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Transmission Lines .................................................................................. 3

Underground Cables ............................................................................. 14

Overhead Insulators .............................................................................. 16

Distribution Systems ............................................................................. 16

Per Unit System .................................................................................... 17

Load Flow Study .................................................................................... 18

Economic Power Generation ................................................................ 20

Fault Analysis ........................................................................................ 21

Power System Stability.......................................................................... 29

Power System Protection ...................................................................... 33

1

Transmission Lines

Skin Effect

Cause: Non-uniform distribution of magnitude flux linkages Due to skin effect, the effective

area of cross section of conductor decrease and hence resistances increases.

In case of DC, There is no skin effect so

RDC R AC

With increase in frequency, skin effect increases.

With increase in r , skin effect increases.

Inductance of a Transmission line

Single Conductor

0 r

Internal inductance

8

External inductance from distance ‘ d1 ’ to ‘ d2 ’

0r d2

Lex ln

2 d1

0 r 0 r d2

Total inductance ln

8 2 r

d d

0 r ln 1 0 r ln

2 re 4 2 r

r 0.7788r = Geometric mean radius (GMR)

0 rd

Inductance of single wire ln

2 r

Total inductance = L1 L2

0 d

Lsys ln

r

If radius of both wire is not same, assume radius of 1st wire ra & that of second wire is rb

0 d

Lsys ln

r r

a b

ra 0.7788ra & rb 0.7788rb

If instead of a single conductor per phase we use multiple conductor, then GMR is

replaced by self GND (Geometric Mean Distance) and ‘d’ by mutual GMD.

3

Self GMD

1

self GMDfwd D11 D12 ........D1n D21 D22 .........D2n ....... Dn1 Dn2 ........Dnn n2

1

Self GMDbwd Di 1 ' '

Di' 2' ........Di'm' .............. Dml' ' ................Dmm

' '

m2

Mutual GMD

1

Mutual GMD D11' D12' ...........D1m' ................. Dn1' Dn2' .................Dnm'

mn

0 d

Single wire : ln

2 self GMD

0 mutual GMD

1 , 2 wire: ln

2 Self GMD

Symmetrical configuration

0r D

Lph ln

2 r

r 0.7788r

4

Asymmetrical configurations

1

Deq Dab Dbc Dca 3

0r Deq

Lph ln

2 r

We replace Dab Dabeq = mutual GMD between a phase & b phase

Dca Dcaeq

1

Self GMD= Self GMD

3

a b c

Solution

1

Dab eq Da1b1 . Da1b2 . Da2b1 . Da2b2 4

1

3 12 12 3 4

6m

1

Dbc eq 3 6 6 3 4 4.24m

1

Dca eq 6 9 9 6 4 7.348m

1

Dab.eq Dbc.eq Dca.eq 3

= 5.71m

5

1

Self GMD r D

a a1a2

Da2a1 r 4

1

4

= 0.341m

1

Self GMD r D

b b1b2

Db2b1 r 4

= 0.2467m

1

Self GMD r D

c c1c2

Dc2c1 r 4

= 0.1528m

1

Self GMD Self GMD a Self GMD b Self GMD c 3

= 0.2398m

0 GMD

L ln

2 GMD Self

5.71

2 10 7 ln 0.634mH / km

0.2398

Remember, Inductance calculated using these formulas is per unit length.

The position of different lines are changed after regular intervals to reduce radio interference in

neighboring communication lines.

Capacitance

Single Phase 2 – Wire System

0 r

Cab

D

ln

rr

12

Line to neutral capacitance

6

20 r 20 r

Can , Cbn

D D

ln ln

r1 r2

Three phase single conductor system

20 r

Cph

GMD

ln

r

For bundled conductors

20 0

Cph

GMD

ln

Self GMD

In capacitance calculations, it must always be remembered that there is no concept of r, we

simply use radius in calculating self GMD.

Performance of Transmission line

Classification of lines based on length

1) Short Line

l < 80 km or l*f < 4000 , Where f = frequency

2) Medium Line

80 km < l < 200 km

4000 < l*f < 10000

3) Long Line

l > 200 km

l*f > 10000

Vs AVR BIR

Is CVR DIR

Under no load

Vs

IR 0 , Vs AVR , VR

A

7

Vs

No Load Voltage and IR 0 , Is CVR

A

Vs

VR

A

Voltage Regulation 100%

VR

This current is called as line charging current and is responsible for as effect is called as “Ferranti

Effect”.

Ferranti Effect

Under no-load or light load conditions receiving end voltage becomes more than sending end

voltage due to presence of line charging current.

Vs VR IR R jwL

VR IR Z

Vs 1 z VR

I 0 1 I

s R

A = D (symmetrical)

AD – BC = 1 (reciprocal)

For lagging pf

IR

VR=

VR

R cos R

X sin R

load pf=cosR

For leading pf

IR

VR R cos R X sin R

VR

8

Medium Transmission Line

Normal – T – Model

YZ YZ

1 Z 1

Vs 2 4 VR

Is YZ IR

Y 1

2

Here all problems are in actual values & not per unit length.

Nominal-π-Model

YZ

1 Z

Vs 2 V

R

Is Y 1 YZ 1 YZ IR

4 2

Vx VR cosh X IR Z c sinh x

VR

IR IR cosh x sinh x

Zc

Where Vx & I x are voltage and current at distance ‘x’ from receiving end.

R jL

Zc = surge impedance

G jC

For loss less line, R=G=0

L

Zc

C

For distribution less line, RC = LG

For sending end, x = l

Vs VR cosh l IR Z c sinh l

VR

Is IR coshl+ sinh l

Zc

9

cosh l Z c sinh l

Vs VR

1

Is Z cosh l IR

c

A = D (symmetric)

AD - BC = 1 (reciprocal)

Power Transfer Equation

Vs Vr A

cos Vr cos

2

Pr

B B

Vs Vr A

sin Vr sin

2

Qr

B B

For Short TL

B Z B Z ;

A 10 A A 1, =0

2

Vs Vr Vr

Pr cos cos

Z Z

2

Vs Vr Vr

Qr sin sin

Z Z

Z jX X and 900

2

Vs Vr Vs Vr Vr

Pr sin ; QR = cos

X X X

Remember, the last expression can be applied between any two bases in a power system as long

as transmission line connecting them is loss less.

Wave Propagation

Due to continuous energy transfer between L & C elements of a transmission line we consider

energy propagation from sending to receiving end & hence wave propagation.

Z c = Surge impedance or characteristic impedance.

10

γ = Propagation constant.

For loss less line

R=G=O

j LC

j

= attenuation constant

= phase constant

LC

1

Velocity of wave , Where L & C are per unit length

LC

2 2

Wavelength

LC

Vr(L

2

L)

PL = Surge Impedance Loading

ZC

If ZL ZC

VR IR Z C

So no term containing e yx & hence no reflected wave & hence whenever surge impedance is

connected at load, there is no reflection.

11

Surge Traversal

When surge voltage ‘ V ’ is induced on the line & line can be represented as Theremin

equivalent circuit shown.

ZC = Characteristic impedance of line

ZL

Transmitted voltage V2 2V potential divider

ZL Z C

Incident Voltage V1 V

Reflected voltage V

V V V2 [Voltage continuity]

Z ZC

V V L

ZL Z C

V V V

Reflected current , Refracted current 2 , Incident current

ZC ZL ZC

V ZL Z C

Reflection coefficient:

V ZL Z C

V2 2ZL

Refraction coefficient:

V ZL Z C

Voltage Control

Usually in case of lagging loads, the voltage at receiving end falls below sending end voltage

and to boost the receiving end voltage we connect a shunt capacitor at receiving end.

Similarly, in case of leading loads, receiving end voltage is higher than sending end voltage

so we connect a shunt reactor to avoid over-voltage.

Usually in GATE, we need to calculate rating of capacitor for voltage control & it is illustrated

through a question shown below:

12

Example: A three phase overhead lines has a resistance & reactance of 5 & 20 respectively.

The load at receiving end is 30MW, 0.85 pf lagging at 33kv & we connect a compensating

equipment at receiving end to maintain voltage at each end equal to 33 Kv. Find rating of

compensating equipment?

Solution:

Assuming base (MVA) = 30 MVA

Base voltage = 33 kv

30Mw

pu power = 1pu

30MVA

V2

Base impedance = 36.3

S

5 j20

pu impedance = 0.56875.960

36.3

2

VS VR VR

PR

Z

cos

Z

cos Z 0.568 ; =75.96 0

11 12

1 cos 75.96 cos75.96 cos 75.96 0.81

0.568 0.568

40.110

VS VR VR 1 1 12

QR sin sin sin 75.96 40.11 sin75.96

Z Z 0.568 0.568

QR = - 0.645 pu

QL = 0.6197 pu

QR QL QC QC 1.2647pu

Step – 1 : Calculate from PL as capacitor does not consume any real power.

13

Power Factor Correction

Usually, to improve the supply side power factor we connect a capacitor device like capacitor

bank or synchronous condenser (synchronous motor under over excited condition).

Suppose, initially a load of real power P1 & lagging pf cos 1 is connected & we want to

improve pf to cos 2 lagging 2 1 & we connect a capacitive device which consumes real

power PC & thus net real power after connection.

P2 P1 PC

Q2 P2 tan 2 ; Q1 P1 tan 1

QC P1 tan 1 P2 tan 2

(in both voltage control & pf correction )

QC

QC 3CVph

2

C

3Vph

2

Underground Cables

Insulation resistance

R

R ln

2l r

L = length of cable

R = Outer radius (sheath radius)

R = conductor radius

Capacitance Model

CC : Core capacitance

CS : Core to sheath capacitance

14

Capacitance per phase

Cph CS 3CC

Calculating CS & CC

sheath & capacitance is measured between remaining

core & sheath.

C1 CS 2CC

measured between any core & sheath.

C2 3CS

C2

CS

3

C2

2CC C1

3

C C

CC 1 2

2 6

3C1 C2

Cph CS 3CC

2 6

measured between remaining 2 cores.

3CC CS

C3

2 2

Cph 2C3

15

Dielectric loss in a UG cable

P 3Cph Vph

2

tan

1

tan

cphR

R = Insulation resistance

Overhead Insulators

For suspension type string insulator, the model for 3-discs looks like as shown.

C

Let m m

CS

V2 V1 1 m

V3 V1 1 m2 3m

The voltage of disc nearest to the conductor is highest.

string voltage

String efficiency

No. of discs voltage across bottom disc

V

1

V2 V3 100%

3 V3

Distribution Systems

Sources fed from both ends

1) Assume I A from VA

2) Calculate I A from

VA VB I A I1 r1 I A I1 I2 r2 I A I1 I2 I3 r3

3) Substitute I A in I A I1 , I A I1 I2 & I A I1 I2 I3 & check for sign change.

4) Node for minimum potential = Node for sign change

5) Calculate minimum potential by KVL

Example: Refer Kuestion power systems for that.

16

Per Unit System

In pu system, energy quantity is expressed as a ratio of some based value.

pu value=

Base value

Percentage value = pu value x 100%

Base value

1 - System

Sbase , Vbase , Ibase , Zbase

Out of these, 2 value must be known, to convert entire system into pu system.

Sbase Vbase Ibase

Sbase Vbase Vbase

2

Ibase , Z base

Vbase Ibase Sbase

Usually, we assume Sbase & Vbase as known.

3 - System

Sbase

Ibase

3 Vbase

Vbase = line to line voltage

Sbase = 3 – phase power

For start connection

V ph Vbase / 3 Vbase 2

Z base base

Ibase ph Ibase Sbase

For delta connection

V ph Vbase 3V 2

Z base base base

Ibase ph Ibase / 3 Sbase

secondary in same.

17

Change of base

If base of system is changed from Vbase old , Sbase old to Vbase new ,Sbase new

2

V old Sbase new

Zpu new Zpu old base

Vbase new Sbase old

Power System Matrices

YBUS matrix

YBUS y12 y 20 y12 y 23 y 23

0 y 23 y 23 y 30

OBSERVATIONS

1) The diagonal elements are sum of all admittance connected to that particular bus.

2) The off-diagonal elements are negative of admittance connected between two buses.

3) If two buses are not connected to each other than that elements is zero.

4) YBUS Matrix is a symmetrical matrix.

5) Most of the elements are zero & hence it is a sparse matrix.

Total number of zero elements

% sparsity =

Total number of elements

ZBUS matrix

ZBUS YBUS

1

Suppose a 3 – phase SC fault occurs on bus ‘k’ then fault current

Vprefault ,k

If

Zkk Z f

Vprefault , k Pr e fault voltage at bus 'k'

Zkk = elements of ZBUS matrix.

Z f = fault impedance

Due to fault voltage at other buses are also affected.

18

V1 I1

0

. .

. . 0

.

Vk Ik

.

. Z . V ZBUS

BUS BUS I

. . f

.

Vn In

.

0

Vf

If Z 0

Zkk f

Vj Z jk I"f

Z jk

Vj Vf

Zkk

Z jk

Vjf Vj V

Zkk f

If there is generator connected to bus ‘ j ’ then current supplied by generator.

Eg Vjf

I

jX"d

Classification of buses

At each bus, there are 4 parameter: V , ,P,Q .

At any bus, out of these 4 quantities any 2 are specified.

P, Q are unknown quantities.

Any extra power needed by the system is supplied by slack bus.

2) Generator Bus / PV Bus

P, V is specified

Q, are unspecified

19

3) Load Bus / PQ Bus

P & Q are constant as specified

V & are unknown

Generally, newton – Raphson method is used for load flow solution and we form Jacobian

matrix, & the order of Jacobian matrix is

2n m 2 2n m 2

N = no. of total buses

M = no. of pv buses

Incremental cost

If is cost required to generate an additional unit of energy.

IC i = Incremental cost of ith generator

Ci

IC i

PGi

PGi = Power generated by ith generator

Ci = cost of ith generator

Transmission Loss

m m

PL PP

i jBij

i 1 j 1

th th

B ij = loss coefficient

m : no. of generator units

Penalty Factor

1

Li

P

1 L

PGi

IC i Li cons tant

Constant is called as incremental cost of system.

IC i = incremental cost ith unit

L i = penalty factor of ith unit

20

From this expression, for m generator we get ( m – 1) equation and mth equation is

m

P

i 1

Gi PD PLOSS

For example, refer kuestions on Power systems.

Fault Analysis

Symmetrical Components

For an unbalanced 3 – phase system, the analysis is done better by means of symmetrical

components.

Va0 Zero sequence components

Va0 1 1 1 Va

1 0

V 1 2 Vc

a2

Vs A Vp

1

Vp = phase voltage

Vs = Symmetrical component

1 1 1

A 1 2

1 2

Power in terms of symmetrical components

P 3 Va1 Ia1 Va2 Ia2

Va3 Ia0

Sequence Network

Alternators

Z1 jX"d

21

Negative Sequence Network

Va2 Ia2 Z2

Z 2 : Negative sequence impedance

X d " X q "

Z2 j

2

Z 0 = Zero sequence impedance

Z n =Neutral impedance ( in case of delta)

Z0 jXl

X l = leakage reactance

Transformers

Z1 jXl

Z2 jXl

Depending upon scheme of connection, we close series or shunt connection & method

of grounding.

22

Shunt connection are closed for delta connection & series connection are closed for star

connection with grounded neutral. If primary & secondary are inter changed then circuit

becomes mirror image.

Case – 1

Z 0 Z T0 3Zn

Case – 2

Case – 3

Case – 4

23

Case – 5

Transmission Lines

Z1 Z2 Zs Zm

Z0 Zs 2Zm

Z s = Self impedance

Zm = mutual impedance

Remembers, all sequence networks are always drawn in per unit & never in actual values.

Fault Analysis

The following short circuit faults are considered

1. LG (Single Line to ground fault)

2. LL (Line to line fault)

3. LLG (Line to Line to Ground fault)

4. 3-phase short circuit fault.

24

3-phase short circuit fault comes under the category of symmetrical SC fault whereas other 3

faults are called as unsymmetrical SC fault.

Order of severity

LG < LL < LLG < 3 - SC

Occurrence of SC fault

Equivalent Circuit

i t it iss

Vm Rt

V

sin e L m sin wt

Z Z

L

2

tan1 ; Z R L

2

R

2Vm

imm sin

Z

2Vm

imm cos

Z

During initial SC period for 1-2 cycles, current are induced in field & damper winding of machine

so reactance at least & called as sub transient reactance X d "

After initial sub-transient period, current in damper winding in reduced to zero, and this period

is called as transient period & reactance of machine is called as Transient Reactance X d "

25

Finally, when current in field winding is also reduced to zero, we enter steady state period &

reactance is called as steady state reactance Xd .

Xd " X d ' X d

We replace alternators by an emf source in series with sub transient reactance and emf

source under no-load is usually 100 pu or terminal voltage in pu.

V 00

Ef t pu

Vbase

Transformer & Transmission lines are replaced by reactance.

The equivalent circuit can be solved either by finding thevenin equivalent across fault or

by simple network analysis & fault in SC is calculated.

Ef

If

Z eq Z f

Z f = fault impedance.

1

SC MVA pu

Zeq Z f

SC MVA

MVA base MVA

Zeq Z f

Usually, circuit breakers are selected on the basis of most severe fault which is 3 – phase

SC fault.

Three ratings of circuit Breakers are important.

Momentary current ( rms ) = 1.6 Isc

Isc is symmetrical SC current which we calculated in previous section.

2) Making current

Making current = 2.54 Isc

26

3) Symmetrical Interrupting Current

We need to recalculate Isc by using sub-transient reactance for alternators & transient

reactance for synchronous motors. Induction motors & other loads are neglected.

depends on speed of circuit breakers which is measured in terms of numbers of cycles it takes to

operate.

Speed Factor

8 Cycles or slower 1.0

5 Cycles 1.1

3 Cycles 1.2

2 Cycles 1.3

We first draw equivalent positive, negative & zero sequence networks & calculate thevenin

impedance across fault terminals from each network.

Assuming equivalent positive, negative & zero sequence reactance are Z1 , Z 2 & Z 0

respectively.

Ea

Ia1

Z1 Z 2 Z 0 3Z f

Fault current I a

Ia 3Ia1

3 Ea

Ia

Z1 Z 2 Z 0 3Z f

SC MVA 3Ea1 , I a1 *

27

3 Ea1 I2

Z1 Z 2 Z 0 3Z f

3

In pu SC MVA pu

Z1 Z 2 Z 0 3Z f

3 MVA base

MVA

Z1 Z 2 Z 0 3Z f

Here, we calculate equivalent positive & negative sequence impedance Z1 & Z 2 respectively.

Ea

Ia1

Z1 Z 2 Z f

Fault current

j 3 Ea

Ib

Z1 Z 2 Z f

3

SC MVA pu

Z1 Z 2 Z f

3 MVA base

MVA

Z1 Z 2 Z f

Ea

Ia1

Z1 Z 2 Z 0 3Z f

I Z2

Ia0 a1

Z2 Z0

Fault Current = 3 Iao

28

Short Circuit MVA

3

SC MVA pu

Z1 Z 2 1 3Z f Z 0

3 MVA base

MVA

Z1 Z 2 Z 0 3Z f

Remember, all fault analysis will be done in pu system.

Two types of stability are studied:

2) Transient Stability

dP

0

d

And for this condition to be true.

Pe Pmax

If power demand is greater than maximum demand than machine goes out of synchronous.

E V

For a loss less machine, Pmax

XS

Transient Stability

Swing Equation

Md2

Pm Pe

dt2

M = inertia constant ( MJ-S / elect - rad)

Pm= mechanical input (MW)

Pe = electrical output (MW)

= rotor angle

Another Form

H d2

Pm Pe

f dt2

H = inertia constant ( MJ / MVA)

Pm & Pe both are in pu

29

GH

M (MJ – S / elect - deg)

180f

GH

M (MJ – S / elect - rad)

f

G = machine rating (MVA)

If two alternators are swinging coherently. Then they can be replaced by a single

alternator having

Meq M1 M2

But “ H “ cannot be added directly, they must first be on same base.

If machines are not swinging coherently, then

M1M2

Meq

M1 M2

Accelerating Power,

Pa Pm Pe

In steady state Pm Pe

In transient, Pm Pe so rotor accelerate or decelerate.

Pad 0

There are basically 3 stages in stability analysis

Before Fault

We say maximum power transferrable is Pmax,1

& Pe Pmax,1 sin

During fault

We say maximum power transferrable is Pmax,2

Pe Pmax,2 sin

After Fault

We say maximum power transferrable is Pmax,3

Pe Pmax,3 sin

30

Critical clearing angle

It is the maximum value of beyond which if the fault is cleared system will be unstable. The

time instant corresponding to this angle is called as critical clearing time assuming fault occurs

at t = 0.

Pmax,2 0

Pmax,3 Pmax,1

Cr clearing angle

By equal area criteria

2

0

P

0 sin1 m

Pmax,1

For critical clearing 2 max

max 0

2H Cr 0

tCr = Critical Clearing Time

f Pm

Before Fault

E V

Pmax,1

Xg X1 X2

During Fault

E V

Pmax,2 0

Xeq

After Fault

E V

Pmax,3

Xg X1

31

P

0 sin1 m

Pmax,1

P

max sin1 m

Pmax,3

2

Pad 0

0

c 2

0 c

2 max

2H Cr 0

tCr

f Pm

The equivalent reactance during the fault is highest and thus Pmax,2 is lowest

2

Pad 0

0

c 2

0 c

P

2 max sin1 m

Pmax,3

32

cr cos 1

P

m max 0 Pmax,3 cos max Pmax2 cos 0

Pmax3 Pmax2

This is a generic formula and can be applied to other two cases as well after substituting

value of Pmax,1 , Pmax,2 & Pmax,3 .

But tcr can only be calculated from cr in previous two cases using expression written

before.

In our current protection, normally a current transformer is connected between

protected elements and the relay.

Plug setting multiplier (PSM)

Fault current

T ratio Pick up current

Usually pick up current = Relay setting x Rated secondary current of CT

Pick-up current is minimum current above which a relay operates.

Differential Relays

If this current is greater than pick-up current then

it operates, else it does not operates.

K I1 I2 Ipick up Trip

K I1 I2 Ipick up Block

Relay operates if

Nr I1 I2

K I1 I2 K Ipu

N0 2

Nr = Number of turns in restraining coil

N0 = Number of turns in operating coil

The ratio operating coil current & restraining coil current is called as bias of differential

relay.

33

Protection of Transmission line

1) Mho relay is at least affected by power surges& thus it is used for protection of long

transmission lines. It is inherently directional.

2) Impedance relay is used for protection of medium transmission lines.

3) Reactance relay is unaffected by ground resistance & hence used for earth fault

protection & also for short transmission Lines.

These relays are collectively called as distance relays.

Protection of Transformers

Differential relays are used for protection of large transformers and CT are always

connected in configuration opposite to power transformer.

Example: 1) If power transformer is Y then CT is Y

: 2) If power transformer is then CT is Y Y

Buccholz relay used to prevent any incipient fault below oil level in a transformer of small

KVA.

34

Kuestion

Power Systems

www.kreatryx.com

Contents

Manual for Kuestion ........................................................................... 2

Type 1: Capacitance and inductance ................................................... 3

Type 2: SIL loading .............................................................................. 4

Type 3: ABCD parameter ..................................................................... 5

Type 4: Surges ..................................................................................... 7

Type 5: Voltage control ....................................................................... 8

Type 6: Power factor correction ....................................................... 10

Type 7: UG cable ............................................................................... 11

Type 8: Overhead Insulators ............................................................. 12

Type 9: Distribution Systems............................................................. 14

Type 10: Economic Dispatch ............................................................. 15

Type 11: Per unit system ................................................................... 18

Type 12: Symmetrical Components .................................................. 20

Type 13: Fault Analysis ...................................................................... 22

Type 14: Thevenin Impedance .......................................................... 24

Type 15: Power System Stability ....................................................... 25

Type 16: Swing equation ................................................................... 27

Type 17: Power System Matrices ...................................................... 28

Type 18: Load flow Solution .............................................................. 31

Type 19: Plug setting Multiplier ........................................................ 33

Answer Key ....................................................................................... 35

1

Type 1: Capacitance and inductance

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Transmission Lines

Common Mistake:

While calculating capacitance we do not use GMR but rather the radius of conductor, so this

is the basic difference in Inductance and Capacitance calculation.

Sample problem 1:

The conductor of a 10km long, single phase, two wire line are separated by a distance of 1.5m.

The diameter of an each conducting is 1cm. If the conductors are of copper, the induction of

the circuit is?

(A)50.0mH (B)45.3mH (C)23.8mH (D) 19.6mH

Solution: (C) is correct option

Inductor of a single phase circuit with copper conductors

d

Lab 2La 2 0.2 ln( )

r

Given d=1.5m, r=0.5cm, r=0.7788 0.5 10-2m

1.5

L ab 0.4ln 2

mH / km

0.7788 0.5 10

L ab 2.38mH / km

For 10km length of the line

Lab =23.8 mH

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 Single phase concentric cable 5 km long has a capacitance of 0.2 F per km, the relative

permeability of the dielectric being 3.5. the diameter of the inner conductor is 1.5 cm and the

supply voltage is 66 kv at 50 Hz. Calculate the inner diameter of outer conductor

(A) 3.9 cm (B) 1.95 cm (C) 3.2 cm (D) 1.6 cm

Q.2 A double circuit 3-phse transmission line is shown below. The conductor a ,aI ; b,bI and

c,cI belong to the same phase respectively. The radius of each conductor is 1.5 cm. Find the

inductance of the double circuit line in mH /km /phase.

(A) 0.191

(B) 0.455

(C) 0.755

(D) 0.95

3

Q.3 A 3 – phase double circuit line is shown in

the figure. The diameter of each conductor is

2 cm. Determine the capacitance per km length

of the line, assume that the line is transposed.

(A) 0.011 F

(B) 0.015 F

(C) 0.0192 F

(D) 0.0175 F

Q.4 . Fig. shows the spacing’s of a double circuit 3-phase overhead line. The phase sequence

is ABC and the line is completely transposed. The conductor radius is 0.75 cm each.

Inductance per phase per km is

(A) 0.462 mH

(B) 0.737 mH

(C) 0.623 mH

(D) 0.589 mH

Q.5 A single phase 60 Hz transmission line and a telephone line both are supported on a

horizontal cross-arm in the same horizontal plane. The spacing between transmission line

conductors is 2.5m and conductors of the telephone line are of solid copper spaced 0.6m

between centres. The distance between the nearest conductors of the two lines is 20cm. A

current of 150 A is flowing over the power line. The value of mutual inductance between the

circuit is?

(A)0.01 mH/km (B)0.00067 mH/km

(C)0.0046 mH/km (D)0.00033 mH/km

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Transmission Lines

Common Mistake:

While calculating SIL if we are using standard formula then we need to consider Line to Line

Voltage and if we use phase voltage we need to multiply the formula by a factor of 3.

Sample problem 2:

A loss less transmission line having Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) of 2280 MW is provided

with a uniformly distributed series capacitive compensation of 30%. Then, SIL of the

compensated transmission line will be

(A) 1835 MW (B) 2280 MW (C) 2725 MW (D) 3257 MW

Solution: (C) is correct option

4

Let characteristic impedance

impedance / km Z sc 1

Zc 1 pu

admit tance / km Z

oc 1

Given that for line 30% series capacitive compensation is provided. Hence the series

impedance of line is 0.7 or 70% of original value.

0.7

Znew 0.836 pu

1.0

V2

Surge imedance loading (SIL)=

Zc

1 (SIL)2 Z c1

SIL

Zc (SIL)1 Z c2

1.0

(SIL)2 2280M 2725 MW

0.836

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 The L/C ratio for 132KV and 400KV lines are typically 160*103 and 62.5*103 respectively.

The neutral 3-phase loading for the two line will be respectively?

(A) 44 MW and 2500 MW (B) 44 MW and 640 MW

(C) 6400 MW and 44 MW (D) 108.9 MW and 2560 MW

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Transmission Lines

Common Mistake:

While using Transmission Parameters the voltages used should be per phase and not line to

line voltages.

Sample problem 3:

The generalized circuit constants of a 3-phase, 220kV rated voltage, medium length

transmission line are

A D 0.936 j0.016 0.9360.980

B 35.5 j138 142.076.4 0

C ( 5.18 j914 ) 10 6

If the load at the receiving end is 50 MW at 220 kV with a power factor of 0.9 lagging, then

magnitude of line to line sending end voltage should be

(A) 133.23 kV (B) 220.00 kV (C) 230. 78 kV (D) 246.30kV

Solution: (C) is correct option

5

Power received by load =50MW

Current at receiving end = 3Vr Ir cos

50 106

Ir 145.79A

3 220 103 0.9

Ir 145.79 25.84 0 cos=0.9 =25.84 0

220

Vs AVr BIr 0.9360.980 10 14.276.4 145.79 25.84 133.2467.77 KV

3 0 0 0

3

Magnitude of line to line sending end voltage =230.78KV

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A 200km 3-phase 50Hz transmission line has the following data

A D 0.9381.20

B 131.272.30 /phase

C 0.001900 /phase

The sending end voltage is 230KV. The receiving end voltage is maintained as 220 kv . The

maximum power that can be transmitted and the correspond reactive power.

(A) 233.8Mw, 311 MVAR (B) 233.8Mw, - 311 MVAR

(C) 311Mw, 233.8MVAR (D) 311Mw – 233.8 MVAR

Q.2 A 50Hz, 3-phase transmission line is 200 km long has total series impedance of (35 + j 140)

ohms / phase and a shunt admittance of 930 x 10-6 90 Mhos / phase. It delivers a load of

40Mw at 220 kv with 0.9 p.f. lag. Find the magnitude of sending voltage for line to line in kv.

(A) 232.4 (B) 229.8 (C) 227.6 (D) 236.5

Q.3 The generalized circuit constants of a nominal circuit representing a 3-phase

transmission line are A = D = 0.98 0.3, B = 0.25 76 ohm, C = 0.005 90 mho, The two

terminal voltages are held constant at 110 kV. If shunt admittance and the series resistance

are zero, steady state stability limit is(MW)

(A) 111.18 (B) 151.25 (C) 146.67 (D) 114.66

Q.4 A short 3–phase transmission line with an impedance of (6 + j8) Ohms per phase has

sending and receiving end voltages of 120 kV and 110 kV respectively for some receiving end

load at a point of 0.9 lagging. The sending end power factor is

(A) 0.88 lag (B) 0.8 lag (C) 0.84 lag (D) 0.78 lag

6

Q.5 Two identical 3-phase transmission lines are connected in parallel to supply a load of

100MW at 132 KV and 0.8 pf lagging at the receiving-end. The constants of each

transmission line are as follows;

A 0.9810 ,B 100750 / phase

What are the values of constant A and B for the combined network?

(A) A 1.9610 ,B 200750 (B) A 0.9810 ,B 50750

(C) A 10010 ,B 0.98750 (D) A 0.9810 ,B 100750

Type 4: Surges

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Transmission Lines

Common Mistake:

If a line is terminated in characteristic impedance then there is no reflection so you need not

solve the entire problem if you encounter such a case.

Sample problem 4:

A surge of 20 kV magnitude travels along a lossless cable towards its junction with two

identical lossless overhead transmission lines. The inductance and the capacitance of the

cable are 0.4 mH and 0.5 μF per km. The inductance and capacitance of the overhead

transmission lines are 1.5 mH and 0.015 μF per km. The magnitude of the voltage at the

junction due to surge is

(A) 36.72 kV (B) 18.36 kV (C) 6.07 kV (D) 33.93 kV

Solution: (A) is correct option

Surge impedance of cable

L

Z1 L=0.4 mH/km , C=0.5F/km

C

0.4 10 3

28.284

0.5 10 6

surge impedance of overhead transmission line

L

Z2 Z3 ; L=1.5 mH/km , C=0.015F/km

C

1.5 10 5

316.23

0.015 10 6

Now the magnitude of voltage at junction due to surge is being given by as

2 V Z 2 2 20 103 316.23

V 36.72KV

Z 2 Z1 316 28.284

7

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A 132 kv transmission line AB is connected to a cable BC. The characteristic impedances

of the overhead line and the cable are 400 and 80 respectively. Assume that these are

purely resistive A 250 kv switching surge travels from A to B. The value of the reflected

component of this surge when two first reflection reaches A

(A) 83.34 kv (B) 166.67 kv (C) – 166.67 kv (D) 83.34 kv

Q.2 The ends of two long transmission lines A and C are connected by a cable B. The surge

impedances of A,B and C are 500, 70 and 600 ohms respectively. A rectangular voltage wave

of 20 KV magnitude and of infinite length is initiated in ‘A’travels to ‘C’. Second impressed

voltage on ‘C’ is

(A) 14.1 KV (B) 8.8 KV (C) 3.5 KV (D) 5.3 KV

Q.3 A surge f 100KV travelling in a line of natural impedance 600Ω arrives at a junction with

two lines of impedance 800Ω and 200Ω respectively. What is the value of surge voltage?

(A)42.09KV (B)43.76KV (C)45.98KV (D)42.04KV

Q.4 What is the first impressed surge voltage and currents into line-3 from following network

(B)155.84 KV, 623.4 A

(C)77.92 KV, 31.17 A

(D)311.68 KV, 1246.8 A

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Transmission Lines

Common Mistake:

It is always easier to solve these type of problems in pu system rather than actual values.

Sample problem 5:

A 3-phase 11 kV generator feeds power to a constant power unity power factor load of

100MW through a 3-phase transmission line. The line-to line voltage at the terminals of the

machine is maintained constant at 11 kV. The per unit positive sequence impedance of the

line based on 100 MVA and 11 kV is j0.2. The line to line voltage at the load terminals is

measured to be less than 11 kV. The total reactive power to be injected at the terminals of

the load to increase the line-to-line voltage at the load terminals to 11 kV is (MVAR)

(A) 100 (B) 10.1 (C) −100 (D) −10.1

Solution: (D) is correct option

8

Given Load Power = 100 MW

VS = VR = 11 kV

p.u. (KV)2 j0.2 (11)2

imedance of line Z L j0.242

MV 100

So as to make the sending end voltage and receiving end voltage equal, the net reactive power

demand at load must be zero.

Let QC be the reactive power injected at load side and Qr be the reactive power received from

supply.

Qr Q C Q d

Qr QC 0 QC Qr

In this case β=Line impedance angle =900

0.242, =00 , A 1.0

Vs Vr A 2

Pr cos( ) Vr cos( )

B B

11 11 1.0

100 cos(90 ) 112 cos(90 0)

0.242 0.242

sin 0.2 11.530

V V A 2

Qr s r sin( ) Vr sin( )

B B

11 11 1.0

Qr sin(90 11.53) 112 sin(90)

0.242 0.242

Qr 10.1 MVAR

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 The receiving end voltage of a 20 km long are head transmission line is to be kept constant

at 10 KV. Its Voltage regulation is 20% with a load. It a capacitor is connected in parallel which

the load to reduce the regulation to 10% the sending end voltage is

(A) 9KV (B) 10KV (C) 11 KV (D) 12KV

Q.2 A 275Kv transmission line has A = 0.8550, B = 200 750 what is the ratio of compensating

equipment required in MVAR at the receiving end to maintain the sending and receiving end

voltages at 275kV. The load at the receiving end is 150MW at 0.8 power factor lagging

(A) –27.56 (B) 147.56 (C) +27.56 (D) –147.56

Q.3 Three supply points A, B and C are connected to bus bar M. Supply point A is maintained

at a nominal 275 KV and is connected to M through a 275/132 KV transformer

(0.1p.u.reactance) and a 132 KV line of reactance 50 . Supply point B is nominally at 132 KV

and is connected to M through a 132 KV line of 50 reactance. Supply point C is nominally

at 275 KV and is connected to M by a 275/132 KV transformer (0.1p.u reactance) and 132 KV

line of 50 reactance. If at a particular point, the line voltage M falls below its nominal value

9

by 5KV, calculate the magnitude of reactive volt ampere injection required at M to re-

establish the original voltage. The p.u values are expressed on a 500 MVA base and resistance

may neglect throughout.

(A) 7.6MVAR (B) 15.7 MVAR (C) 23 MVAR (D) 38 MVAR

Q.4 A 3-phase, 50 Hz overhead transmission line is feeding a 0.8 power factor lagging load

with both the sending end and receiving end line voltage held at 110KV. The sending-end

voltage leads the receiving end voltage by 150 and the line constants are as following

A 0.9610 ,B 100830

If a compensating device is required to met the demand of load, then VAR rating (in MVAR)

of device should be?

(A)24.71 (B)2.84 (C)19.03 (D) 21.87

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Transmission Lines

Common Mistake:

While using formula for rating of compensating device the real power is always total three

phase power.

Also, we already consider Q as negative and hence answer comes out as positive for

capacitor.

Sample problem 6:

the load power factor at 0.97 lagging. If the capacitor goes out of service, the load power

factor becomes

(A) 0.85 lag (B) 1.00 lag (C) 0.80 lag (D) 0.90 lag

Solution: (C) is correct option

Let the initial power factor angle =φ1

Given 2 cos1 0.97 14.070

P tan 1 tan 2 KVAR supplied by capacitor

4 106 (tan 1 tan14.070 ) 2 106 1 36.890

cos 1 0.8 lag

Hence if the capacitor goes out of the service the load power factor becomes 0.8 lag.

10

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 An induction motor operating at 0.8 pf lag consuming 300 KW. A zero power consuming

synchronous motor is connected across the induction motor to raise the pf to 0.92 lagging.

The reactive power drawn by the synchronous motor is?

(A)97.2 KVAR lag (B)97.2 KVAR lead

(C)36 KVAR lag (D)36 KVAR lead

Q.2 A 400 V, 50 Hz, three phase balanced source supplies power to a star connected load

whose rating is 12 3 kVA, 0.8 pf (lag). The rating (in kVAR) of the delta connected (capacitive)

reactive power bank necessary to bring the pf to unity is?

(A) 28. 78 (B) 21.60 (C) 16.60 (D) 12.47

Type 7: UG cable

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Underground Cables.

Common Mistake:

While connecting core to core and core to sheath make sure that you combine capacitors

correctly in series or parallel.

Sample problem 7:

Consider a three-core, three-phase, 50 Hz, 11 kV cable whose conductors are denoted as R,Y

and B in the figure. The inter-phase capacitance(C1) between each line conductor and the

sheath is 0.4 μF . The per-phase charging current is

(A) 2.0 A

(B) 2.4 A

(C) 2.7 A

(D) 3.5 A

Solution: (A) is correct option

Given

3-Ф, 50 Hz, 11 kV cable

C1 = 0.2 μF

C2 = 0.4 μF

Charging current IC per phase = ?

Capacitance Per Phase C = 3C1+ C2

C = 3*0.2 + 0.4 = 1 μF

ω = 2πf = 314

11

V

Charging current Ic V( C)

Xc

11 103

= 314 1 106

3

= 2 Amp

Q.1 The charging current drawn by a cable with 3 cores and protected by a metal sheet when

switched on to a 11 KV, 50Hz supply. The capacitance between two cores with the third core

connected to the sheath is measured to be 3.7 .F

(A) 9.32 A (B) 14.77 A (C) 16.32 A (D) 17.54 A

Q.2 In a 3 core cable capacitance between any two cores is 0.5µF and capacitance between

any one of the core to sheath is 0.3 µF. What is capacitance measured between any two cores

connected together and third core?

(A)1.3µF (B) 1.2µF (C) 1.1µF (D) 1.5µF

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Overhead Insulators.

Common Mistake:

Voltage Distribution can be obtained by using Voltage division and also by using KCL.

Sample problem 8:

Consider a three-phase, 50 Hz, 11 kV distribution system. Each of the conductors is suspended

by an insulator string having two identical porcelain insulators. The self-capacitance of the

insulator is 5 times the shunt capacitance between the link and the ground, as shown in the

figure. The voltages across the two insulators are

(B) e1 3.46 kV,e2 2.89 kV

(C) e1 6.0 kV, e2 4.23 kV

(D) e1 5.5 kV, e2 5.5 kV

Solution: (B) is correct option

At “A” point I1 I 2 I3

e1 5C e2 C e3 5C

5e1 6e2 ...........................................(1)

12

11k

e1 e2 6.35kV.................(2)

3

From equation (1) and (2) we can get

e1 =2.886kV and e2 =3.46kV

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 In a four disc string insulator capacitance grading is employed in order to get 100% string

efficiency. The capacitance of shunt capacitor is 0.05 F and the capacitance of a disc near to

cross arm is 0.1 F. The capacitance of a disc near to power conductor is

(A) 0.35 F (B) 0.4 F (C) 0.25 F (D) 0.15 F

Q.2 . The equivalent capacitor arrangement of the two string Insulator is shown below. The

maximum voltage that each unit can with stand should not exceed 17.5 kV. The line to line

voltage of the system is?

(A) 17.5 kV

(B) 33 kV

(C) 57.15 kV

(D) 30.3 kV

Q.3 In a 3 unit insulator string, voltage across the lowest unit is 17.5 KV and string efficiency

is 84.28%. The total voltage across the string will be equal to?

(A)8.825KV (B)44.25KV (C)88.25KV (D)442.5KV

Q.4 If the voltage across the string of a string insulator assembly is 38KV, number of insulators

discs are 4 and voltage across the lowest disc is 12KV, string efficiency is?

(A)79.1% (B)70% (C)50% (D)100%

Q.5 It is required to grade a string consisting of three suspension insulators. Determine the

line to pin capacitance that would give the same voltage across each insulator of the string if

the pin to earth capacitance are all equal to 0.5C?

1 1 3 1 1 1

(A) C, C, C (B) C, C, C

12 5 8 16 8 2

1 1 1

(C) C, C, C (D) 5C, 8C, 1C

5 3 2

13

Type 9: Distribution Systems

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Distribution Systems.

Sample problem 9:

A distribution feeder of 1 km length having resistance, but negligible reactance, is fed from

both the ends by 400V, 50 Hz balanced sources. Both voltage sources S1 and S2 are in phase.

The feeder supplies concentrated loads of unity power factor as shown in the figure.

(A) 75 A and 25 A (B) 50 A and 50 A

(C) 25 A and 75 A (D) 0 A and 100 A

Solution: (D) is correct option

Assume point of minimum voltage is A

Assume resistance of entire feeder = R

VA 400 I1 0.4R ………….(i)

VA 400 I2 0.2R I2 200 0.2R I2 300 0.2R

= 400 – 0.6 R I2 + 100R …………..(ii)

I1 I2 300 200

I1 I2 = 500 …………….(iii)

From (i) & (ii)

4 00 0.4I1R 4 00 0.6I2R 100R

0.6I2 0.4I1 100 …………(iv)

0.4I1 0.4I2 200 ……….…(v)

Contribution of I2 to IP I2 200 100A

Contribution of I1to IP 0A

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 . A two – line d.c. distributor fed from both ends is shown below. The Minimum Voltage

on the distributor is

(A) 218.45

(B) 220.45

(C) 219.45

(D) 216.45

14

Q.2 A single phase two – wire feeder 1500m long is shown below what is the voltage at the

sending end. The impedance A at the feeder is (0.06 + 0.1) ohms / km

(B) 250 2.560

(C) 255 1.560

(D) 245 2.10

Q.3 A dc 2 wire ring main distributor is shown below. Find the total currents supplied by two

sources. The resistance of each conductor 0.01 ohms/km. The source voltages are equal

(A) 90.78 A, 109.28 A

(B) 122.22 A, 77.78 A

(C) 105.78 A, 94.22 A

(D) 115. 22 A, 84.78 A

Q.4 A 2 wire DC distributor ABCDEA in the form of a ring main is fed at point A at 220V and is

loaded as shown in the figure. The minimum potential on the distributor is

(A)220 V

(B)216.15 V

(C)216.45 V

(D)218.28 V

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Economic Power Generation.

Point to Remember:

Just remember the basic formulas for factors related to plant and no need to memorize all

factor just a few important ones are fine.

15

Sample problem 10:

The figure shows a two-generator system applying a load of PD = 40MW, connected at bus 2.

C1(PG1) = 10000 Rs/MWh and C2(PG2) = 12500 Rs/MWh and the loss in the line is

Ploss(pu)= 0.5P2G1(pu), where the loss coefficient is specified in pu on a 100MVA base. The

most economic power generation schedule in MW is

(A) PG1 = 20,PG2 = 22 (B) PG1 = 22,PG2 = 20

(C) PG1 = 20,PG2 = 20 (D) PG1 = 0,PG2 = 40

Solution: (A) is correct option

1

Let penalty factor of plant G1 L1 ; PL 0.5PG1

2

PL

1

PG1

PL

0.5 2 PG1 PG1

PG1

1

So,L1

1 PG1

1 PL

Penalty factor of plant G2 is L2 =1 ; 0

PL PG2

1

PG2

For economic power generation C1 L1 C2 L2

where C1 and C2 are the incremental fuel cost of plant G1 and G2

1

So, 10000 12500 1

1 P

G1

4 1

1 PG1 PG1 pu

5 5

1

It is an 100 MVA, so PG1 100 20 MW

5

2

1 1 1

Loss PL 0.5 pu 100 2 MW

5 50 50

16

Total power,

PL PG1 PG2 PL

40 20 PG2 2 PG2 22 MW

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 Two power plants interconnected by a tie line as shown in the above figure have loss

formula coefficient b11 = 10-3mW-1. Power is being dispatched economically with plant as

100Mw and plant 2 as 125 Mw. The penalty factor for the plants 1 and 2 are respectively.

(A) 1 and 1.25

(B) 1.25 and 1

(C) 1 and zero

(D) zero and 1

Q.2 A two bus system is shown below

Find the required generation for each plant when the system x is Rs.25/mwhr. The

incremental fuel costs are

dC1 dC2

0.02 PG1 16 Rs / Mwhr ; 0.04 PG2 20 Rs / Mwhr

dPG1 dPG2

(A) 140.5 MW and 125 MW (B) 125 MW and 128.57 MW

(C) 128.57 MW and 125 MW (D) 135.2 MW and 125 MW

Q.3 The incremented fuel cost of two plants are given as

I C1 0.1P1 15 Rs / Mwhr

I C 2 20 Rs / Mwhr

The minimum and maximum generation limits are 50 Pi 100, (i 1,2) The load on the

system is 180 MW. The generation limits are

(A) 90 MW and 90 MW (B) 100 MW and 80 MW

(C) 80 MW and 100 MW (D) 60 MW and 120 MW

Q.4 The power generated by two plants are P1 = 50 mw and P2 = 40 mw the loss coefficients

are B11 = 0.001, B22 = 0.0025 and B12 = -0.0005. The demand on the system will be

(A) 90 MW (B) 84.5 MW (C) 79.5 MW (D) 74.5 MW

17

Q.5 For the system whose line diagram is shown in figure. I1 = 1.000 and I2 = 0.8 00 per

unit. If the voltage at bus 3 is 1.0 00 per unit. Find the loss coefficients B12 line impedances

are (0.04+j0.16) per unit, (0.03+j0.12) per unit and (0.02+j0.08) per unit for sections a, b and

c respectively

(A) 0.0554p.u.

(B) 0.0188p.u.

(C) 0.0477p.u.

(D) 1.225p.u.

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Per Unit System.

Common Mistake:

The voltage ratings of Transformers need not be necessarily be the base values, you need to

transform the voltage bases as per transformer voltage ratios.

Two generator units G1 and G2 are connected by 15 kV line with a bus at the midpoint as

shown below

G1 = 250MVA, 15 kV, positive sequence reactance XG1 =25% on its own base

G2 = 100MVA, 15 kV, positive sequence reactance XG2 =10% on its own base L1 and L2 = 10km,

positive sequence reactance XL = 0.225 Ω/km

For the above system, the positive sequence diagram with the pu values on the 10 MVA

common is?

18

Solution: (A) is correct option

Positive sequence diagram of the above system

2

100 15

X G1 0.25 0.1

250 15

2

100 15

X G2 0.1 0.1

100 15

100 225

XL1 0.225 10 j1.0

152 225

100 225

XL2 0.225 10 2 j1.0

15 225

Unsolved Problems:

G1 G2 Tr

30MVA 25MVA 60MVA

11KV 11KV 11KV (∆) : 66KV (Y)

X”=0.20 pu X”=0.25 pu X=0.10 pu

From the figure find the actual impedance in ohm for given Sbase as 25 MVA?

(A)j0.8874 (B)j0.6853 (C)j0.0263 (D)j0.0293

Q.2 For the power system shown in the figure below, the specifications of the components

are the following:

G1: 25 kV, 100 MVA, X = 9%

G2: 25 kV, 100 MVA, X = 9%

T1: 25 kV/220 kV, 90 MVA, X = 12%

T2: 220 kV/25 kV, 90 MVA, X = 12%

19

Line 1: 200 kV, X = 150 ohms

Choose 25 kV as the base voltage at the generator G1, and 200 MVA as the MVA base. The

impedance diagram is?

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Fault Analysis.

Point to Remember:

Try to understand the zero sequence network for Transformer using Switch Model.

A three-phase alternator generating unbalanced voltages is connected to an unbalanced load

through a 3-phase transmission line as shown in figure. The neutral of the alternator and the

star point of the load are solidly grounded. The phase voltages of the alternator are

Ea 1000 V,Eb 10 900 V,Ec 101200 V.

The positive-sequence component of the load current is

(A) 1.310- 1070 A

(B) 0.332- 1200 A

(C) 0.996- 1200 A

(D) 3.510- 810 A

Both sides are grounded

Ea 1000

So, Ia 5 900

Za 2j

Eb 10 900

Ib 3.33 1800

Zb 3j

20

Ec 101200

Ic 2.5300

Zc 4j

1

We know that Ia1 I Ib 2Ic ; where =11200 2=12400

3 a

1

Ia1 5 900 3.33( 1800 1200 ) 2.5(2400 300 )

3

1

Ia1 5 900 3.33 600 2.52700

3

1

Ia1 5j 1.665 j2.883 2.5j 3.5 80.890

3

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A single phase load of 100kv is connected across lines b and c of a 3-phase supply of 3.3kv.

Determine the positive sequence component of line ‘a’ is

(A) 30.3A (B) 17.5A (C) 0A (D) 48.5A

Q.2 In a unbalanced 3–phase power system, the currents are measured as

Ia = zero , Ib = 660 and Ic = 6-120. The corresponding sequence currents are

Ia0 Ia1 Ia2

(A) zero 3-j3 -3+j3

(B) zero -3+j3 3-j3

(C) zero -9+j33 9-j33

(D) zero 9-j33 -9+j33

Q.3 When a 50 MVA, 11 KV 3-phase generator is subjected to a 3-phase fault, the fault current

is – j 5 p.u. When it is subjected to a line-to-line fault, the positive sequence current is – j 4p.u.

The positive and negative sequence reactance are respectively

(A) j 0.2 and j 0.05 p.u (B) j 0.2 and j 0.25 p.u

(C) j 0.25 and j 0.25 p.u (D) j 0.05 and j 0.05 p.u

Q.4 A 3 - line supplies a delta connected load. The line current line1 is 100 A, taking the

current in line 1 is as reference, current in line 2 is 100 1800 . Positive symmetrical

component of line 2, if phase 3 is only switched off

21

Type 13: Fault Analysis

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Fault Analysis.

Common Mistake:

While calculating any reactance please make sure that unit is correct as answer may be in pu

or in ohms.

A 20-MVA, 6.6-kV, 3-phase alternator is connected to a 3-phase transmission line. The per

unit positive-sequence, negative-sequence and zero-sequence impedances of the alternator

are j0.1, j0.1 and j0.04 respectively. The neutral of the alternator is connected to ground

through an inductive reactor of j0.05 p.u. The per unit positive-, negative- and zero-

sequence impedances of transmission line are j0.1, j0.1 and j0.3, respectively. All per unit

values are based on the machine ratings. A solid ground fault occurs at one phase of the far

end of the transmission line. The voltage of the alternator neutral with respect to ground

during the fault is?

Solution: (D) is correct option

Total zero sequence impedance, +ve sequence impedance and −ve sequence impedances

Z0 = (Z0) Line+ (Z0) Generator = j0.04 + j0.3 = j0.34 pu

Z1 = (Z1) Line+ (Z1) Generator = j0.1 + j0.1 = j0.2 pu

Z2 = (Z2) Line+ (Z2) Generator = j0.1 + j0.1 = j0.2 pu

Zn = j0.05 pu

for L-G fault

Ea 0.1

Ia1 j1.12 pu

Z0 Z1 Z 2 3Zn j0.2 j0.2 j0.34 j0.15

generator MVA 20 106

IBase 1750 A

3 generator KV 3 6.6 103

Fault current If 3 Ia IBase 3 j1.12 1750 j5897.6 A

6.6

2

20

Vn = 5897.6 0.1089

Vn = 642.2 V

22

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A 3-phase 50 Hz generator is rated at 500 MVA, 20 kv with Xd’’=0.2p.u.It supplies purely

resistive load of 400 Mw at 20 kv. The load is connected directly across the terminal of the

generator. If all the three phases of the load are short circuited simultaneously through a fault

reactance of 0.1 p.u, find the initial symmetrical r.m.s. current in the generator in kA in the

generator on a base of 500 MVA, 20kv.

(A) 72.17 (B) 27.75 (C) 38.45 (D) 56.28

Q.2 When a 50 MVA, 11 KV 3 – phase generator is subjected to a 3 – phase fault, the fault

current is – j5 PU. When it is subjected a line to line fault, the positive sequence current is

– j4Pu. The positive and negative sequence reactance’s are respectively

(A) j0.2, j0.05 (B) j0.2, j0.25

(C) j0.25, j0.25 (D) j0.05, j0.05

Q.3 Two 11 KV, 20 MVA, three phase, star connected generators operate in parallel. The

positive, negative and zero sequence reactance’s of each being respectively j0.18, j0.15 and

j0.1 P.U. The star point of one of the generator is isolated and the other is earthed through a

2 resistor. The potential of the neutral for a line to ground fault in P.U.

(A) 0.33 (B) 0.96 (C) 2.89 (D) 1.44

Q.4 In the power system shown, the values are marked are the per unit reactance’s taking

20 MVA and 11 KV as base values in the generator circuit. Both transformers are rated for

11/110 KV. A three phase to ground fault with a fault impedance of j0.088 pu occurs at bus‘2’.

The fault current supplied by generator ‘2’ is

(A) 154.8A

(B) 264.4A

(C) 109.6A

(D) 127.8A

Q.5 A 10 MVA, 13.8 kV alternator has positive, negative and zero sequence reactance of 30%,

40% and 5 % respectively. What reactance must be put in the generator neutral so that the

fault current for a line to ground fault of zero fault impedance will not exceed the rated line

current.

(A) 13.28 (B) 14.28 (C) 15.25 (D) 16.5

23

Type 14: Thevenin Impedance

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Fault Analysis.

Common Mistake:

While calculating transfer reactance, shunt branches of pi-network are neglected.

A generator is connected to a transformer which feeds another transformer through a short

feeder. The zero sequence impedance values are expressed In pu on a common base and

voltage are indicate in figure. The Thevenin equivalent zero sequence impedance at point B

is?

(C) 0.75+j0.25 (D) 1.5+j0.25

Solution: (B) is correct option

Per unit zero sequence reactance diagram of the given single line diagram is shown below.

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 For the network shown, the zero sequence reactance in PU are indicated. The zero

sequence driving point reactance of the node 3 is

(A) 0.12 PU

(B) 0.30 PU

(C) 0.10 P.U

(D) 0.2 PU

24

Q.2 For the diagram shown below, the steady state symmetrical fault – current for a 3 – phase

fault on the 11 kV feeder is

(A) 10 p.u

(B) 15 p.u

(C) 20 p.u

(D) 25 p.u

Q.3 A 3-phase fault occurs at the middle point F on the transmission line as shown in the

figure. The transfer reactance appearing between the generator and the infinite bus is?

(A)j0.9 pu

(B) j0.575 pu

(C)j0.62 pu

(D)j0.65 pu

Q.4 For figure shown below calculate the max power transfer (during the fault ), when the

system is healthy, fault occurs at the middle of the line and fault is cleared by the breaker?

(A)1.567 pu

(B)0.722 pu

(C)0.226 pu

(D)0.618 pu

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Power System Stability.

Point to Remember:

If you are not able to remember the entire expression for critical clearing angle then better

understand the method and you can compute using integration.

A cylinder rotor generator delivers 0.5 pu power in the steady-state to an infinite bus

through a transmission line of reactance 0.5 pu. The generator no-load voltage is 1.5 pu and

the infinite bus voltage is 1 pu. The inertia constant of the generator is 5MW-s/MVA and the

generator reactance is 1 pu. The critical clearing angle, in degrees, for a three-phase dead

short circuit fault at the generator terminal is

(A) 53.50 (B) 60.20 (C) 70.80 (D) 79.60

25

Solution: (D) is correct option

Ps=Pe1=0.5 pu

EV 1.5 1.0

Before fault Pm1 1.0 pu

X 1.5

During fault Pm2=0 pu

After the fault Pm3=1.0 pu

P

sin1 s 300

Pm1

30

0 (radians) 0.52 rad

180

P 0.5

max 180 sin1 s 180 sin1 150

0

Pm3 1

150

max (radians) 2.168 rad

180

P ( 0 ) Pm3 cos max

1 0.5(2.168 0.52) 1.0 cos150

0

Critical clearing angle c cos 1 s max cos

Pm3 1.0

c 79.450

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A synchronous generator is connected to an infinite bus through a loss less double circuit

transmission line. The generator is delivering 1.0 P.U power at a load angle at 300. When a

sudden fault reduces are peak power that can transmitted to 0.5 P.U. After clearance of fault

the peak power that can be transmitted becomes 1.5 per limit. Find the critical clearing angle

(A) 73.46 (B) 69.36 (C) 62.32 (D) 56.26

Q.2 A 50 Hz 3-phase generator is supplying 60% of man power to an infinite bus though a

reactive network. A fault occurs which will increase the reactance of the network between

the generator to the infinite bus to 400% of the original value. When the fault is cleared, the

maximum power that can be delivered is 80% of the original maximum value. Determine the

critical clearing angle for the condition described.

(A) 56.60 (B) 62.40 (C) 66.050 (D) 72.540

26

Q.3 The single line diagram of the power system is having a three phase fault at the point ‘P’.

The generator is delivering 1.0 P.U. power at the instant preceding the fault.

The Maximum power transfer before, during and fault in P.U. are

(A) 2.3, 0.82, 2.3 (B) 1.5, 0.82, 2.3

(C) 2.3, 0, 2.3 (D) 2.3, 0, 1.5

Q.4 A 50 Hz, 6 pole generator with H=4.0 pu delivers 1.0 pu to an infinite bus bar through a

network in which resistance is negligible, and is supplying 45% of its peak power capacity as

shown. A 3-phase fault occurs at the point ‘F’ of the outgoing radial line. Faulted line is cleared

by the opening of the line circuit breaker. Critical clearing time is

(A) 0.342 sec

(B) 0.278 sec

(C) 0.372 sec

(D) 0.226 sec

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Power System Stability.

Common Mistake:

Both M and H are inertia constants and the only way to distinguish between them is through

their units.

A 500 MW, 21 kV, 50 Hz, 3-phase, 2-pole synchronous generator having a rated p.f= 0.9, has

a moment of inertia of 27.5 X 103 # kg-m2 .The inertia constant (H ) will be

(A) 2.44 s (B) 2.71 s (C) 4.88 s (D) 5.42 s

Solution: (A) is correct option

Given Synchronous generator of 500 MW, 21 kV, 50 Hz, 3-φ, 2-pole, P.F = 0.9, Moment of

inertia M = 27.5 *103 kg-m2

Inertia constant H = ?

P 500 MW

Generator rating in MVA G 555.56 MVA

cos 0.9

120 f 120 50

N 3000 rpm

pole 2

27

2

1 1 2N 1 3 2 3000

stored K.E. = M2 M 27.5 10 MJ 1357.07 MJ

2 2 60 2 60

Stored Kinetic Energy

inertia cos tant (H)=

Rating of generator (MVA)

1357.07

H= 2.44 sec

555.56

Q.1 A 50Hz two pole turbo attenuator rated 50 MVA, 13.2 kv has an inertia constant

H = 5 MJ / MVA. The input less the rotational losses is 65,000 HP and the electrical power

developed is 40 Mw. Determine the angular acceleration in electrical deg/sec2 is

(A) 305.64 (B) 290.45 (C) 192.45 (D) 320.24

Q.2 A 2 pole, 50 Hz, 11KV turbo-generator has a rating of 60 MW, power factor 0.85 lagging.

Its rotor has a moment of inertia of 8800 kg-m2. The inertia constant in MJ per MVA and its

momentum in MJ-s/electrical degree respectively are?

(A)8.5149, 0.1447 (B)7.2376, 0.04825

(C)6.152, 0.01825 (D)6.152, 0.1447

a transformer and a line of total reactance of 0.6pu. The infinite bus-bar voltage is 1.0pu and

the generator no – load voltage is 1.2pu. The inertia constant is H=4 Mw-sec/MVA. The

resistance and machine damping may be assumed negligible. The system frequency is 50Hz.

The frequency of oscillations in Hz if the alternator is loaded to 50% of maximum power limit.

(A) 0.63 (B) 0.758 (C) 0.428 (D) 0.542

Q.4 A 100 MVA synchronous Generator operates on full load at a frequency of 50Hz. The

load is suddenly reduced to 50 Mw. Due to time lag in governor system the Steam value begins

to close after 0.4 seconds. Determine the change in frequency that occurs in this time. Given

H = 5 kw–S/kVA .

(A) 50.5 Hz (B) 50 Hz (C) 51.5 Hz (D) 52 Hz

Q.5 A power station consists of two synchronous generators A and B at rating 250MVA and

500MVA with inertia constant at 1.6 p.u and 1 p.u respectively on their own base MVA ratings.

The equivalent p.u inertia constant in the system on 100 MVA common base will be

(A) 2.6 p.u (B) 0.615 p.u (C) 1.625 p.u (D) 9 p.u

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Load Flow Study.

Common Mistake:

Number of non-zero off-diagonal elements in bus admittance matrix are double the number

of transmission lines in a power system network.

28

Sample problem 17:

The network shown in the given figure has impedances in p.u. as indicated. The diagonal

element Y22 of the bus admittance matrix YBUS of the network is

(A) −j19.8

(B) +j20.0

(C) +j0.2

(D) −j19.95

Solution: (D) is correct option

I1 = V1 Y11+ (V1 - V2 )Y12

= 0.05V1 - j10(V1 - V2 ) =- j9.95V1+ j10V2

I2 = (V2 - V1 )Y21+ (V2 - V3 )Y23

= j10V1 - j9.9V2 - j0.1V3

Y22 = Y11+ Y23+ Y2

=- j9.95 - j9.9 - 0.1j

=- j19.95

Sample problem 18:

For a power system the admittance and impedance matrices for the fault studies are as

follows.

j8.75 j1.25 j2.50 j0.16 j0.08 j0.12

Ybus j1.25 j6.25 j2.50 ; Z bus j0.08 j0.24 j0.16

j2.50 j2.50 j5.00 j0.12 j0.16 j0.34

The pre-fault voltages are 1.0 pu. at all the buses. The system was unloaded prior to the fault.

A solid 3-phase fault takes place at bus 2. The post fault voltages at buses 1 and 3 in per unit

respectively are

(A) 0.24, 0.63 (B) 0.31, 0.76 (C) 0.33, 0.67 (D) 0.67, 0.33

Solution: (D) is correct option

The post fault voltage at bus 1 and 3 are.

Pre fault voltage.

V1 100

Vbus V2 100

V3 100

At bus 2 solid fault occurs Z(f) = 0, r = 2

29

Vr0 V20

Fault current If

Zrr Z f Z 22 Z f

100

Zf 4 j

j0.24

V1 (f) = Vi0 - Z12I f = 100 -j0.08(-j4) = 1 - 0.32

V1 (f) = 0.68 pu

V3 (f) = V30 - Z 32I f = 100 -j0.16(-j4) = 1 - 0.64

V3 (f) = 0.36 pu

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A single line diagram of a power system is shown. The diagonal elements of the Y bus

matrix is

(A) j0.7 pu, j0.75 pu, j0.45pu

Q.2 The Reactance’s between the various buses in a power system are given in the table

below. Y22 and Y33 of YBUS are

Buses Reactance in p.u

1-2 0.1

1-4 0.2

2-3 0.25

2-4 0.5

3-1 0.4

4-3 0.5

(A) -j 0.85, -j 1.15 (B) -j 19, -j 30

(C) -j 0.65, -j 1.15 (D) -j 16, -j 8.5

30

Q.3 The power system network shown in figure, where bus numbers impedances are marked,

assuming equal R/X of impedances, find the bus impedance matrix element z22.

(A) 2.0 (B) 0.5

(C) 3.5 (D) 4.5

Q.4 The Ybus matrix of a 100-bus interconnected system is 90% sparse. Hence the number of

transmission lines in the system must be?

(A)450 (B)800 (C)1000 (D)600

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Load Flow Study.

Common Mistake:

These type of questions are based on basic power angle equation and performance

equations of short Transmission Line.

In the following network, the voltage magnitudes at all buses are equal to 1 pu, the voltage

phase angles are very small, and the line resistances are negligible. All the line reactance’s

are equal to j1ω

(A) ϴ2 =- 0.1, ϴ3 =- 0.2

(B) ϴ2 = 0 , ϴ3 =- 0.1

(C) ϴ2 = 0.1 , ϴ3 = 0.1

(D) ϴ2 = 0.1, ϴ3 = 0.2

Solution: (B) is correct option

0.1pu power must flow from slack bus to Bus3 so that demand at Bus 3 is satisfied and

therefore,

V1V3 1* 1

Power P13 sin( 1 3 ) sin(0 3 ) 0.1

X13 1

sin3 3

Therefore, 3 0.1rad

Since, no power flows from Bus1 to Bus2 so both must have same angles

Therefore, 2 0rad

31

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 Figure shows a 3-phase system supplied at 11 KV at ‘A’. The load currents are balanced

and the pf’s (all lagging) are with respect to supply voltage at ‘A’. The impedances shown are

per phase values. Voltage at load point ‘C’ is

(A) 9.93 KV

(B) 10.23 KV

(C) 10.66 KV

(D) 9.27 KV

Q.2 A simple power system has been shown in fig. all quantities are phasors VA = 10pv,

ZAB = j0.25 pv, SDA = 2.00 pu, SDB = 2.00 pu. If QGB is made as a zero, voltage VB is

(A) 0.27 30

(B) 0.5 40

(C) 0.834 30

(D) 0.707 45

Q.3 The station loads are equalized by the flow of power in the cable. The Generator can

generate a maximum of 20.0 pu real power.

(A) 0.638 pu (B) – 0.638 pu (C) 1.276 pu (D) 0

Q.4 For a 15 bus power system with 3 voltage controlled bus, the size of Jocobian Matrix is

(A) 11 x 11 (B) 12 x 12 (C) 24 x 24 (D) 25 x 25

Q.5 A 50Hz transmission line 300km long has a total series impedance of 40+j125 ohms and

a total shunt admittance of 10-3 mho. The receiving end load is 50MW at 220kv with 0.8

lagging power factor. Find the sending power with the short line approximating

(A) 52.15MW (B) 53.2MW (C) 52.58MW (D) 51.15MW

32

Type 19: Plug setting Multiplier

For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Power System Protection.

Common Mistake:

Remember to consider the relay setting while calculating Pick-up Current, it is not necessarily

equal to rated secondary current of Current Transformer.

The overcurrent relays for the line protection and loads connected at the buses are shown in

the figure.

0.14 Time Multiplier Setting

top

(Plug setting multiplier)0.02 1

The maximum and minimum fault currents at bus B are 2000 A and 500 A respectively.

Assuming the time multiplier setting and plug setting for relay RB to be 0.1 and 5A

respectively, the operating time of RB (in seconds) is ____________

(A)0.2267s (B)0.2356s (C)0.2145s (D)0.2148s

Solution: (A) is correct option

CT ratio = 500 5 100 : 1

PSM = 20

CT primary current 100

0.14 0.1

Top = = 0.2267 s

20 0.02 1

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A fault current of 2000A is passing on the primary side of a 400/5 CT. on the secondary

side of the CT an inverse-time over current relay is connected whose plug setting is set at

50%. The plug setting multiplier will be

(A) 25 (B) 50 (C) 10 (D) 30

33

Q.2 The rated secondary current of a current transformer (CT) is 5A. The plug setting of relay

connected to the secondary is 2.5 A. If the effective VA burden on the CT is 12 VA, then the

VA burden of the relay at 2.5 A plug setting is

(A) 0.75 A (B) 3 A (C) 6 A (D) 12 A

Q.3 An over-current relay, having a current setting of 12.5% is connected to a supply circuit

through a current transformer of ratio 400/5. The pick-up current value is?

(A)0.625A (B)10A (C)12.5A (D)15A

34

Answer Key

1 2 3 4 5

Type 1 A B C C B

Type 2 B

Type 3 B B B A B

Type 4 C A D B

Type 5 C B D A

Type 6 B D

Type 7 B B

Type 8 B C B A A

Type 9 A A B B

Type 10 B C C B B

Type 11 B B

Type 12 B B B D

Type 13 B A B C B

Type 14 C B A D

Type 15 B C D D

Type 16 A C B B D

Type 17 C D C A

Type 18 C D C D B

Type 19 C C C

35

Kreatryx

Subject Test

Power Systems

www.kreatryx.com

KST- General Instructions during Examination

2. The question paper consists of 2 parts. Questions 1-10 carry one mark each and Question 11-

20 carry 2 marks each.

3. The question paper may consist of questions of Multiple Choice Type (MCQ) and

4. Multiple choice type questions will have four choices against A, B, C, D, out of which

5. All questions that are not attempted will result in zero marks. However, wrong

answers for multiple choice type questions (MCQ) will result in NEGATIVE marks.

For all MCQ questions a wrong answer will result in deduction of 𝟏/𝟑 marks for a 1-mark

question and 𝟐/𝟑 marks for a 2-mark question.

1

Q.1 A generated station has a maximum demand of 30 MW, a load factor of 60% and plant

capacity factor of 50%. The reserve capacity of the plant is

(A) 5 MW (B) 4 MW

(C) 6 MW (D) 10 MW

Q.2 Consider a step voltage wave of magnitude 1 pu travelling along a loss less transmission

line that terminates in a reactor. The voltage magnitude across reactor at the instant the

travelling wave reaches the reactor is

(A) –1 pu

(B) 1pu

(C) 2 pu

(D) 3 pu

10030 , and bus 2 voltage is 1000 . The real and reactive supplied by bus 1,

respectively are

(C) 276.9 W, –56.7Var (D) –276.9 W, 56.7 Var

Q.4 Two power plants interconnected by a tie-line as shown in the above figure have loss

formula coefficient B11 = 10–3 MW–1. Power is being dispatched economically with plant ‘1’ as

100 MW and plant ‘2’ as 125 MW. The penalty factory for plants 1 and 2 are respectively.

(B) 1.25 and 1

(C) 1 and zero

(D) zero and 1

Q.5 A relay is connected to 400/5 CT and set at 150% with primary current of 2400 A, the plug

setting multiplier is ____________

Q.6 In a 14 – bus power system network, there are 5 voltage controlled buses. The size of the

Jacobian matrix useful for power flow analysis will be:

2

Q.7 Two alternators each having 4% speed regulation are working in parallel. Alternator ‘1’ is

rated for 12 MW and alternator ’2’ is rated for 8 MW when the total load is 10 MW the Loads

shared by alternators 1 and 2 would be respectively

(A) 4 MW and 6 MW (B) 6 MW and 4 MW

(C) 5 MW and 5 MW (D) 10 MW and zero

Q.8 A generator is connected to a transformer which feeds another transformer through a short

feeder (see. Fig.) The zero sequence impedance value are expressed in pu on a common base

and are indicated in fig. The venin equivalent zero sequence impedance at point B is

(A) 0.8 + j 0.6

Q.9 In the system shown in figure a three phase static capacitive reactor of reactance 1 P.U. per

Phase is connected through a switch at motor bus bar. The limit of steady state power, if the

switch is closed is

Q.10 A synchronous generator is connected to an infinite bus through a lossless double circuit

transmission line. The generator is delivering 1.0 PU power at a load angle of 30 º when a

sudden fault reduces peak power that can be transmitted to 0.5 P.U after clearance of fault, the

peck power that can be transmitted becomes 1.5 P.U. The critical clearing angle is

(C) 12.1 radians (D) 1.21 radians

3

Q.11 A three phase star-connected alternator is rated 30MVA, 13.8 KV and has following

sequence reactance values:

X1 0.25P.U , X2 0.35P.U , X0 0.10P.U

The neutral of alternator is solidly grounded. The alternator line currents when a double line-

ground fault occurs on its terminals (Assume Alternator is unloaded) will be

(A) 3.05 P.U (B) 2.37 P.U (C) 0.68 P.U (D) 4.81 P.U

Q.12 For a single circuit transmission line delivering a load of 45 MVA at 132kV and power

factor 0.8 lag. Has transmission line parameters as A = D = 0 0.99 ∠0.3 º, C = 4.0 10–4 × ∠90º ,

B = 70 ∠ 69º sending end line voltage is

(A) 87.46 KV (B) 76.21 KV (C) 151.5 KV (D) 178.6 KV

Q.13 A 10 MVA, 138 KV alternator has positive, negative and zero sequence reactance of 30%,

40% and 5% respectively. What reactance must be put in the generator so that the fault current

for a line to ground fault of zero fault impedance will not exceed the rated line current?

(A) 14.28 Ω (B) 12.38 Ω (C) 16.12 Ω (D) 10.08 Ω

Q.14 A 3 – unsymmetrical spaced transmission line configuration is shown below. What are

the values of interline capacitances C , C and Cac respectively in nF/km Radius of each

ab bc

conductor is 1 cm

(A) 2.101, 0.101, 1.902

(B) 8.404, 8.404, 7.606

(C) 4.202, 4.202, 3.803

(D) none of the above

Q.15 A 3 – bus power system is shown below. The inductance is having P.U. Reactance and

capacitance having P.U. susceptance. The Total self-admittances are

(A) J 3.8, j 5.7, j 8.5

4

Q.16 Synchronous generator rated as 60 MW, 0.8 pF lag 50 Hz, 4-pole has moment of Inertia of

30,000 kg- m2 . The Angular momentum in MJ-sec/Mech rad is.

(A)0.082 (B)0.041 (C)4.71 (D)2.35

Q.17 100 MVA, 11KV, 3-phase synchronous Generator is working at No load, rated voltage. The

positive sequence Sub-transient current of symmetrical fault on general terminal is 5.0 P.U. The

negative sequence reactance is 90% of positive sequence reactance and zero sequence

reactance is 20% of positive sequence reactance. The neutral of the general is solidity grounded.

The short circuit MVA of line to ground fault is.

(A)500 (B)238 (C)456 (D)715

Q.18 Two conductor cables 1km long loaded distribution system as shown in figure. Both ends

are 250v, at end ‘A’ current is 90A. If minimum allowable voltage to the consumer is 245 and

1.7 cm then the cross section of each conductor in cm2 is ________.

Q.19 At a 33kv, 50Hz bus a load of 30 Mw at 0.8 lagging power factor is connected to improve

the power factor to unity a synchronous phase modifier is connected across load which is taking

a real power of 5 MW. If the synchronous phase modifier is represented as a -connected lossy

capacitor bank where each lossy capacitor represented as an RC parallel network then what is R,

C values respectively.

(A) 217.8, 0.639F (B) 653.4, 0.213F

(C) 653.4 , 0.639F (D) 217.8, 0.213F

Q.20 A 60 Hz generator connected directly to an infinite bus operating at a voltage of 100 p.u.

has a synchronous reactance of 1.35p.u. The generator no load voltage is 1.1p.u. and its interia

constant H is 4 MJ/MVA. The generator is suddenly loaded to 60% its maximum power limit. The

frequency of the resulting oscillation of the generator rotor is

(A) 0.44 Hz (B) 0.55 Hz (C)0.88 Hz (D)5.5 Hz

5

Electrical Machines

Answer Key

1 C

2 220

3 1150

4 B

5 284

6 4.425-4.515

7 83-84

8 37.125-37.825

9 D

10 8.5-9

11 A

12 C

13 4

14 D

15 1050-1100

16 A

17 C

18 19.1

19 3.2-3.3

20 B

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