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G.R. No. 70054 December 11, 1991 B. FERNANDEZ, JR., CARLOTA P. VALENZUELA, ARNULFO B.

AURELLANO AND RAMON TIAOQUI, respondents.


BANCO FILIPINO SAVINGS AND MORTGAGE BANK, petitioner,
vs. G.R. No. 81303 December 11, 1991
THE MONETARY BOARD, CENTRAL BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, JOSE
B. FERNANDEZ, CARLOTA P. VALENZUELA, ARNULFO B. AURELLANO PILAR DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, petitioner
and RAMON V. TIAOQUI, respondents. vs.
COURT OF APPEALS, HON. MANUEL M. COSICO, in his capacity as
G.R. No. 68878 December 11, 1991 Presiding Judge of Branch 136 of the Regional Trial Court of Makati,
CENTRAL BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES AND CARLOTA P.
BANCO FILIPINO SAVINGS AND MORTGAGE BANK, petitioner, VALENZUELA,respondents.
vs.
HON. INTERMEDIATE APPELLATE COURT and CELESTINA S. G.R. No. 81304 December 11, 1991
PAHIMUNTUNG, assisted by her husband,respondents.
BF HOMES DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, petitioner,
G.R. No. 77255-58 December 11, 1991 vs.
THE COURT OF APPEALS, CENTRAL BANK AND CARLOTA P.
TOP MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS CORPORATION AND PILAR VALENZUELA, respondents.
DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, petitioners,
vs. G.R. No. 90473 December 11, 1991
THE COURT OF APPEALS, The Executive Judge of the Regional Trial
Court of Cavite, Ex-Officio Sheriff REGALADO E. EUSEBIO, BANCO EL GRANDE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, petitioner,
FILIPINO SAVINGS AND MORTGAGE BANK, CARLOTA P. VALENZUELA vs.
AND SYCIP, SALAZAR, HERNANDEZ AND GATMAITAN, respondents. THE COURT OF APPEALS, THE EXECUTIVE JUDGE of the Regional Trial
Court of Cavite, CLERK OF COURT and Ex-Officio Sheriff ADORACION
G.R. No. 78766 December 11, 1991 VICTA, BANCO FILIPINO SAVINGS AND MORTGAGE BANK, CARLOTA
P. VALENZUELA AND SYCIP, SALAZAR, HERNANDEZ AND
EL GRANDE CORPORATION, petitioner, GATMAITAN, respondents.
vs.
THE COURT OF APPEALS, THE EXECUTIVE JUDGE of The Regional Panganiban, Benitez, Barinaga & Bautista Law Offices collaborating counsel for
Trial Court and Ex-Officio Sheriff REGALADO E. EUSEBIO, BANCO petitioner.
FILIPINO SAVINGS AND MORTGAGE BANK, CARLOTA P. VALENZUELA
AND SYCIP, SALAZAR, FELICIANO AND HERNANDEZ, respondents. Florencio T. Domingo, Jr. and Crisanto S. Cornejo for intervenors.

G.R. No. 78767 December 11, 1991

METROPOLIS DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, petitioner, MEDIALDEA, J.:


vs.
COURT OF APPEALS, CENTRAL BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, JOSE B.
FERNANDEZ, JR., CARLOTA P. VALENZUELA, ARNULFO AURELLANO This refers to nine (9) consolidated cases concerning the legality of the closure and
AND RAMON TIAOQUI, respondents. receivership of petitioner Banco Filipino Savings and Mortgage Bank (Banco Filipino
for brevity) pursuant to the order of respondent Monetary Board. Six (6) of these
cases, namely, G.R. Nos. 68878, 77255-68, 78766, 81303, 81304 and 90473 involve
G.R. No. 78894 December 11, 1991 the common issue of whether or not the liquidator appointed by the respondent
Central Bank (CB for brevity) has the authority to prosecute as well as to defend suits,
BANCO FILIPINO SAVINGS AND MORTGAGE BANK, petitioner and to foreclose mortgages for and in behalf of the bank while the issue on the validity
vs. of the receivership and liquidation of the latter is pending resolution in G.R. No.
COURT OF APPEALS, THE CENTRAL BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, JOSE 7004. Corollary to this issue is whether the CB can be sued to fulfill financial
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commitments of a closed bank pursuant to Section 29 of the Central Bank Act. On the On March 26, 1985, Banco Filipino filed the petition for certiorari in G.R. No. 70054
other hand, the other three (3) cases, namely, G.R. Nos. 70054, which is the main questioning the validity of the resolutions issued by the Monetary Board authorizing
case, 78767 and 78894 all seek to annul and set aside M.B. Resolution No. 75 issued the receivership and liquidation of Banco Filipino.
by respondents Monetary Board and Central Bank on January 25, 1985.
In a resolution dated August 29, 1985, this Court in G.R. No. 70054 resolved to issue a
temporary restraining order, effective during the same period of 30 days, enjoining
the respondents from executing further acts of liquidation of the bank; that acts such
The antecedent facts of each of the nine (9) cases are as follows: as receiving collectibles and receivables or paying off creditors' claims and other
transactions pertaining to normal operations of a bank are not enjoined. The Central
Bank is ordered to designate a comptroller for Banco Filipino.
G.R No. 68878
Subsequently, Top Management failed to pay its loan on the due date. Hence, the law
This is a motion for reconsideration, filed by respondent Celestina Pahimuntung, of firm of Sycip, Salazar, et al. acting as counsel for Banco Filipino under authority of
the decision promulgated by thisCourt on April 8, 1986, granting the petition for Valenzuela as liquidator, applied for extra-judicial foreclosure of the mortgage over
review on certiorari and reversing the questioned decision of respondent appellate Top Management's properties. Thus, the Ex-Officio Sheriff of the Regional Trial Court
court, which annulled the writ of possession issued by the trial court in favor of of Cavite issued a notice of extra-judicial foreclosure sale of the properties on
petitioner. December 16, 1985.

The respondent-movant contends that the petitioner has no more personality to On December 9, 1985, Top Management filed a petition for injunction and prohibition
continue prosecuting the instant case considering that petitioner bank was placed with the respondent appellate court docketed as CA-G.R. SP No. 07892 seeking to
under receivership since January 25, 1985 by the Central Bank pursuant to the enjoin the Regional Trial Court of Cavite, the ex-officio sheriff of said court and Sycip,
resolution of the Monetary Board. Salazar, et al. from proceeding with foreclosure sale.

G.R. Nos. 77255-58 Similarly, Pilar Development defaulted in the payment of its loans. The law firm of
Sycip, Salazar, et al. filed separate applications with the ex-officio sheriff of the
Petitioners Top Management Programs Corporation (Top Management for brevity) Regional Trial Court of Cavite for the extra-judicial foreclosure of mortgage over its
and Pilar Development Corporation (Pilar Development for brevity) are corporations properties.
engaged in the business of developing residential subdivisions.
Hence, Pilar Development filed with the respondent appellate court a petition for
Top Management obtained a loan of P4,836,000 from Banco Filipino as evidenced by prohibition with prayer for the issuance of a writ of preliminary injunction docketed
a promissory note dated January 7, 1982 payable in three years from date. The loan as CA-G.R SP Nos. 08962-64 seeking to enjoin the same respondents from enforcing
was secured by real estate mortgage in its various properties in Cavite. Likewise, Pilar the foreclosure sale of its properties. CA-G.R. SP Nos. 07892 and 08962-64 were
Development obtained loans from Banco Filipino between 1982 and 1983 in the consolidated and jointly decided.
principal amounts of P6,000,000, P7,370,000 and P5,300,000 with maturity dates
on December 28, 1984, January 5, 1985 and February 16, 1984, respectively. To secure On October 30, 1986, the respondent appellate court rendered a decision dismissing
the loan, Pilar Development mortgaged to Banco Filipino various properties in the aforementioned petitions.
Dasmariñas, Cavite.
Hence, this petition was filed by the petitioners Top Management and Pilar
On January 25, 1985, the Monetary Board issued a resolution finding Banco Filipino Development alleging that Carlota Valenzuela, who was appointed by the Monetary
insolvent and unable to do business without loss to its creditors and depositors. It Board as liquidator of Banco Filipino, has no authority to proceed with the foreclosure
placed Banco Filipino under receivership of Carlota Valenzuela, Deputy Governor of sale of petitioners' properties on the ground that the resolution of the issue on the
the Central Bank. validity of the closure and liquidation of Banco Filipino is still pending with this Court
in G.R. 70054.
On March 22, 1985, the Monetary Board issued another resolution placing the bank
under liquidation and designating Valenzuela as liquidator. By virtue of her authority G.R. No. 78766
as liquidator, Valenzuela appointed the law firm of Sycip, Salazar, et al. to represent
Banco Filipino in all litigations.
Petitioner El Grande Development Corporation (El Grande for brevity) is engaged in
the business of developing residential subdivisions. It was extended by respondent
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Banco Filipino a credit accommodation to finance its housing program. Hence, trial court granted the motion to expunge in an order dated March 17, 1987. Petitioner
petitioner was granted a loan in the amount of P8,034,130.00 secured by real estate Pilar Development moved to reconsider the order but the motion was denied.
mortgages on its various estates located in Cavite.
Petitioner Pilar Development filed with the respondent appellate court a petition
On January 15, 1985, the Monetary Board forbade Banco Filipino to do business, for certiorari and mandamus to annul the order of the trial court. The Court of
placed it under receivership and designated Deputy Governor Carlota Valenzuela as Appeals rendered a decision dismissing the petition. A petition was filed with this
receiver. On March 22, 1985, the Monetary Board confirmed Banco Filipino's Court but was denied in a resolution dated March 22, 1988. Hence, this instant
insolvency and designated the receiver Carlota Valenzuela as liquidator. motion for reconsideration.

When petitioner El Grande failed to pay its indebtedness to Banco Filipino, the latter G.R. No. 81304
thru its liquidator, Carlota Valenzuela, initiated the foreclosure with the Clerk of Court
and Ex-officio sheriff of RTC Cavite. Subsequently, on March 31, 1986, the ex-officio On July 9, 1985, petitioner BF Homes Incorporated (BF Homes for brevity) filed an
sheriff issued the notice of extra-judicial sale of the mortgaged properties of El Grande action with the trial court to compel the Central Bank to restore petitioner's; financing
scheduled on April 30, 1986. facility with Banco Filipino.

In order to stop the public auction sale, petitioner El Grande filed a petition for The Central Bank filed a motion to dismiss the action. Petitioner BF Homes in a
prohibition with the Court of Appeals alleging that respondent Carlota Valenzuela supplemental complaint impleaded as defendant Carlota Valenzuela as receiver of
could not proceed with the foreclosure of its mortgaged properties on the ground that Banco Filipino Savings and Mortgage Bank.
this Court in G.R. No. 70054 issued a resolution dated August 29, 1985, which
restrained Carlota Valenzuela from acting as liquidator and allowed Banco Filipino to
resume banking operations only under a Central Bank comptroller. On April 8, 1985, petitioner filed a second supplemental complaint to which
respondents filed a motion to dismiss.
On March 2, 1987, the Court of Appeals rendered a decision dismissing the petition.
On July 9, 1985, the trial court granted the motion to dismiss the supplemental
complaint on the grounds (1) that plaintiff has no contractual relation with the
Hence this petition for review on certiorari was filed alleging that the respondent defendants, and (2) that the Intermediate Appellate Court in a previous decision in
court erred when it held in its decision that although Carlota P. Valenzuela was AC-G.R. SP. No. 04609 had stated that Banco Filipino has been ordered closed and
restrained by this Honorable Court from exercising acts in liquidation of Banco placed under receivership pending liquidation, and thus, the continuation of the
Filipino Savings & Mortgage Bank, she was not legally precluded from foreclosing the facility sued for by the plaintiff has become legally impossible and the suit has become
mortgage over the properties of the petitioner through counsel retained by her for the moot.
purpose.
The order of dismissal was appealed by the petitioner to the Court of Appeals. On
G.R. No. 81303 November 4, 1987, the respondent appellate court dismissed the appeal and affirmed
the order of the trial court.
On November 8, 1985, petitioner Pilar Development Corporation (Pilar Development
for brevity) filed an action against Banco Filipino, the Central Bank and Carlota Hence, this petition for review on certiorari was filed, alleging that the respondent
Valenzuela for specific performance, docketed as Civil Case No. 12191. It appears that court erred when it found that the private respondents should not be the ones to
the former management of Banco Filipino appointed Quisumbing & Associates as respond to the cause of action asserted by the petitioner and the petitioner did not
counsel for Banco Filipino. On June 12, 1986 the said law firm filed an answer for have any cause of action against the respondents Central Bank and Carlota
Banco Filipino which confessed judgment against Banco Filipino. Valenzuela.

On June 17, 1986, petitioner filed a second amended complaint. The Central Bank and G.R. No. 90473
Carlota Valenzuela, thru the law firm Sycip, Salazar, Hernandez and Gatmaitan filed
an answer to the complaint.
Petitioner El Grande Development Corporation (El Grande for brevity) obtained a
loan from Banco Filipino in the amount of P8,034,130.00, secured by a mortgage over
On June 23, 1986, Sycip, et al., acting for all the defendants including Banco Filipino its five parcels of land located in Cavite which were covered by Transfer Certificate of
moved that the answer filed by Quisumbing & Associates for defendant Banco Filipino Title Nos. T-82187, T-109027, T-132897, T-148377, and T-79371 of the Registry of
be expunged from the records. Despite opposition from Quisumbing & Associates, the Deeds of Cavite.

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When Banco Filipino was ordered closed and placed under receivership in 1985, the The examination findings as of July 31, 1984, as shown earlier, indicate one
appointed liquidator of BF, thru its counsel Sycip, Salazar, et al. applied with the ex- of insolvency and illiquidity and further confirms the above conclusion of the
officio sheriff of the Regional Trial Court of Cavite for the extrajudicial foreclosure of Conservator.
the mortgage constituted over petitioner's properties. On March 24, 1986, the ex-
officio sheriff issued a notice of extrajudicial foreclosure sale of the properties of All the foregoing provides sufficient justification for forbidding the bank
petitioner. from engaging in banking.

Thus, petitioner filed with the Court of Appeals a petition for prohibition with prayer Foregoing considered, the following are recommended:
for writ of preliminary injunction to enjoin the respondents from foreclosing the
mortgage and to nullify the notice of foreclosure.
1. Forbid the Banco Filipino Savings & Mortgage Bank to do
business in the Philippines effective the beginning of office January
On June 16, 1989, respondent Court of Appeals rendered a decision dismissing the 1985, pursuant to Sec. 29 of R.A No. 265, as amended;
petition.
2. Designate the Head of the Conservator Team at the bank, as
Not satisfied with the decision, petitioner filed the instant petition for review Receiver of Banco Filipino Savings & Mortgage Bank, to
on certiorari. immediately take charge of the assets and liabilities, as
expeditiously as possible collect and gather all the assets and
G.R. No. 70054 administer the same for the benefit of all the creditors, and exercise
all the powers necessary for these purposes including but not
Banco Filipino Savings and Mortgage Bank was authorized to operate as such under limited to bringing suits and foreclosing mortgages in the name of
M.B. Resolution No. 223 dated February 14, 1963. It commenced operations on July the bank.
9, 1964. It has eighty-nine (89) operating branches, forty-six (46) of which are in
Manila, with more than three (3) million depositors. 3. The Board of Directors and the principal officers from Senior
Vice Presidents, as listed in the attached Annex "A" be included in
As of July 31, 1984, the list of stockholders showed the major stockholders to be: the watchlist of the Supervision and Examination Sector until such
Metropolis Development Corporation, Apex Mortgage and Loans Corporation, time that they shall have cleared themselves.
Filipino Business Consultants, Tiu Family Group, LBH Inc. and Anthony Aguirre.
4. Refer to the Central Bank's Legal Department and Office of
Petitioner Bank had an approved emergency advance of P119.7 million under M.B. Special Investigation the report on the findings on Banco Filipino
Resolution No. 839 dated June 29, 1984. This was augmented with a P3 billion credit for investigation and possible prosecution of directors, officers, and
line under M.B. Resolution No. 934 dated July 27, 1984. employees for activities which led to its insolvent position. (pp- 61-
62, Rollo)

On the same date, respondent Board issued M.B. Resolution No. 955 placing
petitioner bank under conservatorship of Basilio Estanislao. He was later replaced by On January 25, 1985, the Monetary Board issued the assailed MB Resolution
Gilberto Teodoro as conservator on August 10, 1984. The latter submitted a report No. 75 which ordered the closure of BF and which further provides:
dated January 8, 1985 to respondent Board on the conservatorship of petitioner bank,
which report shall hereinafter be referred to as the Teodoro report. After considering the report dated January 8, 1985 of the
Conservator for Banco Filipino Savings and Mortgage Bank that the
Subsequently, another report dated January 23, 1985 was submitted to the Monetary continuance in business of the bank would involve probable loss to
Board by Ramon Tiaoqui, Special Assistant to the Governor and Head, SES its depositors and creditors, and after discussing and finding to be
Department II of the Central Bank, regarding the major findings of examination on true the statements of the Special Assistant to the Governor and
the financial condition of petitioner BF as of July 31, 1984. The report, which shall be Head, Supervision and Examination Sector (SES) Department II as
referred to herein as the Tiaoqui Report contained the following conclusion and recited in his memorandum dated January 23, 1985, that the Banco
recommendation: Filipino Savings & Mortgage Bank is insolvent and that its
continuance in business would involve probable loss to its
depositors and creditors, and in pursuance of Sec. 29 of RA 265, as
amended, the Board decided:

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1. To forbid Banco Filipino Savings and Mortgage Bank On March 19, 1985, Carlota Valenzuela, as Receiver and Arnulfo
and all its branches to do business in the Philippines; Aurellano and Ramon Tiaoqui as Deputy Receivers of Banco
Filipino submitted their report on the receivership of BF to the
2. To designate Mrs. Carlota P. Valenzuela, Deputy Monetary Board, in compliance with the mandate of Sec. 29 of R.A.
Governor as Receiver who is hereby directly vested with 265 which provides that the Monetary Board shall determine within
jurisdiction and authority to immediately take charge of sixty (60) days from date of receivership of a bank whether such
the bank's assets and liabilities, and as expeditiously as bank may be reorganized/permitted to resume business or ordered
possible collect and gather all the assets and administer to be liquidated. The report contained the following
the same for the benefit of its creditors, exercising all the recommendation:
powers necessary for these purposes including but not
limited to, bringing suits and foreclosing mortgages in the In view of the foregoing and considering that the condition
name of the bank; of the banking institution continues to be one of
insolvency, i.e., its realizable assets are insufficient to meet
3. To designate Mr. Arnulfo B. Aurellano, Special Assistant all its liabilities and that the bank cannot resume business
to the Governor, and Mr. Ramon V. Tiaoqui, Special with safety to its depositors, other creditors and the
Assistant to the Governor and Head, Supervision and general public, it is recommended that:
Examination Sector Department II, as Deputy Receivers
who are likewise hereby directly vested with jurisdiction 1. Banco Filipino Savings & Mortgage Bank be liquidated pursuant
and authority to do all things necessary or proper to carry to paragraph 3, Sec. 29 of RA No. 265, as amended;
out the functions entrusted to them by the Receiver and
otherwise to assist the Receiver in carrying out the 2. The Legal Department, through the Solicitor General, be
functions vested in the Receiver by law or Monetary Board authorized to file in the proper court a petition for assistance in th
Resolutions; liquidation of the Bank;

4. To direct and authorize Management to do all other 3. The Statutory Receiver be designated as the Liquidator of said
things and carry out all other measures necessary or bank; and
proper to implement this Resolution and to safeguard the
interests of depositors, creditors and the general public;
and 4. Management be instructed to inform the stockholders of Banco
Filipino Savings & Mortgage Bank of the Monetary Board's decision
liquidate the Bank. (p. 167, Rollo, Vol. I)
5. In consequence of the foregoing, to terminate the
conservatorship over Banco Filipino Savings and Mortgage
Bank. (pp. 10-11, Rollo, Vol. I) On July 23, 1985, petitioner filed a motion before this Court praying
that a restraining order or a writ of preliminary injunction be issued
to enjoin respondents from causing the dismantling of BF signs in
On February 2, 1985, petitioner BF filed a complaint docketed as its main office and 89 branches. This Court issued a resolution on
Civil Case No. 9675 with the Regional Trial Court of Makati to set August 8, 1985 ordering the issuance of the aforesaid temporary
aside the action of the Monetary Board placing BF under restraining order.
receivership.
On August 20, 1985, the case was submitted for resolution.
On February 28, 1985, petitioner filed with this Court the instant
petition for certiorari and mandamus under Rule 65 of the Rules of
Court seeking to annul the resolution of January 25, 1985 as made In a resolution dated August 29, 1985, this Court Resolved direct
without or in excess of jurisdiction or with grave abuse of the respondents Monetary Board and Central Bank hold hearings at
discretion, to order respondents to furnish petitioner with the which the petitioner should be heard, and terminate such hearings
reports of examination which led to its closure and to afford and submit its resolution within thirty (30) days. This Court further
petitioner BF a hearing prior to any resolution that may be issued resolved to issue a temporary restraining order enjoining the
under Section 29 of R.A. 265, also known as Central Bank Act. respondents from executing further acts of liquidation of a bank.
Acts such as receiving collectibles and receivables or paying off
creditors' claims and other transactions pertaining to normal

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operations of a bank were no enjoined. The Central Bank was also both parties had not waived cross-examination of their deponents,
ordered to designate comptroller for the petitioner BF. This Court no such cross-examination has been conducted. The reception of
also ordered th consolidation of Civil Cases Nos. 8108, 9676 and evidence in the form of affidavits was followed throughout, until the
10183 in Branch 136 of the Regional Trial Court of Makati. commissioner submitted his report and recommendations to the
Court. This Court also held that the documents pertinent to the
However, on September 12, 1985, this Court in the meantime resolution of the instant petition are the Teodoro Report, Tiaoqui
suspended the hearing it ordered in its resolution of August 29, Report, Valenzuela, Aurellano and Tiaoqui Report and the
1985. supporting documents which were made as the bases by the
reporters of their conclusions contained in their respective reports.
This Court also Resolved in its resolution to re-open the referral
On October 8, 1985, this Court submitted a resolution order ing hearing that was terminated after Judge Cosico had submitted his
Branch 136 of the Regional Trial Court of Makati the presided over report and recommendation with the end in view of allowing
by Judge Ricardo Francisco to conduct the hear ing contemplated in petitioner to complete its presentation of evidence and also for
the resolution of August 29, 1985 in the most expeditious manner respondents to adduce additional evidence, if so minded, and for
and to submit its resolution to this Court. both parties to conduct the required cross-examination of
witnesses/deponents, to be done within a period of three months.
In the Court's resolution of February 19, 1987, the Court stated that To obviate all doubts on Judge Cosico's impartiality, this Court
the hearing contemplated in the resolution of August 29, 1985, designated a new hearing commissioner in the person of former
which is to ascertain whether substantial administrative due Judge Consuelo Santiago of the Regional Trial Court, Makati,
process had been observed by the respondent Monetary Board, may Branch 149 (now Associate Justice of the Court of Appeals).
be expedited by Judge Manuel Cosico who now presides the court
vacated by Judge Ricardo Francisco, who was elevated to the Court Three motions for intervention were filed in this case as follows:
of Appeals, there being no legal impediment or justifiable reason to First, in G.R. No. 70054 filed by Eduardo Rodriguez and Fortunate
bar the former from conducting such hearing. Hence, this Court M. Dizon, stockholders of petitioner bank for and on behalf of other
directed Judge Manuel Cosico to expedite the hearing and submit stockholders of petitioner; second, in G.R. No. 78894, filed by the
his report to this Court. same stockholders, and, third, again in G.R. No. 70054 by BF
Depositors' Association and others similarly situated. This Court, on
On February 20, 1988, Judge Manuel Cosico submitted his report March 1, 1990, denied the aforesaid motions for intervention.
to this Court with the recommendation that the resolutions of
respondents Monetary Board and Central Bank authorizing the On January 28, 1991, the hearing commissioner, Justice Consuelo
closure and liquidation of petitioner BP be upheld. Santiago of the Court of Appeals submitted her report and
recommendation (to be hereinafter called, "Santiago Report") on
On October 21, 1988, petitioner BF filed an urgent motion to reopen the following issues stated therein as follows:
hearing to which respondents filed their comment on December 16,
1988. Petitioner filed their reply to respondent's comment of l) Had the Monetary Board observed the procedural
January 11, 1989. After having deliberated on the grounds raised in requirements laid down in Sec. 29 of R.A. 265, as amended
the pleadings, this Court in its resolution dated August 3, 1989 to justify th closure of the Banco Filipino Savings and
declared that its intention as expressed in its resolution of August Mortgage Bank?
29, 1985 had not been faithfully adhered to by the herein petitioner
and respondents. The aforementioned resolution had ordered a
healing on the reports that led respondents to order petitioner's 2) On the date of BF's closure (January 25, 1985) was its
closure and its alleged pre-planned liquidation. This Court noted condition one of insolvency or would its continuance in
that during the referral hearing however, a different scheme was business involve probable loss to its depositors or
followed. Respondents merely submitted to the commissioner their creditors?
findings on the examinations conducted on petitioner, affidavits of
the private respondents relative to the findings, their reports to the The commissioner after evaluation of the evidence presented found
Monetary Board and several other documents in support of their and recommended the following:
position while petitioner had merely submitted objections to the
findings of respondents, counter-affidavits of its officers and also 1. That the TEODORO and TIAOQUI reports did not
documents to prove its claims. Although the records disclose that establish in accordance with See. 29 of the R.A. 265, as
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amended, BF's insolvency as of July 31, 1984 or that its On February 14, 1985, the Central Bank and the receivers filed a
continuance in business thereafter would involve probable motion to dismiss the complaint on the ground that the receivers
loss to its depositors or creditors. On the contrary, the had not authorized anyone to file the action. In a supplemental
evidence indicates that BF was solvent on July 31, 1984 motion to dismiss, the Central Bank cited the resolution of this
and that on January 25, 1985, the day it was closed, its Court dated October 15, 1985 in G.R. No. 65723 entitled, "Central
insolvency was not clearly established; Bank et al. v. Intermediate Appellate Court" whereby We held that a
complaint questioning the validity of the receivership established by
2. That consequently, BF's closure on January 25, 1985, the Central Bank becomes moot and academic upon the initiation of
not having satisfied the requirements prescribed under liquidation proceedings.
Sec. 29 of RA 265, as amended, was null and void.
While the motion to dismiss was pending resolution, petitioner
3. That accordingly, by way of correction, BF should be herein Metropolis Development Corporation (Metropolis for
allowed to re-open subject to such laws, rules and brevity) filed a motion to intervene in the aforestated civil case on
regulations that apply to its situation. the ground that as a stockholder and creditor of Banco Filipino, it
has an interest in the subject of the action.

Respondents thereafter filed a motion for leave to file objections to


the Santiago Report. In the same motion, respondents requested On July 19, 1985, the trial court denied the motion to dismiss and
that the report and recommendation be set for oral argument before also denied the motion for reconsideration of the order later filed by
the Court. On February 7, 1991, this Court denied the request for Central Bank. On June 5, 1985, the trial court allowed the motion
oral argument of the parties. for intervention.

On February 25, 1991, respondents filed their objections to the Hence, the Central Bank and the receivers of Banco Filipino filed a
Santiago Report. On March 5, 1991, respondents submitted a petition for certiorari with the respondent appellate court alleging
motion for oral argument alleging that this Court is confronted with that the trial court committed grave abuse of discretion in not
two conflicting reports on the same subject, one upholding on all dismissing Civil Case No. 9675.
points the Monetary Board's closure of petitioner, (Cosico Report
dated February 19, 1988) and the other (Santiago Report dated On March 17, 1986, the respondent appellate court rendered a
January 25, 1991) holding that petitioner's closure was null and decision annulling and setting aside the questioned orders of the
void because petitioner's insolvency was not clearly established trial court, and ordering the dismissal of the complaint filed by
before its closure; and that such a hearing on oral argrument will Banco Filipino with the trial court as well as the complaint in
therefore allow the parties to directly confront the issues before this intervention of petitioner Metropolis Development Corporation.
Court.
Hence this petition was filed by Metropolis Development
On March 12, 1991 petitioner filed its opposition to the motion for Corporation questioning the decision of the respondent appellate
oral argument. On March 20, 1991, it filed its reply to respondents' court.
objections to the Santiago Report.
G.R. No. 78894
On June 18, 1991, a hearing was held where both parties were heard
on oral argument before this Court. The parties, having submitted On February 2, 1985, a complaint was filed with the trial court in
their respective memoranda, the case is now submitted for decision. the name of Banco Filipino to annul the resolution o the Monetary
Board dated January 25, 1985 which ordered the closure of Banco
G.R. No. 78767 Filipino and placed it under receivership. The receivers appointed
by the Monetary Board were Carlota Valenzuela, Arnulfo Aurellano
On February 2, 1985, Banco Filipino filed a complaint with the trial and Ramon Tiaoqui.
court docketed as Civil Case No. 9675 to annul the resolution of the
Monetary Board dated January 25, 1985, which ordered the closure On February 14, 1985, the Central Bank and the receiver filed a
of the bank and placed it under receivership. motion to dismiss the complaint on the ground that the receiver
had not authorized anyone to file the action.

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On March 22, 1985, the Monetary Board placed the bank under as he may retain in all actions or proceedings for or against the
liquidation and designated Valenzuela as liquidator and Aurellano institution, exercising all the powers necessary for these purposes
and Tiaoqui as deputy liquidators. including, but not limited to, bringing and foreclosing mortgages
in the name of the bank. If the Monetary Board shall later
The Central Bank filed a supplemental motion to dismiss which was determine and confirm that banking institution is insolvent or
denied. Hence, the latter filed a petition for certiorari with the cannot resume business safety to depositors, creditors and the
respondent appellate court to set aside the order of the trial court general public, it shall, public interest requires, order its liquidation
denying the motion to dismiss. On March 17, 1986, the respondent and appoint a liquidator who shall take over and continue the
appellate court granted the petition and dismissed the complaint of functions of receiver previously appointed by Monetary
Banco Filipino with the trial court. Board. The liquid for may, in the name of the bank and with the
assistance counsel as he may retain, institute such actions as may
necessary in the appropriate court to collect and recover a counts
Thus, this petition for certiorari was filed with the petitioner and assets of such institution or defend any action ft against the
contending that a bank which has been closed and placed under institution.
receivership by the Central Bank under Section 29 of RA 265 could
file suit in court in its name to contest such acts of the Central Bank,
without the authorization of the CB-appointed receiver. When the issue on the validity of the closure and receivership of
Banco Filipino bank was raised in G.R. No. 70054, pendency of the
case did not diminish the powers and authority of the designated
After deliberating on the pleadings in the following cases: liquidator to effectuate and carry on the a ministration of the bank.
In fact when We adopted a resolute on August 25, 1985 and issued a
1. In G.R. No. 68878, the respondent's motion for restraining order to respondents Monetary Board and Central Bank,
reconsideration; We enjoined me further acts of liquidation. Such acts of liquidation,
as explained in Sec. 29 of the Central Bank Act are those which
constitute the conversion of the assets of the banking institution to
2. In G.R. Nos. 77255-58, the petition, comment, reply,
money or the sale, assignment or disposition of the s to creditors
rejoinder and sur-rejoinder;
and other parties for the purpose of paying debts of such institution.
We did not prohibit however acts a as receiving collectibles and
2. In G.R. No. 78766, the petition, comment, reply and receivables or paying off credits claims and other transactions
rejoinder; pertaining to normal operate of a bank. There is no doubt that the
prosecution of suits collection and the foreclosure of mortgages
3. In G.R. No. 81303, the petitioner's motion for against debtors the bank by the liquidator are among the usual and
reconsideration; ordinary transactions pertaining to the administration of a bank.
their did Our order in the same resolution dated August 25, 1985 for
the designation by the Central Bank of a comptroller Banco Filipino
4. In G.R.No. 81304, the petition, comment and reply; alter the powers and functions; of the liquid insofar as the
management of the assets of the bank is concerned. The mere duty
5. Finally, in G.R. No. 90473, the petition comment and of the comptroller is to supervise counts and finances undertaken
reply. by the liquidator and to d mine the propriety of the latter's
expenditures incurred behalf of the bank. Notwithstanding this, the
We find the motions for reconsideration in G.R. Nos. 68878 and liquidator is empowered under the law to continue the functions of
81303 and the petitions in G.R. Nos. 77255-58, 78766, 81304 and receiver is preserving and keeping intact the assets of the bank in
90473 devoid of merit. substitution of its former management, and to prevent the
dissipation of its assets to the detriment of the creditors of the bank.
These powers and functions of the liquidator in directing the
Section 29 of the Republic Act No. 265, as amended known as the operations of the bank in place of the former management or
Central Bank Act, provides that when a bank is forbidden to do former officials of the bank include the retaining of counsel of his
business in the Philippines and placed under receivership, the choice in actions and proceedings for purposes of administration.
person designated as receiver shall immediately take charge of the
bank's assets and liabilities, as expeditiously as possible, collect
and gather all the assets and administer the same for the benefit of Clearly, in G.R. Nos. 68878, 77255-58, 78766 and 90473, the
its creditors, and represent the bank personally or through counsel liquidator by himself or through counsel has the authority to bring

8
actions for foreclosure of mortgages executed by debtors in favor of examining department or his examiners or agents into the
the bank. In G.R. No. 81303, the liquidator is likewise authorized to condition of any bank or non-bank financial intermediary
resist or defend suits instituted against the bank by debtors and performing quasi-banking functions, it shall be disclosed
creditors of the bank and by other private persons. Similarly, in that the condition of the same is one of insolvency, or that
G.R. No. 81304, due to the aforestated reasons, the Central Bank its continuance in business would involve probable loss to
cannot be compelled to fulfill financial transactions entered into by its depositors or creditors, it shall be the duty of the
Banco Filipino when the operations of the latter were suspended by department head concerned forthwith, in writing, to
reason of its closure. The Central Bank possesses those powers and inform the Monetary Board of the facts. The Board may,
functions only as provided for in Sec. 29 of the Central Bank Act. upon finding the statements of the department head to be
true, forbid the institution to do business in the
While We recognize the actual closure of Banco Filipino and the Philippines and designate an official of the Central Bank or
consequent legal effects thereof on its operations, We cannot a person of recognized competence in banking or finance,
uphold the legality of its closure and thus, find the petitions in G.R. as receiver to immediately take charge of its assets and
Nos. 70054, 78767 and 78894 impressed with merit. We hold that liabilities, as expeditiously as possible collect and gather
the closure and receivership of petitioner bank, which was ordered all the assets and administer the same for the benefit's of
by respondent Monetary Board on January 25, 1985, is null and its creditors, and represent the bank personally or through
void. counsel as he may retain in all actions or proceedings for
or against the institution, exercising all the powers
necessary for these purposes including, but not limited to,
It is a well-recognized principle that administrative and bringing and foreclosing mortgages in the name of the
discretionary functions may not be interfered with by the courts. In bank or non-bank financial intermediary performing
general, courts have no supervising power over the proceedings and quasi-banking functions.
actions of the administrative departments of the government. This
is generally true with respect to acts involving the exercise of
judgment or discretion, and findings of fact. But when there is a The Monetary Board shall thereupon determine within
grave abuse of discretion which is equivalent to a capricious and sixty days whether the institution may be reorganized or
whimsical exercise of judgment or where the power is exercised in otherwise placed in such a condition so that it may be
an arbitrary or despotic manner, then there is a justification for the permitted to resume business with safety to its depositors
courts to set aside the administrative determination reached (Lim, and creditors and the general public and shall prescribe
Sr. v. Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources, L-26990, the conditions under which such resumption of business
August 31, 1970, 34 SCRA 751) shall take place as well as the time for fulfillment of such
conditions. In such case, the expenses and fees in the
collection and administration of the assets of the
The jurisdiction of this Court is called upon, once again, through institution shall be determined by the Board and shall be
these petitions, to undertake the delicate task of ascertaining paid to the Central Bank out of the assets of such
whether or not an administrative agency of the government, like the institution.
Central Bank of the Philippines and the Monetary Board, has
committed grave abuse of discretion or has acted without or in
excess of jurisdiction in issuing the assailed order. Coupled with If the Monetary Board shall determine and confirm within
this task is the duty of this Court not only to strike down acts which the said period that the bank or non-bank financial
violate constitutional protections or to nullify administrative intermediary performing quasi-banking functions is
decisions contrary to legal mandates but also to prevent acts in insolvent or cannot resume business with safety to its
excess of authority or jurisdiction, as well as to correct manifest depositors, creditors, and the general public, it shall, if the
abuses of discretion committed by the officer or tribunal involved. public interest requires, order its liquidation, indicate the
manner of its liquidation and approve a liquidation plan
which may, when warranted, involve disposition of any or
The law applicable in the determination of these issues is Section 29 all assets in consideration for the assumption of equivalent
of Republic Act No. 265, as amended, also known as the Central liabilities. The liquidator designated as hereunder
Bank Act, which provides: provided shall, by the Solicitor General, file a petition in
the regional trial court reciting the proceedings which have
SEC. 29. Proceedings upon insolvency. — Whenever, upon been taken and praying the assistance of the court in the
examination by the head of the appropriate supervising or liquidation of such institutions. The court shall have

9
jurisdiction in the same proceedings to assist in the placement under conservatorship o liquidation. No
adjudication of the disputed claims against the bank or restraining order or injunction shall be issued by an court
non-bank financial intermediary performing quasi- enjoining the Central Bank from implementing its actions
banking functions and in the enforcement of individual under this Section and the second paragraph of Section 34
liabilities of the stockholders and do all that is necessary to of this Act in th absence of any convincing proof that the
preserve the assets of such institutions and to implement action of the Monetary Board is plainly arbitrary and made
the liquidation plan approved by the Monetary Board. The in bad faith and the petitioner or plaintiff files a bond,
Monetary Board shall designate an official of the Central executed in favor of the Central Bank, in an amount be
bank or a person of recognized competence in banking or fixed by the court. The restraining order or injunction shall
finance, as liquidator who shall take over and continue the be refused or, if granted, shall be dissolved upon filing by
functions of the receiver previously appointed by the the Central Bank of a bond, which shall be in the form of
Monetary Board under this Section. The liquidator shall, cash or Central Bank cashier's check, in an amount twice
with all convenient speed, convert the assets of the the amount of the bond of th petitioner or plaintiff
banking institutions or non-bank financial intermediary conditioned that it will pay the damages which the
performing quasi-banking function to money or sell, petitioner or plaintiff may suffer by the refusal or the
assign or otherwise dispose of the same to creditors and dissolution of the injunction. The provisions of Rule 58 of
other parties for the purpose of paying the debts of such the New Rules of Court insofar as they are applicable and
institution and he may, in the name of the bank or non- not inconsistent with the provision of this Section shall
bank financial intermediary performing quasi-banking govern the issuance and dissolution of the re straining
functions and with the assistance of counsel as he may order or injunction contemplated in this Section.
retain, institute such actions as may be necessary in the
appropriate court to collect and recover accounts and xxx xxx xxx
assets of such institution or defend any action filed against
the institution: Provided, However, That after having
reasonably established all claims against the institution, Based on the aforequoted provision, the Monetary Board may order
the liquidator may, with the approval of the court, effect the cessation of operations of a bank in the Philippine and place it
partial payments of such claims for assets of the institution under receivership upon a finding of insolvency or when its
in accordance with their legal priority. continuance in business would involve probable loss its depositors
or creditors. If the Monetary Board shall determine and confirm
within sixty (60) days that the bank is insolvent or can no longer
The assets of an institution under receivership or resume business with safety to its depositors, creditors and the
liquidation shall be deemed in custodia legis in the hands general public, it shall, if public interest will be served, order its
of the receiver or liquidator and shall from the moment of liquidation.
such receivership or liquidation, be exempt from any order
of garnishment, levy, attachment, orexecution.
Specifically, the basic question to be resolved in G.R. Nos. 70054,
78767 and 78894 is whether or not the Central Bank and the
The provisions of any law to the contrary notwithstanding, Monetary Board acted arbitrarily and in bad faith in finding and
the actions of the Monetary Board under this Section, thereafter concluding that petitioner bank is insolvent, and in
Section 28-A, an the second paragraph of Section 34 of ordering its closure on January 25, 1985.
this Act shall be final an executory, and can be set aside by
a court only if there is convince proof, after hearing, that
the action is plainly arbitrary and made in bad As We have stated in Our resolution dated August 3, 1989, the
faith: Provided, That the same is raised in an appropriate documents pertinent to the resolution of these petitions are the
pleading filed by the stockholders of record representing Teodoro Report, Tiaoqui Report, and the Valenzuela, Aurellano and
the majority of th capital stock within ten (10) days from Tiaoqui Report and the supporting documents made as bases by the
the date the receiver take charge of the assets and supporters of their conclusions contained in their respective
liabilities of the bank or non-bank financial intermediary reports. We will focus Our study and discussion however on the
performing quasi-banking functions or, in case of Tiaoqui Report and the Valenzuela, Aurellano and Tiaoqui Report.
conservatorship or liquidation, within ten (10) days from The former recommended the closure and receivership of petitioner
receipt of notice by the said majority stockholders of said bank while the latter report made the recommendation to
bank or non-bank financial intermediary of the order of its eventually place the petitioner bank under liquidation. This Court
shall likewise take into consideration the findings contained in the
10
reports of the two commissioners who were appointed by this Court It is worthy to note that a conference was held on January 21, 1985
to hold the referral hearings, namely the report by Judge Manuel at the Central Bank between the officials of the latter an of
Cosico submitted February 20, 1988 and the report submitted by petitioner bank. What transpired and what was agreed upon during
Justice Consuelo Santiago on January 28, 1991. the conference was explained in the Tiaoqui report.

There is no question that under Section 29 of the Central Bank Act, ... The discussion centered on the substantial exposure of
the following are the mandatory requirements to be complied with the bank to the various entities which would have a
before a bank found to be insolvent is ordered closed and forbidden relationship with the bank; the manner by which some
to do business in the Philippines: Firstly, an examination shall be bank funds were made indirectly available to several
conducted by the head of the appropriate supervising or examining entities within the group; and the unhealth financial status
department or his examiners or agents into the condition of the of these firms in which the bank was additionally exposed
bank; secondly, it shall be disclosed in the examination that the through new funds or refinancing accommodation
condition of the bank is one of insolvency, or that its continuance in including accrued interest.
business would involve probable loss to its depositors or creditors;
thirdly, the department head concerned shall inform the Monetary Queried in the impact of these clean loans, on the bank
Board in writing, of the facts; and lastly, the Monetary Board shall solvency Mr. Dizon (BF Executive Vice President)
find the statements of the department head to be true. intimated that, collectively these corporations have large
undeveloped real estate properties in the suburbs which
Anent the first requirement, the Tiaoqui report, submitted on can be made answerable for the unsecured loans a well as
January 23, 1985, revealed that the finding of insolvency of the Central Bank's credit accommodations. A formal reply
petitioner was based on the partial list of exceptions and findings on of the bank would still be forthcoming. (pp. 58-59, Rollo,
the regular examination of the bank as of July 31, 1984 conducted Vol. I; emphasis ours)
by the Supervision and Examination Sector II of the Central Bank of
the PhilippinesCentral Bank (p. 1, Tiaoqui Report). Clearly, Tiaoqui based his report on an incomplete examination of
petitioner bank and outrightly concluded therein that the latter's
On December 17, 1984, this list of exceptions and finding was financial status was one of insolvency or illiquidity. He arrived at
submitted to the petitioner bank (p. 6, Tiaoqui Report) This was the said conclusion from the following facts: that as of July 31, 1984,
attached to the letter dated December 17, 1984, of examiner-in- total capital accounts consisting of paid-in capital and other capital
charge Dionisio Domingo of SES Department II of the Central Bank accounts such as surplus, surplus reserves and undivided profits
to Teodoro Arcenas, president of petitione bank, which disclosed aggregated P351.8 million; that capital adjustments, however,
that the examination of the petitioner bank as to its financial wiped out the capital accounts and placed the bank with a capital
condition as of July 31, 1984 was not yet completed or finished on deficiency amounting to P334.956 million; that the biggest
December 17, 1984 when the Central Bank submitted the partial list adjustment which contributed to the deficit is the provision for
of findings of examination to th petitioner bank. The letter reads: estimated losses on accounts classified as doubtful and loss which
was computed at P600.4 million pursuant to the examination. This
In connection with the regular examination of your provision is also known as valuation reserves which was set up or
institution a of July 31, 1984, we are submitting herewith deducted against the capital accounts of the bank in arriving at the
a partial list of our exceptions/findings for your latter's financial condition.
comments.
Tiaoqui however admits the insufficiency and unreliability of the
Please be informed that we have not yet officially findings of the examiner as to the setting up of recommended
terminated our examination (tentatively scheduled last valuation reserves from the assets of petitioner bank. He stated:
December 7, 1984) and that we are still awaiting for the
unsubmitted replies to our previous letters requests. The recommended valuation reserves as bases for
Moreover, other findings/ observations are still being determining the financial status of the bank would need
summarized including the classification of loans and to be discussed with the bank, consistent with standard
other risk assets. These shall be submitted to you in due examination procedure, for which the bank would in turn
time (p. 810, Rollo, Vol. III; emphasis ours). reply. Also, the examination has not been officially
terminated. (p. 7. Tiaoqui report; p. 59, Rollo, Vol. I)

11
In his testimony in the second referral hearing before Justice We recognize the fact that it is the responsibility of the Central Bank
Santiago, Tiaoqui testified that on January 21, 1985, he met with of the Philippines to administer the monetary, banking and credit
officers of petitioner bank to discuss the advanced findings and system of the country and that its powers and functions shall be
exceptions made by Mr. Dionisio Domingo which covered 70%-80% exercised by the Monetary Board pursuant to Rep. Act No. 265,
of the bank's loan portfolio; that at that meeting, Fortunato Dizon known as the Central Bank Act. Consequently, the power and
(BF's Executive Vice President) said that as regards the unsecured authority of the Monetary Board to close banks and liquidate them
loans granted to various corporations, said corporations had large thereafter when public interest so requires is an exercise of the
undeveloped real estate properties which could be answerable for police power of the state. Police power, however, may not be done
the said unsecured loans and that a reply from BF was forthcoming, arbitratrily or unreasonably and could be set aside if it is either
that he (Tiaoqui) however prepared his report despite the absence capricious, discriminatory, whimsical, arbitrary, unjust or is
of such reply; that he believed, as in fact it is stated in his report, tantamount to a denial of due process and equal protection clauses
that despite the meeting on January 21, 1985, there was still a need of the Constitution (Central Bank v. Court of Appeals, Nos. L-
to discuss the recommended valuation reserves of petitioner bank 50031-32, July 27, 1981, 106 SCRA 143).
and; that he however, did not wait anymore for a discussion of the
recommended valuation reserves and instead prepared his report In the instant case, the basic standards of substantial due process
two days after January 21, 1985 (pp. 3313-3314, Rollo). were not observed. Time and again, We have held in several cases,
that the procedure of administrative tribunals must satisfy the
Records further show that the examination of petitioner bank was fundamentals of fair play and that their judgment should express a
officially terminated only when Central Bank Examination-charge well-supported conclusion.
Dionisio Domingo submitted his final report of examination on
March 4,1985. In the celebrated case of Ang Tibay v. Court of Industrial
Relations, 69 Phil. 635, this Court laid down several cardinal
It is evident from the foregoing circumstances that the examination primary rights which must be respected in a proceeding before an
contemplated in Sec. 29 of the CB Act as a mandatory requirement administrative body.
was not completely and fully complied with. Despite the existence of
the partial list of findings in the examination of the bank, there were However, as to the requirement of notice and hearing, Sec. 29 of RA
still highly significant items to be weighed and determined such as 265 does not require a previous hearing before the Monetary Board
the matter of valuation reserves, before these can be considered in implements the closure of a bank, since its action is subject to
the financial condition of the bank. It would be a drastic move to judicial scrutiny as provided for under the same law (Rural Bank of
conclude prematurely that a bank is insolvent if the basis for such Bato v. IAC, G.R. No. 65642, October 15, 1984, Rural Bank v. Court
conclusion is lacking and insufficient, especially if doubt exists as to of Appeals, G.R. 61689, June 20, 1988,162 SCRA 288).
whether such bases or findings faithfully represent the real financial
status of the bank.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, administrative due process does not
mean that the other important principles may be dispensed with,
The actuation of the Monetary Board in closing petitioner bank on namely: the decision of the administrative body must have
January 25, 1985 barely four days after a conference with the latter something to support itself and the evidence must be substantial.
on the examiners' partial findings on its financial position is also Substantial evidence is more than a mere scintilla. It means such
violative of what was provided in the CB Manual of Examination relevant evidence as a reasonable mind might accept as adequate to
Procedures. Said manual provides that only after the examination is support a conclusion (Ang Tibay vs. CIR, supra). Hence, where the
concluded, should a pre-closing conference led by the examiner-in- decision is merely based upon pieces of documentary evidence that
charge be held with the officers/representatives of the institution on are not sufficiently substantial and probative for the purpose and
the findings/exception, and a copy of the summary of the conclusion they are presented, the standard of fairness mandated in
findings/violations should be furnished the institution examined so the due process clause is not met. In the case at bar, the conclusion
that corrective action may be taken by them as soon as possible arrived at by the respondent Board that the petitioner bank is in an
(Manual of Examination Procedures, General Instruction, p. 14). It illiquid financial position on January 23, 1985, as to justify its
is hard to understand how a period of four days after the conference closure on January 25, 1985 cannot be given weight and finality as
could be a reasonable opportunity for a bank to undertake a the report itself admits the inadequacy of its basis to support its
responsive and corrective action on the partial list of findings of the conclusion.
examiner-in-charge.

12
The second requirement provided in Section 29, R.A. 265 before a In this case, there can be no clearer explanation of the concept of
bank may be closed is that the examination should disclose that the insolvency than what the law itself states. Sec. 29 of the Central
condition of the bank is one of insolvency. Bank Act provides that insolvency under the Act, shall be
understood to mean that "the realizable assets of a bank or a non-
As to the concept of whether the bank is solvent or not, the bank financial intermediary performing quasi-banking functions as
respondents contend that under the Central Bank Manual of determined by the Central Bank are insufficient to meet its
Examination Procedures, Central Bank examiners must liabilities."
recommend valuation reserves, when warranted, to be set up or
deducted against the corresponding asset account to determine the Hence, the contention of the Central Bank that a bank's true
bank's true condition or net worth. In the case of loan accounts, to financial condition is synonymous with the terms "unimpaired
which practically all the questioned valuation reserves refer, the capital and surplus," "combined capital accounts" and net worth
manual provides that: after deducting valuation reserves from the capital, surplus and
unretained earnings, citing Sec. 5 of RA 337 is misplaced.
1. For doubtful loans, or loans the ultimate collection of which is
doubtful and in which a substantial loss is probable but not yet Firstly, it is clear from the law that a solvent bank is one in which its
definitely ascertainable as to extent, valuation reserves of fifty per assets exceed its liabilities. It is a basic accounting principle that
cent (50%) of the accounts should be recommended to be set up. assets are composed of liabilities and capital. The term "assets"
includes capital and surplus" (Exley v. Harris, 267 p. 970, 973, 126
2. For loans classified as loss, or loans regarded by the examiner as Kan., 302). On the other hand, the term "capital" includes common
absolutely uncollectible or worthless, valuation reserves of one and preferred stock, surplus reserves, surplus and undivided
hundred percent (100%) of the accounts should be recommended to profits. (Manual of Examination Procedures, Report of
be set up (p. 8, Objections to Santiago report). Examination on Department of Commercial and Savings Banks, p.
3-C). If valuation reserves would be deducted from these items, the
result would merely be the networth or the unimpaired capital and
The foregoing criteria used by respondents in determining the surplus of the bank applying Sec. 5 of RA 337 but not the total
financial condition of the bank is based on Section 5 of RA 337, financial condition of the bank.
known as the General Banking Act which states:
Secondly, the statement of assets and liabilities is used in balance
Sec. 5. The following terms shall be held to be synonymous sheets. Banks use statements of condition to reflect the amounts,
and interchangeable: nature and changes in the assets and liabilities. The Central Bank
Manual of Examination Procedures provides a format or checklist
... f. Unimpaired Capital and Surplus, "Combined capital of a statement of condition to be used by examiners as guide in the
accounts," and "Net worth," which terms shall mean for examination of banks. The format enumerates the items which will
the purposes of this Act, the total of the "unimpaired paid- compose the assets and liabilities of a bank. Assets include cash and
in capital, surplus, and undivided profits net of such those due from banks, loans, discounts and advances, fixed assets
valuation reserves as may be required by the Central and other property owned or acquired and other miscellaneous
Bank." assets. The amount of loans, discounts and advances to be stated in
the statement of condition as provided for in the manual is
computed after deducting valuation reserves when deemed
There is no doubt that the Central Bank Act vests authority upon
necessary. On the other hand, liabilities are composed of demand
the Central Bank and Monetary Board to take charge and
deposits, time and savings deposits, cashier's, manager's and
administer the monetary and banking system of the country and
certified checks, borrowings, due to head office, branches; and
this authority includes the power to examine and determine the
agencies, other liabilities and deferred credits (Manual of
financial condition of banks for purposes provided for by law, such
Examination Procedure, p. 9). The amounts stated in the balance
as for the purpose of closure on the ground of insolvency stated in
sheets or statements of condition including the computation of
Section 29 of the Central Bank Act. But express grants of power to
valuation reserves when justified, are based however, on the
public officers should be subjected to a strict interpretation, and
assumption that the bank or company will continue in business
will be construed as conferring those powers which are expressly
indefinitely, and therefore, the networth shown in the statement is
imposed or necessarily implied (Floyd Mechem, Treatise on the
in no sense an indication of the amount that might be realized if the
Law of Public Offices and Officers, p. 335).
bank or company were to be liquidated immediately (Prentice Hall
13
Encyclopedic Dictionary of Business Finance, p. 48). Further, based concerns itself with review and appraisal, while audit concerns itself
on respondents' submissions, the allowance for probable losses on with verification (CB Manual of Examination Procedures, General
loans and discounts represents the amount set up against current Instructions, p. 5). This Court however, is not in the position to
operations to provide for possible losses arising from non-collection determine how much cash or market value shall be assigned to each
of loans and advances, and this account is also referred to as of the assets and liabilities of the bank to determine their total
valuation reserve (p. 9, Objections to Santiago report). Clearly, the realizable value. The proper determination of these matters by
statement of condition which contains a provision for using the actual cash value criteria belongs to the field of fact-
recommended valuation reserves should not be used as the ultimate finding expertise of the Central Bank and the Monetary Board.
basis to determine the solvency of an institution for the purpose of Notwithstanding the fact that the figures arrived at by the
termination of its operations. respondent Board as to assets and liabilities do not truly indicate
their realizable value as they were merely based on book value, We
Respondents acknowledge that under the said CB manual, CB will however, take a look at the figures presented by the Tiaoqui
examiners must recommend valuation reserves, when warranted, Report in concluding insolvency as of July 31, 1984 and at the
to be set up against the corresponding asset account (p. 8, figures presented by the CB authorized deputy receiver and by the
Objections to Santiago report). Tiaoqui himself, as author of the Valenzuela, Aurellano and Tiaoqui Report which recommended the
report recommending the closure of petitioner bank admits that the liquidation of the bank by reason of insolvency as o January
valuation reserves should still be discussed with the petitioner bank 25,1985.
in compliance with standard examination procedure. Hence, for the
Monetary Board to unilaterally deduct an uncertain amount as The Tiaoqui report dated January 23, 1985, which was based on
valuation reserves from the assets of a bank and to conclude partial examination findings on the bank's condition as of July 31,
therefrom without sufficient basis that the bank is insolvent, would 1984, states that total liabilities of P5,282.1 million exceeds total
be totally unjust and unfair. assets of P4,947.2 million after deducting from the assets valuation
reserves of P612.2 million. Since, as We have explained in our
The test of insolvency laid down in Section 29 of the Central Bank previous discussion that valuation reserves can not be legally
Act is measured by determining whether the realizable assets of a deducted as there was no truthful and complete evaluation thereof
bank are leas than its liabilities. Hence, a bank is solvent if the fair as admitted by the Tiaoqui report itself, then an adjustment of the
cash value of all its assets, realizable within a reasonable time by a figures win show that the liabilities of P5,282.1 million will not
reasonable prudent person, would equal or exceed its total liabilities exceed the total assets which will amount to P5,559.4 if the 612.2
exclusive of stock liability; but if such fair cash value so realizable is million allotted to valuation reserves will not be deducted from the
not sufficient to pay such liabilities within a reasonable time, the assets. There can be no basis therefore for both the conclusion of
bank is insolvent. (Gillian v. State, 194 N.E. 360, 363, 207 Ind. 661). insolvency and for the decision of the respondent Board to close
Stated in other words, the insolvency of a bank occurs when the petitioner bank and place it under receivership.
actual cash market value of its assets is insufficient to pay its
liabilities, not considering capital stock and surplus which are not Concerning the financial position of the bank as of January 25,
liabilities for such purpose (Exley v. Harris, 267 p. 970, 973,126 1985, the date of the closure of the bank, the consolidated statement
Kan. 302; Alexander v. Llewellyn, Mo. App., 70 S.W. 2n 115,117). of condition thereof as of the aforesaid date shown in the
Valenzuela, Aurellano and Tiaoqui report on the receivership of
In arriving at the computation of realizable assets of petitioner petitioner bank, dated March 19, 1985, indicates that total liabilities
bank, respondents used its books which undoubtedly are not of 4,540.84 million does not exceed the total assets of 4,981.53
reflective of the actual cash or fair market value of its assets. This is million. Likewise, the consolidated statement of condition of
not the proper procedure contemplated in Sec. 29 of the Central petitioner bank as of January 25, 1985 prepared by the Central
Bank Act. Even the CB Manual of Examination Procedures does not Bank Authorized Deputy Receiver Artemio Cruz shows that total
confine examination of a bank solely with the determination of the assets amounting to P4,981,522,996.22 even exceeds total liabilities
books of the bank. The latter is part of auditing which should not be amounting to P4,540,836,834.15. Based on the foregoing, there was
confused with examination. Examination appraises the soundness no valid reason for the Valenzuela, Aurellano and Tiaoqui report to
of the institution's assets, the quality and character of finally recommend the liquidation of petitioner bank instead of its
management and determines the institution's compliance with rehabilitation.
laws, rules and regulations. Audit is a detailed inspection of the
institution's books, accounts, vouchers, ledgers, etc. to determine We take note of the exhaustive study and findings of the Cosico
the recording of all assets and liabilities. Hence, examination report on the petitioner bank's having engaged in unsafe, unsound
14
and fraudulent banking practices by the granting of huge unsecured clearly realizable assets to secure the advances. Provided,
loans to several subsidiaries and related companies. We do not see, further, That a concurrent vote of at least five members of
however, that this has any material bearing on the validity of the the Monetary Board is obtained. (Emphasis ours)
closure. Section 34 of the RA 265, Central Bank Act empowers the
Monetary Board to take action under Section 29 of the Central Bank The first paragraph of the aforequoted provision contemplates a
Act when a bank "persists in carrying on its business in an unlawful situation where the whole banking community is confronted with
or unsafe manner." There was no showing whatsoever that the bank financial and economic crisis giving rise to serious and widespread
had persisted in committing unlawful banking practices and that confusion among the public, which may eventually threaten and
the respondent Board had attempted to take effective action on the gravely prejudice the stability of the banking system. Here, the
bank's alleged activities. During the period from July 27, 1984 up to emergency or financial confusion involves the whole banking
January 25, 1985, when petitioner bank was under conservatorship community and not one bank or institution only. The second
no official of the bank was ever prosecuted, suspended or removed situation on the other hand, provides for a situation where the
for any participation in unsafe and unsound banking practices, and Central Bank grants a loan to a bank with uncertain financial
neither was the entire management of the bank replaced or condition but not insolvent.
substituted. In fact, in her testimony during the second referral
hearing, Carlota Valenzuela, CB Deputy Governor, testified that the
reason for petitioner bank's closure was not unsound, unsafe and As alleged by the respondents, the following are the reasons of the
fraudulent banking practices but the alleged insolvency position of Central Bank in approving the resolution granting the P3 billion
the bank (TSN, August 3, 1990, p. 3316, Rollo, Vol. VIII). loan to petitioner bank and the latter's reopening after a brief self-
imposed banking holiday:
Finally, another circumstance which point to the solvency of
petitioner bank is the granting by the Monetary Board in favor of WHEREAS, the closure by Banco Filipino Savings and
the former a credit line in the amount of P3 billion along with the Mortgage Bank of its Banking offices on its own initiative
placing of petitioner bank under conservatorship by virtue of M.B. has worked serious hardships on its depositors and has
Resolution No. 955 dated July 27, 1984. This paved the way for the affected confidence levels in the banking system resulting
reopening of the bank on August 1, 1984 after a self-imposed bank in a feeling of apprehension among depositors and
holiday on July 23, 1984. unnecessary deposit withdrawals;

On emergency loans and advances, Section 90 of RA 265 provides WHEREAS, the Central Bank is charged with the function
two types of emergency loans that can be granted by the Central of administering the banking system;
Bank to a financially distressed bank:
WHEREAS, the reopening of Banco Filipino would require
Sec. 90. ... In periods of emergency or of imminent additional credit resources from the Central Bank as well
financial panic which directly threaten monetary and as an independent management acceptable to the Central
banking stability, the Central Bank may grant banking Bank;
institutions extraordinary advances secured by any assets
which are defined as acceptable by by a concurrent vote of WHEREAS, it is the desire of the Central Bank to rapidly
at least five members of the Monetary Board. While such diffuse the uncertainty that presently exists;
advances are outstanding, the debtor institution may not
expand the total volume of its loans or investments
... (M.B. Min. No. 35 dated July 27, 1984 cited in
without the prior authorization of the Monetary Board.
Respondents' Objections to Santiago Report, p. 26; p.
3387, Rollo, Vol. IX; Emphasis ours).
The Central Bank may, at its discretion, likewise grant
advances to banking institutions, even during normal
A perusal of the foregoing "Whereas" clauses unmistakably show
periods, for the purpose of assisting a bank in a precarious
that the clear reason for the decision to grant the emergency loan to
financial condition or under serious financial pressures
petitioner bank was that the latter was suffering from financial
brought about by unforeseen events, or events which,
distress and severe bank "run" as a result of which it closed on July
though foreseeable, could not be prevented by the bank
23, 1984 and that the release of the said amount is in accordance
concerned. Provided, however, That the Monetary Board
with the Central Bank's full support to meet Banco Filipino's
has ascertained that the bank is not insolvent and has
15
depositors' withdrawal requirements (Excerpts of minutes of 2. The petitions in G.R. No. 70054, 78767 and 78894 are GRANTED
meeting on MB Min. No. 35, p. 25, Rollo, Vol. IX). Nothing therein and the assailed order of the Central Bank and the Monetary Board
shows that an extraordinary emergency situation exists affecting dated January 25, 1985 is hereby ANNULLED AND SET ASIDE.
most banks, not only as regards petitioner bank. This Court thereby The Central Bank and the Monetary Board are ordered to
finds that the grant of the said emergency loan was intended from reorganize petitioner Banco Filipino Savings and Mortgage Bank
the beginning to fall under the second paragraph of Section 90 of and allow the latter to resume business in the Philippines under the
the Central Bank Act, which could not have occurred if the comptrollership of both the Central Bank and the Monetary Board
petitioner bank was not solvent. Where notwithstanding knowledge and under such conditions as may be prescribed by the latter in
of the irregularities and unsafe banking practices allegedly connection with its reorganization until such time that petitioner
committed by the petitioner bank, the Central Bank even granted bank can continue in business with safety to its creditors, depositors
financial support to the latter and placed it under conservatorship, and the general public.
such actuation means that petitioner bank could still be saved from
its financial distress by adequate aid and management reform, SO ORDERED.
which was required by Central Bank's duty to maintain the stability
of the banking system and the preservation of public confidence in
it (Ramos v. Central Bank, No. L-29352, October 4, 1971, 41 SCRA
565).

In view of the foregoing premises, We believe that the closure of the


petitioner bank was arbitrary and committed with grave abuse of
discretion. Granting in gratia argumenti that the closure was based
on justified grounds to protect the public, the fact that petitioner
bank was suffering from serious financial problems should not
automatically lead to its liquidation. Section 29 of the Central Bank
provides that a closed bank may be reorganized or otherwise placed
in such a condition that it may be permitted to resume business
with safety to its depositors, creditors and the general public.

We are aware of the Central Bank's concern for the safety of Banco
Filipino's depositors as well as its creditors including itself which
had granted substantial financial assistance up to the time of the
latter's closure. But there are alternatives to permanent closure and
liquidation to safeguard those interests as well as those of the
general public for the failure of Banco Filipino or any bank for that
matter may be viewed as an irreversible decline of the country's
entire banking system and ultimately, it may reflect on the Central
Bank's own viability. For one thing, the Central Bank and the
Monetary Board should exercise strict supervision over Banco
Filipino. They should take all the necessary steps not violative of the
laws that will fully secure the repayment of the total financial
assistance that the Central Bank had already granted or would grant
in the future.

ACCORDINGLY, decision is hereby rendered as follows:

1. The motion for reconsideration in G.R. Nos. 68878 and 81303,


and the petitions in G.R. Nos. 77255-58, 78766, 81304 and 90473
are DENIED;

16
BANGKO SENTRAL NG PILIPINAS G.R. No. 184778 (Batangas), Inc., Rural Bank of Carmen (Cebu), Inc., Pilipino Rural Bank, Inc.,
MONETARY BOARD and CHUCHI FONACIER, Philippine Countryside Rural Bank, Inc., Rural Bank of Calatagan (Batangas), Inc.
Petitioners, (now Dynamic Rural Bank), Rural Bank of Darbci, Inc., Rural Bank of Kananga
(Leyte), Inc. (now First Interstate Rural Bank), Rural Bank de Bisayas Minglanilla
- versus - Present: (now Bank of East Asia), and San Pablo City Development Bank, Inc.

HON. NINA G. ANTONIO-VALENZUELA, in YNARES-SANTIAGO, J., After the examinations, exit conferences were held with the officers or representatives
her capacity as Regional Trial Court Judge of Chairperson, of the banks wherein the SED examiners provided them with copies of Lists of
Manila, Branch 28; RURAL BANK OF CHICO-NAZARIO, Findings/Exceptions containing the deficiencies discovered during the
PARAAQUE, INC.; RURAL BANK OF SAN VELASCO, JR., examinations.These banks were then required to comment and to undertake the
JOSE (BATANGAS), INC.; RURAL BANK OF NACHURA, and remedial measures stated in these lists within 30 days from their receipt of the lists,
CARMEN (CEBU), INC.; PILIPINO RURAL PERALTA, JJ. which remedial measures included the infusion of additional capital. Though the
BANK, INC.; PHILIPPINE COUNTRYSIDE banks claimed that they made the additional capital infusions, petitioner Chuchi
RURAL BANK, INC.; RURAL BANK OF Fonacier, officer-in-charge of the SED, sent separate letters to the Board of Directors
CALATAGAN (BATANGAS), INC. (now of each bank, informing them that the SED found that the banks failed to carry out the
DYNAMIC RURAL BANK); RURAL BANK OF required remedial measures. In response, the banks requested that they be given time
DARBCI, INC.; RURAL BANK OF KANANGA to obtain BSP approval to amend their Articles of Incorporation, that they have an
(LEYTE), INC. (now FIRST INTERSTATE opportunity to seek investors. They requested as well that the basis for the capital
RURAL BANK); RURAL BANK OF BISAYAS infusion figures be disclosed, and noted that none of them had received the Report of
MINGLANILLA (now BANK OF EAST ASIA); Examination (ROE) which finalizes the audit findings. They also requested meetings
and SAN PABLO CITY DEVELOPMENT BANK, with the BSP audit teams to reconcile audit figures. In response, Fonacier reiterated
INC., the banks failure to comply with the directive for additional capital infusions.
Respondents.
On May 12, 2008, the RBPI filed a complaint for nullification of the BSP ROE with
application for a TRO and writ of preliminary injunction before the RTC docketed as
Civil Case No. 08-119243 against Fonacier, the BSP, Amado M. Tetangco, Jr., Romulo
L. Neri, Vicente B. Valdepenas, Jr., Raul A. Boncan, Juanita D. Amatong, Alfredo C.
Antonio, and Nelly F. Villafuerte. RBPI prayed that Fonacier, her subordinates,
Promulgated: agents, or any other person acting in her behalf be enjoined from submitting the ROE
October 2, 2009 or any similar report to the Monetary Board (MB), or if the ROE had already been
x-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------x submitted, the MB be enjoined from acting on the basis of said ROE, on the allegation
that the failure to furnish the bank with a copy of the ROE violated its right to due
DECISION process.

VELASCO, JR., J.: The Rural Bank of San Jose (Batangas), Inc., Rural Bank of Carmen (Cebu), Inc.,
The Case Pilipino Rural Bank, Inc., Philippine Countryside Rural Bank, Inc., Rural Bank of
Calatagan (Batangas), Inc., Rural Bank of Darbci, Inc., Rural Bank
This is a Petition for Review on Certiorari under Rule 45 with Prayer for Issuance of a of Kananga (Leyte), Inc., and Rural Bank de Bisayas Minglanilla followed suit, filing
Temporary Restraining Order (TRO)/Writ of Preliminary Injunction, questioning the complaints with the RTC substantially similar to that of RBPI, including the reliefs
Decision dated September 30, 2008[1] of the Court of Appeals (CA) in CA-G.R. SP No. prayed for, which were raffled to different branches and docketed as Civil Cases Nos.
103935. The CA Decision upheld the Order[2] dated June 4, 2008 of the Regional Trial 08-119244, 08-119245, 08-119246, 08-119247, 08-119248, 08-119249, 08-119250,
Court (RTC), Branch 28 in Manila, issuing writs of preliminary injunction in Civil and 08-119251, respectively.
Case Nos. 08-119243, 08-119244, 08-119245, 08-119246, 08-119247, 08-119248, 08-
119249, 08-119250, 08-119251, and 08-119273, and the Order dated May 21, 2008 On May 13, 2008, the RTC denied the prayer for a TRO of Pilipino Rural Bank,
that consolidated the civil cases. Inc. The bank filed a motion for reconsideration the next day.

The Facts On May 14, 2008, Fonacier and the BSP filed their opposition to the application for a
TRO and writ of preliminary injunction in Civil Case No. 08-119243 with the
In September of 2007, the Supervision and Examination Department (SED) of RTC.Respondent Judge Nina Antonio-Valenzuela of Branch 28 granted RBPIs prayer
the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) conducted examinations of the books of the for the issuance of a TRO.
following banks: Rural Bank of Paraaque, Inc. (RBPI), Rural Bank of San Jose

17
The other banks separately filed motions for consolidation of their cases in Branch 28, examination conducted on the plaintiff, to the Monetary
which motions were granted. Judge Valenzuela set the complaint of Rural Bank of San Board. In case such a Report on Examination [sic] or any other
Jose (Batangas), Inc. for hearing on May 15, 2008. Petitioners assailed the validity of similar report prepared in connection with the examination
the consolidation of the nine cases before the RTC, alleging that the court had already conducted on the plaintiff has been submitted to the Monetary
prejudged the case by the earlier issuance of a TRO in Civil Case No. 08-119243, and Board, the latter and its members (i.e. defendants Tetangco,
moved for the inhibition of respondent judge. Petitioners filed a motion for Neri, Valdepenas, Boncan, Amatong, Antonio, and Villafuerte)
reconsideration regarding the consolidation of the subject cases. are enjoined and restrained from acting on the basis of said
report.
On May 16, 2008, San Pablo City Development Bank, Inc. filed a similar complaint
against the same defendants with the RTC, and this was docketed as Civil Case No. 2) Re: Civil Case No. 08-119244. Pursuant to Rule 58, Section
08-119273 that was later on consolidated with Civil Case No. 08-119243. Petitioners 4(b) of the Revised Rules of Court, plaintiff Rural Bank of San
filed an Urgent Motion to Lift/Dissolve the TRO and an Opposition to the earlier Jose (Batangas), Inc. is directed to post a bond executed to the
motion for reconsideration of Pilipino Rural Bank, Inc. defendants, in the amount of P500,000.00 to the effect that
the plaintiff will pay to the defendants all damages which they
On May 19, 2008, Judge Valenzuela issued an Order granting the prayer for the may sustain by reason of the injunction if the Court should
issuance of TROs for the other seven cases consolidated with Civil Case No. 08- finally decide that the plaintiff was not entitled thereto.After
119243. On May 21, 2008, Judge Valenzuela issued an Order denying petitioners posting of the bond and approval thereof, let a writ of
motion for reconsideration regarding the consolidation of cases in Branch 28. On May preliminary injunction be issued to enjoin and restrain the
22, 2008, Judge Valenzuela granted the urgent motion for reconsideration of Pilipino defendants from submitting the Report of Examination or any
Rural Bank, Inc. and issued a TRO similar to the ones earlier issued. other similar report prepared in connection with the
examination conducted on the plaintiff, to the Monetary
On May 26, 2008, petitioners filed a Motion to Dismiss against all the complaints Board. In case such a Report on Examination [sic] or any other
(except that of the San Pablo City Development Bank, Inc.), on the grounds that the similar report prepared in connection with the examination
complaints stated no cause of action and that a condition precedent for filing the cases conducted on the plaintiff has been submitted to the Monetary
had not been complied with. On May 29, 2008, a hearing was conducted on the Board, the latter and its members (i.e. defendants Tetangco,
application for a TRO and for a writ of preliminary injunction of San Pablo City Neri, Valdepenas, Boncan, Amatong, Antonio, and Villafuerte)
Development Bank, Inc. are enjoined and restrained from acting on the basis of said
report.
The Ruling of the RTC
3) Re: Civil Case No. 08-119245. Pursuant to Rule 58, Section
After the parties filed their respective memoranda, the RTC, on June 4, 2008, ruled 4(b) of the Revised Rules of Court, plaintiff Rural Bank of
that the banks were entitled to the writs of preliminary injunction prayed for. It held Carmen (Cebu), Inc. is directed to post a bond executed to the
that it had been the practice of the SED to provide the ROEs to the banks before defendants, in the amount of P500,000.00 to the effect that
submission to the MB. It further held that as the banks are the subjects of the plaintiff will pay to the defendants all damages which they
examinations, they are entitled to copies of the ROEs. The denial by petitioners of the may sustain by reason of the injunction if the Court should
banks requests for copies of the ROEs was held to be a denial of the banks right to due finally decide that the plaintiff was not entitled thereto.After
process. posting of the bond and approval thereof, let a writ of
The dispositive portion of the RTCs order reads: preliminary injunction be issued to enjoin and restrain the
WHEREFORE, the Court rules as follows: defendants from submitting the Report of Examination or any
other similar report prepared in connection with the
1) Re: Civil Case No. 08-119243. Pursuant to Rule 58, Section examination conducted on the plaintiff, to the Monetary
4(b) of the Revised Rules of Court, plaintiff Rural Bank of Board. In case such a Report on Examination [sic] or any other
Paranaque Inc. is directed to post a bond executed to the similar report prepared in connection with the examination
defendants, in the amount of P500,000.00 to the effect that conducted on the plaintiff has been submitted to the Monetary
the plaintiff will pay to the defendants all damages which they Board, the latter and its members (i.e. defendants Tetangco,
may sustain by reason of the injunction if the Court should Neri, Valdepenas, Boncan, Amatong, Antonio, and Villafuerte)
finally decide that the plaintiff was not entitled thereto. After are enjoined and restrained from acting on the basis of said
posting of the bond and approval thereof, let a writ of report.
preliminary injunction be issued to enjoin and restrain the
defendants from submitting the Report of Examination or any 4) Re: Civil Case No. 08-119246. Pursuant to Rule 58, Section
other similar report prepared in connection with the 4(b) of the Revised Rules of Court, plaintiff Pilipino Rural Bank

18
Inc. is directed to post a bond executed to the defendants, in conducted on the plaintiff has been submitted to the Monetary
the amount of P500,000.00 to the effect that the plaintiff will Board, the latter and its members (i.e. defendants Tetangco,
pay to the defendants all damages which they may sustain by Neri, Valdepenas, Boncan, Amatong, Antonio, and Villafuerte)
reason of the injunction if the Court should finally decide that are enjoined and restrained from acting on the basis of said
the plaintiff was not entitled thereto. After posting of the bond report.
and approval thereof, let a writ of preliminary injunction be
issued to enjoin and restrain the defendants from submitting 7) Re: Civil Case No. 08-119249. Pursuant to Rule 58, Section
the Report of Examination or any other similar report prepared 4(b) of the Revised Rules of Court, plaintiff Rural Bank of
in connection with the examination conducted on the plaintiff, DARBCI, Inc. is directed to post a bond executed to the
to the Monetary Board. In case such a Report on Examination defendants, in the amount of P500,000.00 to the effect that
[sic] or any other similar report prepared in connection with the plaintiff will pay to the defendants all damages which they
the examination conducted on the plaintiff has been submitted may sustain by reason of the injunction if the Court should
to the Monetary Board, the latter and its members (i.e. finally decide that the plaintiff was not entitled thereto. After
defendants Tetangco, Neri, Valdepenas, Boncan, Amatong, posting of the bond and approval thereof, let a writ of
Antonio, and Villafuerte) are enjoined and restrained from preliminary injunction be issued to enjoin and restrain the
acting on the basis of said report. defendants from submitting the Report of Examination or any
other similar report prepared in connection with the
5) Re: Civil Case No. 08-119247. Pursuant to Rule 58, Section examination conducted on the plaintiff, to the Monetary
4(b) of the Revised Rules of Court, plaintiff Philippine Board. In case such a Report on Examination [sic] or any other
Countryside Rural Bank Inc. is directed to post a bond similar report prepared in connection with the examination
executed to the defendants, in the amount of P500,000.00 to conducted on the plaintiff has been submitted to the Monetary
the effect that the plaintiff will pay to the defendants all Board, the latter and its members (i.e. defendants Tetangco,
damages which they may sustain by reason of the injunction if Neri, Valdepenas, Boncan, Amatong, Antonio, and Villafuerte)
the Court should finally decide that the plaintiff was not are enjoined and restrained from acting on the basis of said
entitled thereto.After posting of the bond and approval thereof, report.
let a writ of preliminary injunction be issued to enjoin and
restrain the defendants from submitting the Report of 8) Re: Civil Case No. 08-119250. Pursuant to Rule 58, Section
Examination or any other similar report prepared in 4(b) of the Revised Rules of Court, plaintiff Rural Bank of
connection with the examination conducted on the plaintiff, to Kananga Inc. (First Intestate Bank), is directed to post a bond
the Monetary Board. In case such a Report on Examination executed to the defendants, in the amount of P500,000.00 to
[sic] or any other similar report prepared in connection with the effect that the plaintiff will pay to the defendants all
the examination conducted on the plaintiff has been submitted damages which they may sustain by reason of the injunction if
to the Monetary Board, the latter and its members (i.e. the Court should finally decide that the plaintiff was not
defendants Tetangco, Neri, Valdepenas, Boncan, Amatong, entitled thereto. After posting of the bond and approval
Antonio, and Villafuerte) are enjoined and restrained from thereof, let a writ of preliminary injunction be issued to enjoin
acting on the basis of said report. and restrain the defendants from submitting the Report of
Examination or any other similar report prepared in
6) Re: Civil Case No. 08-119248. Pursuant to Rule 58, Section connection with the examination conducted on the plaintiff, to
4(b) of the Revised Rules of Court, plaintiff Dynamic Bank Inc. the Monetary Board. In case such a Report on Examination
(Rural Bank of Calatagan) is directed to post a bond executed [sic] or any other similar report prepared in connection with
to the defendants, in the amount of P500,000.00 to the effect the examination conducted on the plaintiff has been submitted
that the plaintiff will pay to the defendants all damages which to the Monetary Board, the latter and its members (i.e.
they may sustain by reason of the injunction if the Court should defendants Tetangco, Neri, Valdepenas, Boncan, Amatong,
finally decide that the plaintiff was not entitled thereto. After Antonio, and Villafuerte) are enjoined and restrained from
posting of the bond and approval thereof, let a writ of acting on the basis of said report.
preliminary injunction be issued to enjoin and restrain the
defendants from submitting the Report of Examination or any 9) Re: Civil Case No. 08-119251. Pursuant to Rule 58, Section
other similar report prepared in connection with the 4(b) of the Revised Rules of Court, plaintiff Banco Rural De
examination conducted on the plaintiff, to the Monetary Bisayas Minglanilla (Cebu) Inc. (Bank of East Asia) is directed
Board. In case such a Report on Examination [sic] or any other to post a bond executed to the defendants, in the amount of
similar report prepared in connection with the examination P500,000.00 to the effect that the plaintiff will pay to the

19
defendants all damages which they may sustain by reason of evidence by the trial court, that should be characterized as an error of judgment, and
the injunction if the Court should finally decide that the should be correctable via appeal.
plaintiff was not entitled thereto. After posting of the bond and
approval thereof, let a writ of preliminary injunction be issued The CA held that the principles of fairness and transparency dictate that the
to enjoin and restrain the defendants from submitting the respondent banks are entitled to copies of the ROE.
Report of Examination or any other similar report prepared in Regarding the consolidation of the 10 cases, the CA found that there was a similarity
connection with the examination conducted on the plaintiff, to of facts, reliefs sought, issues raised, defendants, and that plaintiffs and defendants
the Monetary Board. In case such a Report on Examination were represented by the same sets of counsels. It found that the joint trial of these
[sic] or any other similar report prepared in connection with cases would prejudice any substantial right of petitioners.
the examination conducted on the plaintiff has been submitted
to the Monetary Board, the latter and its members (i.e. Finding that no grave abuse of discretion attended the issuance of the orders by the
defendants Tetangco, Neri, Valdepenas, Boncan, Amatong, RTC, the CA denied the petition.
Antonio, and Villafuerte) are enjoined and restrained from
acting on the basis of said report. On November 24, 2008, a TRO was issued by this Court, restraining the CA, RTC, and
respondents from implementing and enforcing the CA Decision dated September 30,
10) Re: Civil Case No. 08-119273. Pursuant to Rule 58, Section 4(b) 2008 in CA-G.R. SP No. 103935.[4]
of the Revised Rules of Court, plaintiff San Pablo City
Development Bank, Inc. is directed to post a bond executed to By reason of the TRO issued by this Court, the SED was able to submit their
the defendants, in the amount of P500,000.00 to the effect ROEs to the MB. The MB then prohibited the respondent banks from transacting
that the plaintiff will pay to the defendants all damages which business and placed them under receivership under
they may sustain by reason of the injunction if the Court should Section 53 of Republic Act No. (RA)8791[5] and Sec. 30 of RA
finally decide that the plaintiff was not entitled thereto.After 7653[6] through MB Resolution No. 1616 dated December 9, 2008; Resolution Nos.
posting of the bond and approval thereof, let a writ of 1637 and 1638 dated December 11, 2008; Resolution Nos. 1647, 1648, and 1649 dated
preliminary injunction be issued to enjoin and restrain the December 12, 2008; Resolution Nos. 1652 and 1653 dated December 16, 2008; and
defendants from submitting the Report of Examination or any Resolution Nos. 1692 and 1695 dated December 19, 2008, with the Philippine Deposit
other similar report prepared in connection with the Insurance Corporation as the appointed receiver.
examination conducted on the plaintiff, to the Monetary
Board. In case such a Report on Examination [sic] or any other Now we resolve the main petition.
similar report prepared in connection with the examination
conducted on the plaintiff has been submitted to the Monetary Grounds in Support of Petition
Board, the latter and its members (i.e. defendants Tetangco,
Neri, Valdepenas, Boncan, Amatong, Antonio, and Villafuerte) I. THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS GRAVELY
are enjoined and restrained from acting on the basis of said ERRED IN NOT FINDING THAT THE INJUNCTION
report.[3] ISSUED BY THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT VIOLATED
SECTION 25 OF THE NEW CENTRAL BANK ACT AND
The Ruling of the CA EFFECTIVELY HANDCUFFED THE BANGKO SENTRAL
FROM DISCHARGING ITS FUNCTIONS TO THE GREAT
Petitioners then brought the matter to the CA via a petition for certiorari under Rule AND IRREPARABLE DAMAGE OF THE COUNTRYS
65 claiming grave abuse of discretion on the part of Judge Valenzuela when she issued BANKING SYSTEM;
the orders dated May 21, 2008 and June 4, 2008. II. THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS GRAVELY
ERRED IN FINDING THAT RESPONDENTS ARE
The CA ruled that the RTC committed no grave abuse of discretion when it ordered ENTITLED TO BE FURNISHED COPIES OF THEIR
the issuance of a writ of preliminary injunction and when it ordered the consolidation RESPECTIVE ROEs BEFORE THE SAME IS SUBMITTED
of the 10 cases. TO THE MONETARY BOARD IN VIEW OF THE
It held that petitioners should have first filed a motion for reconsideration of the PRINCIPLES OF FAIRNESS AND TRANSPARENCY
assailed orders, and failed to justify why they resorted to a special civil action of DESPITE LACK OF EXPRESS PROVISION IN THE NEW
certiorari instead. CENTRAL BANK ACT REQUIRING BSP TO DO THE
SAME
The CA also found that aside from the technical aspect, there was no grave abuse of III. THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS GRAVELY
discretion on the part of the RTC, and if there was a mistake in the assessment of ERRED IN DEPARTING FROM WELL-ESTABLISHED
PRECEPTS OF LAW AND JURISPRUDENCE

20
institutions, provides that the ROE shall be submitted to the MB; the bank examined
A. THE EXCEPTIONS CITED BY PETITIONER is not mentioned as a recipient of the ROE.
JUSTIFIED RESORT TO PETITION FOR
CERTIORARI UNDER RULE 65 INSTEAD OF The respondent banks cannot claim a violation of their right to due process if
FIRST FILING A MOTION FOR they are not provided with copies of the ROEs. The same ROEs are based on the lists
RECONSIDERATION of findings/exceptions containing the deficiencies found by the SED examiners when
B. RESPONDENT BANKS ACT OF RESORTING they examined the books of the respondent banks. As found by the RTC, these lists of
IMMEDIATELY TO THE COURT WAS findings/exceptions were furnished to the officers or representatives of the
PREMATURE SINCE IT WAS MADE IN UTTER respondent banks, and the respondent banks were required to comment and to
DISREGARD OF THE PRINCIPLE OF PRIMARY undertake remedial measures stated in said lists. Despite these instructions,
JURISDICTION AND EXHAUSTION OF respondent banks failed to comply with the SEDs directive.
ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDY
C. THE ISSUANCE OF A WRIT OF Respondent banks are already aware of what is required of them by the BSP,
PRELIMINARY INJUNCTION BY THE and cannot claim violation of their right to due process simply because they are not
REGIONAL TRIAL COURT WAS NOT ONLY furnished with copies of the ROEs. Respondent banks were held by the CA to be
IMPROPER BUT AMOUNTED TO GRAVE entitled to copies of the ROEs prior to or simultaneously with their submission to the
ABUSE OF DISCRETION[7] MB, on the principles of fairness and transparency. Further, the CA held that if the
contents of the ROEs are essentially the same as those of the lists of
findings/exceptions provided to said banks, there is no reason not to give copies of the
ROEs to the banks. This is a flawed conclusion, since if the banks are already aware of
Our Ruling the contents of the ROEs, they cannot say that fairness and transparency are not
present. If sanctions are to be imposed upon the respondent banks, they are already
The petition is meritorious. well aware of the reasons for the sanctions, having been informed via the lists of
findings/exceptions, demolishing that particular argument. The ROEs would then be
In Lim v. Court of Appeals it was stated: superfluities to the respondent banks, and should not be the basis for a writ of
preliminary injunction. Also, the reliance of the RTC on Banco Filipino v. Monetary
The requisites for preliminary injunctive relief are: (a) the Board[9] is misplaced. The petitioner in that case was held to be entitled to annexes of
invasion of right sought to be protected is material and substantial; the Supervision and Examination Sectors reports, as it already had a copy of the
(b) the right of the complainant is clear and unmistakable; and (c) reports themselves. It was not the subject of the case whether or not the petitioner
there is an urgent and paramount necessity for the writ to prevent was entitled to a copy of the reports. And the ruling was made after the petitioner
serious damage. bank was ordered closed, and it was allowed to be supplied with annexes of the
reports in order to better prepare its defense. In this instance, at the time the
As such, a writ of preliminary injunction may be issued respondent banks requested copies of the ROEs, no action had yet been taken by the
only upon clear showing of an actual existing right to be protected MB with regard to imposing sanctions upon said banks.
during the pendency of the principal action. The twin requirements
of a valid injunction are the existence of a right and its actual or The issuance by the RTC of writs of preliminary injunction is an
threatened violations. Thus, to be entitled to an injunctive writ, the unwarranted interference with the powers of the MB. Secs. 29 and 30 of RA
right to be protected and the violation against that right must be 7653[10] refer to the appointment of a conservator or a receiver for a bank, which is a
shown.[8] power of the MB for which they need the ROEs done by the supervising or examining
department. The writs of preliminary injunction issued by the trial court hinder the
These requirements are absent in the present case. MB from fulfilling its function under the law. The actions of the MB under Secs. 29
and 30 of RA 7653 may not be restrained or set aside by the court except on petition
In granting the writs of preliminary injunction, the trial court held that the for certiorari on the ground that the action taken was in excess of jurisdiction or with
submission of the ROEs to the MB before the respondent banks would violate the such grave abuse of discretion as to amount to lack or excess of jurisdiction. The writs
right to due process of said banks. of preliminary injunction order are precisely what cannot be done under the law by
This is erroneous. preventing the MB from taking action under either Sec. 29 or Sec. 30 of RA 7653.

The respondent banks have failed to show that they are entitled to copies of As to the third requirement, the respondent banks have shown no necessity
the ROEs. They can point to no provision of law, no section in the procedures of the for the writ of preliminary injunction to prevent serious damage. The serious damage
BSP that shows that the BSP is required to give them copies of the ROEs. Sec. 28 of contemplated by the trial court was the possibility of the imposition of sanctions upon
RA 7653, or the New Central Bank Act, which governs examinations of banking respondent banks, even the sanction of closure. Under the law, the sanction of closure

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could be imposed upon a bank by the BSP even without notice and hearing. The the writ of preliminary injunction would protect in this particular case. In the absence
apparent lack of procedural due process would not result in the invalidity of action by of a clear legal right, the issuance of the injunctive writ constitutes grave abuse of
the MB. This was the ruling in Central Bank of the Philippines v. Court of discretion.[15] In the absence of proof of a legal right and the injury sustained by the
Appeals.[11]This close now, hear later scheme is grounded on practical and legal plaintiff, an order for the issuance of a writ of preliminary injunction will be
considerations to prevent unwarranted dissipation of the banks assets and as a valid nullified.[16]
exercise of police power to protect the depositors, creditors, stockholders, and the
general public. The writ of preliminary injunction cannot, thus, prevent the MB from
taking action, by preventing the submission of the ROEs and worse, by preventing the
MB from acting on such ROEs.

The trial court required the MB to respect the respondent banks right to due Courts are hereby reminded to take greater care in issuing injunctive relief to
process by allowing the respondent banks to view the ROEs and act upon them to litigants, that it would not violate any law. The grant of a preliminary injunction in a
forestall any sanctions the MB might impose. Such procedure has no basis in law and case rests on the sound discretion of the court with the caveat that it should be made
does in fact violate the close now, hear later doctrine. We held in Rural Bank of San with great caution.[17] Thus, the issuance of the writ of preliminary injunction must
Miguel, Inc. v. Monetary Board, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas: have basis in and be in accordance with law. All told, while the grant or denial of an
injunction generally rests on the sound discretion of the lower court, this Court may
and should intervene in a clear case of abuse.[18]
It is well-settled that the closure of a bank may be WHEREFORE, the petition is hereby GRANTED. The assailed CA Decision dated
considered as an exercise of police power. The action of the MB on September 30, 2008 in CA-G.R. SP No. 103935 is hereby REVERSED. The assailed
this matter is final and executory. Such exercise may nonetheless be order and writ of preliminary injunction of respondent Judge Valenzuela in Civil Case
subject to judicial inquiry and can be set aside if found to be in Nos. 08-119243, 08-119244, 08-119245, 08-119246, 08-119247, 08-119248, 08-119249,
excess of jurisdiction or with such grave abuse of discretion as to 08-119250, 08-119251, and 08-119273 are hereby declared NULL and VOID.
amount to lack or excess of jurisdiction.[12] SO ORDERED.

The respondent banks cannotthrough seeking a writ of preliminary


injunction by appealing to lack of due process, in a roundabout manner prevent their
closure by the MB. Their remedy, as stated, is a subsequent one, which will determine
whether the closure of the bank was attended by grave abuse of discretion. Judicial
review enters the picture only after the MB has taken action; it cannot prevent such
action by the MB. The threat of the imposition of sanctions, even that of closure, does
not violate their right to due process, and cannot be the basis for a writ of preliminary
injunction.

The close now, hear later doctrine has already been justified as a measure for
the protection of the public interest. Swift action is called for on the part of the BSP
when it finds that a bank is in dire straits. Unless adequate and determined efforts are
taken by the government against distressed and mismanaged banks, public faith in
the banking system is certain to deteriorate to the prejudice of the national economy
itself, not to mention the losses suffered by the bank depositors, creditors, and
stockholders, who all deserve the protection of the government.[13]

The respondent banks have failed to show their entitlement to the writ of
preliminary injunction. It must be emphasized that an application for injunctive relief
is construed strictly against the pleader.[14] The respondent banks cannot rely on a
simple appeal to procedural due process to prove entitlement. The requirements for
the issuance of the writ have not been proved. No invasion of the rights of respondent
banks has been shown, nor is their right to copies of the ROEs clear and
unmistakable. There is also no necessity for the writ to prevent serious
damage. Indeed the issuance of the writ of preliminary injunction tramples upon the
powers of the MB and prevents it from fulfilling its functions. There is no right that

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