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Power generation systems (PGSs) based on hybrid
renewable energy are one of the promising solutions for future
distributed generation systems. Among different configurations,
hybrid photovoltaic-wind turbine (PV-WT) grid connected PGSs
are the most adopted for their good performance. However, due to
the complexity of the system, the optimal balance between these two
energy sources requires particular attention to achieve a good engineering solution. This paper deals with the optimal sizing of PV-WT
by adopting different multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) optimization approaches. Sensitivity of MCDA algorithms has been
analyzed, by considering different weighting criteria techniques
with different fluctuation scenarios of wind speed and solar radiation profiles, thus highlighting advantages and drawbacks of the
proposed optimal sizing approaches. The following study could be
assumed as a powerful roadmap for decision makers, analysts, and
policy makers

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2, JUNE 2013

Turbine Grid Connected Systems

Mohammed Alsayed, Mario Cacciato, Member, IEEE, Giuseppe Scarcella, Member, IEEE,

and Giacomo Scelba, Member, IEEE

Abstract—Power generation systems (PGSs) based on hybrid vr Wind speed measured at the reference

renewable energy are one of the promising solutions for future height Hr .

distributed generation systems. Among different configurations, ξ Wind speed power law coefficient.

hybrid photovoltaic-wind turbine (PV-WT) grid connected PGSs

are the most adopted for their good performance. However, due to PW T.m ax Maximum available output WT power.

the complexity of the system, the optimal balance between these two PW T.out Actual output WT power.

energy sources requires particular attention to achieve a good engi- vci , vra , vco Cut in, rated, cut out wind speeds.

neering solution. This paper deals with the optimal sizing of PV-WT ρ, A Air density, swept area of the rotor.

by adopting different multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) op- Cp Efficiency of the wind turbine.

timization approaches. Sensitivity of MCDA algorithms has been

analyzed, by considering different weighting criteria techniques ηW TInv ., ηM ech Inverter efficiency, mechanical compo-

with different fluctuation scenarios of wind speed and solar radi- nents efficiency.

ation profiles, thus highlighting advantages and drawbacks of the α, β, γ Coefficients approximating the genera-

proposed optimal sizing approaches. The following study could be tor emission characteristic.

assumed as a powerful roadmap for decision makers, analysts, and Iint Initial investment.

policy makers.

P VC , W TC Investment costs of 1-kW PV, WT in-

Index Terms—Design optimization, hybrid power systems, mul- stalled power.

ticriteria decision analysis, photovoltaic systems, wind generation SVPV P , SVW T P , Salvage present values of PV, WT, and

systems.

SVPGS P PSG.

OMPV P , OMW T P , Operation and maintenance costs pres-

OMPGS P ent value related to PV, WT, and PGS.

NOMENCLATURE

Cgrid Cost of the required grid energy.

VOC , ISC Open-circuit voltage and short-circuit P VP PV installed power.

current. P VSV PV salvage value for each kW.

FF Fill factor. P VOM PV operation and maintenance costs for

NPV PV modules number. each kW.

ηPVinv . PV system inverter efficiency. W TP WT installed power.

TA Ambient temperature. W TSV WT salvage value for each kW.

NOCT Nominal operating cell temperature. W TOM WT operation and maintenance costs

ISC.STC Short-circuit current measured under for each kW.

standard test conditions. β, γ, Ψ Inflation rate, interest rate, escalation

VOC.STC Open-circuit voltage measured under rate.

standard test conditions. NPV , NW T , NP Lifespan for PV, WT, and PGS project.

KI Short-circuit current coefficient. wjs Subjective criteria weight.

KV Open-circuit voltage coefficient. k Criteria final score.

Tref PV panel temperature of 25 ◦ C at refer-

ence operating conditions. I. INTRODUCTION

v Wind speed at the height HW T .

ONSIDERING sustainable energy development chal-

C lenges, hybrid renewable energy (HRE) is believed to

be of high importance in the future power generation systems

(PGSs). Despite technical and economic ongoing work, HRE

Manuscript received August 28, 2012; revised December 6, 2012; accepted

January 13, 2013. Date of publication March 14, 2013; date of current version

PGSs have already proven environmental and social benefits

May 15, 2013. Paper no. TEC-00420-2012. recognized worldwide.

The authors are with the Department of Electrical, Electronics Engineering, Among several alternatives, grid connected hybrid

and Computer Science, University of Catania, Catania 6-95125, Italy (e-mail:

muhd_alsayed@diees.unict.it; mario.cacciato@dieei.unict.it; gscarcella@

photovoltaic-wind turbine (PV-WT) PGSs show high poten-

diees.unict.it; gscelba@diees.unict.it). tial, limiting the power output fluctuations of single source PGS

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online contribution. Optimal design of these systems needs careful at-

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TEC.2013.2245669

tention, requiring tradeoffs between decision criteria to enhance

a sustainable energy development.

0885-8969/$31.00 © 2013 IEEE

ALSAYED et al.: MULTICRITERIA OPTIMAL SIZING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC-WIND TURBINE GRID CONNECTED SYSTEMS 371

Technical literature is rich in contributions proposing meth- II. SYSTEM MODELING AND DESIGN CONSTRAINTS

ods developed to achieve the optimal sizing of hybrid PGSs.

In this section, the mathematical models used to simulate

Different approaches have been used in the past based on dif- different PV-WT size combinations, as well as design technical

ferent methods: particle swarm optimization (PSO) [1], genetic

constraints are presented.

algorithms [2], [3], mixed integer nonlinear programming [4],

The main goal of PGS is to satisfy the load demand and

hybrid simulated annealing-tabu search algorithm [5], and other enhance a sustainable development. When HRE sources are

contributions focusing on optimizing hybrid PGS costs, main-

abundant, the extra generated power, after having satisfied the

taining specific technical performance [6]–[10]; the main goal

load demand, is considered with zero economic value in the

of the presented methods is the reduction of system costs by following analysis. In fact, it is assumed that the HRE plant have

applying economic-environment and/or techno-economic opti-

to be designed in order to fit as best as possible the load profile,

mization algorithms. Basically, a single objective function to be selling extra energy to local utility companies at no convenient

minimized is considered; this function is mainly represented by cost conditions. On the contrary, when energy sources are poor,

the total system cost; the other technical-environmental require-

the energy shortage is fulfilled by the grid. Hence, load demand

ments can be included in the optimization sizing process by profile is an important input to be taken into consideration in

following two approaches: The first way is to consider such re- the formulation problem, and is considered as known data of the

quirements as additional constraints, while the other approach is

system.

based on the conversion of the additional requirement units into

costs to ensure unit consistency, and then add such variables to

the objective function. The latter methods are not always prac- A. PV System Model

tical since some of the system variables might not be easily Power produced by the PV plant PPV can be calculated

unified into a single unit. Moreover, in both approaches it is through the following relationship:

assumed that all system requirements/variables have the same

importance with respect to the final decision. PPV (t) = NPV VOC (t)ISC (t)ηPVinv. F F (t) . (1)

More insightful approaches have been presented in [11]

and [12] where, by using a multiobjective PSO or genetic algo- Since VOC and ISC are strictly depending on the operating

rithms, authors are able to simultaneously optimize more objec- temperature TC and the global irradiance G relationships (2)–(4)

tive functions (environment, economic, and technical) in order are used to take into consideration such dependences [13]:

to find the Pareto set, which is considered the optimal solution

set. Hence, these methods provide different PV-WT configura-

VOC (t) = VOC.STC + KV (TC (t) − Tref (t)) (2)

tions candidate as the best one, leaving the final decision to the

decision-maker preferences, which might not be a simple task; G(t)

ISC (t) = {ISC.STC + KI [TC (t) − Tref (t)]} (3)

moreover, also in this case, the same importance is assigned to 1000

all criteria. Basically, most of the already proposed solutions NCOT − 20

could not be able to extract the best combination of PV-WT TC (t) = TA (t) + G(t). (4)

800

system, which is the best compromise among different nature

criteria, yielding to a suboptimal solution. B. Wind Turbine System Model

In order to overcome some of the aforementioned limita-

tions, in this paper, multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) The power output of a WT is determined by the wind speed

approaches are exploited in order to define the optimal siz- distribution; the latter can be calculated using [14]

ing share between PV and WT power generation systems. The ξ

proposed solution allows us to achieve the optimal sizing by HW T

v (t) = vr (t) . . (5)

simultaneously applying different criteria (technical, economic, Hr

environmental, and social), without the need to convert them

into a unified unit. Moreover, sensitivity of the proposed algo- The output power produced from WT is then calculated by

rithms has been analyzed, by considering different weighting

criteria techniques and different fluctuation scenarios of wind 1

PW Tm ax (t) = ρAν(t)3 CP ηW TInv. ηM ech. (6)

speed and solar radiation profiles. This procedure can be ap- 2

plied either during the design of a new hybrid PGS or during ⎧

⎪ 0 v(t) < vci

⎪

⎪

the evaluation of different expansion alternatives of an already ⎨ PW T.m ax vci ≤ v(t) < vra

existing system. PW T.out = . (7)

⎪

⎪ Pr vra ≤ v(t) ≤ vco

The paper is organized as follows: Analytical models adopted ⎪

⎩

in the following analysis is shown in Section II, while MCDA 0 vco < v(t)

mechanism and the proposed optimization approach are de-

scribed in Section III; simulation results of a practical case are The aforementioned PV and WT mathematical models have

presented in Section IV, and finally, conclusions are shown in been used to predict and simulate the generated power associated

Section V. to different PV-WT alternatives.

372 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 28, NO. 2, JUNE 2013

C. Design Criteria

In this paper, different design criteria have been chosen to

be optimized, reflecting environmental, economic, and social

performance of the proposed PGS.

Environmental Criteria—Emissions Reduction (C1 ): The at-

mospheric pollutants reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) and

nitrogen oxide (NOx ) emissions, achieved by adopting HRE

sources to fulfill the load instead of fossil-fueled thermal units,

is estimated in ton/h emission as [11]

T

2

T Fig. 1. Applied membership functions for social acceptance (SA).

Emss. = α + β Pout (t) + γ Pout (t) (8)

t=1 t=1 TABLE I

APPLIED RULES FOR SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE (SA)

where T is the analyzed period which is equal to 8760 h (one

year).

Economic Criteria—Estimated Costs (C2 ): This design cri-

terion is calculated as the sum of initial investment, operational

and maintenance, and energy bought from the grid costs minus

the salvage value of the PVs and WTs. Calculation of this per-

formance criterion, labeled in the following as EC, is achieved

by using the following equations [11]:

Iinv. = P VP P VC + W TP W TC (9)

N P V The profiles displayed in Fig. 1 have been used in the proposed

1+β case study, where the maximum allowable installed WT power

SVPV P = P VP P VSV (10)

1+γ has been imposed to be equal to 200 kW; moreover, wind turbine

N W T power systems whose power rated sizes are 10, 30, and 50 kW

1+β have also been taken into consideration; since the minimum

SVW T P = W TP W TSV (11)

1+γ number of WTs is imposed, the combination of the three wind

SVPGS P = SVPV P+ SVW T P (12) turbine sizes allows a maximum possible number of WTs equal

to 5. As regards the land use calculation, it has been assumed

N PV i

1+ψ that 1 kW of installed PV power requires 10 m2 [16], while

OMPV P = P VP P VOM (13)

1+γ land required by wind turbine is evaluated by considering the

i=1

installation regulations and rules of thumb. Total land required

N WT i

1+ψ for PGS is the sum of that required by PV and WT.

OMW T P = W TP W TOM (14) Social criteria analysis models can vary from site to site, as the

i=1

1+γ

local community acceptance or resistance is strongly dependent

OMPGS P = OMPV P + OMW T P (15) on the site category.

Cgrid = Egrid Ecost (16)

D. Design Constraint

Iinv. − SVPGS P + OMPGS P

EC = + Cgrid . (17) The total energy lost (TEL) due to extra power generation

NP

from HRE system is minimized by imposing the regulation that

Social Criteria—Social Acceptance (C3 ): Social acceptabil- such a quantity should not exceed a specific threshold THR over

ity (SA) is included as social performance evaluation criteria a defined analyzed period T , which is assumed here to be 8760 h

in order to take into consideration the social resistance to the (1 year). The following equations impose this constraint:

installation of hybrid PV-WT PGS. In this context, land use and ⎧ T

⎪

visual impact have been included as social negative effects, as ⎪

⎨ (EPGS (t) − LD(t)), if LD(t) < EPGS (t)

well as electromagnetic interferences, acoustic noise, shadow TEL = t=1 (18)

flicker, and eco-system disturbance [15]. ⎪

⎪

⎩ 0, else

In this paper, the social criteria technique is performed by

using a fuzzy logic algorithm, where the land used area of PGS 0 < TEL ≤ THR (19)

and the number of required WT are the input variables, while

the output of this algorithm is a social acceptance indicator. where EPGS is the energy generated by PGS and LD is the load

Membership functions applied to input and output quantities demand. The total energy lost due to extra generated power is

are shown in Fig. 1, while applied fuzzy rules are shown in sold to the grid according to the adopted system energy manage-

Table I. In this paper higher priority is given to PGS installation ment strategy. Therefore, the proposed optimization approach

with the minimum number of WTs fitting the required power. considers extra installed power as unjustified additional cost

ALSAYED et al.: MULTICRITERIA OPTIMAL SIZING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC-WIND TURBINE GRID CONNECTED SYSTEMS 373

tant criterion, 2 to the next, and so on). Then, all the decision

makers’ scores are summed to define the criteria final score, by

using the same criteria scale. Starting from this scale, the weight

of the criteria ranked to be jth is [18]

11

n

wjs = . (21)

n k

k =j

on X, where higher variation between the criteria performance

column (alternatives) leads to higher weight value. Entropy can

Fig. 2. Graphical representation of TEL. be performed by applying the following steps [19].

1) Calculation of the index value Pij using

m

which also causes social acceptance penalty because of extra

equipment installed, and so, it should be minimized. The value Pij = Xij Xij . (22)

of THR is strongly dependent on the PGS energy production i=1

and has been considered in this paper equal to 0.5% of EPGS . 2) Calculation of output entropy Ej using

Fig. 2 shows the graphical representation of TEL.

m

Ej = −z Pij . ln Pij (23)

III. OPTIMAL SIZING OF PV-WT GRID CONNECTED PGS i=1

As aforementioned in the introduction, the proposed design z = 1/ ln(m) (24)

procedure exploits MCDA in order to achieve the optimal sizing m

of PV-WT PGS under different criteria. as 0 ≤ Pij ≤ 1, then 0 ≤ − i=1 Pij ln Pij ≤ ln(m), thus

MCDA methods perform a comparison of two or more al- 0 ≤ Ej ≤ 1. j = 1, 2, . . . , n.

ternatives against two or more criteria where each criterion has 3) Calculation of entropy variation dj for index j using

an importance defined by its weight in the final decision. The d j = 1 − Ej . (25)

problem can be formulated as indicated in the following equa-

tion [17]: 4) Calculation of the objective criteria weight wjb of index j

using

Criteria = [ c1 c2 ··· cn ] n

n

Weights = [ w1 w2 ··· wn ]

b

wj = dj dj where 0 ≤ wj ≤ 1 and

b

wjb = 1.

j =1 j =1

⎡ ⎤

A1 X11 X12 ··· X1n (20) (26)

A2 ⎢ X 21 X22 ··· X2n ⎥ The two aforementioned weighting methods can be suitably

X = .. = ⎢

⎣ ... .. .. ⎥

. ⎦

.. combined by using two different approaches: the additive syn-

. . .

thesis combination weighting method (ASCWM) and the multi-

Am Xm 1 Xm 2 ··· Xm n m ×n plication synthesis combination weighting method (MSCWM)

where X is the performance matrix, Xij is the performance of [20].

ith alternative against jth criteria, n is the number of criteria ASCWM and MSCWM are calculated using

and m is the number of alternatives. A1 to Am are the possible

alternatives. In this research, Xij are determined by means of ASCWM = (q × wjs ) + ((1 − q) × wjb ) (27)

PV-WT alternatives simulations. ws .wb

In order to solve multicriteria problems, the definition of MSCWM = n j sj b (28)

j =1 wj .wj

criteria and alternatives, as already given in the previous section,

is required; in addition, the weights associated to criteria and where q (0 < q < 1) is a linear combination coefficient defining

performance matrix are requested. the importance of wjs and wjb in ASCWM [20].

The proposed design procedure adopts different weighting Three different MCDA algorithms are used in order to eval-

methods in order to make possible a sensitivity analysis of the uate the best PV-WT design: weighted sum method (WSM),

results. In the following, a brief description of such methods is technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution

provided. method (TOPSIS) [19], and preference ranking organization

Smarter is a subjective multiattribute choice scoring the method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE II) [17].

model technique; it depends on the judgment of decision maker/s The main difference among them is related to the mathemat-

based on their experience and preference. Each decision maker ical calculations for ranking alternatives.

374 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 28, NO. 2, JUNE 2013

systems. In order to apply WSM, X needs to be normalized

by using the following equation in order to convert it into a

dimensionless matrix:

⎧⎛ ⎞

⎪ xij − Min

⎪⎝

⎪ i ⎠

⎪

⎪ ∀j ∈ J

⎪

⎨ Max − Min

i i

rij = ⎛ ⎞ (29) Fig. 3. V-shape criterion preference function.

⎪

⎪ xij − Min

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪ ⎝ i ⎠ ∀j ∈ J

⎩ Max − Min

i i A− are calculated by

n

performance evaluation vector where the criterion is considered s+

i = (vij − A+

j )

2 (35)

j =1

a benefit (the higher the value, the better the performance) and J

is the performance evaluation vector where the criterion is con- n

s−

i = (vij − A−

j )

2 (36)

sidered a cost (the lower the value, the better the performance). j =1

In our analysis J consists of C1 and C3 , while J consists of C2 .

−

After that, WSM scores are calculated using where A+ i is the ideal performance of the jth criteria, and Ai is

the worst performance of the jth criteria.

n

Finally, the relative closeness degree of alternative Ai to A+

WSMscore = wj .rij (30)

j =1

TOPSISscore is calculated by

−

where wj is the weight of criteria j. WSMscore equals the final TOPSISscore = s− +

i (si + si ). (37)

score for the alternative i; the highest alternative score is the

best PV-WT design solution. The best alternative has the maximum closeness degree

TOPSIS is based on the principle that the best alternative among all alternatives.

should have the shortest distance from the positive ideal solution A different MCDA method is PROMETHEE II, where alter-

and the longest distance from the nadir or negative ideal solution natives are compared against each other in a pair-wise approach

in geometrical sense. according to preference function. PROMETHEE II scores are

The first step to apply TOPSIS is the normalization of X calculated as follows.

using Performance differences between each alternative and all

other alternatives are calculated in pair-wise bases using

1

m 2

rij = Xij Xij2 (31) dj (a, b) = xaj − xbj ∀a, b ∈ A (38)

i=1

where dj (a, b) is the difference between alternatives a and b

where rij is the generic element of the normalized X.

with respect to criteria j.

The second step is to obtain the weighted normalized X using

After that, preference value Pj is calculated using

vij = wj .rij (32)

Fj [dj (a, b)] ∀j ∈ J

Pj (a, b) = (39)

where vij is the generic element of the weighted normalized X Fj [−dj (a, b)] ∀j ∈ J

and wj is the weights vector.

The third step is the calculation of the positive ideal solution where Fj is the preference function; in the following, a V-shape

A+ and the negative ideal solution A− using criterion preference function is applied as shown in the following

⎧ equation and Fig. 3:

⎪

⎨ Max vi j |j ∈ J

i

⎧

A+ = v1+ , v2+ , . . . , vn+ = (33) 0 if d ≤ 0

⎪

⎩ Min vi j |j ∈ J ⎪

⎪

i

⎪

⎨ d

⎧ Fj (d) = if 0 ≤ d ≤ p (40)

⎪

⎨ Min v |j ∈ J ⎪

⎪ p

i

i j

⎪

⎩

A− = {v1− , v2− , . . . , vn− } = (34) 1 if d > p

⎪

⎩ Max vi j |j ∈ J

i

where p is the threshold of strict preference; different values of

where vj+ and vj− are the positive ideal and negative ideal criteria p can be applied for each criteria, defining a vector Pvalue :

performance among all alternatives.

−

The positive distance s+

i and the negative distance si between pvalue = p1 p2 p3 ... pj . (41)

alternative Ai and positive and negative ideal solutions A+ and

ALSAYED et al.: MULTICRITERIA OPTIMAL SIZING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC-WIND TURBINE GRID CONNECTED SYSTEMS 375

n

Π(a, b) = Pj (a, b).wj (42)

j =1

n

Π(b, a) = Pj (b, a).wj (43)

j =1

with respect to b; similar consideration is valid for П(b, a). After

that, the outranking flow can be calculated using

1

φ+ (a) = Π(a, x) (44)

m−1

x∈A

1

φ− (a) = Π(x, a) (45)

m−1

x∈A

respectively, and (m − 1) is the number of possible alternatives

facing alternative a in a pair-wise comparison.

Finally, the complete ranking for each alternative is calculated

using

Fig. 4. Flowchart of the proposed optimal sizing method.

PROMscore = φ+ (a) − φ− (a) (46)

where PROMscore is the complete ranking for alternative a. It fixed step-size Z increments and decrements with respect to the

is the balance between positive and negative outranking flows initial power level. According to each power level, a simulation

where higher value means better alternative. When PROMscore of the system is performed in order to determine the design

is positive, alternative a is more outranking all the alternatives constraint EPGS and all criteria. Power level able to minimize

on all the criteria, while when PROMscore is negative, alternative TEL constraint also satisfying the condition TEL<THR is cho-

a is more outranked. sen as the optimal one for that PV-WT share. This operation is

performed for each PV-WT share alternative and the results of

C. Design Procedure these elaborations are transferred to the performance matrix X.

Starting from X, different weighting vectors can be defined

The proposed approach allows us to systematically evaluate

to highlight the consistency of the optimal sizing PV-WT design

different alternatives of grid-connected PV-WT PGSs in order

solution.

to achieve the optimal design, satisfying as best as possible all

In addition to SMARTER and ENTROPY weighting meth-

criteria.

ods, the procedure can take into account also weighting vectors

After having defined criteria and constraints that must be

with one dominant criterion.

considered, solar radiation and wind speed, load demand and

Known weighting vectors and performance matrix X, MCDA

technical data regarding PV and WT power systems are needed.

algorithms are applied in order to detect the optimal sizing

Alternatives are generated, basing them on a fixed step-size

PV-WT design configuration. The proposed procedure exploits

variation of the shared power between PV and WT systems.

the aforementioned MCDA algorithms in order to achieve higher

Basically, PV-WT combinations sweep from the complete use

confidence level of the optimal design solution.

of PV system till reaching 100% of the installed WT power

Final step is the evaluation of the output results achieved

system; starting from 100% dependence on the PV system, the

by applying MCDA methods. Depending on the considered

next alternative is generated by adding a certain step size to

weighting method, different PV-WT alternatives could be the

the WT power system and subtracting the same amount from

best candidate according to the decision-makers preferences.

PV plant, continuing on this procedure until 100% dependence

Fig. 4 presents the flowchart of the proposed approach.

on WT technology is reached. The step-size value is chosen in

order to achieve a suitable number of alternatives.

IV. CASE STUDY

The next step of the design procedure is to detect the best

power level associated to each PV-WT share (alternative); in The proposed optimal sizing approach has been applied to

fact, depending on the sharing factor, EPGS profile able to bet- real data. Wind speed, solar radiation, temperature, load de-

ter fit LD curve is different, since EPGS is equal to the sum of mand profiles, and technical data are shown in Table II and

the energy produced by the two generation plants. The initial Fig. 5. The total annual electrical energy demand is equal to

installed power levels for each PV-WT share is assumed to be 932.5 MWh. PV modules and WT technical specifications are

coincident to the average value of the annual load demand pro- shown in Table III, while other environmental and economic

file; after that, other power levels are determined considering data used in the following study are presented in Table IV.

376 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 28, NO. 2, JUNE 2013

TABLE II TABLE V

INPUT DATA INSTALLED POWER OF EACH PV-WT COMBINATIONS AND TEL

TABLE VI

PERFORMANCE MATRIX X

Fig. 5. Wind speed, solar radiation, temperature, and load demand profiles.

TABLE III

WT AND PV MODULE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

els have been identified for each alternative, by simulating the

PV-WT analytical models and considering step-size variations

equal to 10% of the load standard deviation (32 kW).

Results of these simulations are transferred to the perfor-

mance matrix X shown in Table VI. In particular, the terms

TABLE IV listed below the column C3 indicate the social acceptance

TECHNICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND ECONOMIC DATA degree, while the other two columns report the emission re-

duction C1 and PGS costs C2 .

It is interesting to note that comparing alternative A and alter-

native G, a considerable variation of the energy produced from

the two different configurations is observed in Table V; in fact,

alternative A is able to produce almost double the annual energy

of alternative G. Despite this advantage of alternative A, which

will strongly improve its performance with respect to criteria

C1 (Table VI), note that G is still a nominated optimal solution

due to its better performance with respect to C2 and C3 . Hence,

the optimal PV-WT combination can be strongly affected by

criteria far from production interests, such as the social criteria.

From solar radiation and wind speed profiles, it is also pos- The next step is to define the weighting vector. Choosing a

sible to calculate the capacity factor associated to PV modules suitable weighting vector is a critical issue due to its obvious

and WTs. Capacity factor is determined by simulating the sin- effects on the optimal decision. In order to analyze the impor-

gle equipment subjected to the input environmental profiles. In tance of weighting methods in the determination of the optimal

this case study, the capacity factor associated to PV modules is solution, different weighting methods have been considered in

12.6%, while that related to 10, 30, and 50-kW WTs are 31%, this paper and are shown in Table VII.

23%, and 20%, respectively. It can be noticed that X can include criteria with high perfor-

Eleven alternatives have been identified as indicated in Ta- mance variation and other criteria with relatively low variation;

ble V; this number depends on the chosen step size to guarantee in the latter case, Entropy can provide weights whose values are

an acceptable resolution of the results. almost equal to zero, like C2 . This condition also affects the

ALSAYED et al.: MULTICRITERIA OPTIMAL SIZING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC-WIND TURBINE GRID CONNECTED SYSTEMS 377

WEIGHTING METHODS ADOPTED IN THE CASE STUDY VARIATION OF WIND SPEED AND SOLAR RADIATION PROFILES

vious ones provide the same results.

Different results can be achieved when different weighting

vectors are purposely considered in the MCDA algorithms.

In particular, when higher variability weighting vectors listed

in the last four rows of Table VII are adopted, the results of

MCDA are that shown in Fig. 7; in this case, MCDA algorithms

have been applied to X by assigning equal importance to all

criteria and also considering the cases where in turn a weight

of 50% is assigned to one criteria and the weights of the other

two criteria is 25%. In this way, it is possible to highlight which

alternatives are more affected by each selected criteria.

Fig. 6. Analysis results—subjective, objective, and combined weights. In this purposely created scenarios, PROMETHEE and WSM

provide different results compared to TOPSIS. In particular,

when the equal weights condition and PROMETHEE/or WSM

are applied, alternatives G, J, and K can be considered as good

candidates for the optimal design solution, while alternative C is

the optimal PV-WT share only when weighting configuration is

C1 (50%), while it is relatively weak with respect to economic

and social criteria performance, as shown in C2 (50%) and C3

(50%) scenarios.

When investment cost is considered more relevant compared

to the other criteria, the optimal PV-WT design solution achieved

by WSM and PROMETHEE moves toward alternative K, as

this is the combination minimizing PGS cost. The same alter-

native can be also considered the optimal one when C3 (50%)

Fig. 7. Analysis results—equal, C 1 (50%), C 2 (50%), and C 3 (50%) weights.

scenario is taken into consideration. In fact, PROMETHEE pro-

vides alternative G, J, and K as good candidates, whose score

results achieved by applying combination weighting methods is very close. Hence, comparing the two MCDA algorithms

as MSCWM. results, alternative K can be considered the best solution of

Different weighting methods of Table VII have been pur- scenario C3 (50%). Differently than WSM and PROMETHEE,

posely exploited by the MCDA algorithms treated in previous TOPSIS continues to provide alternatives C as best PV-WT de-

sections, and the results of these elaborations are reported in sign configuration except when C3 (50%) is considered, show-

Figs. 6 and 7. In particular, Fig. 6 shows the scores achieved ing less sensitivity to weighting coefficient variations. In the

applying the first four weighting methods listed in Table VII, latter scenario, TOPSIS provides J and K as best alternatives,

where PROMETHEE II makes use of Pvalue = [20000, 1000, like the other two MCDA algorithms.

25]. Hence, the latter analysis can be considered as a powerful tool

From Fig. 6, the optimal alternative related to these four giving important information to the decision makers regarding

weighting vectors is C whenever MCDA algorithm is used, how much benefits/sacrifice is gained/lost with respect to each

while alternatives A and B can be assumed as good solutions. criteria when choosing the final decision.

Looking at Table VII, it can be noticed that in all of the four Finally, sensitivity analysis regarding input data has been

weighting vectors, C1 is the most important criteria, very far performed by considering the effects of variations in measured

from C2 and C3 . Hence, smarter and entropy algorithms have wind speed and solar radiation profiles; in particular, the pro-

given more importance to emission reduction, almost nullify- files’ averages have been shifted by ±10% assuming different

ing the influence of cost investment. This happens because in- weather input data combinations, as indicated in Table VIII.

vestment cost variations among all alternatives is very limited The results of this sensitivity analysis are shown in

compared to the other criteria, as clearly evident in Table VI. Fig. 8, considering the weighting method ASCWM. Note that,

378 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 28, NO. 2, JUNE 2013

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tal performance problem of small autonomous hybrid power system with

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2010.

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achieved by performing the proposed analysis, where different New York, USA: Springer-Verlag, 2007.

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criteria decision analysis aid in sustainable energy decision-making,” El-

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flexibility to include any kind of criteria, allowing him/her to 2009.

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different input data sensitivity scenarios. This procedure can be

considered a viable guidance in the design process.

industrial engineering and the M.Eng. degree in clean

[1] V. Sánchez, J. M. Ramirez, and G. Arriaga, “Optimal sizing of a hybrid energy and energy conservation engineering both

renewable system,” in Proc. Ind. Technol. (ICIT), 2010, pp. 949–954. from An-najah National University, Nablus, West

[2] T. Senjyu, D. Hayashi, N. Urasaki, and T. Funabashi, “Optimum con- Bank, Palestine, in 2005 and 2008, respectively. He

figuration for renewable generating systems in residence using genetic is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree in energetics

algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 459–466, from the University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Jun. 2006. From 2006 to 2010, he was with an engineering

[3] Y.-Y. Hong and R.-C. Lian, “Optimal sizing of hybrid wind/PV/diesel consultancy firm as a Technical Manager and as a

generation in a stand-alone power system using Markov-based genetic part-time Lecturer at An-najah National University.

algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 640–647, Apr. His research interests include distributed generation,

2012. renewable energy, and optimization techniques.

[4] Y. M. Atwa, E. F. El-Saadany, M. M. A. Salama, and R. Seethapathy,

“Optimal renewable resources mix for distribution system energy loss

minimization,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 360–370, Feb.

2010.

[5] Y. A. Katsigiannis, P. S. Georgilakis, and E. S. Karapidakis, “Hybrid sim-

ulated annealing—Tabu search method for optimal sizing of autonomous Mario Cacciato (S’97–M’00) received the Master

power systems with renewables,” IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy, vol. 3, degree in electrical engineering (cum laude) from the

no. 3, pp. 330–338, Jul. 2012. University of Catania, Catania, Italy, in 1996, and the

[6] T. K. Saha and D. Kastha, “Design optimization and dynamic performance Ph.D. degree in electronic engineering from the Uni-

analysis of a stand-alone hybrid wind–diesel electrical power generation versity of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy, in

system,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1209–1217, 2000.

Dec. 2010. In 2000, he was with the Department of Electri-

[7] M. Bashir and J. Sadeh, “Optimal sizing of hybrid wind/photovoltaic/ cal Engineering of the University of Rome – “La

battery considering the uncertainty of wind and photovoltaic power using Sapienza” as an Assistant Professor. In 2004, he

Monte Carlo,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Environ. Electr. Eng. (EEEIC), moved to the Department of Electrical and Electron-

2012, pp. 1081–1086. ics Engineering and Computer Science, University

[8] R. Belfkira, C. Nichita, P. Reghem, and G. Barakat, “Modeling and optimal of Catania. In 2011, he became an Associate Professor where he currently

sizing of hybrid renewable energy system,” in Proc. Power Electron. teaches power electronics. He is the author of more than 80 technical pa-

Motion Control Conf., EPE-PEMC 13th, Poznań, Poland, 2008, pp. 1834– pers published on journals and proceedings of international conferences. His

1839. main scientific research interests include power electronics, control of elec-

[9] W. D. Kellogg, M. H. Nehrir, G. Venkataramanan, and V. Gerez, “Gener- tric drives, electromagnetic compatibility, renewable energies, and hydrogen

ation unit sizing and cost analysis for stand-alone wind, photovoltaic, and applications.

ALSAYED et al.: MULTICRITERIA OPTIMAL SIZING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC-WIND TURBINE GRID CONNECTED SYSTEMS 379

Giuseppe Scarcella (M’99) received the M.S. and Giacomo Scelba (S’04–M’07) received the M.S. and

Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the Uni- Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the Uni-

versity of Catania, Catania, Italy, in 1995 and 1999, versity of Catania, Catania, Italy, in 2002 and 2005,

respectively. respectively.

In 1999, he joined the Department of Electri- He is currently an Assistant Professor in the

cal, Electronic, and Systems Engineering, Univer- Department of Electric, Electronic and Computer Sci-

sity of Catania, as a temporary Researcher, working ence, University of Catania. His current research in-

on sensorless control of electrical drives with high- terests include sensorless control, digital signal pro-

frequency signal injection. In 2001, he obtained a cessing, ac drive control technologies, and control

permanent position as an Assistant Professor, in the techniques for renewable energy systems.

same department, where, since 2005, he is an As-

sociate Professor in the areas of power electronics, electrical machines, and

drives. He is the author or coauthor of more than 100 technical papers pub-

lished on journals and proceedings of national and international conferences

and holds several national and international patents. His current research inter-

ests include sensorless control of electrical machines, advanced control, digital

modulation techniques, efficiency optimization techniques, and electromagnetic

compatibility.

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