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Literature review
 physical oceanography
 type of current
1. tidal
2. long shore
3. rip
 marine sediments
result and discussion
1. map
2. table of measuring
3. sketch of grain size
Puntondo is located at the coordinate of 5° 35’10.10’’ latitude south and
119°29’15’’ longitude east southern part of south Sulawesi. The research area is
faced by the open sea where the three sea of Jawa, flores and Makasar strait meet.
The method used in the research is very much based on statistical data collected
directly from the field. The research area has been acted upon by all sorts of physical
oceanic activities including different types of current, tides and marine sediments left
as an evidence of the work of the physical marine activities. These data explains the
dynamicity of marine physical activity at Puntondo coast.

Key Words: Puntondo, oceanography, coast.

I. INTRODUCTION The puntodo area is one of the

areas in south Sulawesi that host some
Coastal enviroment or beaches
of unique marine eco-system in the
as is usually known is one of the
region. The coast is where the land
forgotten but important aspect that
meets the big ocean. The referred area
geologist has to take into account.
has some of the most geological
Coast refers to a very dynamic dynamic processes that its coast can
zone where three phase meet, these are ever experience.
continents, ocean and the atmosphere.
This paper is going to describe
This zone becomes the most dynamic
puntondo area, takalar south Sulawesi
geological process that is more control
and its geological dynamic of its coast.
by physical oceanography. Physical
This focuses mainly on the physical
oceanography refers to waves and their
oceanography including wave actions,
activities, current and their processes
current actions and tides.
and marine sediments and their
transportation processes. II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Physical Oceanography the African coast. And, the connection
between tides and the sun and moon
Physical oceanography refers
was described in the Samaveda of the
to the study of the ocean and the
Indian Vedic period extending from
physical forces that act upon it. The
2000 to 1400 bc (Pugh, 1987).
Ocean is the biggest basin that
accumulate all materials and Physical oceanography refers
sediments from the continent or the to the physical processes that occur on
ocean itself in which it recycle it or in the sea floor or the marine for that
other words the ocean is more like a matter including waves, temperature,
rubbish dump for the continent. The salinity, currents and many more.
ocean has been influence by a lot of
Types of Currents
factors one of it being the physical
sector which refers to the physical  Tidal Current

forces that act upon it.

A tidal current that flows
Our knowledge of oceanic continually with the direction of flow
currents, winds, waves, and tides goes changing through all points of the
back thousands of years Polynesian compass during the tidal period.
navigators traded over long distances Rotary currents are usually found
in the Pacific as early as 4000 bc offshore where the direction of flow is
(Service, 1996). Pytheas explored the not restricted by any barriers. The
Atlantic from Italy to Norway in 325 tendency for the rotation in direction
bc. has its origin in the deflecting force of

Arabic traders used their the earth’s rotation and, unless

knowledge of the reversing winds and modified by local conditions, the

currents in the Indian Ocean to change is clockwise in the Northern

establish trade routes to China in the Hemisphere and counterclockwise in

Middle Ages and later to Zanzibar on the Southern Hemisphere. The velocity
of the current usually varies
throughout the tidal cycle, passing near the beach and extends offshore
through two maxima in approximately through the line of breaking waves.
opposite directions and two minima This type of current is usually occurs
with the direction of the current at during low tidal movements.
approximately ninety degrees from the
direction at the time of maximum

Lithogenous sediments are derived

 Long shore Current
from land, while rain, rivers or glaciers
Long shore Current is an ocean
current which moves parallel to the erode the continents.

shore. These currents can be found in

Biogenous sediments come from the
any beach which is prone to breaking
wave. When the large swells sweep solid parts of dead animals that settle

into the shoreline at an angle they push onto the ocean floor.
the water to the beach in same
direction. They are extended to the Hydrogenous sediments accumulate

breaking waves outside from the from dissolved materials in water.

shallow waters inside. Long shore
Currents differ based on their strength, Cosmogenous sediments have extra
direction and size of an approaching terrestrial sources such as meteors and
swell and the beach length. A Long
space dust.
shore Current is powerful for the
straighter, longer beach with more
prominent swell direction and size.

 Rip Current

A rip current is a narrow, fast-

moving channel of water that starts
5. The analysis of marine
sediments and grain size


Beach morphography and Ecosystem.

The beach morphography

found at the study area includes spit
morphology which form from the
Figure 1. Classification of marine circulation of bay current flow.
The beach area of takalaya also
forms an estuary. High tide and low
METHODOLOGY tide form an estuary, but leave also a
large thick mud deposits that appear at
The methodology used in this low tide. This rate is a fertile habitat
research is based on the physical for the type of shellfish (bivalve).

characteristic and the distribution of Furthermore the ecosystem of

sediment material found on the coastal the study area include mangrove which
enviroment. The steps are as follows: house the organism ecosystem of the
research area. The ecosystem holds
1. The observation of the beach
organism like sea weeds, clams and
morphography and ecosystem.
other reef organisms like corals and
2. The observation of trench pit
even bivalves.
3. The observation and
measurement of the different Trench Pit
types of currents. The trench pit refers to a pit
4. The observation and that dug manually which is then being
measurement of tidal observed and analyze for each of each
differences. bedding formed.
Based on the collected data and
the observation made on the trench pit
shows that there are repetition of
sediment depositional. The trench pit
shows 3 repetitions of grain sizes from
the surface to the bottom of the 40 cm
pit. This illustration shows that there
are repetitions of physical
oceanography at the specific area.


The above table shows the

resulted data collected on Saturday 9th
of December 2017. The result shows
that the average direction of the
current on that specific day is N150°E
which is directed south east.

Furthermore the average speed

of the collected current data is
approximately 0.052 m/s with the
highest speed at 0.08 m/s and the
lowest being 0.02 m/s. This current is
controlled by the movement of wind
direction and wave action. The current
tends to be a vertical current which is
also control by the temperature and
salinity of the sea water.
The dynamicity of the
geological processes working at the
study varies in a way that it shows the
variability of the beach morphography.

The variability of the beach

morphography and its eco-system are
evidences or end product of the
constant dynamicity of the physical
marine processes that has been at work
at the study area.

The physical marine processes

that had been at work at the study area
includes high and different current
energy, the differences of the tidal
changes which also affect the current
and the wave activity that had being at
work at the study area. The different
marine sediments and their grain size
illustrate the dynamicity of the
physical marine processes.