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You are on page 1of 49

Chapter 5

NUMERICAL METHODS IN HEAT

CONDUCTION

Universitry of Technology

Materials Engineering Department

MaE216: Heat Transfer and Fluid

Objectives

Understand the limitations of analytical solutions of

conduction problems, and the need for computation-

intensive numerical methods

Express derivates as differences, and obtain finite

difference formulations

Solve steady one- or two-dimensional conduction

problems numerically using the finite difference method

Solve transient one- or two-dimensional conduction

problems using the finite difference method

HY NUMERICAL METHODS?

In Chapter 2, we solved various heat

conduction problems in various

geometries in a systematic but highly

mathematical manner by

(1) deriving the governing differential

equation by performing an energy

balance on a differential volume

element,

(2) expressing the boundary

conditions in the proper mathematical

form, and

(3) solving the differential equation

and applying the boundary conditions

to determine the integration

mitations

Analytical solution methods are limited to

highly simplified problems in simple

geometries.

The geometry must be such that its entire

surface can be described mathematically

in a coordinate system by setting the

variables equal to constants.

That is, it must fit into a coordinate system

perfectly with nothing sticking out or in.

Even in simple geometries, heat transfer

problems cannot be solved analytically if

the thermal conditions are not sufficiently

simple.

Analytical solutions are limited to problems

that are simple or can be simplified with

etter Modeling

n attempting to get an analytical solution

hysical problem, there is always the

ncy to oversimplify the problem to make

athematical model sufficiently simple to

nt an analytical solution.

efore, it is common practice to ignore any

s that cause mathematical complications

as nonlinearities in the differential

tion or the boundary conditions

nearities such as temperature

ndence of thermal conductivity and the

tion boundary conditions).

thematical model intended for a numerical

on is likely to represent the actual

em better.

numerical solution of engineering

ems has now become the norm rather

lexibility

gineering problems often require extensive parametric studies

nderstand the influence of some variables on the solution in

er to choose the right set of variables and to answer some

at-if” questions.

s is an iterative process that is extremely tedious and time-

suming if done by hand.

mputers and numerical methods are ideally suited for such

culations, and a wide range of related problems can be solved

minor modifications in the code or input variables.

ay it is almost unthinkable to perform any significant

mization studies in engineering without the power and flexibility

omputers and numerical methods.

omplications

e problems can be solved analytically,

e solution procedure is so complex and

esulting solution expressions so

licated that it is not worth all that effort.

the exception of steady one-dimensional

nsient lumped system problems, all heat

uction problems result in partial

ential equations.

ng such equations usually requires

ematical sophistication beyond that

red at the undergraduate level, such as

gonality, eigenvalues, Fourier and

ce transforms, Bessel and Legendre

ons, and infinite series.

ch cases, the evaluation of the solution,

h often involves double or triple

mations of infinite series at a specified

uman Nature Analytical solutions are necessary

because insight to the physical

phenomena and engineering wisdom

is gained primarily through analysis.

The “feel” that engineers develop

during the analysis of simple but

fundamental problems serves as an

invaluable tool when interpreting a

huge pile of results obtained from a

computer when solving a complex

problem.

A simple analysis by hand for a

limiting case can be used to check if

the results are in the proper range.

In this chapter, you will learn how to

formulate and solve heat transfer

problems numerically using one or

more approaches.

NITE DIFFERENCE FORMULATION

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

numerical methods for solving differential

tions are based on replacing the

ential equations by algebraic equations.

case of the popular finite difference

od, this is done by replacing the

atives by differences.

w we demonstrate this with both first- and

nd-order derivatives.

XAMPLE

finite difference

form of the first

derivative

about the point x,

the error, and thus the more

accurate the approximation.

der steady one-dimensional heat conduction in a plane wall of thickness L

eat generation.

of the second derivative at a

general internal node m.

no heat generation

Finite difference formulation for steady two-

dimensional heat conduction in a region with

heat generation and constant thermal

E-DIMENSIONAL STEADY HEAT

NDUCTION

section we develop the finite difference

ation of heat conduction in a plane wall

he energy balance approach and

s how to solve the resulting equations.

ergy balance method is based on

ding the medium into a sufficient

r of volume elements and then

g an energy balance on each element.

equation is applicable to each of the

interior nodes, and its application

s M - 1 equations for the determination

mperatures at M + 1 nodes.

two additional equations needed to

e for the M + 1 unknown nodal

peratures are obtained by applying the

gy balance on the two elements at the

undary Conditions

dary conditions most commonly encountered in practice are the

fied temperature, specified heat flux, convection, and radiation

dary conditions, and here we develop the finite difference formulations

em for the case of steady one-dimensional heat conduction in a plane

of thickness L as an example.

node number at the left surface at x = 0 is 0, and at the right surface at

it is M. Note that the width of the volume element for either boundary

is x/2.

n other boundary conditions such as the specified heat flux, convection,

ation, or combined convection and radiation conditions are specified at a

ndary, the finite difference equation for the node at that boundary is obtained

riting an energy balance on the volume element at that boundary.

dary conditions at the left boundary:

Schematic for

the finite

difference

formulation of

the interface

boundary

condition for two

ating Insulated Boundary Nodes as Interior Nodes:

Mirror Image Concept

used for problems that possess thermal

symmetry by replacing the plane of

symmetry by a mirror.

Alternately, we can replace the plane of

symmetry by insulation and consider

only half of the medium in the solution.

The solution in the other half of the

medium is simply the mirror image of the

solution obtained.

XAMPLE

ode 1

ode 2

ct solution:

finite difference formulation of

dy heat conduction problems

lly results in a system of N

braic equations in N unknown

al temperatures that need to be

ed simultaneously.

e are numerous systematic

oaches available in the literature,

they are broadly classified as

ct and iterative methods.

direct methods are based on a

number of well-defined steps that

t in the solution in a systematic

ner.

iterative methods are based on an

l guess for the solution that is

ed by iteration until a specified

ergence criterion is satisfied.

e of the simplest iterative methods is the Gauss-Seidel iteration.

O-DIMENSIONAL STEADY HEAT

NDUCTION

Sometimes we need to consider heat transfer

in other directions as well when the variation

of temperature in other directions is

significant.

We consider the numerical formulation and

solution of two-dimensional steady heat

conduction in rectangular coordinates using

the finite difference method.

uare mesh:

undary Nodes

region is partitioned between the

es by forming volume elements

nd the nodes, and an energy

nce is written for each boundary

e.

nergy balance on a volume

ent is

ulation, all heat transfer to be into the

me element from all surfaces except

pecified heat flux, whose direction is

ady specified.

EXAMPLE

Node 1

Node 2

Node 3

Node 5

Node 6

Nodes 7, 8

e9

gular Boundaries

Many geometries encountered in practice

such as turbine blades or engine blocks do

not have simple shapes, and it is difficult to

fill such geometries having irregular

boundaries with simple volume elements.

A practical way of dealing with such

geometries is to replace the irregular

geometry by a series of simple volume

elements.

This simple approach is often satisfactory

for practical purposes, especially when the

nodes are closely spaced near the

boundary.

More sophisticated approaches are

available for handling irregular boundaries,

and they are commonly incorporated into

the commercial software packages.

ANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION

ite difference solution of transient

ms requires discretization in time in

n to discretization in space.

done by selecting a suitable time step

solving for the unknown nodal

atures repeatedly for each t until the

n at the desired time is obtained.

sient problems, the superscript i is used

index or counter of time steps, with i = 0

ponding to the specified initial condition.

t method: If temperatures at the previous

ep i is used.

t method: If temperatures at the new time

+ 1 is used.

sient Heat Conduction in a Plane Wall

at generation and = 0.5

w time step is simply the average

temperatures of its neighboring

at the previous time step.

bility Criterion for Explicit Method: Limitation on t

xplicit method is easy to use, but it suffers

n undesirable feature that severely restricts

ty: the explicit method is not unconditionally

, and the largest permissible value of the time

t is limited by the stability criterion.

ime step t is not sufficiently small, the

ons obtained by the explicit method may

te wildly and diverge from the actual solution.

oid such divergent oscillations in nodal

ratures, the value of t must be maintained

a certain upper limit established by the

ity criterion.

Example

The implicit method is

unconditionally stable, and thus we

can use any time step we please

with that method (of course, the

smaller the time step, the better the

accuracy of the solution).

The disadvantage of the implicit

method is that it results in a set of

equations that must be solved

simultaneously for each time step.

Both methods are used in practice.

EXAMPLE

Node 1

Node 2

cit finite difference formulation

Node 1

Node 2

-Dimensional Transient Heat Conduction

Explicit

formulation

Stability criterion

AMPLE

1

Node 2

Node 3

Node 4

Node 5

Node 6

Nodes 7, 8

Node 9

teractive SS-T-CONDUCT Software

nduction) software was developed by Ghajar and his

-workers and is available from the online learning

nter (www.mhhe.com/cengel) to the instructors and

dents.

e software is user-friendly and can be used to solve

any of the one- and two-dimensional heat conduction

oblems with uniform energy generation in rectangular

ometries discussed in this chapter.

r transient problems the explicit or the implicit solution

ethod could be used.

Summary

Why numerical methods?

Finite difference formulation of differential equations

One-dimensional steady heat conduction

Boundary conditions

Treating Insulated Boundary Nodes as Interior Nodes: The

Mirror Image Concept

Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

Boundary Nodes

Irregular Boundaries

Transient heat conduction

Transient Heat Conduction in a Plane Wall

Stability Criterion for Explicit Method: Limitation on t

Two-Dimensional Transient Heat Conduction

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