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PROJEK RANGKAIAN PAIP

PEMBETUNGAN UTAMA DAN


STESEN PAM DI KLANG,
SELANGOR DARUL EHSAN

WATER HAMMER
ANALYSIS REPORT
(850 MS pipe)

November 2010
(Revision 2)

PERUNDING Perunding A.L. Lau


A.L. Lau e-mail:allau@pc.jaring.my
Home page: http//www.go.to/lales
CONTENTS
1.  INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................1 

2.  COMPUTER SIMULATION OF PUMP SYSTEMS .......................................................................1 

3.  ASSUMPTIONS ...................................................................................................................................3 


3.1.  PIPES: ............................................................................................................................................3 
3.2.  FLUID: ...........................................................................................................................................3 
3.3.  AIR VALVE: ...................................................................................................................................3 
4.  THEORY ..............................................................................................................................................4 

5.  WATER HAMMER EFFECT ON THE PUMPING SYSTEM ......................................................6 


5.1.  STEADY STATE HYDRAULIC ..........................................................................................................6 
5.2.  TRANSIENT HYDRAULIC................................................................................................................7 
6.  CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................................13 

List of Graphs

Graph 1: - System Characteristic Curve ............................................................................ 6 


Graph 2: - Pressure Envelopes ........................................................................................... 9 
Graph 3: - Vacuum Relief and Air Release Valve Performance Graph for 100mm dia.
Inlet & 2.4mm dia. Outlet ......................................................................................... 13 
List of Figures

Figure 1: - Schematic Diagram – Vacuum Air Valves only ............................................. 10 


Figure 2: - Schematic Diagram – Vessel Only ................................................................. 11 
Figure 3: - Schematic Diagram – Vessel + Air Valves..................................................... 12 

Appendix A- Transient Response of pumping system (no protection)


Pressure envelope A-i

Pressure at pump end A-ii

Flow at pump end A-iii

Volume of Air (inside air valve) A-iv

Air mass flow rate AWAM A-v

Air volumetric flow rate IR. LAU AH LENG A-vi

5122
1. Introduction

The pumping system is for transferring of sewage from a lifting station to a receiving
chamber. Usually, following the first fraction of a second after sudden shut down of the
pump, the flow decay rapidly at the pump delivery end, but due to the momentum of the
water column in the pipeline, the forward flow continues in the pipeline. This phenomen-
al has caused a water column separation at the pump delivery end, which causes the pres-
sures in the pipe to drop and creating the down surge pressures. This pressure reduction is
transmitted along the pipeline at the wave velocity, and when this pressure wave is re-
flected, an up surge pressure is experienced. The rate of flow decay is dependent on the
angular momentums of the rotating components of the pump. The higher the angular
momentums will result in slower rate of flow decay, which will help to minimize the
down surge pressure. However, angular momentum is dependent on moment of inertia of
pump’s impeller, motor and speed of rotation. Therefore, to achieve acceptable surge
pressures, the pump sets need to process sufficient moment inertia and operating at high
speed. If the moment of inertia of pump is unable to limit the surge pressures within the
acceptable limits, the surge control system shall be provided to control the surge pres-
sures generated.

Usually, in normal pump-stopping procedure, the discharge valve is first closed slowly,
and then the power supply to the pump motor is switched off. The transient caused by this
operation is not severe as the flow rate in the pipeline is reducing to zero slowly. Howev-
er, the transients caused by sudden stoppage of pumps by power failure are usually se-
vere. Therefore, this report will study the transient effect on the pumping systems under
sudden stoppage of pumps and recommend appropriate water hammer control systems to
protect the systems against any adverse effect of surge pressures.

2. Computer Simulation of Pump Systems

The transient response of the pumping system will be studied under the proposed design
flow rate without surge control system. If the upsurge or down surge pressures in the
pipeline are not within the acceptable limit, then a proposed surge control system will be
introduced to limit the excessive surge pressures. The design criteria are:

1
 The up surge pressure must not exceed the maximum rating the pump system
at 60m (6 bars).

 Preferably, the down surge pressure shall not fall below atmospheric pressure
(0 m). However under certain conditions, limited negative pressure is accepta-
ble, provided the limited sub-atmospheric pressure does not have any adverse
effect to the systems. Nevertheless, the effects of negative pressure as listed be-
low need to be considered seriously.

a) Severe sub-atmospheric pressure will cause the pipe to collapse.

b) If the sub-atmospheric pressure is minus 10m, this is the vapor pressure of


water. This will cause liquid water to vaporize; the transient response of the
vaporized water is difficult to predict.

c) When the sub-atmospheric pressure is lower than about minus 7m, any dis-
solved air in water will evolve from solution. This air will not necessarily be
reabsorbed into the water when pumping pressure is re-applied. The tran-
sient response of the air/water mixture is unpredictable.

d) Sub-atmospheric pressure lower than around minus 5m may cause damage


to the concrete lining of the pipe if they are repeated frequently.

e) Pressure lower than the external hydraulic pressure may allow ground water
to be drawn into the pipeline through faulty joints, leaking washouts and
even submerged air valves with subsequent risk of contamination to the
supply.

f) Ingress of air into the pipeline during down surge may interfere with the
proper operation of some instrumentation.
Since the pipeline is carrying sewage and contamination of the pipe by drawing
in ground water is of no concern, and hence the surge suppression criteria will
be to control the down surge pressures not to fall below –5m will be accepta-
ble.

2
3. Assumptions

3.1. Pipes:
 Modulus of elasticity of steel = 200 Gpa.

 Poisson’s ratio = .27

 Conduit condition: thin wall elastic conduit.

 Friction factor: C= 120, 100.

3.2. Fluid:

 Fluid: Treated water

 Bulk Modulus: 2.19 Gpa

 Density: 1000 Kg/m3

 Operating temperature: Ambient.

3.3. Air valve:

 The airflow into the pipeline is isentropic.

 The entrapped air remains at the valve location and is not carried away by the
flow of liquid.

 The expansion or contraction of the entrap air is isothermal.

3
4. Theory
Rapidly varying pressure and flow conditions in pipe systems are characterized by varia-
tion, which are both position (x) and time (t) dependent. These conditions are described
by the dynamic equation

Q H f
L1   gA  Q | Q | 0                    1
t x 2 DA

And the continuity equation

Q H
L2  a 2  gA  0                        2
x t

Where
Q – Flow rate
t – time
H – head
x – distance
f – friction factor
D – Diameter of conduit
g – acceleration due to gravity
A – cross-sectional area of conduit
a – wave velocity

Both Eqs.1 and 2 are partial differential equations.

Consider linear combination of Eqs 1 and 2 i.e.

L = L1 + L2 -------------------------------------------------------------------3

And let

4
1

a
Eq. 3 can be written as

dQ gA dH f
  Q | Q | 0                      4
dt a dt 2 DA

if

dx
a
dt

and

dQ gA dH f
  Q | Q | 0                      5
dt a dt 2 DA

if

dx
 a
dt

Eqs. 4 and 5 have been converted to ordinary differential equations in the independent
variable t, and can be solved easily by digital computer by method of characteristics. Due
to the tremendous computing power of the computer, various boundary conditions, such
as surge vessel, surge tank, pumps, reservoir, air valves, surge valves etc. just to name a
few, can be evaluated. The details of the formulation and analysis of these boundary con-
ditions are beyond the scope of this report.

5
5. Water Hammer effect on The Pumping System

The pumping line consists of 850 mm in diameter M.S. pipe, 5320m long. The pipeline
profile is running on a very flat terrain almost all the way to the receiving pit. Due to low
pumping head the pumping system is susceptible to low down surge pressures. Hence the
surge suppression criteria will be to prevent the severe down surge pressures occurring in
the pumping system and the maximum up surge shall not exceed the pressure rating of
the pumping system.

The phenomenal of surge is due to a change in steady state flow condition in the pumping
system. Hence, the magnitude of the surge pressures, both upsurge and down surge pres-
sures are dependent of steady state flow conditions. Therefore, the steady state flow con-
dition of a pumping system need to be established before a study on the transient state of
the pumping system can be conducted.

5.1. Steady State Hydraulic


Graph 1: - System Characteristic Curve

A high rate of change


Pumping System Characteristic Curve
80.00 of momentum will
2 pumps
70.00 cause great surge
60.00
3 pumps pressures, and mo-
50.00
Head in m

mentum is dependent
40.00 System
curve with on the velocity of
30.00 min. lift
flow in the pipeline.
20.00 System
curve with
10.00 max. lift
Thus, a high rate of
0.00 1235 pump duty change of flow rate in
925 1033 1084 point at
0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 max. head the pipe will cause
Flow rate in l/sec.
more severe surge
pressures. Graph 1 shows the duty point of the pumping system with the pipe having Ha-
zen Williams ‘C’ value of 120 in the analysis, to simulate the condition when the pipe is
new and smooth. The maximum flow rate obtained is 1235 l/sec and 1033 l/sec when wa-
ter level in the pump sump is at -5.78m and -8.63m respectively.

6
5.2. Transient Hydraulic

With the minimum static lift scenario, the pump duty flow rate is 1235 l/sec when the wa-
ter level in the pump sump is at -5.78 m. A simulation of sudden shut down of the pump
without external surge protection devices has show that the worst up surge and down
surge pressures are 41.2m and –31.0m respectively. Similar simulation is carried out for
the water level in the pump sump is at -8.63m, and the worst up surge and down surge
pressures are 41.0m and –30.9m respectively. The down surge pressures in second case
are less severe because of reduction in flow rate due to higher static head. The down
surge pressures are too low and hence surge protection system is required. The pressure
envelope in Graph 2 has indicated that the sub-atmospheric pressures occurred along the
whole pipeline route.

Figure below shows the hydraulic system of the pumping.

41m
3 pum
ps
36m
2 pump
s

25m
Receiving Pit
1 pump

9.35m

Say 5m
4.40m

-5.78m

-8.63m
Pumps
Figure 1

Under normal operation, the total heads at the pump station are:

3 pumps – 36.6m
2 pumps – 31.6m
1 pump – 20.6
0 pump – 5m (pump stop)
The ratios of air pressure inside the surge vessel with respect to pump stop condition are:

7
3 pumps – 7.3 times (=36.6/5)
2 pumps – 6.3 times (=31.6/5)
1 pump – 5.2 times (=20.6/5)

Which means the air inside the surge vessel will expand approximate 5 to 7 times of its
original volume. For instance, say the size of surge is 50 cum, with 10 cum of air inside
the vessel, when 3 pumps are running. When the pumps stop, the air inside the vessel will
expand to 70 cum (=10*7), which is bigger than the volume of the vessel. This expansion
has not yet taken the effect of transient. Therefore, when the pump start, there will be no
water in the vessel, and the vessel is ineffective to control the surge, until it is filled with
adequate quantity of water.

The expansion in volume of air due to different in pressures between pumps running and
pumps stop is about 5 to 7 times, the expansion of air due to transient can be around 4 to
5 times. Therefore, the size of vessel required to control the surge pressures for this
pumping station is 90cum. Even with the introduction of four (4) numbers of vacuum air
valves, the size of the surge vessel can only be reduced to 40cum. Irrespective of 90 cum
or 40 cum vessel is provided, emptying of the vessel when pumps stop is likely to occur,
due to low available static head to keep water in the vessel. Hence, this type of pumping
system, with low static head and frequent start/stop operation, surge vessel is no suitable,
and control of the surge pressures using vacuum air valves is recommended. Figure 1 to
3 show the schematics of the pumping system with the three (3) options of surge proec-
tions, namely air valve only, Vessel only and combination of vessel and air valves.

There are eight (8) kinetic air valves installed along the first kilometer of the pipeline at
the culver crossings for venting of trapped air in the pipeline. However, these kinetic air
valves will allow air to enter the pipeline during down surge, and they also allow air to
escape into the atmosphere during up surge phase. Such effect will cause numerous exci-
tation of the flow in the pipe and causing many secondary surge waves and which will
merge together and resulted in very severe surge pressures. Therefore, these kinetic air
valves need to replace with vacuum relief – air release air valves for better surge control.
In addition, an addition vacuum relief – air release valves is also proposed to be installed
at other locations to control the effect of down surge pressures at that location.

8
The vacuum relief – air release valves allow air to rush into the pipeline to reduce the
down surge pressure when pressures in the pipeline drop below atmospheric pressure,
whereby very low down surge pressures can be prevented. On the other hand, when pres-
sures in the pipeline have rise above atmospheric pressure, the air in the pipe shall be re-
leased to the atmosphere slowly, whereby prevent rejoining of the already separated col-
umn of water. The rejoining of the separated column of water will resulted in very erratic
surge pressures and some times, this secondary surge pressures could be worse than the
primary surge pressures.

Graph 2: - Pressure Envelopes

Pressure Envelope The computer simulation of


50 the transient response of the
40
30 pumping system with the
Pressure in m

20
10 present of the proposed va-
0
-10 cuum air valves has shown
-20
-30 that the down surge pres-
sure has improved to -4.1m,
80

80

40

40

00

00

17

92

60

20

20

80
0

0
0
36

68
10

14

18

22

26

30

34

37

41

45

49

52

- Vacuum relief - Air release valve (A/V) Distance in m


while upsurge pressure re-
Pipeline Profile Max. Surge Pressure
Min. Surge Pressure Hydraulic Grade Line mains at 41.2m when the
Min. Surge Pressure (no proctetion) Max. Surge Pressure (no protection)
water level in the pump
sump is at -5.78m. Similar simulation for the case when water level in the pup sump is at
-8.63m has shown that the worst down surge pressure has reduced to –3.91; with the
worst up surge pressure also remains at 41.0m. The results of the simulation are shown in
Graph 2, which has shown that with the present of the vacuum relief – air release valves,
the down surge pressures can be controlled efficiently.

Summaries of the results of the transient response of the pumping system, together with
the tabulated results of the surge pressures are presented in Figure 1.

The reverse flow starts 3 second after pump stop; hence, the non-return valves used
should be rapid closing types. Shock due to closure of the disc shall be reduced through
the action of a dashpot or similar devices, which retards closure over the last 10 percent
of the closing position.

9
Maximum Surge Minimum Surge
Scenario Pressure m Pressure m
With A/V min. lift, Q=1235/s 41.2 -4.10
protection max. lift, Q=1033/s 41.0 -3.91
min. lift, Q=1235/s 41.2 -31.00
No Protection
max. lift, Q=1033/s 41.0 -30.90

Receiving Pit

9.35m

Vacuum Relief and Air Release Valves

850mm,MS pipe
5320m long
Qo=1235, 1033 l/sec.
C =120, 100

Size* Location
100 /2.4 CH 25m
100 /2.4 CH 253m
100 /2.4 CH 386m
100 /2.4 CH 539m
-5.78m 100 /2.4 CH 1040m
100 /2.4 CH 1088m
-8.63m 100 /2.4 CH 2000m
Pumps
100 /2.4 CH 3058m
100 /2.4 CH 3443m
100 /2.4 CH 4000m
100 /2.4 CH 4834m
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM * inlet/outlet orifice size

Figure 1: - Schematic Diagram – Vacuum Air Valves only

10
Surge Vessel Gross Volume = 90 m3
Initial Air Expanded Air Maximum Surge Minimum Surge
Volume m3 Volume m3 Pressure m Pressure m
Minimum Air 11.50 60.00 41.2 -5.00
Maximum Air 19.70 79.00 41.2 -3.60
Receiving Pit

9.35m

5.0 300bypass
without orifice
300 850mm,MS pipe
5320m long
Qo =1235, 1033 l/sec.
C =120, 100
500 NRV

Upper limit 0.65m


Lower limit 0.95m  =3.5m
-5.78m

L =10.0m
-8.63m
Pumps

Setting of water levels

Option 2 (Not Recommended)

Figure 2: - Schematic Diagram – Vessel Only

11
Surge Vessel Gross Volume = 40 m3
Initial Air Expanded Air Maximum Surge Minimum Surge
Volume m3 Volume m3 Pressure m Pressure m
Minimum Air 4.80 20.70 41.2 -4.80
Maximum Air 9.40 34.80 41.2 -3.90
Receiving Pit

9.35m

Vacuum Relief and


Air Release Valves

5.0 300bypass
without orifice
300 850mm ,MS pipe
5320m long
Qo =1235, 1033 l/sec.
C =120, 100
500 NRV

Upper limit 0.5m


Lower limit 0.8m  =2.8m
-5.78m

L =6.5m
-8.63m
Pumps

Setting of water levels

Option 3 (Not Recommended)

Figure 3: - Schematic Diagram – Vessel + Air Valves

12
6. Conclusion

The proposed vacuum relief – air release valves is able to control the transient effect on
the pumping systems. Therefore, vacuum relief - air release valves (vacuum relief with
attached air release valves) are recommended for this pumping system. The performance
graph of the proposed vacuum relief - air release valve, is shown in the Graph 3.

Graph 3: - Vacuum Relief and Air Release Valve Performance Graph for 100mm
dia. Inlet & 2.4mm dia. Outlet

Performance Graph for Air Valve Performance Graph for Air Valve

0.00
1.40

-0.10
1.20

Diff. Pressure in bars


Diff. Pressure in bars

-0.20
1.00

-0.30
0.80

-0.40
0.60

-0.50
0.40

-0.60
0.20

-0.70
0.00
-70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0
0.00 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03

Air out flow rate in cu.m./min. Air in flow rate in cu.m./min.

Vacuum Relief and Air Release valve Performance Graph : 100mm dia. Inlet & 2mm dia. Inlet

The proposed locations of the vacuum relief - air release valves are shown in Figure 1, all
vacuum relief - air release valves shall have a 6 bars pressure rating.

Appendix A at the end of this report shows the graphical presentations of the transient
responds of the pumping system without protection and with vacuum relief – air release
valves respectively.

13
APPENDIX A

Hydraulic Calculations and Transient Response


for
The Pumping System
C:\Jobs\Prestamaju\Klang\[Results-AV1.xls]Sheet1
Program by A.L. Lau

Pressure envelop
Sewage Lifting Station - Klang

50
40

pe
bove Datum))

30
20
10
sure in m.(Ab

0
A-i

-10 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000


-20
-30
Press

-40
Chainage in m.

Pipeline Profile Max. Surge Pressure (No Protection)


Files Used:
Min. Surge Pressure (No Protection) Hydraulic Grade Line

Max. Surge Pressures Min. Surge Pressures


C:\Jobs\Prestamaju\Klang\[Results-AV1.xls]Sheet1
Program by A.L. Lau

Pressu
ure at pump
S
Sewage Lifti
Lifting Station
St ti - Klang
Kl

50
Pump end, m

p end
40

30
A
A-ii

on Head at P

20

10

0
Elevatio

0 5 10 15 20 25
-10

-20
Files Used: Time, Sec.

No Protection With protection


C:\Jobs\Prestamaju\Klang\[Results-AV1.xls]Sheet1
Program by A.L. Lau

Flow a
at pump en
Sewage Lifting Station - Klang

nd
1.4
d, cum/s

1.2
1
Flow at pump end

0.8
A-iii

0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Ti
Time, Sec.
S
Files Used:

No Protection With Protection


C:\Jobs\Prestamaju\Klang\[Results-AV1.xls]Sheet1
Program by A.L. Lau

Volum
Sewage Lifting Station - Klang

me of Air (in
40
um

35
side A/V), cu

nside air va
30

25
A--iv

alve)
me of Air (ins

20

15

10
Volum

-5 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

Time, Sec.
Files Used:
A/V at CH 0 A/V at CH 1000
C:\Jobs\Prestamaju\Klang\[Results-AV1.xls]Sheet1
Program by A.L. Lau

Air ma
Sewage
g Lifting
g Station - Klang
g

ass flow rate


1.2
w rate, Kg/sec.

0.8
A-v

0.6
Air mass flow

0.4

0.2
A

0
-10 10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150
-0.2
Time, Sec.

Files Used:

A/V at CH 0 A/V at CH 1000


C:\Jobs\Prestamaju\Klang\[Results-AV1.xls]Sheet1
Program by A.L. Lau

Air volumetric flow


Sewage Lifting Station - Klang

60

w rate
50
cu.m/min.

40
A
A-vi

Air Volumetric flow rate, c

30

20

10

0
-10 10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150
-10
A

Time, Sec.
Files Used:
A/V at CH 0 A/V at CH 1000