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Laksika Taweewattanakitborvon (Mild)

Sarisa Keittivuti (Namo)

Watcharit Polsen (Wade)

Achitphol Poollarp (Tarn)

Benjamin Wangcharoenwong (Min)

Accelerated Chemistry 1101

Ms. Patraphorn Sanguansat

Mahidol University International Demonstration School

Semester 2 Academic year 2017-20181

Titration Lab Report


This experiment is conducted to find the concentration of acid solution by using Titration

method. A Hydrochloric solution is set in six similar Erlenmeyer flasks. Each flask contains 10

mL Hydrochloric solution. They are titrated by a 100 mL Sodium Hydroxide solution as titrant.

Two indicators are used to determine pH value of the solutions after they have been titrated:

Phenolphthalein and Bromophenol Blue. After all the solutions have been titrated, which they

have reached the Endpoint, pH values are measured and data is collected. The Endpoint of

each indicators are different because they are used to indicate variety ranges of pH.

Phenolphthalein has an Endpoint around 9 in pH scale, and Bromophenol Blue has an Endpoint

of 3-4 in pH scale. The results of experiment don’t match the expected values as there might be
some errors made by human or known as human error, but they are close to the expected



Background Knowledge:

LibreTexts (2016, Jul 13) gave the definition of Titration as “​the slow addition of one

solution of a known concentration (called a titrant) to a known volume of another solution of

unknown concentration until the reaction reaches neutralization, which is often indicated by a

color change.” ​It is believed that the first Titration process was dated back since the late-18th

century in France. Its development grew constantly including the process itself and the

equipments used in the experiment.​The process of neutralizing ​Acid and Base is the most

common process that is conducted by Titration method. During the process, there are things

that are needed in order to conducting the experiment: The titrant and the

unknown-concentration solution, which either of these can be base or acid depends on what

you wish to test on. The unknown-concentration solution should also include the indicator as

well. The indicator is a chemical substance that indicates the level of pH based on the

concentration of acid and base in a solution (Schamotta J., 2017, April 24). When the pH of the

solution changes, the color of the solution with the indicator will change. The change in color is

also depends on how much concentration of the acid and base in the solution as well. At one

point, the color of the solution can become permanent and cannot be reverted, and at some

point the color change in between which indicates that the solution has reached its optimal pH

or “equivalent point,” which is basically pH = 7 and can be described that the solution had been
neutralized. However, each indicators are best for different uses. Some are best use for

determining solution with high acid concentration, whilst some are best for solution with high

basic solution. Also, some indicators may not have pH 7 as an optimal pH of the unknown

solution but others instead like Alizarin yellow R that has its optimal pH of around 11 while

Methyl orange is around 3 almost 4 instead of 7. That’s why another term for the optimal pH of

the indicator is called “endpoint.” The unknown solution is not at equivalence point, yet it still

had been neutralized. The one that is commonly known for beginner titration is Phenolphthalein

which can determine the pH solution from around 8-10.

To determine the pH of the solution, we can use the equation of substituting the

concentration of (H+) or (OH-) into a negative base-ten logarithm. However, the pH of H+ and
OH- is not the same depends on what concentration you used even in the same solution and

volume. However, the value of pH from H+ and OH- of the same solution will become 14 when

added together. These are equations for finding pH from Acid and Base:

pH = -log(H+) , pOH = -log(OH-)

10​-pH​= H+ , 10​-pOH​= OH-

Which pH + pOH = 14

Neutralization is the idea of making the acid solution and basic solution to change its pH

into as close to 7.0 as possible which can be done in the Titration Lab as well. In Layman's

term, Neutralization is the process of chemical reaction which focusing on equating the two

solution with a huge difference in pH into a product with a more optimal pH based from the

indicator as much as possible. There is an equation that is for Neutralization as well which is

based on Brønsted–Lowry theory that the acid, when combined with base, can lost its proton to

become conjugate base and the base can accept the proton and become conjugated acid:

A(H)​ + ​B​ = ​A​+ ​B(H)​ “or”

(​acid​ + ​base​ = ​conjugate base​ + ​conjugate acid​)


In this experiment, our goal is to use the provided Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) to

neutralizing the pH-unknown Hydrochloric (HCL) until it reaches its optimal endpoint as precise

as possible by using two indicators; Phenolphthalein and Bromophenol Blue. This experiment

also aims to the goal of understanding molarity and concentration of the base and acid we used
in this Titration experiment based on the volume of the both-kind solutions that we recorded

throughout the lab and substitute it in calculation part to find the result of this experiment.


Material/ Chemical:


- NaOH

- Bromophenol blue

- Sodium hydroxide solution

- Phenolphthalein

- Distilled water


- Beaker

- Buret

- Funnel

- Buret stand

- Erlenmeyer flask

- Pipette

- pH meter

- Distilled water bottle

- Pipette Bulb


1. Record the molarity of the sodium hydroxide solution on the data sheet.

2. Obtain approximately 100 mL of the sodium hydroxide solution in a clean beaker.

3. (Repeat this step 3 times) Clean your buret: Add about 5 mL of the base solution from the

beaker to the buret by using a funnel to pour. Move the funnel around while adding to ensure

the sides of the buret are coated with base. Alternatively, you can remove the buret with the 5

mL of titrant from the buret stand and carefully tilt and rotate to coat all interior surfaces with the

titrant. Drain the solution through the stopcock into a waste beaker. Repeat this rinse with a

second 5 mL portion of base.

4. Pour more of the sodium hydroxide solution into the buret until it is near the 0.00 mL mark.

Open the stopcock to allow several drops to rinse through the tip of the buret. This should

eliminate any air bubbles in the buret tip. Record your initial buret reading on the data sheet for

trial 1 (the volume does not need to be exactly 0.00 mL).

5. Draw 10.00 mL of the acid solution into the volumetric pipette and transfer this solution into

an Erlenmeyer flask. Add 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein to the acid solution in the flask.
6. Place the flask under the buret and start adding the base solution to the Erlenmeyer flask.

When pink starts to develop, add the solution more slowly. At this point you should add one

drop at a time followed by swirling until a very light pink color persists for at least 30 seconds.

Remember, the lighter the pink the better!!!

7. Record the final reading of the buret. Wash the contents of the flask down the drain with


8. Refill the buret with more sodium hydroxide solution if necessary. Record the new volume

under trial 2 on the data sheet. Pipette another sample of acid and add the phenolphthalein as

before and titrate as before.

9. Conduct additional titrations until the volume of NaOH used in two of them differ by no more

than 1 ml.

10. Measure the pH of mixing solution by using pH meter.

11. Repeat the step 5 by using bromophenol blue as indicator instead of phenolphthalein

12. Complete the data sheet and post-lab questions.



1. How will you know when your titration is finished?

When the color of the solution has changed either it reaches equivalence point or over

the equivalence point.

2. Label the pH scale below with acid, base, and neutral, indicating numbers for each.

3. On the scale above, use an arrow to show where your equivalence point is located.

ใสล่ ูกสรดว้ ยยยย

4. Write the neutralization reaction that occurs between hydrobromic acid (HBr) and lithium

hydroxide (LiOH).

LiOH + HBr → LiBr + H​2​O

5. What is the concentration of 10.00 mL of HBr if it takes 16.73 mL of a 0.253 M LiOH solution

to neutralize it?

LiOH + HBr → LiBr + H2O

NaCaVa = NbCbVb


Ca = 0.423 M
Datasheet + Calculation:

Phenolphthalein Phenolphthalein Bromophenol Bromophenol

Blue Blue

(Trial 1) (Trial 2)

(Trial 1) (Trial 2)

Initial Buret 26 25.21 25.50 20.85

Volume (mL)

Final Buret 31.3 30.4 30.55 24.95

Volume (mL)

Volume of base 5.3 5.21 5.05 4.1


Volume of base 0.0053 0.00521 0.00505 0.0041


Moles of base 5.3*10^-4 5.21*10^-4 5.05*10^-4 4.1*10^-4


Acid to Base 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:!

Mole ratio

Moles of acid 5.3*10^-4 5.21*10^-4 5.05*10^-4 4.1*10^-4


Volume of acid 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01


Acid 5.3*10^-2 5.21*10^-2 5.05*10^-2 4.1*10^-2



Average Acid - Acid -

concentration 5.2*10^-2 4.57*10^-2

pH - 5.65 3.36 -


Post lab Question:

1.)How would it affect your result if you used a beaker with residual water in it to measure out

your standardized sodium hydroxide solution?

-If the beaker that we’re using contained a residual water in it to measure out our

standardized sodium hydroxide solution, then the concentration of the solution is changed.

Furthermore the residual water is contaminated and have unpredictable ph. So when the

concentration and ph of the solution is changed, then the solution will not be accurate.

2.)How would it affect your result if you used a wet Erlenmeyer flask instead of a dry one when

transfering your acid solution from the volumetric pipette?

-If we used a wet Erlenmeyer flask instead of a dry one when transfering acid solution

from the volumetric pipette, then the solution will be contaminate and may affect the result of the

3.)How do you tell if you have exceeded the equivalence point in your titration?

-The equivalence point in a titration is the point at which the added titrant is chemically

equivalent to the analyte. We can observe from the change in color of the indicator (end point).

For Phenolphthalein the color will turn from clear to pale pink and for the Bromophenol Blue the

color would turn to green.

4.)Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid (CH3COOH) in water. For quality control purposes, it can

be titrated using sodium hydroxide to assure a specific % composition. If hydroxide solution,

what is the molarity of the vinegar?


During the experiment, two errors are found. The first one is pH of the solution that we

use phenolphthalein as a indicator did not came out as we expected. Even though the colour of

the solution is came out as light pink, but the pH level of solution is 5.65. Normally, the pH of of

the solution should be approximately around 7 - 9. We hypothesise that the error may be

caused by un-synthesised pH indicator. The experimenter may have not washed properly, so it

might be contaminated with other substances before it has been used.


To conclude, we were quite satisfy with the overall experiment. In the experiment we use

two types of indicator which are Bromophenol blue and Phenolphthalein. Both of the titration

went well and and color of both solutions is very similar to the endpoint color. Even though the

amount of bases that were used is differently in each indicator, the concentration of unknown

the solution is the same which is 10^-5.65. This means that the distilled water that we add in

and different amount of bases that we use didn’t affect the concentration of the acid.


When we were doing the titration lab which consists of many instruments and chemicals,

we should take every step slowly and carefully to avoid making human errors. Also, we should

be aware of placing instruments separately into groups for example we should separate beakers

cleaned by distilled water and beakers that cleaned by acid because if we just put it randomly,

then the error might happen. The mistake we made this time was that we unintentionally poured

a completely titrated solution into a beaker which we had cleaned it with acid by accident, hence

it changed the result of the titration.


● LibreText. (2016, July 13). Titration. Retrieved January 22, 2018 from


● Schamotta J. (2017, April 27). Common Acid-Base Indicator. Retrieved January 31,

2018 from ​

Work log

Name Jobs

Tarn Abstract, Suggestion, Calculation

Mild Materials & Equipments, Procedure,


Benjamin Lay-ou​t​, Procedure, Discussion

Namo Discussion,Error, conclusion

Wade Introduction, Objective, Result