be bulk density values, for each record in the database, entered into the JW reference column. This data may be imported from offset wireline data or measured by the mudlogger at wellsite.
For example. since it does not allow for the density increasing from a low value at surface to 1. This is obviously inaccurate. Every record must have a bulk density value in order for the overburden calculation to work. Choose to update the equipment file and database after the calculation. NOTE that an accuracy problem will exist if the database does not start from surface. then a value of 1. When the calculation is done. • . which will then be used for subsequent realtime calculations. Enter your start depth as the start of the database.95 gm/cc. then we should attempt to calculate the initial overburden gradient as accurately as possible.95 at 2000m. If any data is available from wireline. or enter the program from the QLOG menu. as an equivalent density. then that density will be assumed for the whole of the first 2000m given an initial overburden gradient of 1950 kg/m3 emw. the blank records. For example. Your end depth should be the depth of the last bulk density value entered into the database.If bulk density values are not available for each individual record in the database. the equipment table will be automatically updated with the Bulk Density (equivalent for the present calculated overburden). if the database is started at 2000m and the first bulk density measurement is 1. into the bulk density column for the first record.70 gm/cc should be entered into the first bulk density record. • • • Enter the command overburd +m. or copy to. ie if we are requested at wellsite at an intermediate stage of the well. This value should then be entered. Running the program for the first time:• Ensure that the bulk density value in the equipment table is set to zero and that the Bulk Density column in the database has values for every record over the required interval. Calculating to the end of the database will calculate past the end depth entered. erring on the high side. if the overburden for 2000m was calculated at 1700 kg/m3. you must fill.
If you do not select to update the database. the logger can set the system so that the program runs automatically at a predetermined time interval. Press F7 to calculate the overburden gradient. Even better. If you wanted to recalculate for the whole database.• • Press F5 to read in the bulk density values from the database. using the overburd +m option. The calculation will be automatic . . the program will just display the calculated end result for the present end depth. then run the program as in the first 2 steps above. the program should be run at regular intervals while drilling. After the first proper calculation (detailed above) run has been completed. by using the cron timing facility (see Advanced QLOG). This should be done from a command line with overburd. the program automatically continues from the depth of the last calculation.no manual input of depths is required.
Overpressure Program (overpress) This program enables you to calculate the Formation Pressure and Fracture Gradient. normally the Corrected Drilling Exponent. will all cause changes to the DCexp trend. The limitations of this parameter. connection gas. size and wear. so that the software should be used in such a way as to give the calculations that the engineer considers correct. formation. the selection of the NCT is totally dependent on the engineer. Always consider the DCexp along with changes in cuttings character. The parameter most commonly used to determine a Normal Compaction Trend is the Corrected Drilling Exponent using Jordan and Shirley’s formula. . mud temperature and resistivity. have to be recognized. As previously stated. Varying hydraulics. Based on this evaluation. torque and drag of drillstring etc. These calculations are performed offline for a depth interval already drilled. background gas. where it becomes abnormal and what the probable new formation pressure is. bit type. The user can then determine a Normal Compaction Trend based upon a given parameter.b. normally. The program requires certain information to be in place before running. together with the appropriate Poisson’s Ratio. the Poisson’s Ratio together with Pressure Slope and Offset (relating to the Normal Compaction Trend) are written automatically to the equipment table allowing for realtime calculation of the formation pressure and fracture gradient. before using the software. A trend can. This will determine the pressure calculations made by the software. only be accurately determined for homogenous shale or claystone. the user should be fully familiar with the theory and techniques of Abnormal Pressure analysis. however. The Fracture Gradient calculation is based upon the calculated Overburden Gradient and the calculated Formation Pressure. the engineer should have already evaluated all of these parameters and determined where the formation pressure is normal. When the calculations are completed. To calculate Formation Pressure:• • the Overburden Gradient needs to have been calculated for the given depth interval the Normal Formation Pressure for the region needs to be entered into the equipment table. Before using this program.
Select Average Size. this should be a depth based value determined from offset data using overburden. Eaton or Zamora (otherwise known as the Ratio method). • • • Once you are happy with the positioning of the Normal Compaction Trend. You may have to re-select your Trend start and end values before you are completely happy with its positioning. select F8 to produce an Overlay Plot . so extrapolate your trend if you are in a transition zone and it will give you the calculated pressures within that zone. • . For the Start and End depths of the interval that you intend to update calculations for.To use the program: Firstly. and horizontal plot scales (this is the Equivalent Mudweight. If this data is not available to you. and you selected an average of 10. these will be the same as the NCT start and end depths). ie DCexp). Select the calculation method. Eatons is the preferred method. select the correct NCT using the overlay plot:• • Select the parameter you wish to use for the trend line from the first menu normally DCexp. formation pressure and fracture gradient (see section 3. and would normally be left as the default 800 to 2500 kg/m3 EMW). if your database was every metre. the calculated data for each record in the database would be averaged over the previous 10 records. The end depth will be the depth to which the data is calculated and updated.8.8. Enter Start and End depths of the plot (in most cases. you should use the lithologically determined ratios shown in the help file and this manual (section 3.plot.you will probably have to run this several times before you have the NCT in exactly the position that you want. Daines Method). accessed from Reports-XYZ plots. BEFORE calculating and updating the database. Properly. you are ready to perform the pressure and fracture gradient calculations: • Enter the Poisson’s Ratio. Eatons Method).this will be a plot of the DCexp together with your selected Normal Compaction Trend and is called overlay. For example. This is only used in the calculation of the Fracture Gradient. Use ‘ball park’ figures initially . enter the value of the Normal Compaction Trend (this value is determined from the scale of the source.
This facility should only be used for these types of shift changes and not for changes in your drilling exponent caused by a formation pressure change (ie do not change the pressure slope). which effectively shifts your Normal Compaction Trend. if you are fully confident of what your formation pressure is (this only comes with experience and by taking into consideration all pressure indicators). Obviously. Select whether to Update Database and Equipment Table. This does not affect the calculated data in the database. only every 10th record would be output to the plot. bit change. called press. This will update your database and equipment table and also produce a pressure profile plot. change in hydraulics. for example sand and shale. This means that the XYZ plot created (these have a limited memory capability) is capable of taking a greater depth interval. caused by such things as change in lithology.• Select Interval Size. Should you have an interbedded lithology sequence. so that you have accurate information on display for engineers and geologists. Press F7 to calculate. . but determines the frequency of data points output to the plot.this would calculate beyond the End Depth already selected. In this situation. formation pressure and fracture gradient against depth. then your Normal Compaction Trend is effectively shifting for each lithology change. It would therefore be virtually impossible to keep your realtime calculations accurate.you can therefore alter the pressure offset so that you get the realtime calculations that you want. it may be advisable to use the override facilities in the equipment table. You should only change the pressure offset. If 10 was selected for example. then it is quite legitimate for you to change the pressure offset in order to get accurate realtime calculations. Should there be a lateral shift in this trend. this would write all of the calculated formation pressures and fracture gradients to the database and would also write the following parameters to the equipment table to allow for realtime calculations:Poisson’s Ratio Pressure Slope and Offset (based on the normal compaction trend) • • • Calculate to end of database .plot NOTE that the parameters written to the equipment table allow for realtime calculations of formation pressure and fracture gradient based on your Normal Compaction Trend. .
However. this facility can be very useful for providing detailed plots for final well reports but cannot be used for calculation purposes. 50 to 350m #NCT 2.Normal Compaction Trends For calculation purposes. For additional trend sections. then multiple trends can be selected. if you were producing overlay plots for a final well report.44 1.56 1.dat which would normally contain the start and end depths plus NCT values that you selected in the overpress program. This may be due to a number of causes:Shift changes due to bit changes change in hole size change in hydraulics or drilling parameters unconformities (this may also produce a different NCT gradient) Multiple trends can be selected by editing the plot data file /datalog/plots/data/trend.26 1.42 1.60 #NCT 1. 350 to 700m #NCT 3.68 1. intervals have to be calculated using a single NCT. 700 to 1100m Again. . simply add depths and NCT values required:50 350 350 700 700 1100 1.
32 17. d.57 Equivalent MW kg/m3 1621 1666 1723 1754 1766 1791 400 . a. d.26 KPa/m 5148 psi 4120 psi 3139 psi 45126 KPa 15. Exercise 3b Depth Interval Interval Pressure Cumulative KPa Pressure KPa 1795 1854 2869 1952 961 1982 7951 9805 12674 14626 15587 17569 O/B Grad KPa/m 15.850 850 . b.53 ppg 12.150 psi/m 2. a.900 900 .21 17. e.7 ppg 1359 kg/m3 1019 kg/m3 2.34 16.500 500 .35 KPa/m 12. b.494 psi/ft 2. e. c. 3.600 600 .38 ppg 10. a.1000 .Appendix Exercise 3a 1. c.750 750 . c. Answers to Exercises 0.90 16.90 17. f.557 psi/m 10.99 ppg 9. d. b.
487 0.55 420.89 60.01 73.575 0.71 104.94 22.53 12.77 11.50 50 .523 0.676 Equivalent MW (ppg) 8.1300 1300 .73 48.48 10.545 0.18 72.85 71.11 68.31 75.1000 1000 .661 0.66 489.600 600 .22 66.500 500 .85 12.86 58.51 560.1500 .56 11.200 200 .19 12.1200 1200 .800 800 .70 12.30 353.70 706.62 63.100 100 .77 11.85 935.612 0.455 0.623 0.1400 1400 .07 76.43 O/B Grad (psi/ft) 0.98 12.634 0.64 77.900 900 .46 224.668 0.651 0.642 0.589 0.Exercise 3c Depth Interval Interval Pressure Cumulative (psi) Pressure (psi) 22.33 11.700 700 .36 10.73 25.78 858.560 0.05 10.08 287.99 0 .34 12.77 77.57 163.25 67.52 633.300 300 .49 1013.98 55.400 400 .1100 1100 .74 9.601 0.05 11.01 781.
880 0.479 9.190 1.517 0.428 1.385 0.625 0.0 ppg emw .682 0.228 1.0ppg emw 0.623 1.983 1.5ppg emw 10.697 0.745 0.391 1.990 1.Exercise 3d Isodensity Lines Depth 100 200 300 600 900 1200 1500 9.08 0.973 1.194 1.0ppg emw Formation Pressure at 1200 ft = 10.
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