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PITCHA BOONACHATHONG

PATHITTA KITTIMONGKOLSUK
WITCHAYUT NGARMPORNCHAI
VANESSA RUJIPATANAKUL
PANNACHA LERTLARPNONT
TRITATION
   This experiment was done to
demonstrate the process of
titration, and neutralization, to
understand the different in the
endpoints of various indicators,
also, to determine the concentration
of the unknown solution. The
experiment is conducted by adding
ABSTRACT

the base solution using buret to


the acid solution with indicator in
the beaker until the solution
changes its color. Each indicator has
their particular end points where it
will dramatically change its color
from its original one. We can easily
notice when the solution reaches
the pH we want as even a tiny drop
of the base solution can completely
change the color of the indicators.
    Titration is a process that mixed
base solution, from the buret, with the
acid solution, in the beaker. The purpose
of titration is to neutralize acid
INTRODUCTION
solution by slowly adding base and to
identify the strength of the acid. All
titration processes require an indicator
solution. The indicator will change the
solution color when the pH level is
above a certain level which is called the
end point. The end-point is not the
equivalence point. The equivalence point
have pH of 7 but the end-point is the
point that the solution changes its
color due to the indicator substance. 
Most of the indicators will change the
color near the pH of 7 so this end point
are considered a neutralize point of the
INTRODUCTION
solution. The product of the reactant,
acidic and basic solution, are salt and
water.
  
   In the experiment, acidic solution in
the beaker is HCl and basic solution in
the buret is NaOH which are strong
INTRODUCTION
acidic and basic. The indicator are
bromophenol blue and phenolphthalein.
Bromophenol blue will turn to greenish
color and phenolphthalein will turn to
pink color when the pH level passes the
end-point of these indicators. The
bromophenol blue endpoint is around pH
4 and the phenolphthalein end-point is
around pH 8. 
      In these chemical processes the
reactants are HCl and NaOH and the
products are NaCl and H2O. These
INTRODUCTION
reactions are acid + base resulting in
salt + water.
  

HCl NaOH

  
     NaOH      +    HCl         → NaOH + H20
 (strong bas)  (strond Acid)
to learn and understand more
on titration, neutralization,
and indicator
OBJECTIVES

to demonstrate the usage of


various indicators

to calculate the concentration


of the unknown solution
HCl

NaOH 
MATERIALS

Bromophenol Blue

Phenolphthalein

Distilled Water
Beakers

Buret
Erlenmeyer Flask
EQUIPMENT

Buret Clamp
The Volumetric Pipette
pH Meter
Pipette Bulb
Pipette
Distilled Water Bottle
1. Record the molarity of the sodium
hydroxide solution on the data sheet

2. Obtain about 100 mL of the sodium


hydroxide solution in a clean beaker.
This should be enough for the initial
PROCEDURE

cleaning of your buret and for your


first 3 trials.

3. Clean your buret: Add about 5 mL of


the base solution from the beaker to
the buret (use a funnel to pour). Move
the funnel around while adding to ensure
the sides of the buret are coated with
base. Alternatively, you can remove the
buret with the 5 mL of titrant from the
buret stand and carefully tilt and rotate
to coat all interior surfaces with the
titrant. Drain the solution through the
stopcock into a waste beaker. Repeat
this rinse with a second 5 mL portion
of base.
4. Pour more of the sodium hydroxide
solution into the buret until it is near
the 0.00 mL mark. Open the stopcock to
allow several drops to rinse through
the tip of the buret. This should
eliminate any air bubbles in the buret
tip. Record your initial buret reading on
the data sheet for trial 1 (the volume
PROCEDURE

does not need to be exactly 0.00 mL).

5. Draw 10.00 mL of the acid solution


into the volumetric pipette and transfer
this solution into an Erlenmeyer flask.
Add 2‐3 drops of phenolphthalein to
the acid solution in the flask.

6. Place the flask under the buret and


start adding the base solution to the
Erlenmeyer flask. When pink starts to
develop, add the solution more slowly.
At this point you should add one drop
at a time followed by swirling until a
very light pink color persists for at
least 30 seconds. Remember, the lighter
the pink the better!!!
7. Record the final reading of the buret.
Wash the contents of the flask down
the drain with water.

8. Refill the buret with more sodium


hydroxide solution if necessary. Record
the new volume under trial 2 on the
PROCEDURE

data sheet. Pipette another sample of


acid and add the phenolphthalein as
before and titrate as before.

9. Conduct additional titrations until the


volume of NaOH used in two of them
differ by no more than 1 ml.

10. Measure the pH of mixing solution by


using pH meter.

11. Repeat the step 5 by using


bromophenol blue as indicator instead
of phenolphthalein. 

12. Complete the data sheet and post‐


lab questions. Show your work for full
credit!!!
RESULT
RESULT
PRE‐LAB QUESTIONS

1. How will you know when your titration is finished?

-When the color of the solution change the color to the light pink
(for Phenolphthalein) or light green (for Bromophenol Blue).

2. Label the pH scale below with acid, base, and neutral, indicating
numbers for each. 

3. On the scale above, use an arrow to show where your


RESULT

equivalence point is located.


PRE‐LAB QUESTIONS

4. Write the neutralization reaction that occurs between


hydrobromic acid (HBr) and lithium hydroxide (LiOH).

LiOH + HBr → LiBr + H20


  (-)       (+)

5. What is the concentration of 10.00 mL of HBr if it takes


16.73 mL of a 0.253 M LiOH solution to neutralize it?

LiOH + HBr → LiBr + H20


LiOH: 16.73 mL of a 0.253 M
HBr: 10.00 mL
RESULT

mol = 0.253 x 0.01673


      = 0.00423269
Molar = 0.004232690.01
         = 0.423269 M
POST‐LAB QUESTIONS

1. How would it affect your results if you used a


beaker with residual water in it to measure out your
standardized sodium hydroxide solution?
  
   -If we use a beaker with residual water left inside,
DISCUSSION
our experiment would be inaccurate because the
solution of NaOH would be diluted and increased in a
percentage of error in our results. Therefore, it would
affect the pH of acid in the Erlenmeyer flask.

2. How would it affect your results if you used a wet


Erlenmeyer flask instead of a dry one when
transferring your acid solution from the volumetric
pipette?
  
   -If we use a wet Erlenmeyer flask instead of a dry
one, the solution would not be accurate because the
Erlenmeyer Flask will not contain 100% of acid due to
some water particles that are left in the flask.
Therefore, the concentration of OH will increase and
cause a greater percentage of error.
POST‐LAB QUESTIONS
3. How do you tell if you have exceeded the
equivalence point in your titration?
   When the titration exceeded the equivalent point,
solution’s color will change or become darker. For the
example, based on our experiment, when the titration
DISCUSSION
of Phenolphthalein reaches its equivalent point, the
color of the solution will become light pink. But if the
result of titration was exceeded, the color will become
darker which in this case is dark pink.

4. Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid (CH3COOH) in


water. For quality control purposes, it can be titrated
using sodium hydroxide to assure a specific %
composition. If 25.00 mL of acetic acid is titrated with
9.08 mL of a standardized 2.293 M sodium hydroxide
solution, what is the molarity of the vinegar?
CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) → H2O(l) + CH3COONa(aq)
0.00908 * 2.293 = 0.02082044 mo
So, 0.02082044 mol of NaOH  = 0.02082044 mol of
CH3COOH
CH3COOH concentration = 0.02082044 / 0.025
     =   0.8328176 mol/L
Vinegar molarity:    0.8328176 mol/L     
Error

   During the experiment, there were few


errors on the process of moving the HCl
solution from the beaker to the Erlenmeyer
flask. We might pour too less amount HCl
DISCUSSION
than 10 mL. Consequently the amount of
base needed in tritation is lower. When we
measure the pH by using the pH measeure.
Other groups might not wash out their left
over thoroughly so there might be an error
in the pH level.
   In conclusion, we completed the process
of titration using two different indicators,
which were the Phenolphthalein and the
CONCLUSION
Bromophenol Blue. However, we didn’t get
the results we wanted and expected. The
color of the final solutions of HCl with
Phenolphthalein as an indicator turned to
bright pink, which indicated that we dropped
too much NaOH and they exceeded the
endpoints. For the results of HCl with
Bromophenol Blue as an indicator, the color
of the final solutions for the first and the
last trials were almost perfect, but the
color of the second trial was blue-violet,
which indicated that it also exceed the
endpoint of the indicator we dropped into
the solution.
   This experiment is divided into two part. The
part that used bromophenol blue and the part
that use phenolphthalein.  For the
phenolphthalein part, we can’t achieve the pale
pink color for the first two trials. So on the
third trial, we frequently used distilled water to
SUGGESTION
wash down the HCl. And the outcome is that we
use too much of distilled water which might be
the cause of changing in pH and concentration of
the solution. The reason is because each
solution has a molarity, when you add distilled
water to a solution, the number of mole of the
solvent stays the same while the volume
increases. Consequently, the molarity decreases.
For the bromophenol blue part, the result was
a little bit weird because the second trial
turned to light brown green color but we used
less NaOH than the previous one. So it might be
able to referred to our HCl in the erlenmeyer
flask that we have prepared. The HCl that we
measured might not accurate. It might be that
we put HCl on second flask less than 10-mL or
we put too much distilled water.
What is a Titration. (n.d.). Retrieved January
22, 2018, from
http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/lab/t
echniques/titration/what.html

Murmson, S. (n.d.). The Effects of Water


REFERENCE

During a Titration Experiment. Retrieved


January 22, 2018, from
https://classroom.synonym.com/effects-
water-during-titration-experiment-
33181.html

Titration introduction. (n.d.). Retrieved January


22, 2018, from
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemis
try/acid-base-
equilibrium/titrations/v/titration-
introduction
MEILY: 
   CALCULATION, DISCUSSION,DECORATION, EXPERIMENT,
RESULT, ABSTRACT, MATERIAL, PROCEDURE
EARN:
   CALCULATION, DISCUSSION, DECORATION, EXPERIMENT,
RESULT, SUGGESTION, MATERIAL, PROCEDURE

MIU:
WORK LOG

   CALCULATION, DISCUSSION, DECORATION,


EXPERIMENT, RESULT, MATERIAL, PROCEDURE,
SUGGESTION
BEAM:
   CALCULATION, DISCUSSION, EXPERIMENT,
RESULT, REFERENCE, INTRODUCTION, MATERIAL,
PROCEDURE
VAN:
   CALCULATION, DISCUSSION, DECORATION,
EXPERIMENT, RESULT, MATERIAL, PROCEDURE,
CONCLUSION