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Contents

Manual for K-Notes ................................................................................. 2


Transmission Lines .................................................................................. 3
Underground Cables ............................................................................. 14
Overhead Insulators .............................................................................. 16
Distribution Systems ............................................................................. 16
Per Unit System .................................................................................... 17
Load Flow Study .................................................................................... 18
Economic Power Generation ................................................................ 20
Fault Analysis ........................................................................................ 21
Power System Stability.......................................................................... 29
Power System Protection ...................................................................... 33

© 2014 Kreatryx. All Rights Reserved.

1
Transmission Lines
Skin Effect

It is tendency of AC current to be concentrated on the surface of conductor.


Cause: Non-uniform distribution of magnitude flux linkages Due to skin effect, the effective
area of cross section of conductor decrease and hence resistances increases.
In case of DC, There is no skin effect so
RDC  R AC
 With increase in frequency, skin effect increases.
 With increase in r , skin effect increases.
Inductance of a Transmission line

 Single Conductor
 0 r
Internal inductance
8
External inductance from distance ‘ d1 ’ to ‘ d2 ’
0r  d2 
Lex  ln  
2  d1 
0 r 0 r  d2 
Total inductance   ln  
8 2  r 
   d     d
 0 r ln  1   0 r ln  
2  re 4  2  r  
r  0.7788r = Geometric mean radius (GMR)

 Single phase 2 – wire line


 0 rd
Inductance of single wire  ln  
2  r  
Total inductance = L1  L2
0  d 
Lsys  ln  
  r 
If radius of both wire is not same, assume radius of 1st wire ra & that of second wire is rb

0  d 

Lsys  ln
  r r 
 a b 
ra  0.7788ra & rb  0.7788rb

If instead of a single conductor per phase we use multiple conductor, then GMR is
replaced by self GND (Geometric Mean Distance) and ‘d’ by mutual GMD.

3
Self GMD

1
self GMDfwd  D11 D12 ........D1n D21 D22 .........D2n  ....... Dn1 Dn2 ........Dnn  n2

Where Dii  ri  0.7788ri


1
Self GMDbwd  Di 1 ' '  
Di' 2' ........Di'm' .............. Dml' ' ................Dmm 
' '
 m2

Where Dii  ri  0.7788ri

Mutual GMD
1
Mutual GMD  D11' D12' ...........D1m'  ................. Dn1' Dn2' .................Dnm'  
mn

Now, with these terms all the inductance expressions change to


0  d 
Single wire : ln  
2  self GMD 

0  mutual GMD 
1  , 2 wire: ln  
2  Self GMD 

Three – phase Transmission line

Symmetrical configuration

0r  D 
Lph  ln  
2  r 

r  0.7788r

4
Asymmetrical configurations

If conductors are placed horizontally or vertically.


1
Deq  Dab  Dbc  Dca  3

0r  Deq 
Lph  ln  
2  r 

In case of bundled conductor, more than one conductor per phase


We replace Dab  Dabeq = mutual GMD between a phase & b phase

Similarly, Dbc  Dbceq

Dca  Dcaeq

In place of GMR, Self GMD is used


1

  Self GMD Self GMD 


Self GMD=  Self GMD
3
a b c

Example: Calculate inductance per phase of following circuit?

Between successive conductors, distance = 3m , Radius of each conductor = 1m


Solution
1
Dab eq  Da1b1 . Da1b2 . Da2b1 . Da2b2  4

1
 3  12  12  3 4
 6m
1
Dbc eq  3  6  6  3 4  4.24m
1
Dca eq   6  9  9  6  4  7.348m

Deq = mutual GMD


1
 Dab.eq  Dbc.eq  Dca.eq  3

= 5.71m

5
1
Self GMD   r  D
a a1a2
 Da2a1  r   4

0.7788  0.012  152 


1
4

= 0.341m
1
Self GMD   r  D
b b1b2
 Db2b1  r   4

= 0.2467m
1
Self GMD  r  D
c c1c2
 Dc2c1  r  4

= 0.1528m
1
Self GMD   Self GMD a Self GMD b Self GMD  c  3

= 0.2398m
0  GMD 
L ln  
2  GMD Self 

 5.71 
 2  10 7 ln    0.634mH / km
 0.2398 
Remember, Inductance calculated using these formulas is per unit length.

Transposition of Transmission line

The position of different lines are changed after regular intervals to reduce radio interference in
neighboring communication lines.

Capacitance
Single Phase 2 – Wire System
0 r
Cab 
 D 
ln  
 rr 
 12 
Line to neutral capacitance

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20 r 20 r
Can  , Cbn 
D  D 
ln   ln  
 r1   r2 
Three phase single conductor system
20 r
Cph 
 GMD 
ln  
 r 
For bundled conductors
20 0
Cph 
 GMD 
ln  
 Self GMD 
In capacitance calculations, it must always be remembered that there is no concept of r, we
simply use radius in calculating self GMD.
Performance of Transmission line
Classification of lines based on length

1) Short Line
l < 80 km or l*f < 4000 , Where f = frequency

2) Medium Line
80 km < l < 200 km
4000 < l*f < 10000

3) Long Line
l > 200 km
l*f > 10000

Modeling of transmission lines

Transmission lines are modeled as 2 – port network


Vs  AVR  BIR
Is  CVR  DIR

Under no load
Vs
IR  0 , Vs  AVR , VR 
A

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Vs
No Load Voltage  and IR  0 , Is  CVR
A

Vs
 VR
A
Voltage Regulation   100%
VR
This current is called as line charging current and is responsible for as effect is called as “Ferranti
Effect”.

Ferranti Effect
Under no-load or light load conditions receiving end voltage becomes more than sending end
voltage due to presence of line charging current.

Short transmission line

Vs  VR  IR R  jwL 

 VR  IR Z

 Vs  1 z   VR 
 I   0 1   I 
 s   R 

A = D (symmetrical)

AD – BC = 1 (reciprocal)

Approximate Voltage Regulation


For lagging pf
IR
VR=
VR
R cos  R
 X sin R 

load pf=cosR

For leading pf
IR
VR  R cos R  X sin R 
VR

8
Medium Transmission Line

Normal – T – Model

 YZ   YZ  
 1   Z 1  
 Vs   2   4    VR 
   
 Is    YZ    IR 
Y 1   
  2  

Here all problems are in actual values & not per unit length.

Nominal-π-Model

 YZ 
1 Z 
 Vs   2 V 
    R
 Is   Y  1  YZ  1  YZ   IR 
 4  2 
 

Long transmission Line

Vx  VR cosh X  IR Z c sinh x
VR
IR  IR cosh x  sinh x
Zc
Where Vx & I x are voltage and current at distance ‘x’ from receiving end.

R  jL
Zc  = surge impedance
G  jC

In case of long transmission line, we use all promoters’ per-unit length.


For loss less line, R=G=0
L
Zc 
C
For distribution less line, RC = LG
For sending end, x = l
Vs  VR cosh l  IR Z c sinh l

VR
Is  IR coshl+ sinh l
Zc

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cosh l Z c sinh l
 Vs     VR 
  1  
 Is   Z cosh l   IR 
 c


A = D (symmetric)
AD - BC = 1 (reciprocal)
Power Transfer Equation

Vs Vr A
cos      Vr cos    
2
Pr 
B B

Vs Vr A
sin      Vr sin    
2
Qr 
B B

For Short TL

B  Z   B  Z ; 

A  10  A   A  1, =0
2
Vs Vr Vr
Pr  cos       cos 
Z Z
2
Vs Vr Vr
Qr  sin       sin 
Z Z

If resistance of line is neglected

Z  jX  X and   900

2
Vs Vr Vs Vr Vr
Pr  sin ; QR = cos  
X X X

Remember, the last expression can be applied between any two bases in a power system as long
as transmission line connecting them is loss less.

Wave Propagation

Due to continuous energy transfer between L & C elements of a transmission line we consider
energy propagation from sending to receiving end & hence wave propagation.
Z c = Surge impedance or characteristic impedance.

10
γ = Propagation constant.

 R  jL G  jC 


For loss less line
R=G=O

  j LC
    j

 = attenuation constant
 = phase constant

In case of loss less line   0 (no attenuation)

   LC
1
Velocity of wave  , Where L & C are per unit length
LC
2 2
Wavelength   
  LC

Surge Impedance Loading

When load impedance = surge impedance

Vr(L
2
L)
PL  = Surge Impedance Loading
ZC

If ZL  ZC
VR  IR Z C

According to long line

VX  VR coshx+VR sinhx  2VRex


So no term containing e yx & hence no reflected wave & hence whenever surge impedance is
connected at load, there is no reflection.

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Surge Traversal

Theremin equivalent circuit

When surge voltage ‘ V ’ is induced on the line & line can be represented as Theremin
equivalent circuit shown.
ZC = Characteristic impedance of line

ZL = load impedance or characteristics impedance of second

line connected in series to first.


 ZL 
Transmitted voltage V2  2V   potential divider 
 ZL  Z C 
Incident Voltage V1  V

Reflected voltage  V
V  V  V2 [Voltage continuity]

 Z  ZC 
V  V  L 
 ZL  Z C 
V V V
Reflected current   , Refracted current   2 , Incident current 
ZC ZL ZC

V  ZL  Z C
Reflection coefficient: 
V ZL  Z C

V2 2ZL
Refraction coefficient: 
V ZL  Z C

Voltage Control

 Usually in case of lagging loads, the voltage at receiving end falls below sending end voltage
and to boost the receiving end voltage we connect a shunt capacitor at receiving end.
 Similarly, in case of leading loads, receiving end voltage is higher than sending end voltage
so we connect a shunt reactor to avoid over-voltage.
Usually in GATE, we need to calculate rating of capacitor for voltage control & it is illustrated
through a question shown below:

12
Example: A three phase overhead lines has a resistance & reactance of 5 & 20 respectively.
The load at receiving end is 30MW, 0.85 pf lagging at 33kv & we connect a compensating
equipment at receiving end to maintain voltage at each end equal to 33 Kv. Find rating of
compensating equipment?
Solution:
Assuming base (MVA) = 30 MVA
Base voltage = 33 kv
30Mw
pu power =  1pu
30MVA
V2
Base impedance =  36.3
S
5  j20
pu impedance =   0.56875.960
36.3
2
VS VR VR
PR 
Z
cos      
Z
cos   Z  0.568 ; =75.96 0 
11 12
1 cos  75.96     cos75.96  cos  75.96     0.81
0.568 0.568

  40.110

VS VR VR 1 1 12
QR  sin       sin   sin  75.96  40.11   sin75.96
Z Z 0.568 0.568

QR = - 0.645 pu

QL  PL tan   1  tan  cos1 0.85 

QL = 0.6197 pu

QR  QL  QC  QC  1.2647pu

QC  1.2647  30 = 37.9 MVAR

So, we can observe the steps involved


Step – 1 : Calculate  from PL as capacitor does not consume any real power.

Step-2 : Calculate QR using  calculated above

Step-3 : QR  QL  QC than Calculate QC

13
Power Factor Correction

Usually, to improve the supply side power factor we connect a capacitor device like capacitor
bank or synchronous condenser (synchronous motor under over excited condition).
Suppose, initially a load of real power P1 & lagging pf cos 1 is connected & we want to
improve pf to cos 2 lagging  2  1  & we connect a capacitive device which consumes real
power PC  & thus net real power after connection.

P2  P1  PC

Q2  P2 tan 2 ; Q1  P1 tan 1

QC  P1 tan 1  P2 tan 2

In case of capacitor bank, PC  0  P1  P2

If we wish to calculate capacitance per phase


(in both voltage control & pf correction )
QC
QC  3CVph
2
 C
3Vph
2

Underground Cables
Insulation resistance
 R 
R ln   
2l  r 

L = length of cable
R = Outer radius (sheath radius)
R = conductor radius

Capacitance Model

CC : Core capacitance
CS : Core to sheath capacitance

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Capacitance per phase
Cph  CS  3CC

Calculating CS & CC

1) Any of two cores or conductors are connected to


sheath & capacitance is measured between remaining
core & sheath.

C1  CS  2CC

2) All three cores are connected together & capacitance is


measured between any core & sheath.
C2  3CS
C2
CS 
3
C2
2CC  C1 
3
C C 
CC   1  2 
 2 6 

3C1 C2
Cph  CS  3CC  
2 6

3) Any one of core is connected to sheath & capacitance is


measured between remaining 2 cores.

3CC CS
C3  
2 2

Cph  2C3

15
Dielectric loss in a UG cable

P  3Cph Vph
2
tan 

where tan   loss tangent

1
tan  
cphR

R = Insulation resistance

Overhead Insulators
For suspension type string insulator, the model for 3-discs looks like as shown.
C
Let m  m
CS
V2  V1 1  m
V3  V1 1  m2  3m
The voltage of disc nearest to the conductor is highest.
string voltage
String efficiency 
No. of discs  voltage across bottom disc


V
1
 V2  V3   100%
3  V3

Distribution Systems
 Sources fed from both ends
1) Assume I A from VA
2) Calculate I A from
VA  VB   I A  I1  r1   I A  I1  I2  r2   I A  I1  I2  I3  r3
3) Substitute I A in  I A  I1  ,  I A  I1  I2  &  I A  I1  I2  I3  & check for sign change.
4) Node for minimum potential = Node for sign change
5) Calculate minimum potential by KVL
Example: Refer Kuestion power systems for that.

16
Per Unit System
In pu system, energy quantity is expressed as a ratio of some based value.

Absolute value or Actual value


pu value=
Base value
Percentage value = pu value x 100%
Base value
1 -  System
 Sbase , Vbase , Ibase , Zbase
 Out of these, 2 value must be known, to convert entire system into pu system.
 Sbase  Vbase  Ibase
Sbase Vbase Vbase
2

Ibase  , Z base  
Vbase Ibase Sbase
 Usually, we assume Sbase & Vbase as known.

3 -  System

 Sbase & Vbase are assumed


Sbase
 Ibase 
3  Vbase
Vbase = line to line voltage
Sbase = 3 – phase power
 For start connection
V ph Vbase / 3 Vbase 2
Z base  base  
Ibase ph Ibase Sbase
 For delta connection
V ph Vbase 3V 2
Z base  base   base
Ibase ph Ibase / 3 Sbase

In per unit system, equivalent impedance of transformer referred to primary or


secondary in same.

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Change of base

If base of system is changed from Vbase  old , Sbase  old  to Vbase new  ,Sbase new 

2
 V  old   Sbase new  
Zpu new   Zpu  old    base   
 Vbase new    Sbase  old  

Load Flow Study


Power System Matrices

 YBUS matrix

 y10  y12  y12 0 


YBUS    y12 y 20  y12  y 23  y 23 
 0  y 23 y 23  y 30 

OBSERVATIONS

1) The diagonal elements are sum of all admittance connected to that particular bus.
2) The off-diagonal elements are negative of admittance connected between two buses.
3) If two buses are not connected to each other than that elements is zero.
4) YBUS Matrix is a symmetrical matrix.
5) Most of the elements are zero & hence it is a sparse matrix.
Total number of zero elements
% sparsity =
Total number of elements

 ZBUS matrix

ZBUS   YBUS 
1

 ZBUS matrix used in fault analysis.


 Suppose a 3 – phase SC fault occurs on bus ‘k’ then fault current
Vprefault ,k
If 
Zkk  Z f
Vprefault , k  Pr e  fault voltage at bus 'k'
Zkk = elements of ZBUS matrix.
Z f = fault impedance
 Due to fault voltage at other buses are also affected.

18
 V1   I1 
    0
.  .   
.  .  0
    . 
 Vk   Ik   
.
.    Z  .   V    ZBUS   
   BUS    BUS I
.  .   f
    . 
 Vn   In   
    . 
     0 
   

Vk  If Zkk


Vf
If   Z  0
Zkk f
 
Vj  Z jk I"f
Z jk
Vj  Vf
Zkk

 Post – fault voltage at bus j


Z jk
Vjf  Vj  V
Zkk f
If there is generator connected to bus ‘ j ’ then current supplied by generator.
Eg  Vjf
I
jX"d

Classification of buses
At each bus, there are 4 parameter: V , ,P,Q .
At any bus, out of these 4 quantities any 2 are specified.

1) Slack Bus / Swing Bus/Reference Bus

V ,  are know quantities.


P, Q are unknown quantities.
Any extra power needed by the system is supplied by slack bus.
2) Generator Bus / PV Bus
P, V is specified
Q,  are unspecified

19
3) Load Bus / PQ Bus
P & Q are constant as specified
V &  are unknown
Generally, newton – Raphson method is used for load flow solution and we form Jacobian
matrix, & the order of Jacobian matrix is
2n  m  2  2n  m  2
N = no. of total buses
M = no. of pv buses

Economic Power Generation


 Incremental cost
If is cost required to generate an additional unit of energy.
 IC i = Incremental cost of ith generator
Ci
 IC i 
PGi
PGi = Power generated by ith generator
Ci = cost of ith generator

 Transmission Loss
m m
PL    PP
i jBij
i 1 j 1

Pi , Pj : Real power injection at i & j buses


th th

B ij = loss coefficient
m : no. of generator units

Penalty Factor

1
Li 
 P 
 1  L 
 PGi 

For economic power sharing


 IC i Li  cons tant
 Constant is called as incremental cost of system.
  IC i = incremental cost ith unit
 L i = penalty factor of ith unit

20
 From this expression, for m generator we get ( m – 1) equation and mth equation is
m

P
i 1
Gi  PD  PLOSS

PD = total power demand


For example, refer kuestions on Power systems.

Fault Analysis
Symmetrical Components

For an unbalanced 3 – phase system, the analysis is done better by means of symmetrical
components.
Va0  Zero sequence components

Va1  Positive sequence components

Va2  Negative sequence components

 Va0  1 1 1   Va 
  1   0

 Va1   3 1  2   Vb  ; Where   e j120


V  1 2    Vc 
 a2  
Vs   A Vp 
1

Vp = phase voltage
Vs = Symmetrical component
1 1 1
 
A  1  2 
1   2 

Power in terms of symmetrical components
P  3  Va1 Ia1  Va2 Ia2

 Va3 Ia0



Remember, same transformation exist for current also.


Sequence Network

Alternators

 Positive Sequence Network

Z1 positive sequence impedance


Z1  jX"d

21
 Negative Sequence Network

Va2  Ia2 Z2
Z 2 : Negative sequence impedance
 X d " X q " 
Z2  j  
 2 

 Zero Sequence Network

Va0  Ia0  Z0  3Zn 


Z 0 = Zero sequence impedance
Z n =Neutral impedance (  in case of delta)
Z0  jXl
X l = leakage reactance

Transformers

 Positive Sequence Network

Z1 = Positive sequence impedance

Z1  jXl

 Negative Sequence Network

Z 2 = Negative sequence impedance

Z2  jXl

 Zero sequence network

Depending upon scheme of connection, we close series or shunt connection & method
of grounding.

22
Shunt connection are closed for delta connection & series connection are closed for star
connection with grounded neutral. If primary & secondary are inter changed then circuit
becomes mirror image.

 Case – 1

If neutral is grounded through an impedance Z n

Z 0  Z T0  3Zn

 Case – 2

 Case – 3

 Case – 4

23
 Case – 5

Transmission Lines

 Positive Sequence Network

 Negative Sequence Network

 Zero Sequence Network

Z1  Z2  Zs  Zm

Z0  Zs  2Zm

Z s = Self impedance

Zm = mutual impedance

Remembers, all sequence networks are always drawn in per unit & never in actual values.

Fault Analysis
The following short circuit faults are considered
1. LG (Single Line to ground fault)
2. LL (Line to line fault)
3. LLG (Line to Line to Ground fault)
4. 3-phase short circuit fault.

24
3-phase short circuit fault comes under the category of symmetrical SC fault whereas other 3
faults are called as unsymmetrical SC fault.

Order of severity
LG < LL < LLG < 3 -  SC

But if faults occur at terminal of alternator then LG fault is most severe.

Occurrence of SC fault

LG > LL > LLG > 3 -  SC

Transient on a Transmission line

Equivalent Circuit

i  t   it  iss

Vm Rt
V
sin      e L  m sin  wt     


Z Z

 L 
 
2
  tan1   ; Z  R  L
2

 R 

Maximum momentary current

2Vm
imm  sin     
Z

If resistance is neglected,   900

2Vm
imm  cos 
Z

Short circuit model of a synchronous machine

During initial SC period for 1-2 cycles, current are induced in field & damper winding of machine
so reactance at least & called as sub transient reactance  X d "

After initial sub-transient period, current in damper winding in reduced to zero, and this period
is called as transient period & reactance of machine is called as Transient Reactance  X d "

25
Finally, when current in field winding is also reduced to zero, we enter steady state period &
reactance is called as steady state reactance  Xd  .

Xd "  X d '  X d

Symmetrical Fault Analysis

 We replace alternators by an emf source in series with sub transient reactance and emf
source under no-load is usually 100 pu or terminal voltage in pu.
V 00
Ef  t pu
Vbase
 Transformer & Transmission lines are replaced by reactance.
 The equivalent circuit can be solved either by finding thevenin equivalent across fault or
by simple network analysis & fault in SC is calculated.

Ef
If 
Z eq  Z f

Z f = fault impedance.

 In symmetrical fault analysis, we only consider positive sequence impedance.


1
 SC MVA   pu
Zeq  Z f

 SC MVA  
MVA base MVA
Zeq  Z f

For example, refer to kuestion on power systems.

Selection of Circuit Breakers

 Usually, circuit breakers are selected on the basis of most severe fault which is 3 – phase
SC fault.
 Three ratings of circuit Breakers are important.

1) Rated momentary current


Momentary current ( rms ) = 1.6  Isc
Isc is symmetrical SC current which we calculated in previous section.

2) Making current
Making current = 2.54  Isc

26
3) Symmetrical Interrupting Current
We need to recalculate Isc by using sub-transient reactance for alternators & transient
reactance for synchronous motors. Induction motors & other loads are neglected.

Then, we multiply it by a factor to calculate symmetrical interrupting current. This factor


depends on speed of circuit breakers which is measured in terms of numbers of cycles it takes to
operate.

Speed Factor
8 Cycles or slower 1.0
5 Cycles 1.1
3 Cycles 1.2
2 Cycles 1.3

Unsymmetrical Faults Analysis

 Line to Ground Fault

We first draw equivalent positive, negative & zero sequence networks & calculate thevenin
impedance across fault terminals from each network.

Assuming equivalent positive, negative & zero sequence reactance are Z1 , Z 2 & Z 0
respectively.

Here all sequence currents are equal.

Ia1  Ia2  Ia0

Ea
Ia1 
Z1  Z 2  Z 0  3Z f

Fault current I a

Ia  3Ia1

3  Ea
Ia 
Z1  Z 2  Z 0  3Z f

Short Circuit MVA

SC MVA   3Ea1 , I a1 *

27
3 Ea1 I2

Z1  Z 2  Z 0  3Z f

3
In pu SC MVA   pu
Z1  Z 2  Z 0  3Z f

3 MVA base
 MVA
Z1  Z 2  Z 0  3Z f

 Line to Line Fault

Here, we calculate equivalent positive & negative sequence impedance Z1 & Z 2 respectively.

Ea
Ia1 
Z1  Z 2  Z f

Fault current

 j 3  Ea
Ib 
Z1  Z 2  Z f

Short Circuit MVA

3
SC MVA   pu
Z1  Z 2  Z f

3 MVA base
 MVA
Z1  Z 2  Z f

 Line to Line to Ground Fault

Ea
Ia1 
Z1  Z 2  Z 0  3Z f  
I  Z2
Ia0  a1
 Z2  Z0 
Fault Current = 3  Iao

28
Short Circuit MVA

3
SC MVA   pu
Z1   Z 2  1 3Z f  Z 0  

3 MVA base
 MVA
Z1   Z 2  Z 0  3Z f 
Remember, all fault analysis will be done in pu system.

Power System Stability


Two types of stability are studied:

1) Steady State Stability


2) Transient Stability

Steady State Stability

For Steady State Stability


dP
0
d
And for this condition to be true.
Pe  Pmax
If power demand is greater than maximum demand than machine goes out of synchronous.
E V
For a loss less machine, Pmax 
XS
Transient Stability
Swing Equation

Md2 
 Pm  Pe 
dt2
M = inertia constant ( MJ-S / elect - rad)
Pm= mechanical input (MW)
Pe = electrical output (MW)
 = rotor angle
Another Form

H d2 
 Pm  Pe 
f dt2
H = inertia constant ( MJ / MVA)
Pm & Pe both are in pu

29
GH
M (MJ – S / elect - deg)
180f
GH
M (MJ – S / elect - rad)
f
G = machine rating (MVA)
 If two alternators are swinging coherently. Then they can be replaced by a single
alternator having
Meq  M1  M2
But “ H “ cannot be added directly, they must first be on same base.
 If machines are not swinging coherently, then
M1M2
Meq 
M1  M2

 Accelerating Power,
Pa  Pm  Pe 
In steady state Pm  Pe
In transient, Pm  Pe so rotor accelerate or decelerate.

Equal area criterion

For system to possess transient stability


 Pad  0
There are basically 3 stages in stability analysis

 Before Fault
We say maximum power transferrable is Pmax,1
& Pe  Pmax,1 sin 

 During fault
We say maximum power transferrable is Pmax,2
Pe  Pmax,2 sin 

 After Fault
We say maximum power transferrable is Pmax,3
Pe  Pmax,3 sin 

30
Critical clearing angle

It is the maximum value of  beyond which if the fault is cleared system will be unstable. The
time instant corresponding to this angle is called as critical clearing time assuming fault occurs
at t = 0.

Case-1 : Fault occurs on TL near to bus

Pmax,2  0
Pmax,3  Pmax,1
Cr  clearing angle
By equal area criteria
2

 Pm  Pmax,1 sin  d  0


0

 P 
0  sin1  m 
 Pmax,1 
For critical clearing 2  max

max    0

2H  Cr  0 
tCr  = Critical Clearing Time
f Pm

Case-2 : Fault occurs on one of parallel lines close to bus

Before Fault

E V
Pmax,1 
Xg   X1 X2 

During Fault

E V
Pmax,2  0
Xeq

After Fault

E V
Pmax,3 
Xg  X1

31
 P 
0  sin1  m

 Pmax,1 
 

 P 
max    sin1  m

 Pmax,3 
 

For transient stability


2

 Pad  0
0

c 2

 Pm  0  d   Pm  Pmax,3 sin   d  0


0 c

For critical Clearing

2  max

2H  Cr  0 
tCr 
f Pm

Case-3 : Fault occurs in middle of one of parallel lines

The equivalent reactance during the fault is highest and thus Pmax,2 is lowest

Pmax,1  Pmax,3  Pmax,2

2

 Pad  0
0

c 2

 Pm  Pmax,2 sin d   Pmax,3 sin  Pm  d


0 c

For critical clearing,

 P 
2  max    sin1  m 
 Pmax,3 
 

32
cr  cos 1 
P
m  max  0   Pmax,3 cos max  Pmax2 cos 0 
 Pmax3  Pmax2 
 

 This is a generic formula and can be applied to other two cases as well after substituting
value of Pmax,1 , Pmax,2 & Pmax,3 .
 But tcr can only be calculated from cr in previous two cases using expression written
before.

Power System Protection


 In our current protection, normally a current transformer is connected between
protected elements and the relay.
Plug setting multiplier (PSM)
Fault current

 T ratio  Pick  up current 
Usually pick up current = Relay setting x Rated secondary current of CT
Pick-up current is minimum current above which a relay operates.

 Differential Relays

The current through operating coil  k  I1  I2 


If this current is greater than pick-up current then
it operates, else it does not operates.
K I1  I2  Ipick up  Trip 
K I1  I2  Ipick up Block 

 We usually provide a restraining coil to avoid relay mal-operation.

Relay operates if
 Nr I1  I2 
K I1  I2  K   Ipu
 N0 2 

Ipu = pick up current


Nr = Number of turns in restraining coil
N0 = Number of turns in operating coil
The ratio operating coil current & restraining coil current is called as bias of differential
relay.

33
Protection of Transmission line

1) Mho relay is at least affected by power surges& thus it is used for protection of long
transmission lines. It is inherently directional.
2) Impedance relay is used for protection of medium transmission lines.
3) Reactance relay is unaffected by ground resistance & hence used for earth fault
protection & also for short transmission Lines.
 These relays are collectively called as distance relays.

Protection of Transformers

 Differential relays are used for protection of large transformers and CT are always
connected in configuration opposite to power transformer.
Example: 1) If power transformer is   Y then CT is Y  
: 2) If power transformer is    then CT is Y  Y
 Buccholz relay used to prevent any incipient fault below oil level in a transformer of small
KVA.

34
Kuestion

Power Systems

www.kreatryx.com
Contents
Manual for Kuestion ........................................................................... 2
Type 1: Capacitance and inductance ................................................... 3
Type 2: SIL loading .............................................................................. 4
Type 3: ABCD parameter ..................................................................... 5
Type 4: Surges ..................................................................................... 7
Type 5: Voltage control ....................................................................... 8
Type 6: Power factor correction ....................................................... 10
Type 7: UG cable ............................................................................... 11
Type 8: Overhead Insulators ............................................................. 12
Type 9: Distribution Systems............................................................. 14
Type 10: Economic Dispatch ............................................................. 15
Type 11: Per unit system ................................................................... 18
Type 12: Symmetrical Components .................................................. 20
Type 13: Fault Analysis ...................................................................... 22
Type 14: Thevenin Impedance .......................................................... 24
Type 15: Power System Stability ....................................................... 25
Type 16: Swing equation ................................................................... 27
Type 17: Power System Matrices ...................................................... 28
Type 18: Load flow Solution .............................................................. 31
Type 19: Plug setting Multiplier ........................................................ 33
Answer Key ....................................................................................... 35

© 2014 Kreatryx. All Rights Reserved.

1
Type 1: Capacitance and inductance
For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Transmission Lines

Common Mistake:
While calculating capacitance we do not use GMR but rather the radius of conductor, so this
is the basic difference in Inductance and Capacitance calculation.

Sample problem 1:
The conductor of a 10km long, single phase, two wire line are separated by a distance of 1.5m.
The diameter of an each conducting is 1cm. If the conductors are of copper, the induction of
the circuit is?
(A)50.0mH (B)45.3mH (C)23.8mH (D) 19.6mH
Solution: (C) is correct option
Inductor of a single phase circuit with copper conductors
d
Lab  2La  2  0.2  ln( )
r
Given d=1.5m, r=0.5cm, r=0.7788  0.5  10-2m
 1.5 
L ab  0.4ln  2 
mH / km
 0.7788  0.5  10 
L ab  2.38mH / km
For 10km length of the line
Lab =23.8 mH

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 Single phase concentric cable 5 km long has a capacitance of 0.2 F per km, the relative
permeability of the dielectric being 3.5. the diameter of the inner conductor is 1.5 cm and the
supply voltage is 66 kv at 50 Hz. Calculate the inner diameter of outer conductor
(A) 3.9 cm (B) 1.95 cm (C) 3.2 cm (D) 1.6 cm
Q.2 A double circuit 3-phse transmission line is shown below. The conductor a ,aI ; b,bI and
c,cI belong to the same phase respectively. The radius of each conductor is 1.5 cm. Find the
inductance of the double circuit line in mH /km /phase.
(A) 0.191
(B) 0.455
(C) 0.755
(D) 0.95

3
Q.3 A 3 – phase double circuit line is shown in
the figure. The diameter of each conductor is
2 cm. Determine the capacitance per km length
of the line, assume that the line is transposed.
(A) 0.011 F
(B) 0.015 F
(C) 0.0192 F
(D) 0.0175 F

Q.4 . Fig. shows the spacing’s of a double circuit 3-phase overhead line. The phase sequence
is ABC and the line is completely transposed. The conductor radius is 0.75 cm each.
Inductance per phase per km is
(A) 0.462 mH

(B) 0.737 mH

(C) 0.623 mH

(D) 0.589 mH

Q.5 A single phase 60 Hz transmission line and a telephone line both are supported on a
horizontal cross-arm in the same horizontal plane. The spacing between transmission line
conductors is 2.5m and conductors of the telephone line are of solid copper spaced 0.6m
between centres. The distance between the nearest conductors of the two lines is 20cm. A
current of 150 A is flowing over the power line. The value of mutual inductance between the
circuit is?
(A)0.01 mH/km (B)0.00067 mH/km
(C)0.0046 mH/km (D)0.00033 mH/km

Type 2: SIL loading


For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Transmission Lines

Common Mistake:
While calculating SIL if we are using standard formula then we need to consider Line to Line
Voltage and if we use phase voltage we need to multiply the formula by a factor of 3.

Sample problem 2:
A loss less transmission line having Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) of 2280 MW is provided
with a uniformly distributed series capacitive compensation of 30%. Then, SIL of the
compensated transmission line will be
(A) 1835 MW (B) 2280 MW (C) 2725 MW (D) 3257 MW
Solution: (C) is correct option

4
Let characteristic impedance
 impedance / km   Z sc  1
Zc         1 pu
 admit tance / km  Z
 oc  1
Given that for line 30% series capacitive compensation is provided. Hence the series
impedance of line is 0.7 or 70% of original value.
0.7
 Znew   0.836 pu
1.0
V2
Surge imedance loading (SIL)=
Zc
1 (SIL)2 Z c1
SIL   
Zc (SIL)1 Z c2
1.0
(SIL)2   2280M  2725 MW
0.836

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 The L/C ratio for 132KV and 400KV lines are typically 160*103 and 62.5*103 respectively.
The neutral 3-phase loading for the two line will be respectively?
(A) 44 MW and 2500 MW (B) 44 MW and 640 MW
(C) 6400 MW and 44 MW (D) 108.9 MW and 2560 MW

Type 3: ABCD parameter


For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Transmission Lines

Common Mistake:
While using Transmission Parameters the voltages used should be per phase and not line to
line voltages.

Sample problem 3:

The generalized circuit constants of a 3-phase, 220kV rated voltage, medium length
transmission line are
A  D  0.936  j0.016  0.9360.980
B  35.5  j138  142.076.4 0 
C  ( 5.18  j914 )  10 6 
If the load at the receiving end is 50 MW at 220 kV with a power factor of 0.9 lagging, then
magnitude of line to line sending end voltage should be
(A) 133.23 kV (B) 220.00 kV (C) 230. 78 kV (D) 246.30kV
Solution: (C) is correct option

5
Power received by load =50MW
Current at receiving end = 3Vr Ir cos 
50  106
Ir   145.79A
3  220  103  0.9
Ir  145.79  25.84 0  cos=0.9  =25.84 0 
 220 
Vs  AVr  BIr  0.9360.980     10  14.276.4  145.79  25.84  133.2467.77 KV
3 0 0 0

 3 

Line to line sending end voltage = 3  133.2467.770 KV  230.787.770 KV


Magnitude of line to line sending end voltage =230.78KV

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A 200km 3-phase 50Hz transmission line has the following data
A  D  0.9381.20
B  131.272.30  /phase
C  0.001900 /phase
The sending end voltage is 230KV. The receiving end voltage is maintained as 220 kv . The
maximum power that can be transmitted and the correspond reactive power.
(A) 233.8Mw, 311 MVAR (B) 233.8Mw, - 311 MVAR
(C) 311Mw, 233.8MVAR (D) 311Mw – 233.8 MVAR
Q.2 A 50Hz, 3-phase transmission line is 200 km long has total series impedance of (35 + j 140)
ohms / phase and a shunt admittance of 930 x 10-6 90 Mhos / phase. It delivers a load of
40Mw at 220 kv with 0.9 p.f. lag. Find the magnitude of sending voltage for line to line in kv.
(A) 232.4 (B) 229.8 (C) 227.6 (D) 236.5
Q.3 The generalized circuit constants of a nominal  circuit representing a 3-phase
transmission line are A = D = 0.98 0.3, B = 0.25 76 ohm, C = 0.005 90 mho, The two
terminal voltages are held constant at 110 kV. If shunt admittance and the series resistance
are zero, steady state stability limit is(MW)
(A) 111.18 (B) 151.25 (C) 146.67 (D) 114.66
Q.4 A short 3–phase transmission line with an impedance of (6 + j8) Ohms per phase has
sending and receiving end voltages of 120 kV and 110 kV respectively for some receiving end
load at a point of 0.9 lagging. The sending end power factor is
(A) 0.88 lag (B) 0.8 lag (C) 0.84 lag (D) 0.78 lag

6
Q.5 Two identical 3-phase transmission lines are connected in parallel to supply a load of
100MW at 132 KV and 0.8 pf lagging at the receiving-end. The constants of each
transmission line are as follows;
A  0.9810 ,B  100750  / phase
What are the values of constant A and B for the combined network?
(A) A  1.9610 ,B  200750  (B) A  0.9810 ,B  50750 
(C) A  10010 ,B  0.98750  (D) A  0.9810 ,B  100750 

Type 4: Surges
For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Transmission Lines

Common Mistake:
If a line is terminated in characteristic impedance then there is no reflection so you need not
solve the entire problem if you encounter such a case.

Sample problem 4:
A surge of 20 kV magnitude travels along a lossless cable towards its junction with two
identical lossless overhead transmission lines. The inductance and the capacitance of the
cable are 0.4 mH and 0.5 μF per km. The inductance and capacitance of the overhead
transmission lines are 1.5 mH and 0.015 μF per km. The magnitude of the voltage at the
junction due to surge is
(A) 36.72 kV (B) 18.36 kV (C) 6.07 kV (D) 33.93 kV
Solution: (A) is correct option
Surge impedance of cable
L
Z1  L=0.4 mH/km , C=0.5F/km
C
0.4  10 3
  28.284 
0.5  10 6
surge impedance of overhead transmission line
L
Z2  Z3  ; L=1.5 mH/km , C=0.015F/km
C
1.5  10 5
  316.23
0.015  10 6
Now the magnitude of voltage at junction due to surge is being given by as
2  V  Z 2 2  20  103  316.23
V    36.72KV
Z 2  Z1 316  28.284

7
Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A 132 kv transmission line AB is connected to a cable BC. The characteristic impedances
of the overhead line and the cable are 400  and 80  respectively. Assume that these are
purely resistive A 250 kv switching surge travels from A to B. The value of the reflected
component of this surge when two first reflection reaches A
(A) 83.34 kv (B) 166.67 kv (C) – 166.67 kv (D) 83.34 kv
Q.2 The ends of two long transmission lines A and C are connected by a cable B. The surge
impedances of A,B and C are 500, 70 and 600 ohms respectively. A rectangular voltage wave
of 20 KV magnitude and of infinite length is initiated in ‘A’travels to ‘C’. Second impressed
voltage on ‘C’ is
(A) 14.1 KV (B) 8.8 KV (C) 3.5 KV (D) 5.3 KV
Q.3 A surge f 100KV travelling in a line of natural impedance 600Ω arrives at a junction with
two lines of impedance 800Ω and 200Ω respectively. What is the value of surge voltage?
(A)42.09KV (B)43.76KV (C)45.98KV (D)42.04KV
Q.4 What is the first impressed surge voltage and currents into line-3 from following network

(A)38.96 KV, 155.8 A


(B)155.84 KV, 623.4 A
(C)77.92 KV, 31.17 A
(D)311.68 KV, 1246.8 A

Type 5: Voltage control


For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Transmission Lines

Common Mistake:
It is always easier to solve these type of problems in pu system rather than actual values.

Sample problem 5:
A 3-phase 11 kV generator feeds power to a constant power unity power factor load of
100MW through a 3-phase transmission line. The line-to line voltage at the terminals of the
machine is maintained constant at 11 kV. The per unit positive sequence impedance of the
line based on 100 MVA and 11 kV is j0.2. The line to line voltage at the load terminals is
measured to be less than 11 kV. The total reactive power to be injected at the terminals of
the load to increase the line-to-line voltage at the load terminals to 11 kV is (MVAR)
(A) 100 (B) 10.1 (C) −100 (D) −10.1
Solution: (D) is correct option

8
Given Load Power = 100 MW
VS = VR = 11 kV
p.u.  (KV)2 j0.2  (11)2
imedance of line Z L    j0.242
MV 100
So as to make the sending end voltage and receiving end voltage equal, the net reactive power
demand at load must be zero.
Let QC be the reactive power injected at load side and Qr be the reactive power received from
supply.
 Qr  Q C  Q d
Qr  QC  0  QC  Qr
In this case β=Line impedance angle =900
  0.242, =00 , A  1.0
Vs Vr A 2
Pr  cos(  )  Vr cos(  )
B B
11  11 1.0
100  cos(90  )   112  cos(90  0)
0.242 0.242
sin   0.2    11.530
V V A 2
 Qr  s r sin(  )  Vr sin(   )
B B
11  11 1.0
Qr  sin(90  11.53)  112 sin(90)
0.242 0.242
Qr  10.1 MVAR

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 The receiving end voltage of a 20 km long are head transmission line is to be kept constant
at 10 KV. Its Voltage regulation is 20% with a load. It a capacitor is connected in parallel which
the load to reduce the regulation to 10% the sending end voltage is
(A) 9KV (B) 10KV (C) 11 KV (D) 12KV
Q.2 A 275Kv transmission line has A = 0.8550, B = 200 750 what is the ratio of compensating
equipment required in MVAR at the receiving end to maintain the sending and receiving end
voltages at 275kV. The load at the receiving end is 150MW at 0.8 power factor lagging
(A) –27.56 (B) 147.56 (C) +27.56 (D) –147.56
Q.3 Three supply points A, B and C are connected to bus bar M. Supply point A is maintained
at a nominal 275 KV and is connected to M through a 275/132 KV transformer
(0.1p.u.reactance) and a 132 KV line of reactance 50 . Supply point B is nominally at 132 KV
and is connected to M through a 132 KV line of 50  reactance. Supply point C is nominally
at 275 KV and is connected to M by a 275/132 KV transformer (0.1p.u reactance) and 132 KV
line of 50  reactance. If at a particular point, the line voltage M falls below its nominal value

9
by 5KV, calculate the magnitude of reactive volt ampere injection required at M to re-
establish the original voltage. The p.u values are expressed on a 500 MVA base and resistance
may neglect throughout.
(A) 7.6MVAR (B) 15.7 MVAR (C) 23 MVAR (D) 38 MVAR
Q.4 A 3-phase, 50 Hz overhead transmission line is feeding a 0.8 power factor lagging load
with both the sending end and receiving end line voltage held at 110KV. The sending-end
voltage leads the receiving end voltage by 150 and the line constants are as following
A  0.9610 ,B  100830 
If a compensating device is required to met the demand of load, then VAR rating (in MVAR)
of device should be?
(A)24.71 (B)2.84 (C)19.03 (D) 21.87

Type 6: Power factor correction


For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Transmission Lines

Common Mistake:
While using formula for rating of compensating device the real power is always total three
phase power.
Also, we already consider Q as negative and hence answer comes out as positive for
capacitor.

Sample problem 6:

At an industrial sub-station with a 4 MW load, a capacitor of 2 MVAR is installed to maintain


the load power factor at 0.97 lagging. If the capacitor goes out of service, the load power
factor becomes
(A) 0.85 lag (B) 1.00 lag (C) 0.80 lag (D) 0.90 lag
Solution: (C) is correct option
Let the initial power factor angle =φ1
Given 2  cos1 0.97  14.070
P  tan 1  tan 2   KVAR supplied by capacitor
4  106 (tan 1  tan14.070 )  2  106  1  36.890
cos 1  0.8 lag
Hence if the capacitor goes out of the service the load power factor becomes 0.8 lag.

10
Unsolved Problems:
Q.1 An induction motor operating at 0.8 pf lag consuming 300 KW. A zero power consuming
synchronous motor is connected across the induction motor to raise the pf to 0.92 lagging.
The reactive power drawn by the synchronous motor is?
(A)97.2 KVAR lag (B)97.2 KVAR lead
(C)36 KVAR lag (D)36 KVAR lead
Q.2 A 400 V, 50 Hz, three phase balanced source supplies power to a star connected load
whose rating is 12 3 kVA, 0.8 pf (lag). The rating (in kVAR) of the delta connected (capacitive)
reactive power bank necessary to bring the pf to unity is?
(A) 28. 78 (B) 21.60 (C) 16.60 (D) 12.47

Type 7: UG cable
For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Underground Cables.

Common Mistake:
While connecting core to core and core to sheath make sure that you combine capacitors
correctly in series or parallel.

Sample problem 7:

Consider a three-core, three-phase, 50 Hz, 11 kV cable whose conductors are denoted as R,Y
and B in the figure. The inter-phase capacitance(C1) between each line conductor and the
sheath is 0.4 μF . The per-phase charging current is

(A) 2.0 A
(B) 2.4 A
(C) 2.7 A
(D) 3.5 A
Solution: (A) is correct option
Given
3-Ф, 50 Hz, 11 kV cable
C1 = 0.2 μF
C2 = 0.4 μF
Charging current IC per phase = ?
Capacitance Per Phase C = 3C1+ C2
C = 3*0.2 + 0.4 = 1 μF
ω = 2πf = 314

11
V
Charging current Ic   V( C)
Xc
11 103
=  314  1 106
3
= 2 Amp

Q.1 The charging current drawn by a cable with 3 cores and protected by a metal sheet when
switched on to a 11 KV, 50Hz supply. The capacitance between two cores with the third core
connected to the sheath is measured to be 3.7 .F
(A) 9.32 A (B) 14.77 A (C) 16.32 A (D) 17.54 A
Q.2 In a 3 core cable capacitance between any two cores is 0.5µF and capacitance between
any one of the core to sheath is 0.3 µF. What is capacitance measured between any two cores
connected together and third core?
(A)1.3µF (B) 1.2µF (C) 1.1µF (D) 1.5µF

Type 8: Overhead Insulators


For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Overhead Insulators.

Common Mistake:
Voltage Distribution can be obtained by using Voltage division and also by using KCL.

Sample problem 8:
Consider a three-phase, 50 Hz, 11 kV distribution system. Each of the conductors is suspended
by an insulator string having two identical porcelain insulators. The self-capacitance of the
insulator is 5 times the shunt capacitance between the link and the ground, as shown in the
figure. The voltages across the two insulators are

(A) e1  3.74 kV,e2  2.61 kV


(B) e1  3.46 kV,e2  2.89 kV
(C) e1  6.0 kV, e2  4.23 kV
(D) e1  5.5 kV, e2  5.5 kV
Solution: (B) is correct option

At “A” point I1  I 2  I3
e1 5C  e2  C   e3 5C 
5e1  6e2 ...........................................(1)

12
11k
e1  e2   6.35kV.................(2)
3
From equation (1) and (2) we can get
e1 =2.886kV and e2 =3.46kV

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 In a four disc string insulator capacitance grading is employed in order to get 100% string
efficiency. The capacitance of shunt capacitor is 0.05 F and the capacitance of a disc near to
cross arm is 0.1 F. The capacitance of a disc near to power conductor is
(A) 0.35 F (B) 0.4 F (C) 0.25 F (D) 0.15 F
Q.2 . The equivalent capacitor arrangement of the two string Insulator is shown below. The
maximum voltage that each unit can with stand should not exceed 17.5 kV. The line to line
voltage of the system is?
(A) 17.5 kV
(B) 33 kV
(C) 57.15 kV
(D) 30.3 kV

Q.3 In a 3 unit insulator string, voltage across the lowest unit is 17.5 KV and string efficiency
is 84.28%. The total voltage across the string will be equal to?
(A)8.825KV (B)44.25KV (C)88.25KV (D)442.5KV
Q.4 If the voltage across the string of a string insulator assembly is 38KV, number of insulators
discs are 4 and voltage across the lowest disc is 12KV, string efficiency is?
(A)79.1% (B)70% (C)50% (D)100%
Q.5 It is required to grade a string consisting of three suspension insulators. Determine the
line to pin capacitance that would give the same voltage across each insulator of the string if
the pin to earth capacitance are all equal to 0.5C?
1 1 3 1 1 1
(A) C, C, C (B) C, C, C
12 5 8 16 8 2
1 1 1
(C) C, C, C (D) 5C, 8C, 1C
5 3 2

13
Type 9: Distribution Systems
For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Distribution Systems.

Sample problem 9:
A distribution feeder of 1 km length having resistance, but negligible reactance, is fed from
both the ends by 400V, 50 Hz balanced sources. Both voltage sources S1 and S2 are in phase.
The feeder supplies concentrated loads of unity power factor as shown in the figure.

The contributions of S1 and S2 in 100 A current supplied at location P respectively, are


(A) 75 A and 25 A (B) 50 A and 50 A
(C) 25 A and 75 A (D) 0 A and 100 A
Solution: (D) is correct option
Assume point of minimum voltage is A
Assume resistance of entire feeder = R
VA  400  I1  0.4R  ………….(i)
VA  400  I2  0.2R    I2  200   0.2R    I2  300   0.2R 
= 400 – 0.6 R I2 + 100R …………..(ii)
I1   I2  300   200
I1  I2 = 500 …………….(iii)
From (i) & (ii)
4 00  0.4I1R  4 00  0.6I2R  100R
0.6I2  0.4I1  100 …………(iv)
0.4I1  0.4I2  200 ……….…(v)
Contribution of I2 to IP   I2  200   100A
Contribution of I1to IP  0A

Unsolved Problems:
Q.1 . A two – line d.c. distributor fed from both ends is shown below. The Minimum Voltage
on the distributor is
(A) 218.45
(B) 220.45
(C) 219.45
(D) 216.45

14
Q.2 A single phase two – wire feeder 1500m long is shown below what is the voltage at the
sending end. The impedance A at the feeder is (0.06 + 0.1) ohms / km

(A) 253  3.56


(B) 250  2.560
(C) 255  1.560
(D) 245  2.10

Q.3 A dc 2 wire ring main distributor is shown below. Find the total currents supplied by two
sources. The resistance of each conductor 0.01 ohms/km. The source voltages are equal
(A) 90.78 A, 109.28 A
(B) 122.22 A, 77.78 A
(C) 105.78 A, 94.22 A
(D) 115. 22 A, 84.78 A

Q.4 A 2 wire DC distributor ABCDEA in the form of a ring main is fed at point A at 220V and is
loaded as shown in the figure. The minimum potential on the distributor is
(A)220 V
(B)216.15 V
(C)216.45 V
(D)218.28 V

Type 10: Economic Dispatch


For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Economic Power Generation.

Point to Remember:
Just remember the basic formulas for factors related to plant and no need to memorize all
factor just a few important ones are fine.

15
Sample problem 10:
The figure shows a two-generator system applying a load of PD = 40MW, connected at bus 2.

The fuel cost of generators G1 and G2 are :


C1(PG1) = 10000 Rs/MWh and C2(PG2) = 12500 Rs/MWh and the loss in the line is
Ploss(pu)= 0.5P2G1(pu), where the loss coefficient is specified in pu on a 100MVA base. The
most economic power generation schedule in MW is
(A) PG1 = 20,PG2 = 22 (B) PG1 = 22,PG2 = 20
(C) PG1 = 20,PG2 = 20 (D) PG1 = 0,PG2 = 40
Solution: (A) is correct option
1
Let penalty factor of plant G1 L1  ; PL  0.5PG1
2
PL
1
PG1
PL
 0.5  2  PG1  PG1
PG1
1
So,L1 
1  PG1
1  PL 
Penalty factor of plant G2 is L2  =1 ;   0 
PL  PG2 
1
PG2
For economic power generation C1  L1  C2  L2
where C1 and C2 are the incremental fuel cost of plant G1 and G2
 1 
So, 10000    12500  1
 1  P 
 G1 

4 1
 1  PG1  PG1  pu
5 5
1
It is an 100 MVA, so PG1   100  20 MW
5
2
1 1 1
Loss PL  0.5     pu   100  2 MW
 5  50 50

16
Total power,
PL  PG1  PG2  PL
40  20  PG2  2  PG2  22 MW

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 Two power plants interconnected by a tie line as shown in the above figure have loss
formula coefficient b11 = 10-3mW-1. Power is being dispatched economically with plant as
100Mw and plant 2 as 125 Mw. The penalty factor for the plants 1 and 2 are respectively.
(A) 1 and 1.25
(B) 1.25 and 1
(C) 1 and zero
(D) zero and 1
Q.2 A two bus system is shown below

If 100 Mw is transmitted from plant 1 to the load, a transmission loss of 10 Mw is incurred.


Find the required generation for each plant when the system x is Rs.25/mwhr. The
incremental fuel costs are
dC1 dC2
 0.02 PG1  16 Rs / Mwhr ;  0.04 PG2  20 Rs / Mwhr
dPG1 dPG2
(A) 140.5 MW and 125 MW (B) 125 MW and 128.57 MW
(C) 128.57 MW and 125 MW (D) 135.2 MW and 125 MW
Q.3 The incremented fuel cost of two plants are given as
I C1  0.1P1  15 Rs / Mwhr
I C 2  20 Rs / Mwhr
The minimum and maximum generation limits are 50  Pi  100, (i  1,2) The load on the
system is 180 MW. The generation limits are
(A) 90 MW and 90 MW (B) 100 MW and 80 MW
(C) 80 MW and 100 MW (D) 60 MW and 120 MW
Q.4 The power generated by two plants are P1 = 50 mw and P2 = 40 mw the loss coefficients
are B11 = 0.001, B22 = 0.0025 and B12 = -0.0005. The demand on the system will be
(A) 90 MW (B) 84.5 MW (C) 79.5 MW (D) 74.5 MW

17
Q.5 For the system whose line diagram is shown in figure. I1 = 1.000 and I2 = 0.8 00 per
unit. If the voltage at bus 3 is 1.0 00 per unit. Find the loss coefficients B12 line impedances
are (0.04+j0.16) per unit, (0.03+j0.12) per unit and (0.02+j0.08) per unit for sections a, b and
c respectively
(A) 0.0554p.u.
(B) 0.0188p.u.
(C) 0.0477p.u.
(D) 1.225p.u.

Type 11: Per unit system


For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Per Unit System.

Common Mistake:
The voltage ratings of Transformers need not be necessarily be the base values, you need to
transform the voltage bases as per transformer voltage ratios.

Sample problem 11:


Two generator units G1 and G2 are connected by 15 kV line with a bus at the midpoint as
shown below

G1 = 250MVA, 15 kV, positive sequence reactance XG1 =25% on its own base
G2 = 100MVA, 15 kV, positive sequence reactance XG2 =10% on its own base L1 and L2 = 10km,
positive sequence reactance XL = 0.225 Ω/km
For the above system, the positive sequence diagram with the pu values on the 10 MVA
common is?

18
Solution: (A) is correct option
Positive sequence diagram of the above system

2
100  15 
X G1  0.25     0.1
250  15 
2
100  15 
X G2  0.1     0.1
100  15 
100 225
XL1  0.225  10    j1.0
152 225
100 225
XL2  0.225  10  2   j1.0
15 225

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 Assuming S buses of 20MVA and 40MVA


G1 G2 Tr
30MVA 25MVA 60MVA
11KV 11KV 11KV (∆) : 66KV (Y)
X”=0.20 pu X”=0.25 pu X=0.10 pu
From the figure find the actual impedance in ohm for given Sbase as 25 MVA?
(A)j0.8874 (B)j0.6853 (C)j0.0263 (D)j0.0293

Q.2 For the power system shown in the figure below, the specifications of the components
are the following:
G1: 25 kV, 100 MVA, X = 9%
G2: 25 kV, 100 MVA, X = 9%
T1: 25 kV/220 kV, 90 MVA, X = 12%
T2: 220 kV/25 kV, 90 MVA, X = 12%

19
Line 1: 200 kV, X = 150 ohms
Choose 25 kV as the base voltage at the generator G1, and 200 MVA as the MVA base. The
impedance diagram is?

Type 12: Symmetrical Components


For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Fault Analysis.

Point to Remember:
Try to understand the zero sequence network for Transformer using Switch Model.

Sample Problem 12:


A three-phase alternator generating unbalanced voltages is connected to an unbalanced load
through a 3-phase transmission line as shown in figure. The neutral of the alternator and the
star point of the load are solidly grounded. The phase voltages of the alternator are
Ea  1000 V,Eb  10  900 V,Ec  101200 V.
The positive-sequence component of the load current is
(A) 1.310- 1070 A
(B) 0.332- 1200 A
(C) 0.996- 1200 A
(D) 3.510- 810 A

Solution: (D) is correct option


Both sides are grounded
Ea 1000
So, Ia    5  900
Za 2j
Eb 10  900
Ib    3.33  1800
Zb 3j

20
Ec 101200
Ic    2.5300
Zc 4j
1
We know that Ia1  I  Ib  2Ic  ; where =11200  2=12400
3 a 
1
Ia1  5  900  3.33( 1800  1200 )  2.5(2400  300 )
3 
1
Ia1  5  900  3.33  600  2.52700 
3
1
Ia1   5j  1.665  j2.883  2.5j  3.5  80.890
3

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A single phase load of 100kv is connected across lines b and c of a 3-phase supply of 3.3kv.
Determine the positive sequence component of line ‘a’ is
(A) 30.3A (B) 17.5A (C) 0A (D) 48.5A
Q.2 In a unbalanced 3–phase power system, the currents are measured as
Ia = zero , Ib = 660 and Ic = 6-120. The corresponding sequence currents are
Ia0 Ia1 Ia2
(A) zero 3-j3 -3+j3
(B) zero -3+j3 3-j3
(C) zero -9+j33 9-j33
(D) zero 9-j33 -9+j33

Q.3 When a 50 MVA, 11 KV 3-phase generator is subjected to a 3-phase fault, the fault current
is – j 5 p.u. When it is subjected to a line-to-line fault, the positive sequence current is – j 4p.u.
The positive and negative sequence reactance are respectively
(A) j 0.2 and j 0.05 p.u (B) j 0.2 and j 0.25 p.u
(C) j 0.25 and j 0.25 p.u (D) j 0.05 and j 0.05 p.u
Q.4 A 3 -  line supplies a delta connected load. The line current line1 is 100 A, taking the
current in line 1 is as reference, current in line 2 is 100 1800 . Positive symmetrical
component of line 2, if phase 3 is only switched off

(A) 57.65  900

(B) 172.95  900

(C) 172.95  1500

(D) 57.65  2100

21
Type 13: Fault Analysis
For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Fault Analysis.

Common Mistake:
While calculating any reactance please make sure that unit is correct as answer may be in pu
or in ohms.

Sample problem 13:


A 20-MVA, 6.6-kV, 3-phase alternator is connected to a 3-phase transmission line. The per
unit positive-sequence, negative-sequence and zero-sequence impedances of the alternator
are j0.1, j0.1 and j0.04 respectively. The neutral of the alternator is connected to ground
through an inductive reactor of j0.05 p.u. The per unit positive-, negative- and zero-
sequence impedances of transmission line are j0.1, j0.1 and j0.3, respectively. All per unit
values are based on the machine ratings. A solid ground fault occurs at one phase of the far
end of the transmission line. The voltage of the alternator neutral with respect to ground
during the fault is?

(A)513.8 V (B)889.9 V (C)1112.0 V (D) 642.2 V


Solution: (D) is correct option
Total zero sequence impedance, +ve sequence impedance and −ve sequence impedances
Z0 = (Z0) Line+ (Z0) Generator = j0.04 + j0.3 = j0.34 pu
Z1 = (Z1) Line+ (Z1) Generator = j0.1 + j0.1 = j0.2 pu
Z2 = (Z2) Line+ (Z2) Generator = j0.1 + j0.1 = j0.2 pu
Zn = j0.05 pu
for L-G fault
Ea 0.1
Ia1     j1.12 pu
Z0  Z1  Z 2  3Zn j0.2  j0.2  j0.34  j0.15
generator MVA 20  106
IBase    1750 A
3 generator KV 3  6.6  103
Fault current If  3  Ia  IBase  3   j1.12  1750   j5897.6 A
 6.6 
2

Neutral Voltage Vn=I f  Z n and Z n=Z B  Z pu   0.05  0.1089 


20
Vn = 5897.6  0.1089
Vn = 642.2 V

22
Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A 3-phase 50 Hz generator is rated at 500 MVA, 20 kv with Xd’’=0.2p.u.It supplies purely
resistive load of 400 Mw at 20 kv. The load is connected directly across the terminal of the
generator. If all the three phases of the load are short circuited simultaneously through a fault
reactance of 0.1 p.u, find the initial symmetrical r.m.s. current in the generator in kA in the
generator on a base of 500 MVA, 20kv.
(A) 72.17 (B) 27.75 (C) 38.45 (D) 56.28

Q.2 When a 50 MVA, 11 KV 3 – phase generator is subjected to a 3 – phase fault, the fault
current is – j5 PU. When it is subjected a line to line fault, the positive sequence current is
– j4Pu. The positive and negative sequence reactance’s are respectively
(A) j0.2, j0.05 (B) j0.2, j0.25
(C) j0.25, j0.25 (D) j0.05, j0.05

Q.3 Two 11 KV, 20 MVA, three phase, star connected generators operate in parallel. The
positive, negative and zero sequence reactance’s of each being respectively j0.18, j0.15 and
j0.1 P.U. The star point of one of the generator is isolated and the other is earthed through a
2 resistor. The potential of the neutral for a line to ground fault in P.U.
(A) 0.33 (B) 0.96 (C) 2.89 (D) 1.44

Q.4 In the power system shown, the values are marked are the per unit reactance’s taking
20 MVA and 11 KV as base values in the generator circuit. Both transformers are rated for
11/110 KV. A three phase to ground fault with a fault impedance of j0.088 pu occurs at bus‘2’.
The fault current supplied by generator ‘2’ is

(A) 154.8A

(B) 264.4A

(C) 109.6A

(D) 127.8A

Q.5 A 10 MVA, 13.8 kV alternator has positive, negative and zero sequence reactance of 30%,
40% and 5 % respectively. What reactance must be put in the generator neutral so that the
fault current for a line to ground fault of zero fault impedance will not exceed the rated line
current.
(A) 13.28  (B) 14.28  (C) 15.25  (D) 16.5 

23
Type 14: Thevenin Impedance
For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Fault Analysis.

Common Mistake:
While calculating transfer reactance, shunt branches of pi-network are neglected.

Sample problem 14:


A generator is connected to a transformer which feeds another transformer through a short
feeder. The zero sequence impedance values are expressed In pu on a common base and
voltage are indicate in figure. The Thevenin equivalent zero sequence impedance at point B
is?

(A) 0.8+j0.6 (B) 0.75+j0.22


(C) 0.75+j0.25 (D) 1.5+j0.25
Solution: (B) is correct option
Per unit zero sequence reactance diagram of the given single line diagram is shown below.

Thevenin equivalent impedance, Zth at B is Zth=j0.1+j0.5+j0.07+0.75=0.75+j0.22

Unsolved Problems:
Q.1 For the network shown, the zero sequence reactance in PU are indicated. The zero
sequence driving point reactance of the node 3 is
(A) 0.12 PU
(B) 0.30 PU
(C) 0.10 P.U
(D) 0.2 PU

24
Q.2 For the diagram shown below, the steady state symmetrical fault – current for a 3 – phase
fault on the 11 kV feeder is

(A) 10 p.u
(B) 15 p.u
(C) 20 p.u
(D) 25 p.u

Q.3 A 3-phase fault occurs at the middle point F on the transmission line as shown in the
figure. The transfer reactance appearing between the generator and the infinite bus is?
(A)j0.9 pu
(B) j0.575 pu
(C)j0.62 pu
(D)j0.65 pu

Q.4 For figure shown below calculate the max power transfer (during the fault ), when the
system is healthy, fault occurs at the middle of the line and fault is cleared by the breaker?
(A)1.567 pu
(B)0.722 pu
(C)0.226 pu
(D)0.618 pu

Type 15: Power System Stability


For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Power System Stability.

Point to Remember:
If you are not able to remember the entire expression for critical clearing angle then better
understand the method and you can compute using integration.

Sample problem 15:


A cylinder rotor generator delivers 0.5 pu power in the steady-state to an infinite bus
through a transmission line of reactance 0.5 pu. The generator no-load voltage is 1.5 pu and
the infinite bus voltage is 1 pu. The inertia constant of the generator is 5MW-s/MVA and the
generator reactance is 1 pu. The critical clearing angle, in degrees, for a three-phase dead
short circuit fault at the generator terminal is
(A) 53.50 (B) 60.20 (C) 70.80 (D) 79.60

25
Solution: (D) is correct option

Total reactance X= j1+j0.5 =j1.5 pu


Ps=Pe1=0.5 pu
EV 1.5  1.0
Before fault Pm1    1.0 pu
X 1.5
During fault Pm2=0 pu
After the fault Pm3=1.0 pu
P 
  sin1  s     300
 Pm1 
30  
0 (radians)   0.52 rad
180
 P   0.5 
max  180  sin1  s   180  sin1    150
0

 Pm3   1 
150  
max (radians)   2.168 rad
180
 P (  0 )  Pm3 cos max  
1 0.5(2.168  0.52)  1.0 cos150
0

Critical clearing angle c  cos 1  s max   cos  
 Pm3   1.0 
c  79.450

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A synchronous generator is connected to an infinite bus through a loss less double circuit
transmission line. The generator is delivering 1.0 P.U power at a load angle at 300. When a
sudden fault reduces are peak power that can transmitted to 0.5 P.U. After clearance of fault
the peak power that can be transmitted becomes 1.5 per limit. Find the critical clearing angle
(A) 73.46 (B) 69.36 (C) 62.32 (D) 56.26
Q.2 A 50 Hz 3-phase generator is supplying 60% of man power to an infinite bus though a
reactive network. A fault occurs which will increase the reactance of the network between
the generator to the infinite bus to 400% of the original value. When the fault is cleared, the
maximum power that can be delivered is 80% of the original maximum value. Determine the
critical clearing angle for the condition described.
(A) 56.60 (B) 62.40 (C) 66.050 (D) 72.540

26
Q.3 The single line diagram of the power system is having a three phase fault at the point ‘P’.
The generator is delivering 1.0 P.U. power at the instant preceding the fault.

The Maximum power transfer before, during and fault in P.U. are
(A) 2.3, 0.82, 2.3 (B) 1.5, 0.82, 2.3
(C) 2.3, 0, 2.3 (D) 2.3, 0, 1.5
Q.4 A 50 Hz, 6 pole generator with H=4.0 pu delivers 1.0 pu to an infinite bus bar through a
network in which resistance is negligible, and is supplying 45% of its peak power capacity as
shown. A 3-phase fault occurs at the point ‘F’ of the outgoing radial line. Faulted line is cleared
by the opening of the line circuit breaker. Critical clearing time is
(A) 0.342 sec
(B) 0.278 sec
(C) 0.372 sec
(D) 0.226 sec

Type 16: Swing equation


For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Power System Stability.

Common Mistake:
Both M and H are inertia constants and the only way to distinguish between them is through
their units.

Sample problem 16:


A 500 MW, 21 kV, 50 Hz, 3-phase, 2-pole synchronous generator having a rated p.f= 0.9, has
a moment of inertia of 27.5 X 103 # kg-m2 .The inertia constant (H ) will be
(A) 2.44 s (B) 2.71 s (C) 4.88 s (D) 5.42 s
Solution: (A) is correct option
Given Synchronous generator of 500 MW, 21 kV, 50 Hz, 3-φ, 2-pole, P.F = 0.9, Moment of
inertia M = 27.5 *103 kg-m2
Inertia constant H = ?
P 500 MW
Generator rating in MVA G    555.56 MVA
cos  0.9
120  f 120  50
N   3000 rpm
pole 2

27
2
1 1  2N  1 3  2  3000 
stored K.E. = M2  M     27.5  10   MJ  1357.07 MJ
2 2  60  2  60 
Stored Kinetic Energy
inertia cos tant (H)=
Rating of generator (MVA)
1357.07
H=  2.44 sec
555.56
Q.1 A 50Hz two pole turbo attenuator rated 50 MVA, 13.2 kv has an inertia constant
H = 5 MJ / MVA. The input less the rotational losses is 65,000 HP and the electrical power
developed is 40 Mw. Determine the angular acceleration in electrical deg/sec2 is
(A) 305.64 (B) 290.45 (C) 192.45 (D) 320.24

Q.2 A 2 pole, 50 Hz, 11KV turbo-generator has a rating of 60 MW, power factor 0.85 lagging.
Its rotor has a moment of inertia of 8800 kg-m2. The inertia constant in MJ per MVA and its
momentum in MJ-s/electrical degree respectively are?
(A)8.5149, 0.1447 (B)7.2376, 0.04825
(C)6.152, 0.01825 (D)6.152, 0.1447

Q.3 A synchronous generator of reactance 1.20pu is connected to an infinite bus-bar through


a transformer and a line of total reactance of 0.6pu. The infinite bus-bar voltage is 1.0pu and
the generator no – load voltage is 1.2pu. The inertia constant is H=4 Mw-sec/MVA. The
resistance and machine damping may be assumed negligible. The system frequency is 50Hz.
The frequency of oscillations in Hz if the alternator is loaded to 50% of maximum power limit.
(A) 0.63 (B) 0.758 (C) 0.428 (D) 0.542
Q.4 A 100 MVA synchronous Generator operates on full load at a frequency of 50Hz. The
load is suddenly reduced to 50 Mw. Due to time lag in governor system the Steam value begins
to close after 0.4 seconds. Determine the change in frequency that occurs in this time. Given
H = 5 kw–S/kVA .
(A) 50.5 Hz (B) 50 Hz (C) 51.5 Hz (D) 52 Hz
Q.5 A power station consists of two synchronous generators A and B at rating 250MVA and
500MVA with inertia constant at 1.6 p.u and 1 p.u respectively on their own base MVA ratings.
The equivalent p.u inertia constant in the system on 100 MVA common base will be
(A) 2.6 p.u (B) 0.615 p.u (C) 1.625 p.u (D) 9 p.u

Type 17: Power System Matrices


For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Load Flow Study.

Common Mistake:
Number of non-zero off-diagonal elements in bus admittance matrix are double the number
of transmission lines in a power system network.

28
Sample problem 17:
The network shown in the given figure has impedances in p.u. as indicated. The diagonal
element Y22 of the bus admittance matrix YBUS of the network is

(A) −j19.8
(B) +j20.0
(C) +j0.2
(D) −j19.95
Solution: (D) is correct option
I1 = V1 Y11+ (V1 - V2 )Y12
= 0.05V1 - j10(V1 - V2 ) =- j9.95V1+ j10V2
I2 = (V2 - V1 )Y21+ (V2 - V3 )Y23
= j10V1 - j9.9V2 - j0.1V3
Y22 = Y11+ Y23+ Y2
=- j9.95 - j9.9 - 0.1j
=- j19.95

Fault analysis using Z bus


Sample problem 18:

For a power system the admittance and impedance matrices for the fault studies are as
follows.
  j8.75 j1.25 j2.50   j0.16 j0.08 j0.12 
   
Ybus   j1.25  j6.25 j2.50  ; Z bus   j0.08 j0.24 j0.16 
 j2.50  j2.50  j5.00   j0.12 j0.16 j0.34 
  
The pre-fault voltages are 1.0 pu. at all the buses. The system was unloaded prior to the fault.
A solid 3-phase fault takes place at bus 2. The post fault voltages at buses 1 and 3 in per unit
respectively are
(A) 0.24, 0.63 (B) 0.31, 0.76 (C) 0.33, 0.67 (D) 0.67, 0.33
Solution: (D) is correct option
The post fault voltage at bus 1 and 3 are.
Pre fault voltage.

 V1  100 
   
Vbus   V2   100 
 V3  100 
   
At bus 2 solid fault occurs Z(f) = 0, r = 2

29
Vr0 V20
Fault current If  
Zrr  Z f Z 22  Z f
100
Zf   4 j
j0.24

Vi (f) = Vi0 (0) - Z ir I(f), ;Vi0 = Prefault voltage


V1 (f) = Vi0 - Z12I f = 100 -j0.08(-j4) = 1 - 0.32
V1 (f) = 0.68 pu
V3 (f) = V30 - Z 32I f = 100 -j0.16(-j4) = 1 - 0.64
V3 (f) = 0.36 pu

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A single line diagram of a power system is shown. The diagonal elements of the Y bus
matrix is
(A) j0.7 pu, j0.75 pu, j0.45pu

(B) -j0.7pu, -j0.75pu, -j0.45pu

(C) -j7.0pu, -j60pu, -j9.0pu

(D) j7.0 pu, j6.0pu, j9.0pu

Q.2 The Reactance’s between the various buses in a power system are given in the table
below. Y22 and Y33 of YBUS are
Buses Reactance in p.u
1-2 0.1
1-4 0.2
2-3 0.25
2-4 0.5
3-1 0.4
4-3 0.5
(A) -j 0.85, -j 1.15 (B) -j 19, -j 30
(C) -j 0.65, -j 1.15 (D) -j 16, -j 8.5

30
Q.3 The power system network shown in figure, where bus numbers impedances are marked,
assuming equal R/X of impedances, find the bus impedance matrix element z22.
(A) 2.0 (B) 0.5
(C) 3.5 (D) 4.5

Q.4 The Ybus matrix of a 100-bus interconnected system is 90% sparse. Hence the number of
transmission lines in the system must be?
(A)450 (B)800 (C)1000 (D)600

Type 18: Load flow Solution


For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Load Flow Study.

Common Mistake:
These type of questions are based on basic power angle equation and performance
equations of short Transmission Line.

Sample problem 19:


In the following network, the voltage magnitudes at all buses are equal to 1 pu, the voltage
phase angles are very small, and the line resistances are negligible. All the line reactance’s
are equal to j1ω

The voltage phase angles in rad at buses 2 and 3 are


(A) ϴ2 =- 0.1, ϴ3 =- 0.2
(B) ϴ2 = 0 , ϴ3 =- 0.1
(C) ϴ2 = 0.1 , ϴ3 = 0.1
(D) ϴ2 = 0.1, ϴ3 = 0.2
Solution: (B) is correct option
0.1pu power must flow from slack bus to Bus3 so that demand at Bus 3 is satisfied and
therefore,
V1V3 1* 1
Power P13  sin( 1  3 )  sin(0  3 )  0.1
X13 1
sin3  3
Therefore, 3   0.1rad
Since, no power flows from Bus1 to Bus2 so both must have same angles
Therefore, 2  0rad

31
Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 Figure shows a 3-phase system supplied at 11 KV at ‘A’. The load currents are balanced
and the pf’s (all lagging) are with respect to supply voltage at ‘A’. The impedances shown are
per phase values. Voltage at load point ‘C’ is

(A) 9.93 KV

(B) 10.23 KV

(C) 10.66 KV

(D) 9.27 KV

Q.2 A simple power system has been shown in fig. all quantities are phasors VA = 10pv,
ZAB = j0.25 pv, SDA = 2.00 pu, SDB = 2.00 pu. If QGB is made as a zero, voltage VB is
(A) 0.27 30
(B) 0.5 40
(C) 0.834 30
(D) 0.707 45

Q.3 The station loads are equalized by the flow of power in the cable. The Generator can
generate a maximum of 20.0 pu real power.

Reactive power flow in the cable


(A) 0.638 pu (B) – 0.638 pu (C) 1.276 pu (D) 0
Q.4 For a 15 bus power system with 3 voltage controlled bus, the size of Jocobian Matrix is
(A) 11 x 11 (B) 12 x 12 (C) 24 x 24 (D) 25 x 25
Q.5 A 50Hz transmission line 300km long has a total series impedance of 40+j125 ohms and
a total shunt admittance of 10-3 mho. The receiving end load is 50MW at 220kv with 0.8
lagging power factor. Find the sending power with the short line approximating
(A) 52.15MW (B) 53.2MW (C) 52.58MW (D) 51.15MW

32
Type 19: Plug setting Multiplier
For Concept, refer to Power Systems K-Notes, Power System Protection.

Common Mistake:
Remember to consider the relay setting while calculating Pick-up Current, it is not necessarily
equal to rated secondary current of Current Transformer.

Sample problem 20:


The overcurrent relays for the line protection and loads connected at the buses are shown in
the figure.

The relays are IDMT in nature having the characteristic


0.14  Time Multiplier Setting
top 
(Plug setting multiplier)0.02  1
The maximum and minimum fault currents at bus B are 2000 A and 500 A respectively.
Assuming the time multiplier setting and plug setting for relay RB to be 0.1 and 5A
respectively, the operating time of RB (in seconds) is ____________
(A)0.2267s (B)0.2356s (C)0.2145s (D)0.2148s
Solution: (A) is correct option
CT ratio = 500 5  100 : 1

Maximum fault current 2000


PSM =   20
CT primary current 100

0.14  0.1
Top = = 0.2267 s
 20 0.02  1
 

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A fault current of 2000A is passing on the primary side of a 400/5 CT. on the secondary
side of the CT an inverse-time over current relay is connected whose plug setting is set at
50%. The plug setting multiplier will be
(A) 25 (B) 50 (C) 10 (D) 30

33
Q.2 The rated secondary current of a current transformer (CT) is 5A. The plug setting of relay
connected to the secondary is 2.5 A. If the effective VA burden on the CT is 12 VA, then the
VA burden of the relay at 2.5 A plug setting is
(A) 0.75 A (B) 3 A (C) 6 A (D) 12 A
Q.3 An over-current relay, having a current setting of 12.5% is connected to a supply circuit
through a current transformer of ratio 400/5. The pick-up current value is?
(A)0.625A (B)10A (C)12.5A (D)15A

34
Answer Key

1 2 3 4 5
Type 1 A B C C B
Type 2 B
Type 3 B B B A B
Type 4 C A D B
Type 5 C B D A
Type 6 B D
Type 7 B B
Type 8 B C B A A
Type 9 A A B B
Type 10 B C C B B
Type 11 B B
Type 12 B B B D
Type 13 B A B C B
Type 14 C B A D
Type 15 B C D D
Type 16 A C B B D
Type 17 C D C A
Type 18 C D C D B
Type 19 C C C

35
Kreatryx
Subject Test

Power Systems

www.kreatryx.com

KST- General Instructions during Examination

1. Total Duration of KST is 60 minutes.

2. The question paper consists of 2 parts. Questions 1-10 carry one mark each and Question 11-
20 carry 2 marks each.

3. The question paper may consist of questions of Multiple Choice Type (MCQ) and

Numerical Answer Type.

4. Multiple choice type questions will have four choices against A, B, C, D, out of which

only ONE is the correct answer.

5. All questions that are not attempted will result in zero marks. However, wrong

answers for multiple choice type questions (MCQ) will result in NEGATIVE marks.

For all MCQ questions a wrong answer will result in deduction of 𝟏/𝟑 marks for a 1-mark
question and 𝟐/𝟑 marks for a 2-mark question.

6. There is NO NEGATIVE MARKING for questions of NUMERICAL ANSWER TYPE.

7. Non-programmable type Calculator is allowed. Charts, graph sheets, and

mathematical tables are NOT allowed during the Examination.

1
Q.1 A generated station has a maximum demand of 30 MW, a load factor of 60% and plant
capacity factor of 50%. The reserve capacity of the plant is
(A) 5 MW (B) 4 MW
(C) 6 MW (D) 10 MW

Q.2 Consider a step voltage wave of magnitude 1 pu travelling along a loss less transmission
line that terminates in a reactor. The voltage magnitude across reactor at the instant the
travelling wave reaches the reactor is
(A) –1 pu
(B) 1pu
(C) 2 pu
(D) 3 pu

Q.3 Consider two buses connected by an impedance of 0  j 5  . The bus 1 voltage is


10030 , and bus 2 voltage is 1000 . The real and reactive supplied by bus 1,
respectively are

(A) 1000W, 267.9 VAr (B) –1000W, –134 Var


(C) 276.9 W, –56.7Var (D) –276.9 W, 56.7 Var

Q.4 Two power plants interconnected by a tie-line as shown in the above figure have loss
formula coefficient B11 = 10–3 MW–1. Power is being dispatched economically with plant ‘1’ as
100 MW and plant ‘2’ as 125 MW. The penalty factory for plants 1 and 2 are respectively.

(A) 1 and 1.25


(B) 1.25 and 1
(C) 1 and zero
(D) zero and 1

Q.5 A relay is connected to 400/5 CT and set at 150% with primary current of 2400 A, the plug
setting multiplier is ____________

Q.6 In a 14 – bus power system network, there are 5 voltage controlled buses. The size of the
Jacobian matrix useful for power flow analysis will be:

(A) 16 x 16 (B) 23 x 23 (C) 21 x 21 (D) 8 x 8

2
Q.7 Two alternators each having 4% speed regulation are working in parallel. Alternator ‘1’ is
rated for 12 MW and alternator ’2’ is rated for 8 MW when the total load is 10 MW the Loads
shared by alternators 1 and 2 would be respectively
(A) 4 MW and 6 MW (B) 6 MW and 4 MW
(C) 5 MW and 5 MW (D) 10 MW and zero

Q.8 A generator is connected to a transformer which feeds another transformer through a short
feeder (see. Fig.) The zero sequence impedance value are expressed in pu on a common base
and are indicated in fig. The venin equivalent zero sequence impedance at point B is
(A) 0.8 + j 0.6

(B) 0.75 + j 0.22

(C) 0.75 + j0.25

(D) 1.5 + j0.25

Q.9 In the system shown in figure a three phase static capacitive reactor of reactance 1 P.U. per
Phase is connected through a switch at motor bus bar. The limit of steady state power, if the
switch is closed is

(A) 0.49 P.U

(B) 0.965 P.U

(C) 1.244 P.U.

(D) 0.99 P.U

Q.10 A synchronous generator is connected to an infinite bus through a lossless double circuit
transmission line. The generator is delivering 1.0 PU power at a load angle of 30 º when a
sudden fault reduces peak power that can be transmitted to 0.5 P.U after clearance of fault, the
peck power that can be transmitted becomes 1.5 P.U. The critical clearing angle is

(A) 0.35 radians (B) 1.35 radians


(C) 12.1 radians (D) 1.21 radians

3
Q.11 A three phase star-connected alternator is rated 30MVA, 13.8 KV and has following
sequence reactance values:
X1  0.25P.U , X2  0.35P.U , X0  0.10P.U
The neutral of alternator is solidly grounded. The alternator line currents when a double line-
ground fault occurs on its terminals (Assume Alternator is unloaded) will be
(A) 3.05 P.U (B) 2.37 P.U (C) 0.68 P.U (D) 4.81 P.U

Q.12 For a single circuit transmission line delivering a load of 45 MVA at 132kV and power
factor 0.8 lag. Has transmission line parameters as A = D = 0 0.99 ∠0.3 º, C = 4.0 10–4 × ∠90º ,
B = 70 ∠ 69º sending end line voltage is
(A) 87.46 KV (B) 76.21 KV (C) 151.5 KV (D) 178.6 KV

Q.13 A 10 MVA, 138 KV alternator has positive, negative and zero sequence reactance of 30%,
40% and 5% respectively. What reactance must be put in the generator so that the fault current
for a line to ground fault of zero fault impedance will not exceed the rated line current?
(A) 14.28 Ω (B) 12.38 Ω (C) 16.12 Ω (D) 10.08 Ω

Q.14 A 3 –  unsymmetrical spaced transmission line configuration is shown below. What are
the values of interline capacitances C , C and Cac respectively in nF/km Radius of each
ab bc
conductor is 1 cm
(A) 2.101, 0.101, 1.902
(B) 8.404, 8.404, 7.606
(C) 4.202, 4.202, 3.803
(D) none of the above
Q.15 A 3 – bus power system is shown below. The inductance is having P.U. Reactance and
capacitance having P.U. susceptance. The Total self-admittances are
(A) J 3.8, j 5.7, j 8.5

(B)-j14, -j 12.5, j4.5

(C)–j15.5, -15, -6.5

(D)-18.5, -18.33, -9.25

4
Q.16 Synchronous generator rated as 60 MW, 0.8 pF lag 50 Hz, 4-pole has moment of Inertia of
30,000 kg- m2 . The Angular momentum in MJ-sec/Mech rad is.
(A)0.082 (B)0.041 (C)4.71 (D)2.35

Q.17 100 MVA, 11KV, 3-phase synchronous Generator is working at No load, rated voltage. The
positive sequence Sub-transient current of symmetrical fault on general terminal is 5.0 P.U. The
negative sequence reactance is 90% of positive sequence reactance and zero sequence
reactance is 20% of positive sequence reactance. The neutral of the general is solidity grounded.
The short circuit MVA of line to ground fault is.
(A)500 (B)238 (C)456 (D)715

Q.18 Two conductor cables 1km long loaded distribution system as shown in figure. Both ends
are 250v, at end ‘A’ current is 90A. If minimum allowable voltage to the consumer is 245 and
  1.7  cm then the cross section of each conductor in cm2 is ________.

Q.19 At a 33kv, 50Hz bus a load of 30 Mw at 0.8 lagging power factor is connected to improve
the power factor to unity a synchronous phase modifier is connected across load which is taking
a real power of 5 MW. If the synchronous phase modifier is represented as a  -connected lossy
capacitor bank where each lossy capacitor represented as an RC parallel network then what is R,
C values respectively.
(A) 217.8, 0.639F (B) 653.4, 0.213F
(C) 653.4 , 0.639F (D) 217.8, 0.213F

Q.20 A 60 Hz generator connected directly to an infinite bus operating at a voltage of 100 p.u.
has a synchronous reactance of 1.35p.u. The generator no load voltage is 1.1p.u. and its interia
constant H is 4 MJ/MVA. The generator is suddenly loaded to 60% its maximum power limit. The
frequency of the resulting oscillation of the generator rotor is
(A) 0.44 Hz (B) 0.55 Hz (C)0.88 Hz (D)5.5 Hz

5
Electrical Machines
Answer Key

1 C
2 220
3 1150
4 B
5 284
6 4.425-4.515
7 83-84
8 37.125-37.825
9 D
10 8.5-9
11 A
12 C
13 4
14 D
15 1050-1100
16 A
17 C
18 19.1
19 3.2-3.3
20 B