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Phaphat Aowsathaporn 5961146

Nutchanon Charnwutiwong 5961217
Gawin Lohaburananont 5961211
Nichaporn Nattawut 5961001
Chinorod Tavichai 5961064
Thanawin Ungkananuchat 5961021
Accelerated Chemistry
    In this experiment, we demonstrate about the Titration of
Hydrochloric Acid with Standard solution to find the concentration
of unknown solution. In this case, we used Sodium Hydroxide as a
standard solution and HCl as an unknown solution. After we finish
prepared equipments for this experiment, we set up burets by
using a buret clamp to hold them up. We also insert a 10 ml of an
unknown acid to 6 Erlenmeyer flask. We add 5 drops of
Phenopthalein to 3 of them. After that we start to add NaOH
,which is 0.1 M concentration. For the first Erlenmeyer flask, we
roughly insert base into it because we want to predict how much
base we need for the next time for an acid to change color. Then,
we really careful with the others Erlenmeyer flask. We include
base drop by drop until a solution turn from colorless to light
pink. As a result, we got pH 7.53 by using pH meter and we added
approximately 5.1 ml of NaOH. After we finished record the result,
we start to use another three of Erlenmeyer flask and added 5
drops of Bromophenol Blue and do it the same as the first
indicator that we use. However, the color after we added base
into is changed from Yellow to Green. Then, we measure the pH and
the result is  3.85. Moreover, we added about 4.75 ml of NaOH
into the Erlenmeyer flask. From the calculation, the concentration
of HCI is 0.472 Molarity.
   Objective for titration lab = 1. Determine an unknown
concentration in a sample.

   This titration lab involves knowledge of titration, acid-base,

neutralization, etc. Titration is a process that is used to determine
the concentration of the unknown solution. It is the process of
adding the titrant (a known solution) to the sample that we want
to analyze until the reaction is complete.

For acid-base titration, we need to know about pH, endpoint,

equivalence point, etc. First and foremost, the definition of acids
and bases is connecting to hydrogen and hydroxide ions. For acid, it
is substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration to a
solution, while basic has capability to accept hydrogen ion which
mean to decrease the hydrogen concentration of a solution
(Campbell 9th edition, 2011). Acid can be recognized by the chemical
formula starting with H (hydrogen) except vinegar (acetic acid) as it
is written as CH3COOH; in contrast, the alkali has the OH
(hydroxide) at the end of the formula. The substance is determined
to be whether acid or base by pH value. pH is -log [H+] which mean
than it is involved in the concentration of hydrogen ion in the

pH value is a number from 1 to 14 in which less than 7 is acid and

greater than 7 is basic. If the pH is 7, then it is neutral. There are
many equipments that can be used to measure pH of the solution
such as litmus paper, pH meter or pH-indicator strip. However, in
the titration experiment, we use indicator solution in order to
determine the end point when titrant is mixing with analyte, the
unknown solution (AcidBase : Titrations, n.d.). Endpoint is the point
where the indicator changes color as indicators are weak acids or
bases which will change color depending on the pH of the solution.
There are many type of indicator solution; for instance,
phenolphthalein, methyl orange, bromophenol blue and
bromothymol blue.
Bromophenol blue and Phenolphthalein is structurally related to
each other. Bromophenol Blue is great for distinguishing different
concentrations of acid. It is yellow when pH is below 3.0 and blue-
purple when pH is above 4.6. It’s endpoint or changing color into
green lies between pH 3.0 to 4.6. For Phenolphthalein, it is one of
the most commonly used indicator for titration experiment. It is
colourless when pH is below 8.3 and is dark pink when pH is above
10.0. The color for its endpoint is light or pale pink which lies
around pH of 8.3 to 10.0 (Acid-Base indicators, n.d.).  

Neutralization is when acid and base react equally which makes

the solution neutral. It is the complete reaction of a strong acid
and a strong base resulting neutral solution.

Acid + Base -> salt + water

his means that the solution has reached the equivalence point.
The equation of Equivalence point is when the mole of titrant and
analyte are equal, so the reaction reacts completely leaving salt
and water as a byproduct. As a result, the concentration of
unknown solution can be calculated by this since mole of titrant =
analyte. To know the concentration (mole per litre) of analyte, we
need to know the titration formula which is  

Where V = volume, M = molarity or concentration, n = mole (in

this case mole of acid and base is equal so we don’t use it), A =
acid and B = base. As a result to calculate concentration of
unknown solution, we can put all of the information we know and
do the math to find whether M of acid or base (Chemistry
Libretexts, 2016).
Chemicals :
Hydrochloric acid solution (HCl)
Sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH)
- Phenolphthalein
- Bromophenol blue
Distilled water
lassware :
nstrument /G
2 50mL Beakers
1 250mL Beakers
1 500mL Beakers
4 Burets
Volumetric pipette
6 Erlenmeyer flasks
2 Droppers
pH meter
    When we did titration with phenolphthalein, the color we wanted for the
titration is light pink, and as light as possible. At the first round which was
the rough round, we got almost magenta color. In the second round, as we
already knew roughly how much bases will be used, however; it did not make
us got what we wanted. We accidentally added 2 more drops of sodium
Hydroxide, and the solution changed the color from transparent to pink
immediately, because the titration graph is a degree 10 graph, so when it is
close to the equivalent point, only a little of concentration change will
drastically affect the pH of the solution. As a result from the second round,
the color is still pink , but a little bit lighter than the first round. Finally, in
the third round, we got a very light pink that it is almost transparent,
because when it takes more time for the solution to be completely clear
from the indicator, we knew that it is closer to the end point of the
indicator. When it comes really close to the end point, we used only half drop
or one fourth of a drop of sodium hydroxide each time.

    When we did titration with bromophenol blue, we wanted to get the
green solution as the endpoint. At the first round, we tried to get the
roughly amount of bases that were going to make the solution changed its
color. As a result, we got the blue solution which meant that it exceeded
the endpoint. So, in the second and third time, we needed to use smaller
amount of bases in the burets. For the second round, we tried to be more
acculated and focused so that the solution would not exceed the endpoint.
Therefore, we got the green color as we wanted. For the third round, the
result was similar. But, in the third round, the color was lighter. 
Pre-lab questions

1. How will you know when your titration is finished?

When the color of the solution while mixing the substances, it takes
more time for the base to dissolve in the acid. It is noticeable by
looking at the color of the indicator. Just after the base is dropped in
the acid, it changes color to pink, because it touches the indicator.
While mixing, it takes time to change the color back to transparent.
This means that the pH is near the endpoint. Therefore, the titration is
finished when the color change into another color.

2. Label the pH scale below with acid, base, and neutral, indicating
numbers for each.
pH scale for acid is between 1-6. pH scale for base is between 8-14. pH
scale for neutral is 7.

3. On the scale above, use an arrow to show where your equivalence

point is located.
The equivalence point is at 7 in the pH scale.

4. Write the neutralization reaction that occurs between hydrobromic

acid (HBr) and lithium hydroxide (LiOH).
HBr(aq) + LiOH(aq) -> LiBr(aq) + H2O(l)
5. What is the concentration of 10.00 mL of HBr if it takes 16.73 mL of
a 0.253 M LiOH solution to neutralize it.
Post-Lab Questions

1. How would it affect your results if you used a beaker with residual
water in it to measure out your standardized sodium hydroxide solution?
- Technically, it would change the concentration and the pH of the solution.
However, the change would be very little that we can ignore it.

2. How would it affect your results if you used a wet Erlenmeyer flask
instead of a dry one when transferring your acid solution from the
volumetric pipette?
- The acid solution might contaminate with wet water which might change
the volume and pH of solution. The solution will not be pure which cause
the result of titration to be less accurate. Therefore, we should use a dry
Erlenmeyer flask when transferring acid solution from the volumetric

3. How do you tell if you have exceeded the equivalence point in your
- We can see the color of the indicator changing according to its endpoint
value (in pH). Since different indicators have different endpoints, we need to
know the endpoint of the indicator we use so we can have an idea of what
the pH of the solution is.
4. Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid (CH3COOH) in water. For quality
control purposes, it can be titrated using sodium hydroxide to assure a
specific % composition. If 25.00 mL of acetic acid is titrated with 9.08 mL
of a standardized 2.293 M sodium hydroxide solution, what is the molarity
of the vinegar. 

Vinegar molarity: 0.832 M

   In conclusion, we followed all the steps correctly. We are
able to find the concentration of the ‘unknown acid solution,’
HCl. When we measure the pH of the solution after the
indicators reached the endpoint, the pH values of each
solution are close to the actual endpoint of the two
indicators. The pH value of the solution with phenolphthalein
is 7.53. Phenolphthalein will start to change color at pH
around 7-8 which means that our result is not that far off
for phenolphthalein solution. For the solution with
bromophenol blue, the pH value is 3.85 and the endpoint of
bromophenol blue is around 3-4 so it is not that far off
either. Our results are pretty accurate. There might be some
errors from adding distilled water into the flask, but the
change is so little that we don’t really notice it. Even if we
use different indicators, the amount of the ‘unknown
solution’ that we calculated at the end is still the same.
   In this experiment we have taken more chemical than
we needed for the experiment which make the leftover
chemical gone to waste. So, to prevent this from
happening in the next experiments, we will calculate the
amount of chemical we needed for the experiment
beforehand, and only take the amount of chemicals we
need to save resources. We will also try to be more
careful while using the burettes to make to make the
result be more accurate. By holding and using the
burette correctly we will have more control of it and
stopping ourselves from accidentally dropping too much.
Because just only one drop of titrant can cause the
titration to go over the endpoint. We will also be more
patient and go more slowly by try dropping half drop
more often. We will also make sure that every drop of
the titrant is going down into the solution and not
sticking or staying at the side of the flasks.
Reece, J. B., Urry, L. A., Cain, M. L., Wasserman, S. A.,
Minorsky, P. V., & Jackson, R. B. (2011). Campbell Biology 9th
What is a Titration. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Chemistry Libretexts. (2016). Titration. Retreived from
AcidBase : Titrations. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Clark, J. (2013). Acid-base indicators. Retrieved from
Acid-Base indicators. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Science Buddies. (n.d.). Titration Tutorial: Tips & Tricks for
Titrating. Retrieved from
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