You are on page 1of 4

Ethyl sulfate 1

Ethyl sulfate
Ethyl sulfate


CAS number [1]


PubChem [2]

ChemSpider [3]

Jmol-3D images [4]

Image 1


Molecular formula C2H6O4S

Molar mass 126.13 g mol−1

Density 1.46 g/cm³

Melting point −25 °C (−13 °F; 248 K)

Boiling point 209 °C (decomp.)

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)

 (verify)  (what is:  / ?)

Infobox references

Ethyl sulfate (IUPAC name: ethyl hydrogen sulfate), also known as sulfovinic acid, is an organic chemical
compound used as an intermediate in the production of ethanol from ethylene. It is the ethyl ester of sulfuric acid.

This substance was studied alongsideWikipedia:Please clarify ether for the first time by German alchemist August
Siegmund Frobenius in 1730,[6] subsequently by French chemists Fourcroy in 1797 and Gay-Lussac in 1815.[7][8]
Swiss scientist Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure also studied it in 1807.[9] In 1827, French chemist and pharmacist
Félix-Polydore Boullay (1806-1835) along with Jean-Baptiste André Dumas noted the role of ethyl sulfate in the
preparation of diethyl ether from sulfuric acid and ethanol.[10] Further studies by the German chemist Eilhard
Mitscherlich and the Swedish chemist Jöns Berzelius suggested sulfuric acid was acting as a catalyst, this eventually
led to the discovery of sulfovinic acid as an intermediate in the process.[11][12] The advent of electrochemistry by
Italian physicist Alessandro Volta and English chemist Humphry Davy in the 1800s confirmed ether and water were
formed by the reaction of sub-stoichiometric amounts of sulfuric acid on ethanol and that sulfovinic acid was formed
Ethyl sulfate 2

as an intermediate in the reaction.

Ethyl sulfate can be produced in a laboratory setting by reacting ethanol with sulfuric acid under a gentle boil, while
keeping the reaction below 140 °C. The sulfuric acid must be added dropwise or the reaction must be actively cooled
because the reaction itself is highly exothermic.
CH3CH2OH + H2SO4 → CH3-CH2-O-SO3H + H2O
If the temperature exceeds 140 °C, the ethyl sulfate product tends to react with residual ethanol starting material,
producing diethyl ether. If the temperature exceeds 170 °C in a considerable excess of sulfuric acid, the ethyl sulfate
breaks down into ethylene and sulfuric acid.

The mechanism of the formation of ethyl sulfate, diethyl ether, and ethylene is based on the reaction between ethanol
and sulfuric acid, which involves protonation of the ethanolic oxygen to form theWikipedia:Vagueness oxonium ion.

Ethyl sulfate can exist in salt forms, such as sodium ethyl sulfate, potassium ethyl sulfate, and calcium ethyl sulfate.
The salt can be formed by adding the according carbonate, or bicarbonate salt, as an example ethyl sulfate and
potassium carbonate forms potassium ethyl sulfate and potassium bicarbonate.
CH3-CH2-O-SO3H + K2CO3 → CH3-CH2-O-SO2K + KHCO3

[1] http:/ / www. commonchemistry. org/ ChemicalDetail. aspx?ref=540-82-9
[2] http:/ / pubchem. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/ summary/ summary. cgi?cid=6004
[3] http:/ / www. chemspider. com/ Chemical-Structure. 5782. html
[4] http:/ / chemapps. stolaf. edu/ jmol/ jmol. php?model=O%3DS%28%3DO%29%28O%29OCC
[5] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ w/ index. php?title=Special:ComparePages& rev1=438835202& page2=Ethyl+ sulfate
[6] Dr. Frobenius (1730) "An account of a spiritus vini æthereus, together with several experiments tried," (http:/ / rstl. royalsocietypublishing.
org/ content/ 36/ 407-416/ 283. full. pdf+ html) Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (of London), 36 (413) : 283–289.
[7] Fourcroy, A.F. and Vauquelin, L.N. (1797) "Sur l'action de l'acide sulfurique sur l'alcool et de la formation de l'éther" (http:/ / books. google.
fr/ books?id=D4-jP5Fa_iMC& hl=en& pg=PA203#v=onepage& q& f=false) (On the action of sulfuric acid on alcohol and on the formation
of ether), Annales de Chimie, 23 : 203-215.
[8] Gay-Lussac, L.J. (1815) "Sur l'analyse de l'alcool et de l'éther sulfurique et sur les produits de la fermentation" (http:/ / books. google. com/
books?id=kB4zAQAAMAAJ& pg=PA311#v=onepage& q& f=false) (On the analysis of alcohol and sulfuric ether and on the products of
fermentation), Annales de Chimie, 95 : 311-318.
[9] Théodore de Saussure (1807) "Mémoire sur la composition de l'alcohol et de l'éther sulfurique," (http:/ / books. google. com/
books?id=G-UPAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA316) Journal de physique, de chimie, d'histoire naturelle et des arts, 64 : 316–354.
[10] Dumas, J-B and Boullay, P. (1827) "Mémoire sur la formation de l'éther sulfurique," (http:/ / books. google. com/
books?id=FDQFAAAAQAAJ& pg=RA1-PA294#v=onepage& q& f=false) Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 36 : 294-316.
[11] E. Mitscherlich (1834) "Ueber die Aetherbildung" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=wCUAAAAAMAAJ& pg=PA273#v=onepage&
q& f=false) (On the formation of ether), Annalen der Physik und Chemie, 31 (18) : 273-282.
[12] J. J. Berzelius, Årsberättelsen om framsteg i fysik och kemi [Annual report on progress in physics and chemistry], (Stockholm, Sweden:
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 1835). After reviewing Eilhard Mitscherlich's research on the formation of ether, Berzelius coins the
word katalys (catalysis) on page 245 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=1DM1AAAAcAAJ& pg=PA245#v=onepage& q& f=false):

Original: Jag skall derföre, för att begagna en i kemien välkänd härledning, kalla den kroppars
katalytiska kraft, sönderdelning genom denna kraft katalys, likasom vi med ordet analys beteckna
åtskiljandet af kroppars beståndsdelar medelst den vanliga kemiska frändskapen.
Translation: I shall, therefore, to employ a well-known derivation in chemistry, call [the catalytic]
bodies [i.e., substances] the catalytic force and the decomposition of [other] bodies by this force
Ethyl sulfate 3

catalysis, just as we signify by the word analysis the separation of the constituents of bodies by the usual
chemical affinities.
Article Sources and Contributors 4

Article Sources and Contributors

Ethyl sulfate  Source:  Contributors: Alfiee98, Beetstra, Bo Lindbergh, Cacycle, Chem-awb, Chemeng1982, Cwkmail, DMacks, Dr.K.,
Edgar181, Fram, Gaius Cornelius, HappyApple, Hellothere84, Jimmy xu wrk, JohnSRoberts99, Jynto, Keenan Pepper, Kiru15, Lamro, Mikespedia, Mowsala, NReitzel, Nono64, OpenFuture,
Plasmic Physics, Rich Farmbrough, Rifleman 82, Shoy, That Guy, From That Show!, TheFlippant, Theevan117, Ticky-Tack, Yikrazuul, 4 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

File:Sulfovinic acid.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Yikrazuul
File:Ethyl-bisulfate-3D-balls.png  Source:  License: Creative Commons Zero  Contributors: User:Jynto
File:Yes check.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anomie
File:X mark.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Gmaxwell

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0