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SIGNALS BASIC TYPES

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Here are a few basic signals:

Unit Step Function

1 t⩾0
Unit step function is denoted by ut . It is defined as ut = {
0 t<0

It is used as best test signal.


Area under unit step function is unity.

Unit Impulse Function

1 t=0
Impulse function is denoted by δ t . and it is defined as δ t = {
0 t≠0


∫ δ(t)dt = u(t)
−∞

du(t)
δ(t) =
dt
Ramp Signal

t⩾0
{
t
Ramp signal is denoted by rt , and it is defined as rt =
0 t<0
∫ u(t) = ∫ 1 = t = r(t)

dr(t)
u(t) =
dt
Area under unit ramp is unity.

Parabolic Signal

t2 /2 t⩾0
Parabolic signal can be defined as xt = {
0 t<0

t2
∬ u(t)dt = ∫ r(t)dt = ∫ tdt = = parabolicsignal
2
d 2 x(t)
⇒ u(t) = 2
dt
dx(t)
⇒ r(t) =
dt
Signum Function


⎪ 1 t>0
Signum function is denoted as sgnt . It is defined as sgnt = ⎨ 0

t=0

−1 t<0
sgnt = 2ut – 1

Exponential Signal

Exponential signal is in the form of xt = eαt .

The shape of exponential can be defined by α .

Case i: if α = 0 → xt = e0 = 1

Case ii: if α < 0 i.e. -ve then xt = e−αt . The shape is called decaying exponential.

Case iii: if α > 0 i.e. +ve then xt = eαt . The shape is called raising exponential.

Rectangular Signal
Let it be denoted as xt and it is defined as
Triangular Signal
Let it be denoted as xt

Sinusoidal Signal

Sinusoidal signal is in the form of xt = A cos$w0 ± ϕ$ or A sin$w0 ± ϕ$

Where T 0 = 2π
w0

Sinc Function
It is denoted as sinct and it is defined as sinc

sinπt
(t) =
πt
= 0 for t = ±1, ±2, ±3. . .
Sampling Function
It is denoted as sa t and it is defined as

sint
sa(t) =
t
= 0 for t = ±π, ±2π, ±3π . . .