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# SIGNALS BASIC TYPES

## Unit Step Function

1 t⩾0
Unit step function is denoted by ut . It is defined as ut = {
0 t<0

## It is used as best test signal.

Area under unit step function is unity.

## Unit Impulse Function

1 t=0
Impulse function is denoted by δ t . and it is defined as δ t = {
0 t≠0

∫ δ(t)dt = u(t)
−∞

du(t)
δ(t) =
dt
Ramp Signal

t⩾0
{
t
Ramp signal is denoted by rt , and it is defined as rt =
0 t<0
∫ u(t) = ∫ 1 = t = r(t)

dr(t)
u(t) =
dt
Area under unit ramp is unity.

Parabolic Signal

t2 /2 t⩾0
Parabolic signal can be defined as xt = {
0 t<0

t2
∬ u(t)dt = ∫ r(t)dt = ∫ tdt = = parabolicsignal
2
d 2 x(t)
⇒ u(t) = 2
dt
dx(t)
⇒ r(t) =
dt
Signum Function

⎪ 1 t>0
Signum function is denoted as sgnt . It is defined as sgnt = ⎨ 0

t=0

−1 t<0
sgnt = 2ut – 1

Exponential Signal

## The shape of exponential can be defined by α .

Case i: if α = 0 → xt = e0 = 1

Case ii: if α < 0 i.e. -ve then xt = e−αt . The shape is called decaying exponential.

Case iii: if α > 0 i.e. +ve then xt = eαt . The shape is called raising exponential.

Rectangular Signal
Let it be denoted as xt and it is defined as
Triangular Signal
Let it be denoted as xt

Sinusoidal Signal

## Sinusoidal signal is in the form of xt = A cos\$w0 ± ϕ\$ or A sin\$w0 ± ϕ\$

Where T 0 = 2π
w0

Sinc Function
It is denoted as sinct and it is defined as sinc

sinπt
(t) =
πt
= 0 for t = ±1, ±2, ±3. . .
Sampling Function
It is denoted as sa t and it is defined as

sint
sa(t) =
t
= 0 for t = ±π, ±2π, ±3π . . .