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Marina Spiazzi
Marina Tavella Margaret Layton
Performer
Culture & Literature 1+2
From the Origins to the Nineteenth Century

LINGUE
Marina Spiazzi
Marina Tavella Margaret Layton
Performer
Culture & Literature 1+2
From the Origins to the Nineteenth Century

LINGUE
Copyright © 2012 Zanichelli editore S.p.A., Bologna [9692]
www.zanichelli.it
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Le autrici ringraziano il prof. Sergio Rusconi per i preziosi suggerimenti nella scelta dei testi
di letteratura italiana.

Realizzazione editoriale:
– Redazione e ricerca iconografica: Lindy Russell
– Collaborazione redazionale: Martine Buysschaert & Francesca Malerba, Milano
con Laura Magda Barazza, Zino Malerba e Giacomo Serra
– Redazione Text bank: CL’EM, Milano
– Progetto grafico e impaginazione: Dario Zannier, Studio Indaco, Milano
– Ricerca iconografica: Giorgia Tolfo
– Cartine sezione “Mapping”: Bernardo Mannucci
– Correzione bozze: Aaron Maines

Contributi:
– Rilettura: Maria Bellucci
– Indice analitico: Laura Magda Barazza

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– Immagine di copertina: The Golden Boys (Matthew Boulton, James Watt and William Murdoch),
Birmingham. © ell brown

Prima edizione: gennaio 2012

L’impegno a mantenere invariato il contenuto di questo volume per un quinquennio


(art. 5 legge n. 169/2008) è comunicato nel catalogo Zanichelli, disponibile anche
online sul sito www.zanichelli.it, ai sensi del DM 41 dell’8 aprile 2009, All. 1/B.

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Suggerimenti e segnalazione degli errori


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Per segnalazioni o suggerimenti relativi a questo libro scrivere al seguente indirizzo:
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Le correzioni di eventuali errori presenti nel testo sono pubblicati nel sito www.zanichelli.it/aggiornamenti

Zanichelli editore S.p.A. opera con sistema qualità


certificato CertiCarGraf n. 477
secondo la norma UNI EN ISO 9001:2008

Fotocomposizione: Fratelli Sala


Specification 1 FCE Reading – Part 2
The Birth of the Nation ................... 1
6 Text Bank 6: Thomas Malory and the Knights
of the Round Table
2.9 Literature Geoffrey Chaucer’s portrait of English society . . . . . 42
The Canterbury Tales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
6 Text Bank 7–10: The Canterbury Tales
1.1 History Meet the Celts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 The Wife of Bath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Insights The origins of Halloween The Miller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
FCE Word Formation 2.10 Comparing Literatures The narrator’s voice: Chaucer
1.2 Comparing Literatures Caesar and the Druids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 and Boccaccio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
De Druidibus by Iulius Caesar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 When in April from The Canterbury Tales
Of the Druids by Julius Caesar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 by G. Chaucer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
1.3 History Roman Britain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Proemio and Introduzione alla prima giornata from
FCE Use of English – Part 1 The Decameron by G. Boccaccio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
FCE Writing – Part 1 An email 2.11 Cultural Issues Giving identity a voice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
1.4 History The Anglo-Saxons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 The Wife of Bafa by P. Agbabi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
1.5 The Arts Anglo-Saxon art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.12 History The Black Death: a great human tragedy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
FCE Reading – Part 1 2.13 Mapping History The Wars of the Roses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Internet Lab The treasure of Sutton Hoo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
1.6 Literature Beowulf: a national epic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Beowulf and Grendel: the fight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Specification 3
Beowulf’s funeral. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6 Text Bank 1: Beowulf A Cultural Awakening ..................... 57
1.7 Two Films About… Beowulf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.8 Cultural Issues Good vs evil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Take off the Ring! from The Lord of the Rings
by J.R.R. Tolkien . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.1 History Meet the Tudors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
1.9 History The Viking attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 FCE Reading – Part 3
FCE Use of English – Part 1 3.2 The Arts Portraits of Queen Elizabeth I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6 Text Bank 2: The elegy FCE Use of English – Part 1
1.10 Mapping History The Norman invasion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Internet Lab Portraits of Queen Elizabeth I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
FCE Speaking – Part 1 3.3 Two Films About… Queen Elizabeth I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
1.11 History The Domesday Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.4 Society Elizabethan entertainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
FCE Listening – Part 1 Insights The most popular team sport
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Insights The origins of tennis
FCE Writing – Part 2 An article
3.5 Science An expanding world. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Specification 2 FCE Listening – Part 3
Developing Society ............................ 27 3.6 Literature The English Renaissance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.7 Literature The sonnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
6 Text Bank 11–12: Shakespeare’s sonnets
3.8 Comparing Literatures The English and the Italian sonnet . . . 70
2.1 History A war of succession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 I find no peace by T. Wyatt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.2 The Arts The Gothic cathedral. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Pace non trovo by Petrarch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
FCE Listening – Part 2 3.9 Cultural Issues Woman, lady, mistress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
FCE Speaking – Part 2 My Mistress’ Eyes by W. Shakespeare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
2.3 History King John and the Magna Carta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Anne Hathaway by C.A. Duffy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Insights Habeas corpus 3.10 Cultural Issues The shadow of death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
FCE Listening – Part 3
6 Text Bank 3: Robin Hood
FCE Use of English – Part 2 Death be not proud by J. Donne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2.4 Two Films About… Robin Hood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 6 Text Bank 13–14: John Donne
2.5 Literature The medieval ballad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Do not go gentle into that good night by D. Thomas . . . 77
Bonny Barbara Allen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 3.11 History King by divine right . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Insights The origin of Thanksgiving Day
6 Text Bank 4–5: Medieval ballads
2.6 Music Modern ballads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.12 Mapping History The Gunpowder Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
2.7 History The birth of Parliament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Insights Guy Fawkes and Bonfire Night
Internet Lab Parliament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.8 Society The three orders of medieval society. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

III
Spiazzi, Tavella, Layton PERFORMER. CULTURE & LITERATURE 1+2 © Zanichelli 2012 From the Origins to the Nineteenth Century
Specification 4 4.11 Comparing Literatures Reality and imagination:
Shakespeare and Ariosto. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
William Shakespeare: Lovers and madmen from A Midsummer Night’s
England’s genius ................................. 83 Dream by W. Shakespeare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Per amor from Orlando furioso by L. Ariosto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
4.12 The Arts Shakespeare’s plays in painting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
4.1 Culture Why study Shakespeare? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 FCE Listening – Part 4
4.2 Literature William Shakespeare (1554–1616) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 FCE Speaking – Part 3
Insights Stratford-upon-Avon: Shakespeare’s birthplace Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
6 Text Bank 15–16: Julius Caesar
4.3 Mapping Society Shakespeare’s London . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Specification 5
FCE Reading – Part 1
4.4 Literature The structure of theatres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 A Time of Upheaval ........................ 129
FCE Use of English – Part 2
Internet Lab The Globe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
6 Text Bank 17: Christopher Marlowe
4.5 Literature The world of drama. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 5.1 History The Civil War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
The balcony scene from Romeo and Juliet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 FCE Use of English – Part 1
To be or not to be from Hamlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Insights The British and the monarchy today
6 Text Bank 18–20: Hamlet 5.2 Two Films About… The Civil War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
The bond from The Merchant of Venice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 5.3 Society The Puritans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
6 Text Bank 21–22: The Merchant of Venice FCE Listening – Part 2
My hands are of your colour from Macbeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 Insights The Puritan heritage in America
4.6 Literature Opening scenes in Shakespeare’s plays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 5.4 Mapping Society The war on witches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
FCE Reading – Part 3 5.5 Literature John Milton: Satan’s speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Romeo and Juliet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Paradise Lost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Two households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Satan’s speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
6 Text Bank 23: Romeo and Juliet 6 Text Bank 27: Paradise Lost
Macbeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 5.6 Comparing Literatures Satan in Milton and Dante. . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
The three witches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Dante’s Lucifer from The Divine Comedy
6 Text Bank 24–25: Macbeth by D. Alighieri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
The Tempest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 5.7 Cultural Issues The development of human rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
The Tempest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 The first two laws of nature from Leviathan
6 Text Bank 26: The Tempest by T. Hobbes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
4.7 Literature Dramatic effect in Shakespeare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Of the state of nature from The Second Treatise
The ball from Romeo and Juliet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 by J. Locke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Duncan’s murder from Macbeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Internet Lab The Universal Declaration of Human Rights . 143
Prospero and Caliban from The Tempest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 FCE Writing – Part 2 A report
4.8 Two Films About… Romeo and Juliet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 5.8 Science The scientific revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
4.9 Literature Shakespeare’s soliloquies and monologues . . . . . . . . 111 FCE Use of English – Part 2
With a kiss I die from Romeo and Juliet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Insights The Royal Society today
Macbeth’s last monologue from Macbeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 FCE Reading – Part 2
Prospero renounces his magic powers from 6 Text Bank 28: Francis Bacon
The Tempest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 5.9 History The Restoration of the monarchy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
4.10 Cultural Issues Illusion and reality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 6 Text Bank 29: William Congreve
FCE Use of English – Part 1 5.10 The Arts Sir Christopher Wren . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
A Midsummer Night’s Dream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
The love potion from A Midsummer Night’s Dream . . . 116
The Fairies from A Midsummer Night’s Dream . . . . . . . . . . . .117
An ass-head from A Midsummer Night’s Dream . . . . . . . . . 119
We shadows from A Midsummer Night’s Dream . . . . . . . .120
The dream from Wise Children by A. Carter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

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Spiazzi, Tavella, Layton PERFORMER. CULTURE & LITERATURE 1+2 © Zanichelli 2012 From the Origins to the Nineteenth Century
Specification 6 7.4 Literature William Blake and the victims
of industrialisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Shaping the English London. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Character ..................................................... 151 The Chimney Sweeper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
The Chimney Sweeper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
6 Text Bank 39–42: William Blake
6.1 History The birth of political parties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 7.5 Cultural Issues The long-term impact of the Industrial
FCE Use of English – Part 2 Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Insights Modern political parties, the prime minister A toxic event from White Noise by D. DeLillo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
and the Cabinet FCE Writing – Part 2 An article
6.2 Mapping Society The English landscape garden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 7.6 History The American War of Independence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
6.3 Society A golden age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Insights America’s birthday
FCE Use of English – Part 3 FCE Listening – Part 3
FCE Speaking – Part 2 Internet Lab The US government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
6.4 The Arts William Hogarth’s satire and social criticism . . . . . . . 158 7.7 Mapping History The Boston Freedom Trail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
FCE Listening – Part 2 7.8 Two Films About… The American War of Independence. . . . 198
Internet Lab William Hogarth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 7.9 Philosophy and the Arts The sublime: a new sensibility . . . .199
FCE Speaking – Part 2 FCE Reading – Part 3
6.5 Literature The means for cultural debate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 FCE Speaking – Part 2
FCE Reading – Part 1 7.10 Literature The Gothic novel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Insights British newspapers 6 Text Bank 43: The historical novel and Walter Scott
6.6 Comparing Literatures Two newspapers: ‘The Spectator’ 7.11 Literature Mary Shelley and the new interest in science . . . . 203
and ‘Il Caffè’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Frankenstein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
6.7 Literature The rise of the novel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 The creation of the monster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
6 Text Bank 30: Samuel Richardson 6 Text Bank 44: Frankenstein
7.12 Comparing Literatures The epistolary novel: M. Shelley
6 Text Bank 31: Henry Fielding
and Foscolo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
6 Text Bank 32: Laurence Sterne
6.8 Literature Daniel Defoe and the rise of the realistic novel . . . . 165 Le viscere delle alpi from Ultime lettere
Robinson Crusoe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 di Jacopo Ortis by U. Foscolo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
The journal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Frankenstein and the monster from Frankenstein
Man Friday . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169 by M. Shelley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
6 Text Bank 33–34: Robinson Crusoe
6 Text Bank 35: Moll Flanders
6.9 Two Films About… Robinson Crusoe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171 Specification 8
6.10 Literature Jonathan Swift and the satirical novel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Gulliver’s Travels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 The Romantic Spirit ........................ 211
Gulliver and the Lilliputians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
6 Text Bank 36–37: Gulliver’s Travels
6 Text Bank 38: A Modest Proposal
6.11 Cultural Issues Tourists, travellers and movers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 8.1 Culture Is it Romantic? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
About movers from Shame by S. Rushdie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 8.2 Literature Emotion vs reason . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 FCE Use of English – Part 3
8.3 Literature William Wordsworth and nature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Insights The Lake District
Specification 7 Daffodils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
An Age of Revolutions .................. 181 6 Text Bank 45–46: William Wordsworth
8.4 Comparing Literatures Nature in Wordsworth
and Leopardi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Canto notturno di un pastore errante dell’Asia
7.1 History An age of revolutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 by G. Leopardi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
7.2 Mapping History Heroes of invention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 My Heart Leaps Up by W. Wordsworth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
7.3 Society Industrial society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 8.5 Literature Samuel Taylor Coleridge and sublime nature . . . . 220
FCE Use of English – Part 2 The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
The killing of the Albatross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222
6 Text Bank 47: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
8.6 The Arts Romanticism in English painting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
FCE Reading – Part 1
Internet Lab John Constable and J.M.W. Turner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

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Spiazzi, Tavella, Layton PERFORMER. CULTURE & LITERATURE 1+2 © Zanichelli 2012 From the Origins to the Nineteenth Century
FCE Writing – Part 2 An article 9.11 Literature Herman Melville and Moby-Dick: an American
8.7 Mapping the Arts Constable Country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228 epic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
8.8 History The Napoleonic Wars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Moby-Dick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
8.9 Literature George Gordon Byron and the stormy ocean. . . . 230 Moby Dick. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 6 Text Bank 59–60: Moby-Dick
FCE Listening – Part 2 6 Text Bank 61–62: Nathaniel Hawthorne
Apostrophe to the ocean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 9.12 Cultural Issues Taking challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274
6 Text Bank 48–49: George Gordon Byron The marlin from The Old Man and the Sea
8.10 Literature John Keats and unchanging nature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 by E. Hemingway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276
Bright Star . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 FCE Speaking – Part 4
6 Text Bank 50–51: John Keats FCE Writing – Part 2
8.11 Literature Percy Bysshe Shelley and the free spirit Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279
of nature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236
Ode to the West Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Specification 10
6 Text Bank 52: Percy Bysshe Shelley
8.12 Literature Jane Austen and the theme of love . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Coming of Age ...................................... 281
Pride and Prejudice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Darcy proposes to Elizabeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
6 Text Bank 53: Pride and Prejudice
6 Text Bank 54–55: Sense and Sensibility 10.1 History The life of young Victoria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .282
6 Text Bank 56–57: Northanger Abbey FCE Reading – Part 3
8.13 Two Films About… Pride and Prejudice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Insights Victoria and Albert
8.14 Cultural Issues Marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247 10.2 History The first half of Queen Victoria’s reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Any wife is better than no wife from Brick Lane 10.3 Mapping History The building of the railways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
by M. Ali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 10.4 The Arts Victorian London. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .288
FCE Speaking – Part 3 FCE Listening – Part 3
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Insights The British Museum
Insights Buckingham Palace
Specification 9 FCE Writing – Part 2 A review
10.5 Society Life in the Victorian town . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
The New Frontier ............................... 253 FCE Use of English – Part 2
Coketown from Hard Times by C. Dickens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
10.6 Society Christmas: old and new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
FCE Reading – Part 1
9.1 Society The beginning of an American identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 A Christmas Carol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
FCE Reading – Part 2 Scrooge’s Christmas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
6 Text Bank 58: Edgar Allan Poe 6 Text Bank 63: A Christmas Carol
9.2 Literature James Fenimore Cooper and the American 10.7 Society The Victorian compromise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
frontier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 FCE Use of English – Part 3
The Last of the Mohicans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 10.8 Literature The Victorian novel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
My tribe is the grandfather of nations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 6 Text Bank 64–66: Emily Brontë
9.3 The Arts The Hudson River School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 10.9 Literature Charles Dickens and children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
FCE Use of English – Part 1 Oliver Twist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
9.4 Mapping History Manifest Destiny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 Oliver wants some more. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Internet Lab American Indians. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 6 Text Bank 67: Oliver Twist
9.5 History The question of slavery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 10.10 Two Films About… Oliver Twist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
FCE Listening – Part 1 10.11 Comparing Literatures The exploitation of children:
9.6 Music American Negro spirituals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Dickens and Verga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
9.7 History Abraham Lincoln. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Rosso Malpelo from Vita dei campi by G. Verga . . . . . . . . 306
FCE Use of English – Part 2 10.12 Society Victorian education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Insights The Lincoln Memorial FCE Listening – Part 4
9.8 Comparing Literatures The exaltation of a political leader: 10.13 Literature Charles Dickens and Charlotte Brontë:
Whitman and Carducci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267 the theme of education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
O Captain! My Captain! by W. Whitman. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267 Hard Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Alla morte di Giuseppe Mazzini by G. Carducci . . . . . . . . . 268 The definition of a horse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
9.9 History The American Civil War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Jane Eyre. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
9.10 Two Films About… The American Civil War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Punishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
6 Text Bank 68: Jane Eyre

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Internet Lab Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315 Specification 12
6 Text Bank 69: Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland Looking for a New Life ................. 361
FCE Speaking – Part 2
10.14 Cultural Issues The role of the woman: angel or pioneer? . 316
Becoming a nurse from Atonement by I. McEwan . . . . . . 318
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
12.1 History The Gilded Age
Insights Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, Montana
Specification 11 and Idaho
A Two-Faced Reality ........................ 323 12.2 Mapping History Destination USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Insights Ellis Island
FCE Writing – Part 2 a story
12.3 Society The new American businesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
11.1 History The British Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 FCE Use of English – Part 1
Insights Burma: the price of independence 12.4 Science and Technology Scientific and technological
11.2 Society The mission of the coloniser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326 inventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
The White Man’s Burden by R. Kipling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326 FCE Listening – Part 3
11.3 Mapping History British imperial trading routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 12.5 Literature Social realism: class consciousness
Insights Greenwich Mean Time in American literature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
11.4 Science and Philosophy Charles Darwin and evolution . . . . . 330 FCE Reading – Part 2
FCE Reading – Part 2 12.6 Literature Henry James and the modern psychological
Man’s origin from The Descent of Man by C. Darwin . . 332 novel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
11.5 Literature Thomas Hardy and insensible chance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 The Portrait of a Lady . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Jude the Obscure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 A young person of many theories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
FCE Use of English – Part 3 12.7 Two Films About… Henry James’s novels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Suicide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 12.8 Literature American regional realism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
FCE Use of English – Part 1
6 Text Bank 70: Jude the Obscure 12.9 Literature Mark Twain: a regionalist writer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
6 Text Bank 71–72: Tess of the D’Urbervilles The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
11.6 Literature Robert Louis Stevenson: Victorian hypocrisy
and the double in literature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Huck’s doubt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 12.10 Literature Kate Chopin: a woman’s awakening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
The story of the door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 The Awakening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Insights Louisiana’s Creoles
6 Text Bank 73: The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll
and Mr Hyde The last act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
11.7 Cultural Issues Crime and violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 12.11 Comparing Literatures The need for women’s liberation:
FCE Speaking – Part 3 Chopin and Aleramo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .384
FCE Writing – Part 2 an essay Pensare, pensare! from Una donna by S. Aleramo . . . . . .384
The English detective from The Suspicions of Mr Whicher 12.12 Literature Walt Whitman: the American bard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
by K. Summerscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .344 I Hear America Singing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
6 Text Bank 74: Robert Browning Song of the Open Road . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
6 Text Bank 75: Arthur Conan Doyle 6 Text Bank 82–83: Walt Whitman
11.8 The Arts New aesthetic theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 12.13 Literature Emily Dickinson: poetry of isolation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
FCE Use of English – Part 2 Hope is the thing with feathers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .392
Internet Lab Pre-Raphaelite painters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348 There’s a certain Slant of light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
11.9 Literature Aestheticism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 6 Text Bank 84–87: Emily Dickinson
FCE Listening – Part 4 12.14 The Arts America en plein air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
11.10 Literature Oscar Wilde: the brilliant artist and the dandy . . . .351 FCE Use of English – Part 3
The Picture of Dorian Gray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Internet Lab American painting in the second half
Basil’s studio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 of the 19thcentury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
I would give my soul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 12.15 Cultural Issues The path towards personal independence . . 396
6 Text Bank 76–77: The Picture of Dorian Gray Out by himself from Jonathan Livingston Seagull
6 Text Bank 78: The Ballad of Reading Gaol by R. Bach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398
6 Text Bank 79–80: The Importance of Being Earnest FCE Speaking – Part 2
6 Text Bank 81: George Bernard Shaw Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
11.11 Two Films About… Oscar Wilde. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
11.12 Comparing Literatures The Decadent artist: Literary Language Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
Wilde and D’Annunzio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Andrea Sperelli from Il piacere by G. D’Annunzio. . . . . . . . 358
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

VII
Spiazzi, Tavella, Layton PERFORMER. CULTURE & LITERATURE 1+2 © Zanichelli 2012 From the Origins to the Nineteenth Century
Com’è fatto il libro
Culture Comparing Literatures
Approfondimento o analisi critica di
4.1 Culture 4.10 Illusion and reality 4.11 Comparing Literatures
Why study Shakespeare? Reality and imagination:
Shakespeare and Ariosto

aspetti relativi alla cultura dei diversi


What I missed most was illusion. That wood near Athens was too, too

1 LOOK at the pictures and read the quotations below. 2 IN PAIRS discuss the reasons why we still study texts W illiam Shakespeare has become a literary institution, seen
by many as the unquestionable centre of English studies
Shakespeare’s friend Ben Jonson (1572–1637) wrote that he
‘is not of an age, but for all time’; this might be the motto of
20 solid for me. Peregrine19, who specialised in magic tricks, loved it just
because it was so concrete. ‘You always pull a live rabbit out of a hat,’
T he function of the final act of A Midsummer Night’s Dream
is to challenge the audience’s notions about reality and
imagination. Seeing the pathetic acting of the workers, Theseus
imagination all compact’. He means that it is imagination which
makes people crazy, but it is also imagination which inspires
people. Without imagination it would be much more difficult to
In pairs discuss the ways in which Shakespeare’s influence written a long time ago. Then write a list of the factors that and a familiar figure to anyone who knows anything about the traditionalists’ argument for the study of Shakespeare. They he said. But there wasn’t the merest whifff20 about of the kind of magic remarks that ‘The lunatic, the lover, and the poet / Are of enjoy a play.
stretches well beyond the world of literature. may affect the reading of a text. literature. He is the only compulsory author on the national assume that his plays are the greatest literary texts and that he that comes when the theatre darkens, the bottom of the curtain glows21,
curriculum. This means that it is a legal requirement for is the best teacher of values. He is seen as a font of wisdom the punters settle down22, you take a deep breath ... none of the person-

periodi storico-sociali.
anybody educated in the UK to study Shakespeare. and a source of truth about human behaviour, both good and
He seems to be everywhere in British life. He is quoted
in daily newspapers and adapted in advertising. Film studios
bad. What is particularly interesting is that people with very
different values find their own values reflected in Shakespeare.
25 to-person magic we put together with spit and glue and willpower. This
wood, this entire dream, in fact, was custom-made and hand-built, it left Lovers and madmen 1 READ the texts by Shakespeare and Ludovico Ariosto
(1474–1533) and explain what the lunatic, the lover and the
nothing to the imagination.
make Shakespeare’s works to prove their artistic credentials.
There is a national theatre company named after him which is
Opposed to the traditionalist arguments are the cultural
materialists, critics and thinkers who are mainly interested
William Shakespeare poet have in common.
You spotted snakes with double tongue,
regularly committed to the revival of his works. When you are in the way material factors – like economic conditions and A Midsummer Night’s Dream (1594–96)
driving down the M6 motorway, you pass signs indicating the political struggles – have influenced or even created a text. Thorny hedgehogs23, be not seen.
Act V, Scene I
new county you are entering, but when you enter Warwickshire, They describe the development of Shakespeare’s reputation as 19 Peregrine. Zio di Dora,
the sign says ‘Warwickshire: Shakespeare’s County’. Handing the result of historical events. They oppose the view that texts 30 And there they were, waiting in cages, snakes and hedgehogs, not to mention fratello gemello di

newts, worms, spiders, black beetles and snails24, with snake handlers and hedgehog
Melchior, suo padre.
4 Hippolyta ‘Tis strange my Theseus, that these lovers speak of. 15 The forms of things unknown, the poet’s pen
over a cheque guarantee card, one presents as a mark of transmit universal values applicable to all people at all times, 20 the merest whiff.
handlers ad lib at hand25 to keep them happy, waiting for their cue to scatter26 this way Neanche l’ombra. 3.6 Theseus More strange than true: I never may believe Turns them to shapes and gives to airy nothing
its authenticity a hologram of Shakespeare’s head. In 1999 saying that the time and place in which works were written and
listeners of BBC Radio 4’s news and current-affairs programme, are being read are vitally important. One example of this is the and that across the set as soon as the fairy chorus started up.
21 glows. Brilla. These antique fables, nor these fairy toys. A local habitation and a name.
22 the punters settle
1 Alfa Romeo Giulietta billboard quoting ‘Today’, voted Shakespeare the ‘British Person of the popularity of Henry V. Interpreted as a patriotic play celebrating It was all too literal for me. down. I barcaioli si Lovers and madmen have such seething1 brains, Such tricks hath strong imagination,
Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet and The Millennium’. British victories abroad in adversity, it was very popular during It took me donkey’s27 till I saw the point but saw the point I did, eventually, though
acquietano. 5 Such shaping fantasies, that apprehend That if it would but apprehend some joy,

Confronti tra la letteratura italiana e


Tempest. 35 23 Thorny hedgehogs.
The English language is full of Shakespeare’s phrases. As World War II. not until the other day, when we were watching The Dream again in Notting Hill, that Istrici spinosi. More than cool reason ever comprehends. 20 It comprehends some bringer of that joy;
2 Classical Comics offer three versions the journalist Henry Bernard Levin (1928–2004) pointed out, In conclusion, regardless of why one thinks Shakespeare time, couple of batty old tarts28 with their eyes glued29 on their own ghosts. Then I
24 newts … snails. Tritoni, The lunatic2, the lover and the poet Or in the night, imagining some fear,
of each play: the first uses Shakespeare’s vermi, ragni, scarafaggi
own words, the second translates them
if you have not slept a wink, refused to budge an inch, made has remained relevant, he continues to be a very common
understood the thing I’d never grasped back in those days, when I was young, before neri e lumache. Are of imagination all compact: How easy is a bush supposed a bear7!
into plain English, while the third is a virtue of necessity, knitted your brows, stood on ceremony, presence both in our language and in our lives. His works live 25 ad lib at hand. Che One sees more devils than vast hell can hold,
I lived in history. When I was young, I’d wanted to be ephemeral, I’d wanted the improvvisano al
a ‘quick text’ version. This example is had short shrift, cold comfort or too much of a good thing, on, often providing insights into the relationship between art 10 That is, the madman: the lover, all as frantic3,
taken from Macbeth. you’re quoting Shakespeare. The Austrian philosopher Ludwig and politics, literature and history, and important issues like 40 moment, to live in just the glorious moment, the rush of blood, the applause. Pluck bisogno.
1 seething. In ebollizione. 5 Doth glance. Guarda.
the day30. Eat the peach. Tomorrow never comes. But, oh yes, tomorrow does come all
26 waiting for their cue Sees Helen’s beauty in a brow of Egypt: 2 lunatic. Folle. 6 bodies forth. Dà forma,
Wittgenstein (1889–1951) called him ‘an inventor of language’. gender, sexuality, class, ethnicity and sexual identity. to scatter. In attesa del

inglese con esercizi di comparazione.


3 Henry Fuseli, The Three Witches, 1788.
right, and when it comes it lasts a bloody long time, I can tell you. But if you’ve put segnale per spargersi. The poet’s eye, in fine frenzy rolling4, 3 all as frantic. Altrettanto produce.
Kunsthaus Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland. frenetico. 7 How … bear! Quanto
your past on celluloid, it keeps. You’ve stored it away, like jam, for winter. That kid
27 It took me donkey’s. Doth glance5 from heaven to earth, from earth to heaven; 4 in fine frenzy rolling. facilmente un cespuglio si
Mi ci volle un sacco di
4 Poster for ‘Hamlet’, directed by Franco 5 Plácido Domingo as came up and asked for our autographs. It made our day. I could have wished we’d tempo. And as imagination bodies forth6 Roteando in sublime delirio. trasforma in orso!
Zeffirelli and starring Mel Gibson, 1990. 28 batty old tarts. Vecchie
Othello on stage at the
Royal Opera House,
3 READ the text above and answer the following questions. 45 done more pictures. eccentriche.
London, in 1992. 1 Why is Shakespeare so central to studying English culture? 29 glued. Incollati.
2 Can you provide some examples of Shakespeare’s 30 Pluck the day. Cogli
l’attimo.
influence in everyday British life?
3 What are the traditional arguments for studying
Shakespeare’s works?
4 What are some of the new ideas about how to approach COMPREHENSION ANALYSIS YOUR TURN
Per amor
Shakespeare’s works? 1 READ the extract and find
out:
2 MARK the lines which mirror the typical elements of
Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream.
7 DISCUSS. Do
you prefer going to
Ludovico Ariosto
GLOSSARY
1 what kind of film set is the cinema or to
Shakespeare one gets acquainted with without knowing how. cheque guarantee card carta assegni
described; the theatre? Have
Orlando Furioso (1532)
hologram ologramma 3 UNDERLINE the words and phrases emphasising the Canto I, Ottava II
It is part of an Englishman’s constitution. His thoughts have not slept a wink non hai chiuso occhio 2 what it was like; difference with Shakespeare’s play.
y you ever seen any
Ludovico Ariosto will have to speak about Orlando’s love folly, but he is not sure he will be able
and beauties are so spread abroad that one touches them to budge an inch spostarti di un pollice
knitted your brow (hai) aggrottato le ciglia
3 what made the wind blow; of Shakespeare’s
to because he has fallen madly in love with a woman and his imagination is fading.
4 what the speaker misses plays both at the
everywhere, one is intimate with him by instinct. had short shrift (hai) trattato bruscamente
most; 4 DECIDE. What theme do Dora’s and Peregrine’s theatre and at the Dirò d’Orlando in un medesmo tratto Nello stesso tempo, racconterò di Orlando
Jane Austen 5 why Peregrine liked the different views of the set point out? cinema? Which
cosa non detta in prosa mai, né in rima: cose che non sono state mai dette né in prosa né in rima:
Mansfield Park, Chapter 34 set; version did you
YOUR TURN 6 what was waiting in cages; enjoy most?
che per amor venne in furore e matto, che per amore, divenne completamente folle,
5 TRY to explain the content of Dora’s reflection in your
d’uom che sì saggio era stimato prima; lui che prima era considerato uomo così saggio;
4 DISCUSS. Can you think of any author who is so 7 what Dora wanted when own words.
There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, central to studying the culture of your own country? she was young; 1 The Dolly Sisters, ca 1923. The Sisters,
5 se da colei che tal quasi m’ha fatto, dirò queste cose se da parte di colei che mi ha quasi reso tale
Than are dreamt of in your philosophy. 8 what she regrets now.
6 HIGHLIGHT the features of Carter’s style.
Jenny and Rosie, like Dora and Nora in
Wise Children, were twins and dancers
che ‘l poco ingegno ad or ad or mi lima, e che a poco a poco consuma il mio piccolo ingegno,
William Shakespeare famous for performing on stage and in
me ne sarà però tanto concesso, me ne sarà concesso a sufficienza (di ingegno)
Hamlet, Act I, Scene V films in the Twenties. che mi basti a finir quanto ho promesso. che mi basti a finire l’opera che ho promesso.

84 Specification 4 | William Shakespeare: England’s genius 85 122 Specification 4 | William Shakespeare: England’s genius 123

History Two Films About…


Introduzione al contesto storico e
11.1 History 4.8 Two Films About… 4.9 Literature

The British Empire Romeo and Juliet Shakespeare’s soliloquies


and monologues
1 EXPLAIN the difference
between the title of ‘queen’ and
that of ‘empress’.
Q Were there expressions of civic pride and national
fervour among the British?
A Yes, they were frequent in the late 19th century.
Patriotism was deeply influenced by ideas of racial
superiority. The British had only to look at their empire
sociale con esercizi legati all’esame 1 DISCUSS in pairs. Do you think Shakespeare’s works should be adapted in order to be
appreciated by a young audience? Or should teens be encouraged to appreciate his plays in
their original form?
S oliloquies and monologues are only some of the conventions used by
Shakespeare that were natural on the Elizabethan stage, where the contact
between actors and audience was very close.

del First Certificate (FCE). La


2 LOOK at picture 1. – at the variety of races and peoples they governed – to
1 What might it suggest to find apparent confirmation of this view. Romeo and Juliet Romeo + Juliet
someone living in Victorian
Q What did the British think of their role as
Britain about the British
Empire?
colonisers?
A There was a belief that the ‘races’ of the world 2 Indian soldiers
Directed by Franco Zeffirelli;
UK/Italy 1968.
Directed by Baz Luhrmann;
USA 1996. With a kiss I die
2 Queen Victoria is presenting faithful to the British,
With Leonard Whiting (Romeo); With Leonardo DiCaprio (Romeo); 1 DISCUSS. What does the title of
the Bible to the man kneeling were divided by fundamental physical and intellectual commanded by Major Olivia Hussey (Juliet); Laurence Claire Danes (Juliet). this extract make you think of? William Shakespeare

rubrica Insights approfondisce un


in front of her. What does this differences – that some were destined to be led by William Hodson. Olivier (Prologue Narrator). How do you feel about Romeo
symbolise? others. It was thus an obligation, ‘the white man’s and Juliet? Romeo and Juliet (1594–96)
4 A picture of Aung San
burden’ (I11.2), imposed by God on the British to
impose their superior way of life, their institutions, laws
and politics on native peoples throughout the world.
Suu Kyi, behind her the
National League for
Democracy flag.
T his version of Romeo and
Juliet’s famous love story
was very successful because it
L uhrmann’s is an
unconventional adaptation of
the classical love story of Romeo
Act V, Scene III
This scene is set at night, in a graveyard with the Capulets’ vault in the background. The effect
3 READ the Q&A text. 2 READ the extract and do the of Juliet’s potion is beginning to disappear. Romeo has opened Juliet’s vault to see his wife’s
contained more action, more and Juliet. Even though the actors exercises on page 112. face and to take the ring from her finger.
humour and more sensuality than speak with an American accent

argomento di civiltà e Milestones un


GLOSSARY
square miles miglia quadrate 4 IN PAIRS cover the answers ( A s) in the text. Insights had ever been used before. It and the script cuts out some
4 Romeo Ah, dear Juliet,
scramble divisione Take turns asking and answering the questions was filmed in Tuscany, in Pienza, scenes from Shakespeare’s play,
subdued sottomisero Gubbio, Artena and in a palace the iambic pentameter is not lost 2.25 Why art thou yet so fair? Shall I believe
( Q s), using the information that you have read.
burden fardello Burma: the price of independence once owned by the Borgias. It was and the dialogue employs street That unsubstantial death is amorous1,
1 Thomas Jones Barker, The Secret of England’s Greatness (Queen Victoria presenting a Bible Burma was annexed as a province of British India in 1886 and Burmese the first time the two teenagers language just as the playwright And that the lean abhorred2 monster keeps
customs were weakened. In 1941 the Japanese invaded Burma, promising had been played by two unknown young actors whose age was intended in his own time. Key sentences are also visualised on 1 Olivia Hussey and Leonard 5 Thee here in dark to be his paramour3?
in the Audience Chamber at Windsor), 1863. National Portrait Gallery, London.
Milestones independence if the British were defeated. At the end of World War II, the very close to that of the lovers. Laurence Olivier lent his voice to boards and the names of the two families, the Capulets and the Whiting in ‘Romeo and Juliet’,
For fear of that, I still will stay with thee,

anno significativo dal punto di vista


directed by Franco Zeffirelli
leader Aung San negotiated independence from Britain, which was granted the narrator, but the director was the real star since he managed Montagues, are written in lights on buildings. The setting is not in 1968. And never from this palace of dim night4
During the reign of Queen Victoria, Great Britain ruled over a Q What other territories did the British occupy during the in 1948. to film the most stirring crowd scenes, public fights full of action 16th-century Verona, but contemporary Verona Beach, California, Depart again. Here, here, will I remain
wide and powerful empire that brought the British in contact Victorian age? 1877, Queen Victoria becomes Empress of India From 1948 to 1962, Burma was a democratic republic, with U Nu as and some unforgettable romantic moments, including Romeo patrolled by police helicopters which try to keep the brawls With worms5 that are thy chambermaids6. O, here
with various cultures. The title Empress of India was given to Queen the first prime minister. In 1962 General Ne Win led a military coup d’état. and Juliet naked on their wedding night. The film won Oscars for between rival gangs under control.
A The British also occupied Australia and New Zealand, 10 Will I set up my everlasting rest7,
Victoria in 1877 when India was formally He ruled for twenty-six years as a dictator, suspending the constitution costume design and cinematography.
Q What size did the British Empire reach during Victoria’s seized parts of China – including Hong Kong in 1841 – and 1 unsubstantial … amorous. La morte And shake the yoke of inauspicious stars8
incorporated into the British Empire. Victoria’s and establishing military rule. Outside visitors were few and restricted to What about accuracy? senza corpo può innamorarsi.
expanded their possessions in Africa and Southeast Asia – Rangoon, Mandalay and a handful of other tightly controlled towns close to From this world-wearied flesh9. Eyes, look your last10.
reign? desire for such a title probably derived from 2 the lean abhorred. Lo scarno aborrito.

storico-sociale.
annexing Burma, for example, in 1886. What about accuracy? Swords become handguns in the film. Another major departure
A In the last decades of the 19th century, the British Empire jealousy of the imperial titles of some of her royal the central plains.
While based on the original play, numerous small details were from the source occurs in the final scene, in which Juliet wakes
3 to be his paramour. Per essere la sua Arms, take your last embrace! and, lips, O you
amante.
occupied an area of 4 million square miles and more than 400 Q Did they also expand in Africa? cousins in Germany and Russia. Prime Minister In July 1988, demonstrations broke
changed in the film’s story. For example, near the end of the before Romeo dies: if Romeo had just turned around before 4 dim night. Oscura notte. The doors of breath, seal with a righteous kiss
million people were ruled over by the British, although through A Expansionist activity reached a crescendo with the Benjamin Disraeli is usually credited with having out across the country during the so-called 5 worms. Vermi. 15 A dateless bargain to engrossing Death11. […]
play, following Romeo’s and Juliet’s respective suicides, Friar drinking the poison; if only Juliet had cried out in time! The
given her the idea. ‘Democracy Summer’. In 1988, Aung San 6 thy chambermaids. Le tue ancelle.
the use of varying practices. ‘scramble for Africa’ in the 1880s and 1890s. This was a race Laurence is arrested and brought back to the tomb, where he sense of doomed tragedy that this change adds makes the 7 will … res
rest. Fisserò il mio riposo eterno.
Here’s to my love! [Drinks] O true apothecary12,
When Victoria died Suu Kyi, daughter of the independence
among European powers to establish territorial rights to those reveals the truth about Romeo and Juliet’s clandestine wedding ending more heartbreaking and even more cynical. Another 8 shake … stars. Scuoterò il giogo delle Thy drugs are quick. Thus with a kiss I die.
Q When may Britain’s imperial activity be said to have begun? and her son Edward hero Aung San, founded the National stelle avverse.
parts of the continent as yet unclaimed. Britain took over Egypt and his plans to unite them. In the film version, the Friar is not crucial final difference is that Luhrmann never shows the families [He falls] […]
A It may be said to have begun during the second half of the VII ascended the League for Democracy (NLD). Her party 9 this world-wearied flesh. Questa carne
to protect its routes to India through the Suez Canal in 1882 seen or heard after fleeing in terror from the tomb, and thus the reuniting. In the play, Capulet and Montague agree to end their stanca del mondo.
16th century. This was the time when Queen Elizabeth I, and throne, his title quickly gathered country-wide support.
and then Sudan in 1884. From 1899 to 1902, Britain was at Although committed to non-violence, revelation of the secret marriage is never shown. feud; in Zeffirelli’s film, the families converge visually. In the 10 look your last. Guardate per l’ultima
Juliet What’s here? a cup, closed in my true love’s hand?
later James I, encouraged ‘plantations’ – the settling of English war in South Africa against the Dutch settlers, the Boers, over became Emperor volta.
Aung San Suu Kyi was placed under house 1996 version, the parents have been relegated to the background Poison, I see, hath been his timeless end13.
and Scottish people in Ireland on land forcibly taken from the of India. The title 11 seal … Death. Suggellate con un bacio
control of gold and diamond mines. The British eventually won, arrest in July 1989 for ‘endangering the state’ and kept there for the next six all the way through, brought in only to reinforce their short- legittimo un contratto eterno con la
native Irish. In 1600, Elizabeth I also chartered the British East continued until India 20 O churl14. Drunk all, and left no friendly drop
but with great difficulty. years. Nevertheless, her party won the elections in 1990. In 1991 she was sighted authoritarianism. morte ingorda.
India Company, a trading concern that was eventually to rule became independent 12 apothecary. Speziale. To help me after? I will kiss thy lips.
Q What kind of empire did Britain create? from the United awarded the Nobel Peace Prize; in 2003, she was imprisoned once again 13 timeless end. Fine immatura.
over much of today’s India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Haply15 some poison yet doth hang on them16
Kingdom in 1947. and released in 2010. 14 churl. Scortese, egoista.
A Because the British came into contact with and subdued To make me die with a restorative17. [She kisses him]

La relazione tra linguaggio letterario


The humanitarian situation in Burma is disastrous and civil war 15 Haply. Forse.
Q What happened after the 1857 Indian Mutiny? vastly different areas at different times, they were able to shape
still ravages the border areas. The effect of military rule has been an
16 some poison … hang on them. Del Thy lips are warm! […]
A India came under direct rule by Britain, and Queen Victoria imperial and colonial policy gradually, adapting to different veleno è ancora su di esse (labbra).
25 Yea, noise? Then I’ll be brief. O happy dagger.
3 Alexander Bassano, impoverished and underdeveloped nation; Burma is rated as the second 17 with a restorative. Con un conforto.
was crowned Empress of India by the British prime minister, realities and producing an empire united in name but varied in Queen Victoria, 1882. least developed nation on the United Nations Development Index. Peace, 18 This is thy sheath. Questa è la tua This is thy sheath18. There rust19, and let me die.
Benjamin Disraeli (1804–81), in 1877. fact. National Portrait Gallery, guaina.
London. democracy and the most basic human rights do not exist. [She stabs herselff 20 and falls]
19 There rust. Arrugginisci là.
20 She stabs herself. Si trafigge.

e cinematografico nell’analisi di due


324 Specification 11 | A Two-Faced Reality 325 110 Specification 4 | William Shakespeare: England’s genius 111

film per ogni Specification.

Literature Mapping History/Society


6 ART LAB 4: WILLIAM LARKIN

6 6 4 2.14 DICTATION: THE LORD CHAMBERLAIN’S MEN

Autori presentati tematicamente e


11.6 Literature TEXT BANK 73: THE STRANGE CASE OF DR JEKYLL AND MR HYDE 4.3 Mapping Society INTERACTIVE MAP 4

Robert Louis Stevenson: Victorian Shakespeare’s London


hypocrisy and the double in literature
1 DISCUSS why most of the literature of the second half of the 19th
century is based on the contrast between appearance and reality.
You may also refer to section 10.7 to support your ideas.
The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll
and Mr Hyde (1886)
The story
1 REFER to the description of ‘The story’ on the
previous page and describe what you think Jekyll-
Hyde’s house and its door might look like. Then
read the passage and check your predictions.
testi dalle opere più significative. 1 DISCUSS. What do you think London
was like in the 16th century? Use the
following phrases to answer.

a place of great crossroads t crowded t


City wall
Halls and other buildings
used as theatres
Other buildings
I n the 16th century, London had more than 200,000 residents,
many of them living beyond the boundaries of the original
walled city founded as Londinium by the Romans in 43 AD. ‘The
City’ was bordered by the Thames to the south and enclosed
by a semicircular wall. Within these boundaries lay a labyrinth

Anche qui esercizi legati all’esame


The plot of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is quite simple: the Milk Street of small streets crossed by two main roads, one running from
filthy t a city of spectacle t narrow roads Ironmonger Lane

T he Scottish writer Robert Louis Stevenson (1850–94) captured the


mood of change of the last decades of the 19th century and expressed
the moral dichotomy between good and evil in his classic psychological
protagonist is a man divided against himself into
two distinct characters. The first is a respectable
being, Jekyll, and the second an evil genius, Hyde. The story of the door
St Paul’s
Cathedral
Cheapside
Poultry
east to west, the other leading from the north to London
Bridge in the south. The bridge was the only route across the
river, apart from the numerous boats that shuttled between
Mermaid Bread
novel The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886), in which hypocrisy These two beings are in a perpetual struggle, and its banks. On the top of a hill east of Ludgate stood the old St
is embodied by the double. The double, or doppelgänger, is a second self it is the same act of secret chemistry that releases Robert Louis Stevenson 2 LOOK at the map and find the following
places:
Tavern Street
Paul’s Cathedral. grammar school performance and choirboy practice, and were
or alter ego, which appears as a distinct and separate being perceived by Hyde and restores Jekyll. Once Hyde is released
t London Eastcheap There were large markets in Cheapside and Eastcheap, particularly popular at court. The three main boy companies

del First Certificate (FCE). Per i generi


The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886) Bridge;
the physical senses but existing in a dependent relation to the original.
‘Dependent’ does not mean ‘subordinate’; in fact, the double often comes
from hiding, he achieves domination over the Jekyll
aspect, so that the individual has only two choices: Chapter I tt StCheapside;
Paul’s Cathedral; River
Tham
es
where Londoners could buy local produce and imported goods
brought up the river by foreign merchants. London’s tradesmen
were the Children of St Paul’s, the Chapel Children and the
Children of the King’s Revels, and they made their biggest

ttt Bread
to dominate, control and usurp the functions of the subject. Stevenson the man may choose a life of crime and depravity, or In the following passage the third-person narrator, who tells most of the story, closely follows London were organised into guilds, and each of these was responsible impact during the reign of James I.
Eastcheap; The Rose Bridge
created a symbiotic relationship between Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, the Jekyll must eliminate Hyde in the only way left – by the movements of Mr Utterson and introduces the protagonist, the monster Hyde. The Swan Tower for maintaining standards and setting prices. Many of the Shakespeare was part of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men.
Street and Milk Street; of London
former locked in symbolic conflict with the sinister power he had released killing himself. Hence Jekyll’s suicide is the final and The Globe Borough trades were associated with particular areas. Present street Later called the King’s Men, they worked in the Globe.
Ironmonger Lane; Southwark
from within his own being. only choice. Stevenson therefore implies that man’s
salvation is based on the annihilation of one part of 4 Mr Utterson the lawyer was a man of a rugged countenance1, that was t The Globe, The Rose and the Swan. Market names, like Bread Street, Milk Street and Ironmonger Lane, are
reminders of past trades.
Performing to a potential audience of 3,000 people, they
required an interesting and varied stock of repertoire. Each

letterari Literary Language, una sorta di


7.1 never lighted by a smile; cold, scanty2 and embarrassed in discourse; Newington Butts Playhouse
Robert Louis Stevenson’s life his nature – if he lives in a civilised society. In Southwark, Shakespeare staged plays at the Globe day, the company presented a different play, rehearsing it in
backward in sentiment3; lean, long, dusty, dreary, and yet somehow lovable. 3 SKIM the text on the following page to
Robert Louis Stevenson was born
At friendly meetings, and when the wine was to his taste, something answer this question: why was London in 1 Examples of Elizabethan
in Edinburgh in 1850. Because
of his poor health, he spent 5 eminently human beaconed4 from his eye; something indeed which never the 1590s a vibrant and expanding town? fashion: soldiers, a
noblewoman, halberdiers,
most of his childhood in bed, found its way into his talk, but which spoke not only in these silent symbols of the 3 A 1930 illustration for
a bishop and the Lord
The Strange Case of Dr
terrified of the dark and tutored after dinner face, but more often and loudly in the acts of his life. He was austere with Jekyll and Mr Hyde by
Mayor of London.

at home under the influence of himself: drank gin when he was alone, to mortify a taste for vintages5; and though he S.G. Hulme Beaman.
Reading – Part 1

information store e la sezione finale del


2 A performance of
his family’s Calvinism. enjoyed the theatre, had not crossed the doors of one for twenty years. But he had an Romeo and Juliet in
In his adolescence he 10 approved tolerance for others; sometimes wondering almost with envy, at the high
4 MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS. You are going to read a text about Shakespeare’s London. John Madden’s film
For questions 1–8, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text. ‘Shakespeare in Love’,
travelled a lot in search of a pressure of spirits involved in their misdeeds6; and in any extremity inclined to help 1998.
friendlier climate; he lived rather than to reprove. ‘I incline to Cain’s heresy,’ he used to say quaintly7: ‘I let my 1 In the 16th century, London had spread 5 Boy companies at Shakespeare’s time
3 Joseph Fiennes
in the south of England, brother go to the devil in his own way.’ In this character it was frequently his fortune A north and south of the Thames. A were more successful than adult companies. as Shakespeare in
Germany, France and Italy. to be the last reputable acquaintance and the last good influence in the lives of down- B south of the Thames. B were less successful than adult companies. John Madden’s film

volume Literary Language Reference.


He took up engineering at C north of the Thames. C only performed in schools. ‘Shakespeare in Love’,
15 going men8. And to such as these, so long as they came about his chambers, he never 1 rugged countenance. 1998.
university, following in his D within the walled area. D became experienced rivals.
marked a shade of change in his demeanour. Burbera espressione.
father’s footsteps, but he was 2 scanty. Reticente. 2 Evidence of the traditional trades can still be seen 6 Why was London such a dreadful place to live in at that
not enthusiastic about it. He was in conflict with his social environment, No doubt the feat9 was easy to Mr Utterson; for he was undemonstrative at the 3 backward in sentiment. Theatre, built in 1599 west of London Bridge in an area the morning before performing it in the afternoon. The quick
A in street names. time?
the respectable Victorian world; he grew his hair long, his manners best, and even his friendships seemed to be founded in a similar catholicity10 of good- Introverso.
B in trade guilds. A Because of the terrible weather. known as Bankside. The Globe was not the first playhouse in change in repertoire meant that theatre was produced in a very
4 beaconed. Splendeva.
were eccentric and he became one of the first examples of a ‘bohemian’ nature. It is the mark of a modest man to accept his friendly circle ready made from 5 vintages. Vini C in particular areas. B Because there were too many prostitutes. Southwark. Others built there before it were the Newington different way to today.
(I11.9) in Britain, openly rejecting his family’s religious principles and 20 the hands of opportunity; and that was the lawyer’s way. His friends were those of his eccellenti. D in local markets. C Because there were too many companies. Butts Playhouse (1580), The Rose (1587) and the Swan From a disease standpoint, Shakespeare lived in the worst
their love for respectability.
2 FILL IN the table below to organise your own blood, or those whom he had known the longest; his affections, like ivy, were the 6 misdeeds. Misfatti.
3 What was the Londoners’ attitude towards the theatre at D Because it was particularly unhealthy. (1595). Playgoing had in fact become part of the city’s daily life, place and time in history. As London was overcrowded, rat-
knowledge about Stevenson’s life. 7 quaintly. In modo
After giving up engineering, he graduated in law in 1875 and decided to growth of time, they implied no aptness11 in the object. Hence, no doubt, the bond that bizzarro. that time? 7 Why were the London acting companies unwelcome in and all levels of society shared the experiences of the theatre. infested and sexually promiscuous, with raw sewage flowing
devote himself to writing. He married an American woman, and since Place of birth united him to Mr Richard Enfield, his distant kinsman, the well-known man about 8 down-going men.
A It was considered a privilege of the rich. other towns? Aristocrats were familiar with the plays of the day from acting in the Thames, it was devastated by the plague in the second
Uomini sulla via della
his health was deteriorating, they moved to Australia and Tahiti, settling Childhood experiences town. It was a nut to crack for many12, what these two could see in each other, or what rovina. B It was mainly for tradespeople. A Because they were considered unfair competition. parts at school, seeing plays at court and, later, becoming half of the 16th century. The outbreaks in 1563 and 1603 were the
down at Vailima in Samoa. He died of a brain haemorrhage in 1894. 25 subject they could find in common. It was reported by those who encountered them 9 feat. Impresa. C It was popular with all Londoners. B Because they spread bad morals. patrons of the stage. Apprentices and merchants also enjoyed most ferocious, each wiping out over one quarter of London’s
Stevenson became popular as a novelist in the 1880s, when he Religious upbringing 10 catholicity. Universalità, the theatre and often took an afternoon off work to go and see population. When there were more than thirty deaths a week,
in their Sunday walks, that they said nothing, looked singularly dull13, and would D Merchants and apprentices made up the audience. C Because they might be carrying disease.
eclettismo.
published Treasure Island (1883), The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde Education 4 Elizabethan theatres were situated D Because they encouraged crime. a play. the theatres were closed – the first victim of measures inspired
hail with obvious relief the appearance of a friend. For all that, the two men put the 11 aptness. Abilità,

Storia e geografia intrecciate


(1886), Kidnapped (1886) and The Master of Ballantrae (1889). His short Journeys propensione. A in the centre of the town. 8 Overall, London in the 16th century could be considered Consequently, when Shakespeare began working more by the urge for moral order than any effective prevention
greatest store14 by these excursions, counted them the chief jewel of each week, and 12 a nut to crack for many.
stories, pervaded by a sense of suspense and supernatural, were collected Attitude towards society B on the outskirts of the town. A safe to live in. in London, around 1588, the market was ready for new of the disease. There were very few years when there were no
as New Arabian Nights (1882). not only set aside occasions of pleasure, but even resisted the calls of business, that Problema difficile da
companies. Boy companies competed against the adult closures, so London acting companies had to travel to other
risolvere per molti. C along the south bank of the river. B unhealthy and overcrowded.
Works 30 they might enjoy them uninterrupted. 13 dull. Tristi.
D between the Tower of London and St Paul’s Cathedral. C full of schools and markets. companies and were actually able to earn more money than towns, where they were not always welcome, coming from a
1 A portrait of Robert Louis Stevenson, 1894. 2 Fredric March in the film ‘Dr Jekyll and Mr
Cause of death It chanced on one of these rambles that their way led them down a by street in 14 put the greatest store.
D isolated from the rest of the country. their more experienced rivals. They evolved from a tradition of plague city.
Davano la più grande
National Portrait Gallery, London. Hyde’, directed by Rouben Mamoulian in 1931. a busy quarter of London. The street was small and what is called quiet, but it drove importanza.

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338 Specification 11 | A Two-Faced Reality 339 88 Specification 4 | William Shakespeare: England’s genius 89

storicamente o socialmente.

The Arts Cultural Issues


6 6
Analisi di opere d’arte per temi o
4.12 The Arts 11.7 Cultural Issues TEXT BANK 74: ROBERT BROWNING TEXT BANK 75: ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE

Shakespeare’s plays in painting Crime and violence

1 LOOK at the pictures. In pairs describe what you think is happening


in each and consider the emotions they show.
2 4 3.7
Listening – Part 4
MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS.
You will hear an interview with a gallery owner
who has organised an exhibition of Henry
Fuseli’s (1741–1825) drawings and paintings. For
autori anche con esercizi legati 1 LOOK at the
pictures and say
what kind of crimes
were common in
4
Speaking – Part 3
COLLABORATIVE TASK. Here are some pictures of situations which might be
considered criminal. Talk about how these things might cause problems for people
living in big cities and then decide which two should be punished severely.
Process language
Speaking – Part 3

all’esame del First Certificate (FCE).


Victorian times and Expressing and justifying opinions
questions 1–7, choose the best answer (A, B or C).
why.
How do these things cause problems? 8 Yes, that’s what I think too.
1 ‘Art News’ is a weekly radio programme that 8 That’s an interesting idea, but …
A aims to give information about current arts 8 Adding to what (the other
events. candidate) has just said,
The crimes sensations out of minor incidents. Parliament responded with I think …
B wants to introduce new artists to the public.
The Victorians believed in progress. One element of this faith legislation which provided f logging as well as imprisonment for 8 One thing (the other candidate)
C introduces and organises art exhibitions.
was the conviction that crime could be beaten. Law and order offenders. didn’t mention is …

Internet Lab propone itinerari guidati


2 The guest on this programme has just was a major issue in Victorian times. The people living in big The murders of Jack the Ripper in the autumn of 1888
A organised an exhibition called ‘Illustrating towns were worried about the rising crime rate. The Prison Acts were confined to a small area of London’s East End but
Shakespeare’. of 1865 and 1877 brought all prisons under government control. similarly provoked a nation-wide panic increased by press
B opened a new art gallery in Holborn Court. The new police forces, established across the whole country sensationalism. Violence, especially violence with a sexual
Henry Fuseli, Romeo at Juliet’s Deathbed, 1809.
Dreyfus-Best Collection. C set up an exhibition of Henry Fuseli’s and subject to annual inspections by Parliament, seemed connotation, sold newspapers.
drawings and paintings. successful in suppressing those forms of public behaviour that Most offenders were young male thieves; the most
Henry Fuseli, Hamlet and the Ghost, 1793. respectable Victorians considered rough and offensive. They common offences committed by women were linked to

in Internet.
Fondazione Magnani Rocca, Parma, Italy. 3 What kind of education did the painter receive,
may well also have had an impact on small theft on the streets. prostitution. Domestic violence rarely came before the courts.
according to Anita?
However, there were occasional panics linked to particularly It tended to be committed in the private sphere of the home
A He was educated in England by his father,
appalling offences. In the 1850s and early 1860s, there were and had a degree of tolerance among some working-class
who was an artist.
scares about street robbery, known then as ‘garrotting’. While communities, while the publicising of such behaviour within
B He received a traditional education in
the number of ‘garrotte’ robberies was small, the press created other classes would have been regarded as harmful to a
Switzerland.
family’s reputation.
C He travelled all over Europe before being
educated in England.
The criminals
4 How could the artist’s life in England be The way ‘criminals’ were perceived varied across the
described? 19th century. At the beginning of Victoria’s reign, key
A Professionally rewarding and profitable. commentators equated the criminal offender with individuals
B Initially very difficult. in the lower reaches of the working class, since they were
C Intense and fruitful, but only as a painter. considered reluctant to do honest work for an honest wage and

Approfondimenti di temi non


thought to prefer idleness, drink and an easy life. By the middle
5 What fascinated Fuseli most in literature?
of the century, the term ‘criminal classes’ was more in vogue;
Process language
A Witches and evil characters.
it was used to suggest a social group stuck at the bottom of
Writing – Part 2
B Dreams and nightmares.
society. Towards the end of the century, due to the influence
an essay
C All that was outside normal reality.
of social Dar winism and to developments in psychiatr y, the Introducing two different views
6 What does Anita appreciate most about this criminal came to be identif ied as an individual suffering from on the one hand ... on the other
painter? some form of behavioural abnormality that had been either hand …

solo letterari con mappe visive


A The use of light and dark in his paintings. inherited or encouraged by dissolute parents.
Henry Fuseli, Titania, Bottom and the Fairies, 1793–94. B The powerful way he shows strong emotions. FCE Writing – Part 2 Introducing contrast
Kunsthaus Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland. C The lack of physical energy. 1 Illustrations relating to the Whitechapel murders, or the murders of 5 AN ESSAY. Your teacher has asked you to write an essay about this statement: however, although, but, nevertheless
‘Jack the Ripper’, from ‘The Illustrated Police News’, 6th October 1888,
7 What is the presenter’s overall view of the artist? London.
A His opinion is similar to his guest’s. All criminals, even minor ones, Adding ideas
furthermore, what’s more
B He doesn’t have time to explain his opinion. deserve to go to prison.
C He feels the artist used too much violence in

introduttive e analisi di testi da opere


2 READ the text and get ready to explain: YOUR TURN Expressing results or conclusions
his painting. Write your essay in 120–180 words using a suitable style.
1 how the Victorians dealt with crime; 3 DISCUSS. Is it easy to break the law in your for this reason, as a result, therefore
2 what created panics and why; country? Think of some examples.
Henry Fuseli, Macbeth, Banquo and the Witches
Henry Fuseli, Lady Macbeth sleepwalking, 1798.
3 the attitudes towards domestic violence;
on the Heath, 1793–94. 4 how criminals were viewed throughout the Victorian age.
Musée du Louvre, Paris, France.
The National Trust, Petworth, UK.

contemporanee.
124 Specification 4 | William Shakespeare: England’s genius 125 342 Specification 11 | A Two-Faced Reality 343

VIII
Sp azz Tave a Lay on PERFORMER CULTURE & L TERATURE 1+2 © Zan che 2012 F om he O g ns o he N ne een h Cen u y
The Birth of the Nation
Specif ication 1 Homepage

Top News Top Issue


927 Anglo-Saxon Is it good or evil?
King Athelstan
makes England

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793 The Arts


The Sutton Hoo
Vikings treasure
unveiled
attack
monasteries
in Britain

8th–11th centuries
Anonymous Anglo-Saxon
epic poem Beowulf is
1066 The Normans composed
invade Britain
Cinema See Beowulf Mapping History
on screen

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of the Norman invasion

EXPLORE
THE
CULTURE
Literature History The Arts Comparing Two Films Cultural Mapping
Literatures About… Issues History

7
Spiazzi, Tavella, Layton PERFORMER. CULTURE & LITERATURE © Zanichelli 2012
1.1 History

Meet the Celts

1 LOOK at the pictures


(1–4) and match them
with the captions (A–D).
a An iron weapon.
b Queen Boadicea.
c A hill fort.
d A hut.

2 IN PAIRS discuss what


the pictures tell you
about the Celts.

3 READ the Q&A text


below.

GLOSSARY
ditch fossato
timberr legno, legname
thatched di paglia
plough aratro

During
uring the Iron Age (ca 600 BC–50 AD), a Celtic culture
established
tablished itself throughout the British Isles.
Q What was the basic unit of Celtic life?
Q Who were the Celts?
A It was the clan, which was like today’s extended family.
A The ‘Celts’ were tribes of warriors who shared a similar
language,
nguage, religion and culture. The Romans, who fought against Q Were clans bound together?
them, reportedd about
b their
th i culture
lture but presented them as A Yes, clans joined together with other clans to form tribes,
barbarians. d customs.
each with its own social structure and toms
Q When did they come to Britain? Q Where did the Celts live?
A It is not correct to say that they invaded Britain. They A They lived in huts made of timber with thatched roofs.
gradually settled in the country between about 500 and 100 BC. Q Were they farmers?
Q What did they bring to the British Isles? A The Celts practised agriculture when they were not fighting
A They brought ironworking to the British Isles, which had in wars. They introduced the iron plough, which made the
amazing effects. It affected trade and helped develop local cultivation of the soil easier. In the countryside in Britain it is still
independence because iron was quite cheap and easily available. possible to see the long and narrow pattern of the Celtic field.
Q Did the Celts build hill forts? Q What was the role of women?
A We don’t know if the hill forts were built by the Celts as they A They were almost equal to men. They could choose the man
moved into hostile territory or by the native Britons to defend they wanted to marry and retained their own property. They could
themselves. Hill forts consisted of a small ditch and bank also lead other warriors in war, like Boadicea – a warrior queen of
surrounding a hilltop. the early Britons who fought against the Romans.

2 Specification 1 | The Birth of the Nation


Spiazzi, Tavella, Layton PERFORMER. CULTURE & LITERATURE © Zanichelli 2012
Insights
The origins of Halloween
October 31st is Halloween. This hi festivity
f i i hash Celtic
C l i origins:
i i in i
the 5th century BC, the Celts believed that summer ended on
October 31st. The holiday was called Samhain and celebrated
the start of winter and of the new year. The Celts believed that
ghosts and witches returned on that night and that evil spirits
entered the body of a person or animal. This is why they used
to wear frightening costumes and make big fires to send the
spirits away. Later, Christian practices replaced pagan ones;
the Roman Catholic Church decided to call November 1st ‘All
Hollows Day’ or ‘All Saints Day’ and the evening of October
31st became ‘All Hollows Eve’ – that is, Halloween.
Nowadays at Halloween children and teenagers wear
skeleton, witch, ghost and monster costumes for parties and
‘trick or treating’. They visit their neighbours’ houses and,
when the door opens, they say ‘Trick or treat?’ and people
usually give them sweets or money. This custom originated in
the 9th century in Ireland, where on November 2nd – All Souls
Day – Christians used to walk from village to village begging
for ‘soul cakes’, made of bread with currants. The more ‘soul
cakes’ the beggars received, the more prayers they promised
to say for dead relatives. The custom of buying a big pumpkin
and making a lantern comes from Irish folklore. Irish people
put lit, hollowed-out turnips in front of their windows and in
their garden to frighten evil spirits away.

Word Formation
4 SUFFIXES change the function of a word from a verb
into a noun (describe p description) or from a verb into
an adjective (frighten p frightening). Complete the table
below with words from the Q&A text.
Q Did the Celts write literature?
Verb Noun Adjective
A They relied on the oral transmission of culture, especially
invasion invaded
through bards. Much of what we know of their traditions comes to
settlement settled
us today through the old tales and poems that were handed down
for generations before being written down. amaze amazement
development developed
Q What did they worship? depend independent
A They worshipped the natural elements, like the sun, the moon cultivate cultivated
and water. They held their religious rites in the woods and near reliance reliant
the sacred water of wells and springs.
transmit transmitted
worship worshipped
1 Maiden Castle, an Iron Age site in Dorchester, Dorset, England.
2 Spearhead found in the River Thames, England. Iron Age, 200–50 BC. The
spearhead has been decorated with four strips of bronze in the La Tène style. The
decoration may mean that the spear was not made for use in battle or hunting.
5 IN PAIRS cover the answers ( A s) in the text. Take
3 Bronze statue near Westminster Pier, London, as commissioned by Prince Albert
and executed by Thomas Thornycroft, completed in 1905. turns asking and answering the questions ( Q s) using
the information that you have read.
4 Reconstructed Celtic village, Castell Henllys, Wales.

3
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1.2 Comparing Literatures 4 1.1 DICTATION: THE DRUIDS

Caesar and the Druids

C ommentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War, ca 50–40 BC),


written by Julius Caesar (ca 100–44 BC), is the most important historical source
of the Gallic Wars, a series of military campaigns against several Gallic tribes,
lasting from 58 to 51 BC. Here is an extract from this work. In this extract Caesar
speaks about the role of the Druids, the most influential figures in Celtic society.

1 READ the extract by Julius Caesar and the English translation, and
then answer the following questions about the Druids.
1 How did the Druids differ from the military class?
2 How long did they study?
3 Why did they write in Greek?
4 What was their belief about souls?
5 What did they teach the young?

De Druidibus
Iulius Caesar
Commentarii de Bello Gallico (ca 50–40 a.C.n.)
Liber VI, 14

Druides a bello abesse consuerunt neque tributa una cum reliquis pendunt.
Militiae vacationem omniumque rerum habent immunitatem.
Tantis excitati praemiis et sua sponte multi in disciplinam conveniunt et a
parentibus propinquisque mittuntur.
5 Magnum ibi numerum versuum ediscere dicuntur.
Itaque annos nonnulli vicenos in disciplina permanent.
Neque fas esse existimant ea litteris mandare, cum in reliquis fere rebus,
publicis privatisque rationibus, Graecis utantur litteris.
Id mihi duabus de causis instituisse videntur, quod neque in vulgus
10 disciplinam efferri velint neque eos, qui
discunt, litteris confisos minus memoriae studere, quod fere plerisque
accidit ut praesidio litterarum diligentiam in perdiscendo ac memoriam
remittant.
In primis hoc volunt persuadere non interire animas, sed ab aliis post
15 mortem transire ad alios, atque hoc maxime ad virtutem excitari putant
metu mortis neglecto.
Multa praeterea de sideribus atque eorum motu, de mundi ac terrarum
magnitudine, de rerum natura, de deorum immortalium vi ac potestate
disputant et iuventuti tradunt.

1 A ‘wicker man’. According to Julius Caesar, these 3 The Romans, under Suetonius Paullinus,
were used by the Druids for human sacrifice, by massacre the Druids on the island of Anglesey
burning them in effigy. (now Wales), their spiritual home, in ca 60 AD.

2 Cassivellaunus surrenders to Julius Caesar. 4 Klaus Maria Brandauer and Christopher Lambert
Cassivellaunus was probably the chief of the as Julius Caesar and Vercingetorix in the film
Catuvellauni, a tribe living in southeastern Britain ‘Druids’, directed by Jacques Dorfmann in 2001.
before the Roman conquest. He led an alliance of Vercingetorix was a chieftain who united the Gauls
tribes against Julius Caesar in 54 BC. in a revolt against the Roman forces.

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Of the Druids
Julius Caesar
Commentaries on the Gallic War (ca 50–40 BC)
Book VI, Chapter 14
Translated by W.A. McDevitte and W.S. Bohn

4 The Druids do not go to war, nor pay tribute together with the rest; they have an exemption
1.2 from military service and a dispensation in all matters. Induced by such great advantages,
many embrace this profession of their own accord, and [many] are sent to it by their parents
and relations. They are said there to learn by heart a great number of verses; accordingly
5 some remain in the course of training twenty years. Nor do they regard it lawful to commit
these to writing, though in almost all other matters, in their public and private transactions,
they use Greek characters. That practice they seem to me to have adopted for two reasons;
because they neither desire their doctrines to be divulged among the mass of the people, nor
those who learn, to devote themselves the less to the efforts of memory, relying on writing;
10 since it generally occurs to most men, that, in their dependence on writing, they relax
their diligence in learning thoroughly, and their employment of the memory. They wish to
inculcate this as one of their leading tenets, that souls do not become extinct, but pass after
death from one body to another, and they think that men by this tenet are in a great degree
excited to valour, the fear of death being disregarded. They likewise discuss and impart to the
15 youth many things respecting the stars and their motion, respecting the extent of the world
and of our earth, respecting the nature of things, respecting the power and the majesty of the
immortal gods.

5
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1.3 History

Roman Britain

1 DISCUSS in pairs.
1 Do you know when the
In 55 BC Julius Caesar (ca 100–44 BC)
invaded Britain (I1.2), but the real conquest
of the country took place in the years 43–47
Romans invaded Britain? AD under Emperor Claudius (10 BC–54 AD).
2 Did they conquer the One of the first things the Romans did
whole of the British Isles? was involve the conquered tribes in the
3 What aspects of administration of the province. The Romans
civilisation did the encouraged the growth of towns near
Romans bring with their army bases and established special
them? towns as settlements for retired soldiers.
They persuaded the ruling class of Celtic
aristocrats to build town dwellings, and they
2 READ the text and check turned the towns into centres of vibrant
your answers to exercise 1. commercial activity.
Roads joined the towns together.
3 READ the text again and Roman towns and roads The Romans built over 9,600 kilometres
use the prompts below to Town boundaries contained a regular of roads in Britain. They weren’t always
report about the effects of network of streets. Most towns were straight, but they were amazingly well built
the Roman invasion. surrounded by stone walls. The centre of and made troop movement, and later the
1 The administration of the a Roman town was the forum, or civic movement of commercial goods,
province; centre, which gave access to the much easier. Possibly the most
2 the growth of towns; basilica, or town hall. It was here important monument built by the
3 town dwellings; that courts of justice were held, Romans in Britain was Hadrian’s
4 the centre of the town; though it could also be used for Wall, constructed as a defensive
5 baths; merchants’ assemblies. Every town fortification and customs barrier
6 roads; had public baths. They were open to from the east coast to the west coast
7 the first ‘London Bridge’; both sexes, though at different times between England and Scotland.
8 Londinium. of day, and served as a healing spa and
meeting place. The origins of London
The beginnings of London can be dated
to the invasion of the Romans in 43 AD.
A bridge was built across the River Thames.
This first ‘London Bridge’ proved a
convenient central point for the new network
of roads which soon spread out like a
fan from the crossing place. The Roman
settlement on the north side of the bridge,
called Londinium, quickly became important
as a trading centre for goods brought up the
river by boat and unloaded at wooden docks
by the bridge.

1 Roman mosaic floor in the Corinium Museum,


Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England.

2 Roman coin with laureate head of Domitian, 86 AD.


Around it, there is an inscription that reads: IMP CAES
DOMIT AVG GERM COS XII CENS PER PP. Museum of
London, London.

3 The Roman Baths complex in the English city of Bath.


A well-preserved Roman site for public bathing, the Baths
are a major tourist attraction and receive more than one
million visitors a year.

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Cycling
itineraries?

Use of English
– Part 1
4 MULTIPLE-CHOICE
CLOZE. Read the
National Trust’s tourist
advertisement for
Hadrian’s Wall. For If you really want to (1) an idea of what life was like when
questions 1–12, read the the Romans were around, come (2) Hadrian’s Wall. This
text and decide which amazing (3) of engineering (4) built following a
answer (A, B, C or D) visit by Roman Emperor Hadrian in 122 AD. It is 80 Roman miles
best fits each gap. (about 73 modern miles) long, 8–10 feet wide and 15 feet high. If
you think that was (5) achievement, it was not all – no, in
addition to the wall, the Romans built a system of small forts, called
Facilities ‘milecastles’, which housed garrisons of up (6) 60 men and
available? were placed one every Roman mile along its (7) length.
Sixteen larger forts holding from 500 to 1,000 troops were built into
the wall too, and the best-known, Housesteads, is now a magnificent
open air museum which can show you what life was like for the
soldiers who (8) the empire against barbarian raids from
More details? the north. You may be surprised to find it was not as cruel a fate
(9) you imagined – no, the soldiers had underground
(10) in their sleeping quarters and public hot baths!
Come and let your imagination take you (11) to those
Where to distant times in an area tourists have been coming to since the 2nd and
stay? 3 rd centuries. Let’s go back two thousand years! For an (12)
experience come to Hadrian’s Wall!

1 A do B get C make D need d


2 A by B from C to D in
3 A job B feat C act D skill
4 A was B has C is D were
5 A the Ba C any D an
Process language
6 A to B from C until D against Writing – Part 1
7 A complete B all C entire D total an email
8 A checked B saw C watched D guarded
9 A than B as C that D like Greeting
10 A heating B heat C heater D heated 8 Dear (Mr / Ms + surname)
11 A forward B in C on D back
Reasons for writing
12 A forgettable B forgotten C unforgettable D unforgotten
8 I’m writing to …
8 I recently (visited your website) …
8 Could you please tell me … ?
Writing – Part 1 Closing
5 AN EMAIL. You are going to visit the North East of England in the near future. 8 Looking forward to hearing
Read the advertisement about Hadrian’s Wall and the notes you have made. Then from you.
write an email (120–150 words) to the National Trust using your notes.
Salutation
8 Best wishes

7
Spiazzi, Tavella, Layton PERFORMER. CULTURE & LITERATURE © Zanichelli 2012
1.4 History

The Anglo-Saxons

1 SCAN the text and see if you


can find where the term ‘Anglo-
Saxon’ came from.

2 READ the text and the Milestones,


and get ready to report orally on
the following points:
1 the origin of the name England;
2 the Anglo-Saxon economy;
3 Anglo-Saxon values;
4 the monk Augustine;
A fter the withdrawal of the Roman army from Britain in 410 AD, the Romanised
Celts were left alone to fight against peoples from Germany and Scandinavia who
invaded the island in the 5th century and destroyed the Roman British towns. They were
5 Alfred the Great;
6 Athelstan and the year 927.
the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, and gave the larger part of Britain its new name:
GLOSSARY
‘England’, that is, ‘the land of the Angles’. withdrawal ritiro
bond legame
Anglo-Saxon society merge with fondersi con
Most Anglo-Saxon invaders were farmers looking for richer lands, but many of them issuing emissione
coinage conio, moneta
were also deep-sea fishermen used to hunting seals and whales in the stormy ocean.
They were organised in family groups, called ‘clans’, in which the most important
social bond was loyalty to the other members and to the lord of the tribe. They exalted
physical courage and personal freedom and they also had a highly developed sense of Milestones
beauty. They made fine ornaments and enjoyed feasting and drinking.

The Christianisation of Britain


927, Athelstan made England
At the end of the 6th century, Pope Gregory I the Great (540–604) sent a monk,
Few English kings have as direct a
Augustine (early 6th cent. – ca 604), to bring Christianity back to England. Augustine first claim as Athelstan to be described
went to Canterbury and he became the first Archbishop of Canterbury. Soon monasteries as the father of the English state.
progressed and turned into important centres of communal life and culture. 927 AD was a turning point, the
year when he created a kingdom of
The Kingdom of England all England by establishing the idea
Politically, the general pattern was that a large number of small political entities gradually of royal authority, law and coinage.
conquered or merged with each other. This status quo remained until 865 when it Diplomacy was a fascinating aspect
was violently disturbed by Danish armies, commonly known as Vikings (I1.9). They of his rule. Disorder was the great
quickly conquered East Anglia, Northumbria, part of terror of the age. He tried to achieve
Mercia and nearly all of Wessex until the organisational peace across western Europe
skill of Alfred the Great of Wessex (ca 848–899) halted through a series of diplomatic
their advance. In ca 879 Mercia accepted Alfred’s alliances, including the marriage
lordship and a ‘Kingdom of Anglo-Saxons’ was born. of four of his sisters to European
The England Alfred dreamt of was a family project, rulers. This is why in the 12th century
built over generations in a series of developments in Athelstan was remembered as a
state-building, local organisation, the construction of kind of English Charlemagne – an
towns, the issuing of coinage, the making of English image echoed in several medieval
law and the promotion of learning and literacy. Alfred’s romances and even on the
son Edward (ca 874–924) was a great war leader who Elizabethan stage.
extended his power into the Midlands and East Anglia. It
was Athelstan, Edward’s son, who completed the task in
927, conquering Northumbria.
1 Whitby Abbey, in Yorkshire, England. The first monastery here was
founded in 657 AD by the Anglo-Saxon king of Northumbria.

2 The Heptarchy, a name applied to the seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms.

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1.5 The Arts 6 ART LAB 1: ANGLO-SAXON METALWORK

Anglo-Saxon art

1 LOOK at the
pictures and discuss
the objects in pairs.
1 What do you think
they are made of?
2 Do you find them
attractive? Why or
why not?

2 MATCH the
pictures (1–6) with
the words below.
a Gold buckle. .......
b Sword. .......
c Shoulder-clasp.
.......
d Shield decoration
(x2). ....... .......
e Ceremonial
helmet. .......

1–6 Objects found at the Sutton


Hoo ship-burial in Suffolk,
England. British Museum, London.

9
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1.5 Anglo-Saxon art
The treasure of

Sutton Hoo, a few miles from the Suffolk coast in England,


3 SKIM the article and answer the question: why is Sutton
is the site of two Anglo-Saxon cemeteries from the 6th century
Hoo considered one of the most important archaeological
and early 7th century. Discovered in 1939, the undisturbed ship-
discoveries of modern times?
burial in one of the mounds is probably the most important
archaeological find of modern times. It contained a wealth
of Anglo-Saxon artefacts of outstanding art-historical and
Reading – Part 1 archaeological significance, which are now held in the British
4 MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS. Read the article Museum in London.
about the discovery of the Sutton Hoo burial ground. The remarkable find forced historians to view the period
For questions 1–8, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which after the Romans left Britain in a completely new light. While
you think fits best according to the text. the wood of the ship and the flesh of the man had dissolved
in the acidic Suffolk soil, the gold, silver and iron of his wealth
1 Sutton Hoo is famous because
remained. For the first time, historians had a chance to see the
A it was discovered in 1939.
sort of objects that a great man of the 7th century had in his
B it is near the Suffolk coast.
hall. From a range of war gear and displays of wealth to
C an Anglo-Saxon ship-burial was found there.
feasting equipment, the man had all he needed to live in
D it dates from the 6th and 7th centuries.
eternity as he had on earth. His boat was pointing west and
2 The objects recovered at Sutton Hoo are now
in his purse were forty gold pieces – one for each of
A in a local museum.
the ghostly oarsmen who would row him to the other line 19
B displayed at the site of the burial.
place. Although it is not certain, the mound is thought
C kept in the British Archives.
to be the burial chamber of Rædwald, who was the most
D in a museum in London.
powerful king in all England around 620. He played a dynamic
3 The findings are particularly significant because part in the establishment of Christian rule in England.
A historians knew little about this period. From the time of its discovery, the ship-burial has prompted
B the objects belonged to a great warrior. comparisons with the world described in the heroic Old English
C the objects were in a ship. poem Beowulf (I1.6), which is set in southern Sweden. It
D the ship had come from Sweden. is in that region, especially at Vendel, that close archaeological
4 The words ‘ghostly oarsmen’ in line 19 refer to parallels to the ship-burial are found, both in its general form
A the corpses of the crew of the ship. and in details of the military equipment that the burial contains.
B the corpses of the grave robbers. The most significant artefacts from the ship-burial are those
C the imaginary men who led the man to the other world. found in the burial chamber, including a suit of metalwork
D the man’s relatives. dress fittings in gold and gems, a ceremonial helmet, shield
5 The ship-burial is reminiscent of Beowulf because and sword, a lyre and many pieces of silver plate from the
A it contained poetry. Eastern Roman Empire. There were also two silver spoons,
B it was the tomb of a hero. possibly from Byzantium itself, of a type bearing the names of
C he was buried there.
D it is not English.
6 The presence of Christianity is seen in
A two silver spoons.
B a silver cross.
C a medallion.
D gold and gems.
7 Artefacts found in the burial showed evidence of
A feasting.
B fighting and entertainment.
C hunting and travelling.
D a difficult lifestyle.
8 What is a surprising fact about Beowulf?
A It was written in English.
B None of the people in it are English.
C It was a story about a great hero.
D It took place in Denmark.

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Internet Lab

1 g DIVIDE into groups of two or three per computer.


Each group will work on one of the following assignments:
1. The Ghost-Ship of the Wuffings; 2. The Royal Burial-Chamber;
3. The Royal Sword Blade; 4. The Royal Sword Hilt; 5. The Royal Sword
Belt; 6. The Royal Money Belt; 7. The Royal Shoulder Mounts;
8. The Royal Helm; 9. The Royal Shield.

2 a TYPE www.wuffings.co.uk and click on ‘Sutton Hoo: Burial


ground of the Wuffings’.

3 % FIND the word you have to click on in order to see what the king
would have looked like wearing his regalia.
the Apostles – proof of the connection with
early Christianity.
One of the most iconic objects found
was the ‘crested’ and masked helmet. It
4 & CLICK on the picture of the king and find out the names of the
objects indicated below; write them down.
is the helmet of a hero, and together with
the cauldrons, drinking horns and musical
instruments, highly decorated weapons
and lavish skins and furs, and not least the
treasure of gold and silver, was evidence
that Beowulf, far from being just a poetic
invention, was a surprisingly accurate memory
of a splendid, lost, preliterate world. Yet not a
single character in Beowulf is English. They are
Swedes and Danes, warriors from the whole
of northern Europe. So both the treasure
of Sutton Hoo and the foundation stone
of English poetry show us a world that was
connected to many others from the eastern
Mediterranean to India, a world where the
island of Britain was already being shaped by
influences from all over the globe.

1 Richard Hook, Artist’s impression of the Anglo-Saxon


ship-burial at Sutton Hoo, 20th century.

2–3 Photos of the excavation of the ship-burial site, 1939. 5 ( RETURN to the homepage and click on the key word of your
assignment. Read the page and collect the information in a table
similar to the one below.
Group 1
Picture description
Materials
Design
Ornaments
Function

6 z SHARE these tables with the rest of the class and create a folder
about the treasure of Sutton Hoo in your copybook.

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1.6 Literature 6 TEXT BANK 1: BEOWULF

Beowulf: a national epic

B eowulf is the oldest surviving Anglo-


Saxon epic poem. Its origins are
mysterious: the identity of its author is
another, when change and death were
inevitable, when all that really mattered
was not if you died, but how and when.
Literary language unknown and scholars are unsure of The first actions take place in a Danish
The epic poem its precise date of composition. It tells kingdom ruled by King Hrothgar. There,
of legendary people and events and in Heorot, the mead hall of the king,
The most important features of an
epic poem are: describes a warrior society in which the Beowulf confronts a monster that has
relationship between the leader, or king, been terrorising the king and his men for
8 a long narrative;
8 elevated style; and his warriors, called thanes, is founded twelve years. Later, Beowulf dives into
8 celebration of the deeds of a on provision and service. This society is a misty lake and fights the monster’s
hero; strongly defined in terms of kinship. mother. The scene of the action then
8 description of an aristocratic, shifts fifty years later to the land of
military society; Date and place of composition the Geats in Sweden, where an elderly
8 type-scenes: the banquet, the It is thought to have been composed by Beowulf confronts a dragon terrorising
battle, the voyage and the a single Christian author for a Christian his own land.
funeral. audience in Anglo-Saxon England any
time from the 8th to the 11th century, but The supernatural characters of the poem
the first recorded written version dates Beowulf is praised for his courage,
from the 11th century. During the time endurance and generosity, which
in between, composers and singers, or determine his nobility and establish the
scops, would memorise this long, heroic courtly ideal of the warrior. Superhuman
tale and tell it at the fireside as a form of powers are attributed to him: he kills
entertainment. monsters which live underwater and
The actions of the poem take place underground, which can fly and which
in Scandinavia, but the poem itself was breathe fire.
1 DISCUSS these questions before probably written in Northumbria, an During the poem several monsters
reading the text. important Anglo-Saxon kingdom and appear. The first one is Grendel. His
1 Do you know what an epic poem is? home to Roman Catholic monks who physical appearance is left to the
2 Which epic poems do you know? reinterpreted the story in a Christian way. reader’s imagination – the only clues
What do you remember about are that he is a descendant of Cain, the
them? Settings first murderer of the Old Testament
3 What sort of society does epic The settings draw us to a place and time of the Bible, and ‘a fiend of hell’. He
poetry describe? when warrior tribes fought against one is described as a being ‘of the night’:
4 What values do epic poems
promote?

2 READ the text about the Anglo-


Saxon epic poem Beowulf and
answer these questions.
1 What kind of society is presented
in Beowulf?
2 When was the poem written
down?
3 What are the many settings of the
poem?
4 How are the various characters
presented?
5 What themes are they linked with?

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wherever he moves he is surrounded by Loyalty to one’s lord or neighbour is the
darkness. He is bloodthirsty and keeps primary value. Beowulf risks his life to The people and the places
the Danish kingdom of King Hrothgar help a neighbour – King Hrothgar – in of Beowulf
under siege for twelve years, killing both trouble.
warriors and civilians. Grendel’s mother, The Geats: Beowulf’s clan, a seafaring
who has no name of her own, looks a bit Legend and history tribe living in the south of Sweden.
like a woman. She lives with her son in a The poem deals with legends and real The Danes: the residents of Denmark.
Beowulf: the hero. His strength is
supernatural lake filled with sea-dragons, historical events. Burial mounds and
underlined by the etymology of his
and the poison in her blood dissolves ancient carvings suggest that the myth
name: Beowulf = Bee-Wolf, i.e. ‘Bear’.
any sword used against her. The last of Beowulf could be more than an epic Hrothgar: the king of a Danish realm
monstrous creature, faced by an ageing legend: archaeological excavations in terrorised by a monster.
Beowulf, is a winged, fire-breathing, Scandinavia have found a great hall with Grendel: a monster that terrorises
serpentine dragon. three rooms, each about 50 metres long, Heorot.
built in the mid-6th century, exactly the Grendel’s Mother: a monster that
Themes time of Beowulf. At Sutton Hoo in England strikes after Beowulf defeats Grendel.
Life is a continuous struggle between (I1.5), the burial mounds have given more Dragon: a monster in the land of the
good and evil. Beowulf represents evidence about Beowulf’s world: weapons Geats.
goodness, while the three monsters that and artefacts which look like those Wiglaf: the warrior who helps Beowulf
fight the dragon.
he kills stand for evil. The greatness of a described in the epic poem were found in a
Heorot: a communal meeting place for
human being is judged by the greatness rich ship-burial.
feasting and drinking.
of his deeds and his noble ancestry.

1 Beowulf during his fight with


Grendel’s mother in the film
‘Beowulf’, directed by Robert
Zemeckis in 2007.

2 Beowulf and Wiglaf in another


still from the film ‘Beowulf’ by
Robert Zemeckis.

13
Spiazzi, Tavella, Layton PERFORMER. CULTURE & LITERATURE © Zanichelli 2012
1.6 Beowulf: a national epic

Beowulf and Grendel: the fight


1 BEFORE READING the extract,
Anonymous refer to the text about Beowulf on
pages 12–13 and make predictions
Beowulf (ca 11th century) about:
Lines 710–717; 738–753; 793–804; 814–827 1 the setting of the fight;
The extract you are going to read is from the modern translation by Seamus Heaney (2001). 2 the actions performed by the hero
It deals with the fight between Beowulf and the monster Grendel. and those by Grendel;
3 who is going to win the fight.
4 In off the moors1, down through the mist-bands
1.3 God-cursed Grendel came greedily loping2.
The bane3 of the race of men roamed forth,
Hunting for a prey in the high hall.
5 Under the cloud-murk he moved towards it
Until it shone above him, a sheer keep4
Of fortified gold. Nor was that the first time
He had scouted the grounds5 of Hrothgar’s dwelling – […]
Nor did the creature keep him [Higelac’s kinsman] waiting
10 But struck suddenly and started in6;
He grabbed and mauled7 a man on his bench,
Bit into his bone-lappings8, bolted down9 his blood
and gorged on him in lumps10, leaving the body
utterly lifeless, eaten up
15 hand and foot. Venturing closer11,
his talon was raised to attack Beowulf
where he lay on the bed, he was bearing in
with open claw12 when the alert hero’s
comeback and armlock forestalled him utterly13.
20 The captain of evil discovered himself
In a handgrip14 harder than anything
He had ever encountered in any man
On the face of the earth. Every bone in his body
quailed and recoiled15, but he could not escape. […]
25 Time and again,
Beowulf’s warriors worked to defend
Their lord’s life, laying about them16
1 Illustration of Beowulf fighting
As best they could, with their ancestral blades17. Grendel by Hans W. Schmidt,
Stalwart18 in action, they kept striking out 1904.
30 On every side, seeking to cut
Straight to the soul. When they joined the struggle
There was something they could not have known at the time,

1 moors. Brughiere. 5 had … grounds. Aveva 8 bone-lappings. Giunture delle Avvicinandosi. 15 quailed and recoiled. Tremò e
2 came … loping. Giunse a perlustrato i terreni. ossa. 12 claw. Artigli. indietreggiò.
grandi passi. 6 struck … in. Attaccò e colpì 9 bolted down. Trangugiò. 13 comeback … utterly. Reazione 16 laying about them. Menando
3 bane. Flagello. all’improvviso. 10 gorged … lumps. Si ingozzò e presa lo anticiparono colpi all’impazzata.
4 a sheer keep. Una fortezza 7 grabbed and mauled. Afferrò della sua carne a pezzi. totalmente. 17 blades. Spade.
a picco. e straziò. 11 Venturing closer. 14 handgrip. Morsa, stretta. 18 Stalwart. Forti, coraggiosi.

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that no blade on earth, no blacksmith’s art
YOUR TURN
could ever damage their demon opponent.
35 He had conjured the harm from the cutting edge 9 DISCUSS in pairs.
Of every weapon19. […]
The monster’s whole 1 What is a hero? Explain your definition
body was in pain; a tremendous wound and give examples.
appeared on his shoulder. Sinews split20 2 What is courage? How would most
40 and the bone-lappings burst. Beowulf was granted people today define courage?
the glory of winning; Grendel was driven 3 What qualities do you believe a hero
under the fen-banks21, fatally hurt, should possess? How does the
to his desolate lair22. contemporary concept of a hero differ
from the Anglo-Saxon one?
19 He … weapon. Aveva privato 4 There are several cartoon versions of
tutte le armi della loro lama. Beowulf. Here are some drawings from
20 Sinews split. I tendini si
strapparono. the graphic novel Beowulf by Gareth
21 fen-banks. Le rive della Hinds (2007). Point out the elements
palude.
that correspond to the extract you have
22 desolate lair. Tana solitaria.
read.

COMPREHENSION 5 FIND the lines where


2 READ the extract carefully and make Grendel has both animal
notes under the following headings: characteristics and
1 the setting in time and place; supernatural powers.
2 the characters involved;
3 Grendel’s intentions; 6 LINES 1–15 describe
4 the winner of the fight. Grendel killing a sleeping
soldier.
1 Underline the verbs. What
ANALYSIS do they have in common?
2 Is this description
3 ALLITERATION is the repetition of
concrete or abstract?
initial consonant sounds in a line.
3 It creates an atmosphere
In Old English poetry it linked the two
of
halves of a line. Highlight examples of
∏ gloom.
alliterative lines. What is their function?
∏ horror.
∏ They help to memorise the poem.
∏ uncertainty.
∏ They underline particular concepts.
∏ They increase the musicality of the
poem. 7 FIND the lines where
Beowulf ’s heroic strength is
described. What contrast is
4 A KENNING is a metaphorical name
established between Beowulf
for something. Find the kenning used
and Grendel?
to describe the monster in the first
seven lines. Underline other words and
phrases describing the monster. What 8 LINES 25–36 introduce
aspect of Grendel’s character do they Beowulf ’s earls. What did
emphasise? they do to defend their lord?

15
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1.6 Beowulf: a national epic

Beowulf’s funeral
1 stacked and decked.
Ammassarono e
ricoprirono.
2 foursquare. Quattro 1 DISCUSS. What kind of funeral do
Anonymous 3
metri quadrati.
Mourning.
you expect Beowulf to have? What
Piangendo. will the reaction of his people be?
Beowulf (ca 11th century) 4 kindled.
Appiccarono.
Lines 3136–3172 5 billowed.
According to Beowulf’s wishes, his people burn his body on a huge
Fluttuavano in COMPREHENSION
grandi volute.
funeral pyre and then bury him with a great treasure in a barrow 6 the blaze roared. 2 READ the extract and find out:
La fiamma ruggì.
overlooking the sea. 1 what the Geats built for Beowulf;
7 drowned out.
Soffocò. 2 what the soldiers hung on it;
4 The Geat people built a pyre for Beowulf, 8 wrought havoc.
Generarono
3 where Beowulf’s corpse was laid;
1.4 stacked and decked1 it until it stood foursquare2, devastazione. 4 what the warriors kindled;
hung with helmets, heavy war-shields 9 bone-house. Corpo. 5 what their mood was like;
10 wailed aloud. 6 who joined them in their grief;
and shining armour, just as he ordered. Piansero forte.
5 Then his warriors laid him in the middle of it, 11 bound up. Raccolti, 7 where the barrow the Geats built
Mourning3 a lord far-famed and beloved. legati. was and how long they took to
12 unburdened herself. build it;
On a height they kindled4 the hugest of all Si liberò.
13 on the rampage. 8 what its function was;
funeral fires: fumes of woodsmoke Scatenati. 9 what was buried in the barrow;
billowed5 darkly up, the blaze roared6 14 abasement.
10 how the twelve warriors expressed
Umiliazione.
10 and drowned out7 their weeping, wind died down sorrow for their loss.
15 swallowed. Inghiottì.
and flames wrought havoc8 in the hot bone-house9, 16 mound. Tumulo.
burning it to the core. They were disconsolate 17 headland.
Promontorio.
and wailed aloud10 for their lord’s decease. 18 workmanship. ANALYSIS
A Geat woman too sang out in grief; Abilità.
19 torques. Collane. 3 FIND the three different kinds of
15 with hair bound up11, she unburdened herself12 20 trove. Arc.: treasure. characters presented in this extract:
of her worst fears, a wild litany Tesoro.
Beowulf, his thanes and a mournful
21 trespassing men.
of nightmare and lament: her nation invaded, Trasgressori. Geat woman. For each of them
enemies on the rampage13, bodies in piles, 22 to drag … hoard. point out:
Tirare fuori dal
slavery and abasement14. Heaven swallowed15 the smoke. tesoro. • their role in the text;
20 Then the Geat people began to construct 23 gravel. Sabbia. • the value(s) they embody.
24 Chieftains.
a mound16 on a headland17, high and imposing, Capitribù.
a marker that sailors could see from far away, 25 distraught. Sconvolti 4 DECIDE if the heroic code
dal dolore.
and in ten days they had done the work. 26 dirges. Canti
expressed in Beowulf is in contrast
It was their hero’s memorial; what remained from the fire funebri. with a Christian sensibility.
25 they housed inside it, behind a wall
as worthy of him as their workmanship18 could make it.
And they buried torques19 in the barrow, and jewels YOUR TURN
and a trove20 of such things as trespassing men21 5 LOOK at the picture
had once dared to drag from the hoard22. and explain the connection
30 They let the ground keep that ancestral treasure, between the extracts you have
gold under gravel23, gone to earth, read and contemporary reality.
as useless to men now as it ever was.
Then twelve warriors rode around the tomb,
Chieftains24’ sons, champions in battle,
35 all of them distraught25, chanting in dirges26
Mourning his loss as a man and a king.

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1.7 Two Films About…

Beowulf

1 DISCUSS. Two films have recently been made based on Beowulf. Do you think it is possible
to translate the poem into a film? What do you think the problems would be?

Beowulf and Grendel Beowulf


Directed by Sturla Gunnarsson; Directed by Robert Zemeckis;
USA 2005. USA 2007.
With Gerard Butler (Beowulf); With Ray Winstone (Beowulf);
Stellan Skarsgård (Hrothgar); Anthony Hopkins (Hrothgar);
Sarah Polley (Selma); Robin Wright Penn (Hrothgar’s wife);
Ingvar Sigurdsson (Grendel). Angelina Jolie (Grendel’s mother).

T he film is the tale of a Norse


warrior’s battle against the
murderous troll, Grendel. Out
T he film deals with Beowulf’s
battles with three demonic
creatures, but it takes some
of allegiance to the Danish King liberties in the telling of those
Hrothgar, the much respected stories.
lord of the Geats, Beowulf leads It begins in Denmark, in the
a troop of warriors across the 6th century, where King Hrothgar
sea to free a village from the and his much younger queen are
monster. The monster, Grendel, is not a creature of mythical celebrating with their warriors in Heorot. As the party gets on,
powers, but one of flesh and blood, driven by revenge. the horrible monster Grendel kills several soldiers.
Beowulf has become increasingly troubled by the myth rising Beowulf, a brave warrior from Geatland, arrives with his men
up around his exploits, and his desire to kill becomes weaker and succeeds in defeating Grendel. Everyone believes that peace
when it becomes clear that the king is responsible for the death has been restored, until Beowulf realises that he must confront
of Grendel’s father. Beowulf’s relationship with a witch, Selma, Grendel’s mighty mother. After a fight with her, the film jumps
creates deeper confusion. into the future, where we see an ageing Beowulf, now king, as
The story is set in a barbarous northern Europe where the he prepares to battle with what appears to be a new offspring of
reign of the many-gods is giving way to Christianisation. Beowulf Grendel’s mother. Beowulf stabs the dragon in the chest but he
is a man caught between sides in this great change, his simple is mortally wounded. The hero is then given a Norse funeral.
code transforming and falling apart before his eyes. Revenge,
loyalty and mercy powerfully mix with beautiful Icelandic scenery What about accuracy?
and cruel fights. Some of the changes made in the film include the portrayal of
Beowulf as a man with defects and of Hrothgar as an alcoholic.
What about accuracy? Beowulf becomes ruler of Denmark instead of his native
While some of the film remains true to the original poem, three Geatland, and Grendel’s mother is presented as a beautiful
new characters are introduced: Grendel’s father, the witch Selma seductress who bears Grendel as Hrothgar’s child and the
and Grendel’s son. In the poem, Grendel dies about a quarter of dragon as Beowulf’s child.
the way into the narrative, but he remains alive for most of the The blame for Grendel’s violence is shifted to the humans,
film. Keeping the monster alive also fits perfectly with the action- who sinned against him earlier and brought the vengeance upon
film formula in which a hero fights a villain while learning some themselves. Grendel is even visually altered after his injury to
life lessons. The message here is that Grendel is not a mythical look like an innocent little child.
force with a direct line back to Cain, but similar to a persecuted
ethnic minority. Grendel kills not because he is a demon, but
because a Danish king murdered his father. At the end of the
film, Beowulf, with Grendel’s son watching from behind some
rocks, buries Grendel and builds him a marker honouring him.

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1.8 Cultural Issues

Good vs evil

he epic poem Beowulf (ca 11th century, I1.6) and the


1 COMPLETE the diagrams with what you associate with
the idea of ‘good’ and that of ‘evil’.
T novel The Lord of the Rings (1954–55) written by John
Ronald Reuel Tolkien (1892–1973) have many elements
in common. Tolkien was a noted scholar of ancient and
medieval literature at Oxford University, who transferred
ideas about virtue and heroism into a romantic structure that
appealed to modern sensibilities. Tolkien recreated authentic
Celtic- and Anglo-Saxon-sounding languages for his fantasy
world full of the positive forces of nature and magic.
Good The basic theme of both works is the struggle of good
and evil. Beowulf fights the monsters Grendel, Grendel’s
mother and the fire-breathing dragon, and the free people
of Tolkien’s Middle-Earth – Elves, Dwarves and Men – fight
the evil Lord Sauron and his Orcs. Tolkien’s Orcs are quite
similar to Grendel in their origin. Tolkien even took the word
Evil ‘orc’ from Old English.
The evil creatures in both works share traits other than
mere physical deformation. They cannot stand the sun and
attack only at night. They have large sums of treasure hidden
away in barrows that they fiercely defend from outsiders.
Beowulf is a lament for the past. The poet looks back
to the way things used to be – the great treasure-giving
kings, the struggle between men and monsters, good and
2 LOOK at the pictures below and answer the questions. evil – and sees a loss. So does Tolkien in his masterpiece.
1 Have you ever read The Lord of the Rings or seen the films Tolkien looks back at an ancient world – before memory –
based on it? and creates a wish for the things of old and of ‘myth’ in the
2 What do you know about this story? hearts of many readers.
Both stories end with a shift from the mythical world to
3 Describe the setting, genre and characters.
the world of men: Beowulf dies and the Swedes will soon be
attacking his people. When the Ring is destroyed, the Elves
lose their power in Middle-Earth and die; thus Middle-Earth
too will be ruled by Men.

1 Aragorn, Legolas and Gandalf in ‘The


Lord of the Rings: the Two Towers’,
directed by Peter Jackson in 2002.

2 Frodo Baggins and Sam in ‘The Lord


of the Rings: the Two Towers’, directed
by Peter Jackson in 2002.

3 Gollum in ‘The Lord of the Rings: the


Return of the King’, directed by Peter
Jackson in 2003.

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3 READ the text about
The Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings (1954–55)
and answer the The title of the novel refers to the story’s main found by Bilbo Baggins and kept hidden
questions below. antagonist, the Dark Lord Sauron, who created from the Dark Lord in the Shire. The Lord of
1 In which ways does the One Ring to rule the other Rings of Power the Rings begins as Frodo Baggins inherits
The Lord of the as the ultimate weapon in his campaign to the Ring from his cousin Bilbo. Sauron,
Rings remind us conquer and rule over all. Sauron is defeated meanwhile, has taken on a new physical
of an Anglo-Saxon in battle, and the Ring is lost in the River form and reoccupied Mordor, his old realm.
world? Anduin, where, over two thousand years He needs the Ring to regain his full power
2 What are the forces later, it comes into the hands of the hobbit and sends forth the Ringwraiths, his dark,
of good in the Sméagol. He hides under the mountains, fearsome servants, to seize it. The wizard
novel? where the Ring transforms him over the Gandalf the Grey advises Frodo to take the
course of hundreds of years into a suspicious, Ring away from the Shire, which is now in
3 What are the forces
corrupted being called Gollum. Like in the danger. Frodo leaves on the dangerous journey
of evil?
Norse sagas, there is a sense of evil that has to return the Ring to the fire where it was
4 What elements of to be overcome through struggles and trials. forged, in the heart of Mordor. Through the
magic are present The monsters here are not dragons but Dark frequent and terrible dangers of his mission,
in the novel? Lords commanding armies of evil beasts and Frodo is accompanied by the Fellowship of the
5 What is Frodo’s aim wolves. The Ring is a symbol of power that Ring, made up of three hobbits and their chief
in the novel? can be used for tremendous evil in the wrong allies and travelling companions: Aragorn, a
hands. Human ranger; Boromir, a Human soldier;
In Tolkien’s earlier work, The Hobbit Gimli, a Dwarf warrior; Legolas, an Elven
(1937), Gollum has lost the Ring, which is archer; and Gandalf himself.

Take off the Ring! 1 READ the following extract from


The Lord of the Rings and do the
J.R.R. Tolkien exercises on page 20.

The Lord of the Rings (1954–55)


Volume 1, Book 2, Chapter 10
In the following extract the Fellowship have already travelled through the Old Forest, the Elven kingdom
of Rivendell, the Misty Mountains and the terrible Mines of Moria, where Gandalf dies. After the Elven
forest of Lothlórien, they travel down the River Anduin to the hill of Amon Hen, where Boromir surprisingly
attacks Frodo to take the Ring. Shocked and frightened, Frodo breaks from the Fellowship to continue the
quest to Mordor alone. While escaping, Frodo slips on the Ring, making himself invisible – but more visible
to the Dark Lord.
4 Frodo in ‘The Lord of the Rings: the
4 But everywhere he looked he saw the signs of war. The Misty Mountains were Return of the King’, directed by Peter
1.5 crawling like anthills1: Orcs were issuing out of a thousand holes. Under the boughs2 Jackson in 2003.
of Mirkwood there was deadly strife3 of Elves and Men and fell4 beasts. The land of the 1 crawling … anthills. Striscianti come
Beornings was aflame; cloud was over Moria; smoke rose on the borders of Lorien. formicai.
2 boughs. Rami.
5 Horsemen were galloping on the grass of Rohan; wolves poured5 from Isengard. 3 strife. Lotta.
From the havens6 of Harad ships of war put out to sea; and out of the East Men 4 fell. Feroci.
5 poured. Si riversavano.
were moving endlessly: swordsmen, spear-men, bowmen upon horses, chariots of 6 havens. Porti sicuri.
chieftains and laden wains7. All the power of the Dark Lord was in motion. Then 7 swordsmen … wains. Spadaccini,
lancieri, arcieri, cocchi di condottieri e
turning south again he beheld8 Minas Tirith. Far away it seemed, and beautiful: carri carichi.
10 white-walled, many-towered, proud and fair upon its mountain-seat; its battlements 8 beheld. Vide.
9 battlements … steel. Spalti brillavano
glittered with steel9, and its turrets were bright with many banners10. Hope leaped in per le armi.
his heart. But against Minas Tirith was set another fortress, greater and more strong. 10 banners. Stendardi.

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Spiazzi, Tavella, Layton PERFORMER. CULTURE & LITERATURE © Zanichelli 2012
1.8 Good vs evil

1 Poster for the film ‘The Lord of the Rings:


the Fellowship of the Ring’, directed by Peter
Jackson in 2001.
Thither11, eastward, unwilling his eye was drawn. It passed the ruined bridges
of Osgiliath, the grinning12 gates of Minas Morgul, and the haunted Mountains,
15 and it looked upon Gorgoroth, the valley of terror in the Land of Mordor.
Darkness lay there under the Sun. Fire glowed amid the smoke. Mount Doom
was burning, and a great reek13 rising. Then at last his gaze was held: wall upon
wall, battlement upon battlement, black, immeasurably strong, mountain of
iron, gate of steel, tower of adamant14, he saw it: Barad-dur, Fortress of Sauron.
20 All hope left him.
And suddenly he felt the Eye. There was an eye in the Dark Tower that
did not sleep. He knew that it had become aware of his gaze. A fierce eager
will15 was there. It leaped towards him; almost like a finger he felt it, searching
for him. Very soon it would nail him down16, know just exactly where he was.
25 Amon Lhaw it touched. It glanced upon Tol Brandir – he threw himself from
the seat, crouching17, covering his head with his grey hood.
He heard himself crying out: Never, never! Or was it: Verily I come, I come
to you? He could not tell. Then as a flash from some other point of power there
came to his mind another thought: Take it off! Take it off! Fool, take it off! Take
30 off the Ring!
The two powers strove in him. For a moment, perfectly balanced between 11 Thither. (Arc.) Là.
their piercing points, he writhed18, tormented. Suddenly he was aware of 12 grinning. Sogghignanti.
himself again. Frodo, neither the Voice nor the Eye: free to choose, and with 13 reek. Odore acre.
14 of adamant. Inamovibile.
one remaining instant in which to do so. He took the Ring off his finger. He 15 eager will. Volontà appassionata.
35 was kneeling in clear sunlight before the high seat. A black shadow seemed to 16 it would nail him down. L’avrebbe individuato.
17 crouching. Rannicchiandosi.
pass like an arm above him; it missed Amon Hen and groped19 out west, and 18 writhed. Si contorse.
faded. Then all the sky was clean and blue and birds sang in every tree. 19 groped. Brancolava nel buio.

COMPREHENSION ANALYSIS YOUR TURN


2 READ lines 1–8 and identify who 6 UNDERLINE the verbs in lines 1–7. 11 DISCUSS. Do you
is involved in the war. What impression do you get of the scene? know any films, books
or videogames that were
3 READ up to line 20 and name 7 A SIMILE is an explicit comparison of influenced by The Lord of
the two fortresses Frodo sees. two seemingly unlike things, using ‘as’ or the Rings?
What do they represent? ‘like’. Find the similes in:
paragraph 1
4 DESCRIBE. How does Frodo paragraph 3
react at this sight? paragraph 5
What are their meanings?
5 READ the extract to the end and
say: 8 FIND words connected with the two
1 what Frodo felt; fortresses in lines 9–20. What contrast
do they introduce?
2 what he thought;
3 which two powers were fighting 9 DESCRIBE. What power does the Ring
in Frodo; have?
4 how he won against the evil
Eye; 10 DESCRIBE. What does this text have
5 how the nature around him in common with the text ‘Beowulf and
changed. Grendel’ (I1.6) from Beowulf ?

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1.9 History 6 TEXT BANK 2: THE ELEGY

The Viking attacks

1 DISCUSS. Do you know where the Vikings came from?


Why did the Vikings attack?
A savage (0) RAID on the Holy Island of Lindisfarne in
2 LOOK at pictures 1–3 and discuss the possible reasons for 793 marked the beginning of England’s Viking
the Vikings’ violent attacks on Britain. (1) . Lindisfarne was the first of a (2) of
similar attacks on monasteries in northern Britain.
Why such hatred? And why 793?
We need to examine the political situation in
northern Europe at the time. The main political
powers in the world were: Byzantium in the east;
the Muslims, whose expansion had driven them
eastward as far as Turkistan and Asia Minor; and the
Franks, who had become the dominant tribe among
the successor states after the (3) of the
Roman Empire in the west.
Charlemagne, the (4) of the Franks,
expended a huge amount of energy on the (5)
of the heathen Scots on his northeast border. He
had been crowned emperor in Rome by Pope Leo
III in 800 – emperor of the abstract conception of
Christendom as a single (6) . The cultural
Use of English – Part 1 subjugation of the Saxons followed: death was the (7)
for following heathen rites or rejecting baptism. How should
3 MULTIPLE-CHOICE CLOZE. For questions 1–12, read the the heathen Scandinavians react to the threat? Should the
text and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each Vikings wait for Charlemagne’s armies to arrive and convert
gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). them or should they fight to defend their culture?
0 A journey B trip C raid D voyage The Christian monasteries in northern Europe were
1 A time B era C moment D hour
symbolically important and, in the words used by modern
terrorism, ‘soft (8) ’. The Christian annalists who
2 A wave B variety C file D amount
documented Viking violence viewed the conflict as a
3 A break B final C difficulty D fall
(9) between religious cultures. In 865 ‘the Great
4 A president B boss C ruler D manager Heathen Army’ arrived, a force which after 15 years had
5 A subjugation B death C education D destruction (10) control of England from York down to East
6 A part B clan C community D family Anglia. By 927 much of the lost territory had been regained
7 A guilt B penalty C correction D calamity by the Wessex Kings Alfred the Great, Edward and Athelstan.
8 A points B scores C strikes D targets Large- (11) Viking violence returned to England in the
9 A opposition B game C challenge D battle 990s. The policy of the Danegeld – protection money paid in
10 A earned B gained C checked D lost return for being left alone – was practised regularly.
11 A scale B quantity C number D limit
In 1012 the Archbishop of Canterbury was captured and
murdered, and within two years
12 A during B prolonged C lasted D was
a Danish king, Sven Forkbeard,
was on the throne. By 1028 his
son, Cnut, was the ruler of a
4 DISCUSS. What reason for the Vikings’ violent raids does North Sea empire that included
the text provide? Denmark, Norway and all
England. Danish rule
1 A carved stone which depicts Viking warriors attacking the Holy Island of (12) less than thirty years.
Lindisfarne, England.
Its memories were wiped out by
2 Viking statue in Jarrow, Tyne and Wear, England. Jarrow experienced some of the William of Normandy’s conquest
earliest Viking raids on mainland Britain when it was invaded in 794 AD. in 1066 (I1.10).
3 Bow of a Viking ship, 9th century. Musée des Terres-Neuvas et de la Pêche,
Fécamp, France.

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Spiazzi, Tavella, Layton PERFORMER. CULTURE & LITERATURE © Zanichelli 2012