You are on page 1of 177

Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology

Certificate

This is to certify that Mr./Ms.____________________________________

Enrollment No. ________________Branch_____________________________

Semester ____________ has satisfactory completed the course in the subject

__________________________________ in this institute.

Date of Submission: - __________________________

Staff in Charge Head of Department


DARSHAN INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

MATERIAL SCIENCE AND METALLURGY (2131904)


B.E. III SEM. (MECHANICAL)
INDEX
Sr. Page Starting Ending
Description Sign Remark
No. No. Date Date
To get acquainted with the operation,
construction, use and capabilities of a
metallographic microscope and polishing
1. machine and study procedure of
specimen preparation for microscopic
examination.

To understand what is micro


examination, importance of micro
2. examination and study various ferrous
and non-ferrous microstructures.

To understand what is solid solutions,


3. space lattices, crystal structure and
bonding.

To identify the different types of material


available for design ,manufacturing and
4. processing of various components based
on structure-property-performance-
processing relationships.

To understand the concept of iron carbon


5. diagram and TTT curve.

To understand the procedure of Non


6. Destructive tests.

To understand the concept of heat


7. treatment and case hardening processes.

To understand the concept of powder


8. metallurgy.

To understand the concept of


hardenability and obtain the hardness
9. distribution curve with the help of
Jomeny End quench test apparatus.
Metallurgical Microscope
Date: ___ /___ /______

EXPERIMENT NO. 1
Objective
To get acquainted with the operation, construction, use and capabilities of a metallographic
microscope and polishing machine and study procedure of specimen preparation for
microscopic examination.

1.1 Definition
Metallography consists of the microscopic study of the structural characteristics of a metal or
an alloy. Metallography is the general study of metals and their behaviour, with particular
reference to their microstructure and macro-Structure.
 Microstructure is the characteristic appearance and physical arrangement of a metal as
observed with a microscope.
 Macrostructure is the appearance and physical arrangement as observed with the
naked eye or with a low power magnification.
Microstructure and Macrostructure of a metal or an alloy are closely interrelated with each
other and knowledge of both is essential for full understanding of any metal. Metallography
has wide scope and for the reason, a number of precise techniques (e.g. electron microscopy,
field ion microscopy, etc.) have been developed for the purpose.

1.2 Metallurgical Microscope


Metallurgical microscope is by far the most important tool of the metallurgist form both the
scientific and technical stand point.
Purpose
A metallurgical microscope helps determining:
 Grain size and shape.
 Size, shape and distribution of various phases and inclusion.
 Mechanical and thermal treatments of the alloys.
A large range of metallurgical microscopes is available, for the above mentioned purposes,
all using the principal of examination by light reflected from the specimen surface (since
metal specimens are opaque). The typical metallurgical microscope is shown in Fig 1.2
Principle

1
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Metallurgical Microscope
As shown in Fig. 1.1, a horizontal beam of light from some light source is reflected, by
means of a plane-glass reflector, downward through the microscope objective onto the
surface of the specimen. Some of this incident light reflected from the specimen surface will
be magnified in passing through the lower lens system, the objective, and will continue
upward through the plane-glass reflector and be magnified again by the upper lens system,
the eyepiece. The initial magnifying power of the objective and the eyepiece is usually
engraved on the lens mount. When a particular combination of objective and eyepiece is used
at the proper tube length, the total magnification is equal to the product of the magnifications
of the objective and the eyepiece.

Fig. 1.1 The principle of Metallurgical microscope


2
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Metallurgical Microscope
Construction
A draw tube carrying eyepiece at its top end slides within the body tube of the microscope,
with the help of a rack anal pinion devices by rotating coarse and fine adjustment knobs.
Sliding of draw-tube within the body-tube varies the distance between the eyepiece and the
objective and thus helps focusing of the object. Fine adjustment facilitates final focusing of
the object.

Fig. 1.2 Metallurgical microscope

The objective, fitted at the down end of the body tube, resolves the structure of the metal
(specimen) whereas the eyepiece enlarges the image formed by the objective. Eyepieces are
made in a variety of powers, such as X5, X8, X10, etc., marked on the top of the eyepiece.
The source of light is inside the microscope tube itself. Light is diffused with the help of a
diffusing disc. The width of the light beam is controlled by the iris diaphragm. The incident
light strikes the plane glass reflector kept at 45° and is partially reflected down onto the
specimen. The rays of light get returned reflection from the (polished) specimen, pass
through the objective and glass reflector to form the final image which can be seen through
the eyepiece.
A photographic camera may be mounted above the eyepiece in order to record permanently
the metallographic structure of the alloy. The maximum magnification obtained with the
optical microscope is about 2000X.
3
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Metallurgical Microscope

1.3 Electron Microscope


At times it becomes necessary in metallurgical research to examine metal structures at very
high magnifications. Unfortunately the highest magnification possible with an ordinary
optical metallurgical microscope (Fig. 1.1) is in the region of X2000.For very high-power
microscopy (i.e., between X2000 and X200000) light rays are replaced by a beam of
electrons and this way developed an electron microscope.
Principle

Fig. 1.3 the Principle of an electron microscope

Most electron microscopy is carried out by using transmission-type instruments that produce
images of r transparent replicas of the etched specimen or of very thin metal obtained by
various techniques. It is necessary for electron microscope specimen to be transparent to the
electron beam. Replicas are produced in plastic or some other suitable material, which
reproduces faithfully the contours of the polished and etched specimen.
Thin foils of the metals which work as (electron microscope) specimen are of 100-2000. A°
thickness and are prepared by several available methods, one of which is Ion Bombardment
technique and another is Electro polishing method.
Construction and Operation

4
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Metallurgical Microscope
An electron microscope consists of an electron gun and condenser and projector lens.
Vacuum is necessary to allow passage of the electron beam. Electrons emitted by a hot
tungsten-filament cathode are accelerated, to form a high velocity beam, by the anode.
Depending upon the density and thickness of the replica (specimen) at each point, some of
the electrons are absorbed or scattered wi.ile the remainders pass through, i.e., transmit.
The magnetic field of the objective lens focuses and enlarges the electron beam that has
passed through the replica. Some of the electrons in this image are brought into a second
focus on a fluorescent screen by the projector lens.

1.4 Polishing Machine.

Fig.1.4 Schematic arrangement of the polishing machine

Fig. 1.4 shows the schematic arrangement of the specimen polishing machine available in the
laboratory. It is generally used after rough polishing of the specimen over fine emery papers.
Polishing is necessary to ensure a perfectly flat surface of the specimen, without any
scratches. A shining mirror like surface is required after polishing the specimen so as to get
the proper microstructure.
This machine consists of a cast iron disc mounted at the end of a vertical shaft. The shaft is
driven by an electric motor through pulleys and belt arrangement. The r.p.m. of the disc
available are 1400. A fine cloth is stretched over the top surface of the disc and is held in
position with help of a ring clamp. When in working, a fine abrasive powder suspended in
water is applied to the cloth on the revolving disc. The cloth is kept supplied with suspension
from a cylindrical container held above the disc. Alternatively, an abrasive paste may be
5
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Metallurgical Microscope
frequently applied to the cloth on the disc while supply of water may be regulated from the
cylindrical container to the disc. A P.V.C. tube brings liquid from the cylindrical container,
regulated by a cock, to the top surface of the disc. While polishing, the specimen is held
firmly in hand with a gentle pressure against the cloth on the revolving disc. This is
maintained so for a period as will permit mirror like finish on the surface of the specimen.
Thereafter, the specimen is washed with water and cleaned dry with alcohol. Care is taken
not to touch the polished surface with fingers, otherwise finger prints may be produced on
that surface requiring re polishing of the surface.

1.4 Preparation of Specimen


Specimen preparation or polishing is necessary to study its microstructure, because the
metallurgical microscope discussed earlier makes use of the principle of reflection of light
(from the specimen) to obtain the final image of the metal structure. Satisfactory
metallographic results can be obtained only, when the specimen has been carefully prepared.
Even the most costly microscope will not reveal the metal structure if the specimen has been
poorly prepared.
Procedure
The procedures for preparing the specimen both macro and micro-examination is the same,
except that in the latter the final surface finish is more important than in the former.
1. Selection of specimen. When investigating the properties of a metal or alloy, it is essential
that the specimen should be selected from that area (of the alloy plate or casting) which can
be taken as representative of the whole mass.
2. Cutting of the specimen. After selecting a particular area in the file mass, the specimen
may be removed with the help of a saw, a. panning tool, an abrasive wheel, etc.
3. Mounting the Specimen. If the specimen is too small to be held in hand for further
processing, it should be mounted in thermoplastic resin or some other low melting point
alloy.
4. Obtaining Flat Specimen Surface. It is first necessary to obtain a reasonably flat surface
on the specimen. This is achieved by using a fairly coarse file or machining or grinding, by
using a motor driven emery belt.
5. Intermediate and Fine Grinding. Intermediate and fine grinding is carried out using
emery papers of progressively finer grade.

6
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Metallurgical Microscope
The emery papers should be of very good quality in respect of uniformity of particle size.
Four grades of abrasives used are: 220 grit, 320 grit, 400 grit and 600 grit (from coarse to
fine); the 320 grit has particle sizes (of the silicon carbide) as about 33 microns and 600 grit
that of 17 microns (1 micron = 10-4 cm).
The specimen is first ground on 220 grit paper, so that scratches are produced roughly at right
angle to those initially existing on the specimen and produced through preliminary grinding
or coarse filing operation. Having removed the primary grinding marks, the specimen is wash
free of No. 220 grit. Grinding is then continued on the No. 320 paper, again turning the
specimen through 900 and polishing until the previous scratches marks are removed. The
process is repeated with the No. 400 and No. 600 papers. Grinding with the No. 200, No. 320,
etc., papers could be done in the following ways:
a) The specimen may be hand-rubbed against the abrasive paper which is laid over a flat
surface such as a piece of glass plate.
b) The abrasive paper may be mounted on the surface of a flat, horizontally rotating
wheel and the specimen held, in the hand, against it.
In either case, the surface of the abrasive paper (with a water proof base) shall be lubricated
with water so as to provide a flushing action to carry away the particles cut from the surface.
6. Rough Polishing. A very small quantity of diamond powder (particle size about 6
microns) carried in a paste that is oil-soluble is placed on the nylon cloth-covered surface of a
rotating polishing wheel. The lubricant used during the polishing operation is specially
prepared oil. The specimen is pressed against the cloth of the rotating wheel with
considerable pressure and is moved around the wheel in the direction opposite to rotation of
the wheel to ensure a more uniform polishing action.
7. Fine Polishing. The polishing compound used is alumina (Al2O3) power (with a particles
of 0.05 microns) placed on a cloth covered rotating wheel. Distilled water is used as a
lubricant. Fine polishing removes fine scratches and very thin distorted layer remaining from
the rough polishing stage.
8. Etching. Even after fine polishing, the granular structure in a specimen usually cannot be
seen under the microscope; because grain boundaries in a metal have a thickness of the order
of a few atom diameters at best, and resolving power of a microscope is much too low to
reveal their presence. In order to make the grain boundaries visible, after fine polishing the,
metal specimens are usually etched. Etching imparts unlike appearances to the metal
constituents and thus makes metal structure apparent under the microscope.
7
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Metallurgical Microscope
Before Etching, the polished specimen is thoroughly washed in running water. Then, the
etching is done either by
 Immersing the polished surface (of the specimen) in the etching Reagent or by
 Rubbing the polished surface gently with a cotton swab wetted with the Etching
Reagent.
After etching, the specimen is again washed thoroughly and dried.

Etching Reagents for Microscopic Examination


No Type of Etchant Composition Uses
1. Nital (i) Cone, Nitric acid 2 CC For etching steels, gray cast
(ii) Absolute methyl alcohol 98 CC iron &black heart malleable
2. Acid ammonium (i) Hydrochloric acid 10 CC For etching stainless steels.
persulphate (ii) Ammonium persulphate 10 gms
(iii) Water 80 CC
3. Ammonia (i) Ammonium hydroxide 50 CC The best general etchant for
hydrogen (0.880) copper, brasses and bronzes.
peroxide (ii) Hydrogen peroxide (3% 20-50 CC
solution)
(iii) Water 50 CC
4. Dilute hydro- (i) Hydrofluoric acid 0.5 CC A good general etch-ant for
fluoric acid (ii) Water 99.5 CC Al and its alloys
5. Keller’s reagent (i) Hydrofluoric acid 1 CC For (immersion) etching of
(ii) HCI 1.5 CC Duralumin type alloys
(iii) HNO3 2.5 CC
(iv) Water 95 CC
6. Mixed nitric and (i) Nitric acid 50 CC A good general etch-ant for
acetic acids (ii) Glacial acetic acid 50 CC Al and its alloys

References
1. Material Science and Metallurgy by O. P. Khanna
2. Introduction to Physical Metallurgy by Sidney H. Avner
8
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Metallurgical Microscope
Questionnaire
1. What is metallography?
2. Write a short note on metallurgical microscope.
3. Write a short note on electron microscope.
4. Draw a neat sketch of metallurgical microscope.

9
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Microstructures
Date: ___ /___ /______

EXPERIMENT NO. 2
Objective
To understand what is micro examination, importance of micro examination and study
various ferrous and non-ferrous microstructures.

2.1 Macro Examination

Macroetching is the procedure in which a specimen is etched and evaluated macro


structurally at low magnifications. It is a frequently used technique for evaluating steel
products such as billets, bars, blooms, and forgings. There are several procedures for rating a
steel specimen by a graded series of photographs showing the incidence of certain conditions
and is applicable to carbon and low alloy steels. A number of different etching reagents may
be used depending upon the type of examination to be made. Steels react differently to
etching reagents because of variations in chemical composition, method of manufacturing.

Macro-Examinations are also performed on a polished and etched cross-section of a welded


material. During the examination, a number of features can be determined including weld run
sequence, important for weld procedure qualifications tests. As well as this, any defects on
the sample will be assessed for compliance with relevant specifications. Slag, porosity, lack
of weld penetration, lack of sidewall fusion and poor weld profile are among the features
observed in such examinations. It is normal to look for such defects either by standard visual
examination or at magnifications of up to 50X. It is also routine to photograph the section to
provide a permanent record. This is known as a photomacrograph.

2.2 Micro Examination

This is performed on samples either cut to size or mounted in a resin mold. The samples are
polished to a fine finish, normally one micron diamond paste, and usually etched in an
appropriate chemical solution prior to examination on a metallurgical microscope. Micro-
examination is performed for a number of purposes, the most obvious of which is to assess
the structure of the material. It is also common to examine for metallurgical anomalies such
as third phase precipitates, excessive grain growth, etc. Many routine tests such as phase
counting or grain size determinations are performed in conjunction with micro-examinations.
1
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Microstructures

2.3 Study of Microstructures


Study of microstructure of the specimen is required to determine the metallurgical effects of
heat-treatment manufacturing processes (such as welding) etc. Trained metallographers are
able to evaluate the microscopical appearance of metals and to indicate the past history of the
metals so that the advisability of particular metallurgical method can be predicted. Many
photomicrographs and sketches of metallic structure included in the book, because all
metallurgical process have definite effects on the structure of the metals used and the
metallurgical nature of processes can be studied in terms of these metallographic effects.
Fig. shows microstructures of some important constituents.

 Microstructures of Ferrous Metal

GREY CAST IRON S.G. IRON

WHITE CAST IRON MELLEABLE CAST IRON

2
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Microstructures

 Microstructures of Non Ferrous Metal

BRASS ALUMINUM

BRONZE GUNMETAL

References
1. Material Science and Metallurgy by O. P. Khanna
2. Introduction to Physical Metallurgy by Sidney H. Avner

3
Crystallography
Date: ___ /___ /______

EXPERIMENT NO. 3
Objective
To understand what is solid solutions, space lattices, crystal structure and bonding.

3.1 Solid Solutions


Metals generally form homogeneous liquid solutions in the liquid state. If, even after their
transformation to a solid crystalline state, the metals (alloy) retain their homogeneity and
consequently their solubility, a solid solution is said to have formed.
Thus solidified alloy, results in one kind of crystal in which both metals are present, but they
cannot be detected by the microscope, although the properties of the crystals are profoundly
altered.
Solid solutions form most readily when the solvent and solute atoms have similar sizes and
electron structure. For example, Brass is a solid solution of copper and zinc; a typical
composition is, copper 64% and Zn 36%. Copper atoms are solvent atoms and zinc atoms are
solute atoms.
 Copper has an atomic radius of 1.278 Å, and Zinc has that of 1.332 Å.
 Both Cu and Zn have 28 sub valence electrons.
 They, individually form crystal structure of their own with a coordination number 12.
 Copper and zinc form a substitutional solid solution.
A solid solution is simply a solution in the solid state and consists of two kinds of atoms
combined in one type of-space lattice. There is a homogeneous distribution of two or more
constituents in the solid state so as to form a single phase, i.e., the solid solution.
In a solid solution binary alloy system, the two metals (e.g., Cu and Ni) are completely
soluble in both the liquid and the solid states. A solid solution is the result of, metals
dissolving in each other's crystal lattice. Solid solutions are conductors, but not so good as the
pure metals on which they are based.

3.2 Types of solid solutions


Solid solutions occur in either of two distinct types, namely
 Substitutional solid solution (1) Disordered (2) Ordered
 Interstitial solid solution.
1
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Crystallography

Substitutional solid solution


In substitutional solid solution, there is a direct substitution of one type of atom for another so
that solute atoms (Cu) enter the crystal to take positions normally occupied by solvent atoms
(e.g., nickel atoms); (Fig. 3.1).
In other words, in substitutional solid solution, the atoms of the solute substitute for atoms of
the solvent in the lattice structure of the solvent.

Fig. 3.1 Substitutional solid solution


Substitutional solid solution forms when the solute and solvent atoms possess equal or
approximately equal (within ± 7.5%) diameters; for example, atomic diameter of copper is
2.551 Å and that of nickel is 2.487 Å, and the two (i.e., Cu and Ni) form substitutional solid
solution. The great majority of the solid solutions are of substitutional type.

Disordered substitutional solid solution


In the formation of a substitutional solid solution the solute atoms do not occupy any specific
position but are distributed at random in the lattice structure of the solvent. This alloy is said
to be in a disordered condition. In the disordered condition, the concentration of solute atoms
can vary considerably throughout the lattice structure. (Fig. 3.2)

Fig. 3.2 Disodered substitutional solid solution


When a disordered substitutional solid solution crystallizes from the melt, there is a natural
tendency for the core of the dendrite to contain rather more atoms of the metal with higher
melting point, whilst the outer fringes of the crystal will contain correspondingly more atoms
of the metal of the lower melting point.
2
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Crystallography
Ordered substitutional solid solution
The alloy in the disordered condition, if it is cooled slowly, under goes a rearrangement of the
atoms because of the diffusion that takes place during cooling. Diffusion tends to produce
uniform distribution of solute and solvent atoms. The solute atoms move into definite orderly
positions in the lattice (Fig. 3.3).

Fig. 3.3 Ordered substitutional solid solution


This structure is now known as ordered substitutional solid solution or super lattice.
Prolonged annealing tends to produce still more uniform and ordered solid solution. Cu-Zn,
Au-Cu, Cu2MnAI are some examples of ordered structures.

Interstitial solid solution


Interstitial solid solution forms when solute atoms are very small as compared to the solvent
atoms, they are unable to substitute solvent atoms (because of the large difference in
diameters of solvent and solute atoms) and can only fit into the interstices or spaces in the
crystal lattice of solvent atoms (Fig. 3.4).

Fig. 3.4 Interstitial solid solution


Those atoms which have atomic radii less than 1 angstrom (1 Å) are likely to form interstitial,
solid solutions. Such atoms are carbon (0.77 Å), nitrogen (0.71 Å), hydrogen (0.46 Å),
oxygen (0.6 Å), etc. Actually, atomic size is not the only factor that determines whether or
not an interstitial solid solution will form. Small interstitial solute atoms dissolve much more
readily in transition metals (such as Fe, Ni, Mn, Mo, Cr, W, etc.) than in other metals. Carbon
forms an interstitial solid solution with F.C.C. iron during the solidification of steel but it can
3
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Crystallography
also be absorbed by solid iron provided the latter is heated to a temperature at which the
structure is F.C.C. This is the basis of carburizing steels. Nitrogen also dissolves interstitially
in solid steel, during the nitriding process.
3.3 Factors governing substitutional solubility
Several factors are now known, largely through the work of Hume-Rothery that controls the
range of solubility in alto systems. The different rules or factors are:

1. Crystal Structure Factor. The crystal lattice structure of the two (metal) elements should
same (i.e., both should be of b.c.c., f.c.c, or h.c.p. structure) for complete solubility, otherwise
the two solutions would not merge into each other. Also, for complete solid solubility the size
factor must usually be to than 8%.
2. Relative Size Factor. If two metals are to exhibit extensive solid solubility in each other it
is essential that their atomic diameters shall be fairly similar, since atoms is essential that
their atomic diameters shall be fairly similar, since atoms differering greatly in size cannot be
accommodated readily in the same structure (as a substitutional solid solution) without
producing excessive strain and corresponding instability. This is what is referred to when the
term size-factor is employed and extensive solid solubility is encountered only when the two
different atoms differ in size by less than 15%, called a favourable size factor (e.g., Cu-Ni).
If the relative size factor is between 8% and 15%, the alloy system usually shows a minimum
and if this factor is greater than 15%, substitutional solid solution formation is very limited.
3. Chemical-affinity Factor. The greater the chemical affinity of two metals, the more
restricted is their solid solubility. When their chemical affinity is great, two metals tend to
form an intermediate phase rather than a solid solution. Generally, the farther apart the
elements are in the periodic table, the greater is their chemical affinity.
4. Relative Valence (Valency) Factor. Consider two atoms, one with large valence electrons
and the other with small number of valence electrons. It has been found that the metal of high
valence can dissolve only a small amount of a lower valence metal, while the lower valence
metal may have good solubility for the higher valence metal.
For example, in the Al-Ni alloy system, both metals have f.c.c. structure. The relative size
factor is approximately 14%.However; Ni is lower in valence than Al and thus solid nickel
dissolves 5% aluminium, but the higher valence Al dissolves only 0.04% Ni.

3.4 Space lattice/crystal lattice


4
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Crystallography
Lattice is the regular geometrical arrangement of points in crystal space. The atoms arrange
themselves in distinct pattern in space, called space lattice.Space lattice is the three
dimensional network of imaginary connecting the atoms (Fig. 3.5)
A Space lattice can be considered as an infinite array of points in space, so arranged that it
divides space into equal volumes with no sp ace excluded. An important characteristic of a
space lattice is that every point has identical surroundings. Space lattice or crystal lattice is
the arrangement of atoms in a crystal.
X-ray studies reveal that atoms in crystalline materials are arranged in a regular three
dimensional repeating pattern known as lattice structure. The lattice structure can be shown
by a network of lines, dividing the space into equal volumes. The points of intersection are
known as lattice points. Atoms are positioned about these points. As shown in Fig. 3.5 the
unit cell is the smallest portion of the lattice which when repeated in all directions gives rise
to lattice structure.

Fig. 3.5 Lattice structure, space lattice, lattice points and unit cell.
There are fourteen space lattices i.e., there are only 14 ways in which points can be arranged
in space so that each has identical surroundings. These 14 space lattices are known as Bravais
space lattices.

3.5 Unit cell and its lattice parameters


As already explained above, a space lattice can be considered as an infinite array of points in
space, so arranged that it divides space into equal volumes with no space excluded. Every
point, which is called a lattice point, has identical surroundings with every other point.
The smallest volume that contains the full pattern of repetition is called a unit cell. Identical
unit cells must completely fill the space when they are packed face to face, thus generating a
space lattice (Fig. 3.6). If a unit cell is so chosen that it contains lattice points only at its
5
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Crystallography
corners, it is called a primitive unit cell or simple unit cell.
A primitive unit cell contains only one lattice point because each point at eight corners is
shared equally with eight adjacent unit cells. The edge length of the unit cell, called a lattice
constant or a lattice parameter, is a lattice translation in a given direction. In Fig. 3.6 simple
monoclinic, Triclinic, simple cubic are known as primitive cells. Unit cells for most crystal
structures are parallelepipeds or prisons having three sets of parallel faces.
Fig. 3.6 shows the unit cell geometry, which is, the shape of the appropriate unit cell
parallelepiped without regard to the atomic positions in the cell.
Within this framework, an x, y, z coordinate system is established with its origin at one of the
unit cell corners; each of the x, y, and z axis coincide with one of the three parallelepiped
edges that extend from this corner, as illustrated in Fig. 3.6

Fig 3.6 A unit cell with x, y and z coordinate axis, showing axial lengths (a, b, and c) and
interaxial angles (α, β and γ).
The unit cell geometry is completely defined in terms of six parameters: the three edge
lengths a, b and c and the three interaxial angles α, β and γ. These are indicated in Fig. 35.8
and are sometimes termed the Lattice Parameters of a crystal structure.
On this basis, there are found crystals having seven different possible combinations of a, b,
and c and α, β and γ, each of which represents a distinct crystal system.

3.6 Crystal systems


As explained above, crystal system is a scheme by which crystal structures are classified
according to unit cell geometry. This geometry is specified in terms of the relationships
between lengths a, b, and c and interaxial angles α, β and γ.
There are seven different crystal systems, namely
1. Cubic 4. Orthorhombics 2. Tetragonal

6
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Crystallography
5. Rhombohedral 3. Hexagonal 6. Monoclinic
7. Triclinic.
The lattice parameter relationships and unit cell sketches for each crystal system are given in
Table 3.1 on front page.

7
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Crystallography
Crystal system Axial Relationship Interaxial Angles Unit Cell Geometry

Cubic

Hexagonal

Tetragonal

Rhombohedral

Orthorhombic

Monoclinic

Triclinic

Table 3.1 Lattice Parameter Relationships and Figures Showing Unit Cell Geometries for the
Seven Crystal Systems
The cubic system, for which a = b = c and α = β = γ = 90°, has the greatest degree of
symmetry.Least symmetry is displayed by the triclinic system, since a ≠ b ≠ c and α ≠ β ≠ γ.
BCC and FCC structures belong to the cubic crystal system, whereas HCP falls within
hexagonal.

3.7 Crystal structure of metals


Introduction
A crystal is defined as an orderly array of atoms in space. For crystalline materials, crystal
structure shows the manner in which atoms or ions are arrayed in space. It is defined in terms
of the unit cell geometry and the atom positions within the unit cell.A regular and repetitious
pattern in which atoms of a crystalline material arrange themselves is known as the crystal
8
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Crystallography
structure.
Crystal structure is defined as regular repetition of three dimensional patterns of atoms in
space. To some extent, the repeating pattern controls the external shape of crystal. Spare
lattice and Basis generate the crystal structure.
Space lattice + Basis  Crystal structure
The Basis may consist-of one atom per lattice point. For example:
- FCC (Space lattice) + 1 Al atom at each lattice point (Basis) FCC crystal of alumn.
- BCC (Space lattice) + 1 Fe atom at each lattice point (Basis)  BCC crystal of iron.
There are many different types of crystal structures, some of which are quite complicated.
Fortunately, most metals crystallize in one of the three relatively simple (space lattices)
structures, namely
1. The Body-centered cubic (BCC), (Cr, V, Mo, Na, Mn, α Fe, etc.)
2. The Face-centered cubic (FCC) (Al, Cu, Ag, Pb, γ Fe, etc.)
3. The close-packed hexagonal (CPH or HCP) (Mg, Zn, Cd, etc.)

Fig. 3.7 Crystal structures (Unit cells).


1. Body-centered cubic (B.C.C.) Structure [Fig 3.7(a)]
 A B.C.C. unit cell has one atom in the centre of the cube and one atom each at all the
corners. Of course, the corner atom is shared by other adjoining body center cubes.
 Thus the unit cell of BCC structure contains 8 atoms at the corner x ⅛ = 1 atom and 1
centre atom = 1 atom so Total = 2 atoms.
 In BCC structure, the lattice constant a is related to the atomic radius r by: abcc =
4r/√3. Therefore the atomic packing factor is 0.68.

9
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Crystallography
 At room temperature, iron exhibits BCC structure. Other metals possessing this
structure are V, Mo, Ta, W, etc.
2. Face-centered Cubic (FCC) Structure [Fig. 3.7(b)]
 A face-centered cube has an atom at each corner of the cube and in addition, one atom
at the intersection of the diagonals of each of the six faces of the cube.
 Since each corner atom is shared by eight adjoining cubes and each face atom is
shared by only one adjacent cube, the unit cell contains: 8 atoms at the corners x ⅛ =
1 atom and 6 face-centered atoms x 1/2 = 3 atoms so Total = 4 atoms
 This shows that FCC structure is more densely packed than the BCC structure.
Packing factor (volume of atoms/volume of cell) for FCC structure is 0.74 whereas
that of BCC structure was 0.68. This also proves that FCC structure is more densely
packed than the BCC structure.
 The lattice constant `a' of FCC structure is related to the atomic radius r by afcc = 4r/√2
 The face-centered cube lattice, however, is unique in that it contains as many as four
planes of closest packing (111), each containing three close-packed directions <110>,
thus amounting to 12 physically distinct slip systems. No other structure possesses
such a large number of close packed planes and close-packed directions.
 For this reason, metals possessing FCC structure can be plastically deformed at severe
rates. Metals possessing FCC structure are, Cu, Al, Pb, Ni, Co, etc.

3. Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP) Structure [Fig. 3.7(c) & (d)]


 A hexagonal close packed structure has
- One atom at each corner of the hexagon,
- One atom at the centre of the two hexagonal faces (basal planes), and
- One atom at the centre of the line connecting the perpendiculars in case of three
rhombuses, namely DEFG, BDGH and BKED, which combine and form the HCP
structure.
 Whereas, the unit cell of the cubic system (i.e. BCC or FCC) can be specified by a
single lattice parameter `a' (Fig. 3.7 ) the hexagonal unit cell requires the width of the
hexagon `a' and the distance between basal planes `c' for being specified. These
determine the axial ratio c/a, which is sometimes given.
 The axial ratio of metals varies from 1.58 for beryllium to 1.88 for cadmium ('.' a =
2.9787 and c = 5.617). The atomic packing factor for HCP metal is equal to 0.74 (i.e.
10
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Crystallography
same as for FCC metal). Metals such as zinc, cadmium, beryllium, magnesium etc.,
possess HCP structure.
3.8 Coordination number
Every atom in a crystal is surrounded by other atoms. By the term coordination number, we
mean the number of nearest atoms which are directly surrounding a given atom. The
coordination number may also be defined as the nearest neighbors to an atom in a crystal.

Fig. 3.8 Coordination number of carbon atom


Fig. 3.8 shows that the coordination number of carbon atom is four, because it has four
hydrogen atoms around it. When the coordination number is larger, the structure is more
closely packed. Coordination numbers for, a simple cubic, BCC, FCC & HCP are as below.

(1) Simple Cubic Structure


There is one atom at each of the (eight) corners of the cube. Any corner atom has four nearest
neighbour atoms in the same plane and two nearest neighbours (one exactly above and the
other exactly below) in a vertical plane.
Hence coordination number for simple cubic structure is 4 + 2 = 6. If 'a' is the side of the unit
cell, then the distance between the nearest neighbours will be equal to `a'.

(2) Body Centered Cubic (B.C.C.) Structure


In B.C.C. structure, there is one atom at each corner of the cube and one atom at the centre of
cube. For any corner atom of unit cell, the nearest atoms are the atoms which are at the
centres of unit cells. As such corner atom is surrounded by eight unit cells having body
centred atoms.

11
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Crystallography

Fig.3.9 unit cell of BCC structure


Hence coordination number is 8. Similarly by considering the centred atom of each unit cell,
we can say that the coordination number is 8 because every centred atom is surrounded by
eight equidistant neighbours. The nearest distance between two atoms = √3a/2

(3) Face-centred Cubic (F.C.C.) Structure


In F.C.C. structure, there is one atom at each corner of the cube and one atom at the centre of
each face of the cube. For any corner atom of the unit cell, the nearest are the face centred
atoms. For any corner atom, there will be 4 face centred atoms of the surrounding unit cells in
its own plane, 4 face centred atoms below this plane and 4 face centred atoms above this
plane.

Fig. 3.10 unit cell of FCC structure


Hence the coordination number for this case is 4 + 4 + 4 = 12. The distance between two
nearest neighbours = a/√2

(4) Hexagonal Closed Packed (HCP) Structure

12
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Crystallography

Fig.3.11 unit cell of HCP structure


The coordination number and the atomic packing factor for the HCP crystal structure are the
same as for FCC-12 and 0.74 respectively.

3.9 Bonding in solids


Introduction
All solids are composed of a very large number of atoms that are bonded together in some
manner. The cohesion between the atoms is dependent upon the character of the individual
elements. In solids, atoms occupy relatively fixed positions with regard to one another.
Atoms are held in the solid state by relatively strong interatomic forces which generally are
functions of temperature and pressure. These interatomic forces can be attractive or repulsive,
and the equilibrium spacing of atoms in a solid is obtained when the opposing forces are
balanced at a particular temperature and pressure. Solids offer resistance to an applied force;
this is because of the interatomic forces that hold atoms together.
When the applied force exceeds the interatomic forces (holding atoms together) the solids
tend to get deformed. The physical, chemical and electrical properties of different solids
depend upon the character, strength and directionality of the interatomic binding forces.
Binding Energy
The binding energy or bond energy may be defined as the energy required to return the atoms
to an infinite separation. It is the energy to break a bond or to separate the bonded atom. The
bond energy can also be expressed as the energy of formation of 1 mole of a substance from
its atoms or ions when brought together from an infinite distance to the equilibrium position.
The bond energy is equal but opposite in sign to the energy of dissociation of substance. The
bond energy can best be measured as the amount of energy required to break it that is the

13
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Crystallography
amount of heat which must be supplied to vaporize the solid i.e., the state of infinite
separation of atom.
Sr. No. Materials Type of Bond Bond Energy (KJ/mol)
1. Iron Metallic 401.30
2. Sodium chloride Ionic 639.50
3. Silicon dioxide Covalent 1692.90
4. Nitrogen Intermolecular (van der Waals) 7.8

Table 3.2 Bond energy values for different materials and bond types.
The strength of the interatomic bond influences the melting and boiling points of the
substances. The melting and boiling points of the substance increase with the strength of the
bond.

3.10 Types of Bonds


The atomic bonds are of the following types:
 Primary bonds
a) Ionic bond
b) Covalent bond
c) Metallic bond
 Secondary bond
d) van der Waals bond (Molecular bond)
Primary Bond is Stronger and more stable than the secondary bond. An interatomic bond
whereas secondary bond is an intermolecular bond.
1. Weak attractive forces between polarized atoms.
2. Centres of + and of - electricity separated in each atom.
(a) Ionic Bond
- Ionic bond is also known as electrovalent or heteropolar bond.
- Ionic bond is probably the simplest example of interatomic bonding.
- Ionic bond is commonly found in inorganic chemistry.
- In the simplest case an ionic bond exists between a metallic atom (Sodium) and a non-
metallic atom (Chlorine).
- When atoms of sodium and chlorine are brought together, the valency electron of the sodium
atom is transferred to the chlorine atom, producing a positive sodium ion and a negative
14
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Crystallography
chlorine ion, which are attracted to each other electro statically and form stable compound.

Fig. 3.12 The arrangements of atoms in ionic bond (Nacl)


- As shown above, the sodium atom has one electron (*) in its outer shell. It is released
(because it finds a lower energy level in chlorine atom) to join the seven electrons (*) in the
outer shell of the chlorine atom and thus NaCl, a stable compound forms.
- The ionic bond is no directional and pulls equally hard in all directions, because the
electrostatic attraction between the oppositely charge d ions acts in all directions.
- Ionic bonds result in the formation of a three-dimensional giant aggregate in which all units
are joined by strong ionic bonds, giving the solid.

(b) Covalent Bond


- Covalent bon d is also known as homopolar bond.
- The electronic structure of an atom is relatively stable if it has eight electrons in its outer
valence shell.
- Sometimes an atom may acquire these eight electrons by sharing electrons with an adjacent
similar atom.
- Thus, when electrons are shared (and not transferred) between atoms, it gives rise to a
covalent bond.

15
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Crystallography

Fig. 3.10 The arrangements of atoms in covalent bond (CH4)


- An excellent example of covalent bonding is found in chlorine molecule. Here the outer shell
of each atom possesses seven electrons. Each chlorine atom would like to gain an electron,
and thus form a stable octet. This can be done by sharing of two electrons between pairs of
chlorine atoms thereby producing stable diatomic molecules. In other words, each atom
contributes one electron for the sharing process.
- Another example of covalent bonding is a molecule of methane, CH4 in which carbon atom
and hydrogen atoms share the electrons. The carbon atom has four electrons in its outer shell,
and these are joined by four more electrons, contributed singly by each of the four hydrogen
atoms.
- The number of covalent bonds formed by an element is equal to (8-N), where N is the
number of electrons outside the full shell. Covalent bond provides strong attractive forces
between atoms e.g., diamond, which is the hardest material found in nature and which is
entirely carbon has covalent bond.

(c) Metallic Bond


- Metallic bond applies in most pure metals and alloys.
- Metallic bonding may be regarded as a special form of covalent bonding.
- In covalent bonding particular atoms in the structure are linked together by particular pairs of
the valency electrons shared between them.
- Whereas, in metallic bonding, the valency electrons are not bound to any particular pairs of
atoms but move freely throughout the metal and form a negative electron cloud, which is
shared by the positive ions.
16
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Crystallography

-
Fig. 3.11 The arrangements of atoms in metallic bond
- The positive metal ions tend to repel each other and take up positions according to some
geometrical pattern, but at the same time they are held together by their mutual attraction for
the electron cloud.
- Metallic bond is the characteristic of the elements having small numbers of valence electrons,
which are loosely held, so that they can easily be released to the common pool (cloud).
- Metallic bond is non-specific and non-directional, acting equally strong in all directions.
- This leads to highly co-ordinate close-packed structures, accounting for the unique plastic
properties of metals and for their ability to form alloys.
- The opaque lustre of metals is due to the reflection of light by free electrons.

(d) The Van der Waal Bond (or Intermolecular bond)


- Intermolecular or van der Waals forces are weak forces that account for mutual interaction
between molecules or inert atoms. Weak electrostatic attraction is due to unsymmetrical
electrical charges in electrically neutral (as a whole) atoms or molecules.

17
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Crystallography
Fig. 3.12 The arrangements of atoms in molecular bond
- Intermolecular forces account for the properties of liquids and many molecular solids ranging
from small molecular weight up to polymers. Intermolecular bonds do not involve the
transfer or sharing of electrons between atoms.
There are three types of intermolecular bonds, namely:
1. Dispersion bonds,
2. Dipole bonds, and
3. Hydrogen bond.

Fig. 3.13 Intermolecular bonds


(i) Dispersion effect (electronic polarization) (ii) Dipole bond, and (iii) hydrogen bond

1. Dispersion bonds
- As electrons rotate around their nuclei, they tend to keep in phase; and since the electrons of
adjacent atoms in a molecule tend to repel each other, the result is that the molecule has a
small fluctuating net charge on each end. [As in Fig. 35.3 (i), the hydrogen molecule is
instantly charged negatively on the right end and positively on the left].
- The fluctuating charge on one molecule tends to interact with the fluctuating charge on a
neighbouring molecule, resulting in, a net attraction and thus the dispersion bond.
- Molecules of the inert gases, which consist of single atoms, are held together by dispersion
forces when the gases are solidified.

2. Dipole bonds
- Consider a molecule of hydrogen fluoride. There are two electrons that surround the positive
charges in the nucleus of the hydrogen atom and there are eight electrons surround the
nucleus of the fluorine atom i.e., electrons surrounded nucleus of fluorine more completely
than that of hydrogen.
- This creates an electrical imbalance. Consequently, the center of positive charge and the
center of negative charge do not coincide, rather, remain separated. This way produces an
18
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Crystallography
electrical dipole.
- An electric dipole provides a mechanism for molecular bonding. The presence of a permanent
dipole moment increase the attraction forces between molecules and facilitates their closer
approach.
- A dipole bond is much weaker than the ionic bond but it is considerably stronger than the
dispersion bond.

3. Hydrogen bond
- Hydrogen bond is a special type of (strong) dipole bond that occurs between the molecules in
which one end is a hydrogen atom.
- The one electron belonging to the hydrogen atom is fairly loosely held, and if the adjacent
atom in the molecule is strongly electro-negative*, (*Electro negativity of an atom can be
defined as the power of attraction for the electron within a molecule). It may keep all the
electrons around itself, leaving the hydrogen atom in effect a positive ion.
- This tendency can produce a strong permanent dipole that can bond to other similar dipoles
with a force near that involved in the ionic bond.
- A good example of hydrogen bonding is water.Argon, calomel, Ice, paraffins and solid
carbon-di-oxide possess molecular bond.

References
1. Material Science and Metallurgy by O. P. Khanna
Questionnaire
1. What do you understand by bonding in solids? 1 Name the various types. Explain any
one of them.
2. Define: (i) Crystal structure (ii) Space lattice (ill) Unit cell
3. Explain with neat sketches three main types of crystal structure of metals giving some
examples for each type.
4. Explain type of solid solutions.
5. Name and explain the factors governing solubility in substitutional solution.

19
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
Date: ___ /___ /______

EXPERIMENT NO. 4
Objective
To identify the different types of material available for design ,manufacturing and processing
of various components based on structure-property-performance-processing relationships.

4.1 Introduction
Ferrous materials contain iron, and the one element people use more than all other is iron.
Ferrous materials are the most important metals/alloys in the metallurgical and mechanical
industries because of their very extensive use. The widespread use of ferrous alloys is
accounted for by three factors:
1. Iron containing compounds exist in abundant quantities within the earth's crust;
2. Metallic iron and steel alloys may be produced using relatively economical extraction,
refining, alloying and fabrication techniques; and
3. Ferrous alloys are extremely versatile, in that they may be tailored to have a wide
range of mechanical and physical properties.
The principal disadvantage of many ferrous alloys is their susceptibility to corrosion.
4.2 Classification

4.3 Pig Iron


The name Pig Iron originated in the early days of iron ore reduction when the total output of
the blast furnace was sand cast into pigs - a mass of iron roughly resembling a reclining pig.
The oldest method of pig casting in sand beds has been largely superseded by pig casting
machines. Machines cast pigs are much cleaner than sand cast pigs and have no adhering

1
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
sand to contaminate the remelt process.
Pig (iron) for foundry use is roughly 50.8 x 22.8 x 10.1 cm (i.e., 20" x 9" x 4") in size.
Pig Iron, produced in a blast furnace, is the first product in the process of converting iron ore
into useful metal. The iron ore becomes pig iron when the impurities are burned out in a blast
furnace. Though still containing some impurities, pig iron has a high metal content.
Pig Iron, the product of blast furnace, has the following composition (approx.)
Carbon 3-4% Sulphur less than 1.0%
Manganese 0.1-1% Phosphorus 0.3-1.7%
Silicon 1-3% Iron Remainder
Pig Iron is the raw material for all iron and steel products. Pig iron is of great importance in
the foundry and in steel making processes.
1. Pig iron partly refined in a cupola produces various grades of Cast Iron.
2. By puddling or shotting processes, Wrought iron is produced from pig iron.
3. Steel is produced from pig iron by various steel making processes such as Bessemer, open-
hearth, oxygen, electric and spray steel making.
Pig iron is classified by chemical composition into three grades.
1. Basic pig iron
 It is used for steel making and is low in silicon (1.5% max.) to prevent attack of the
refractory linings of refining furnaces and to control slag formation.
- Basic pig iron must be low in sulphur (0.04%) since sulphur is an active impurity in
steel and is not eliminated in the refining furnaces.
- Phosphorus normally is held to less than 1% and manganese to a range of 1 to 2%.
Carbon content varies from 3.5 to 4.4%.
2. Foundry pig iron
- It includes all the types that are used for the production of iron castings.
Foundry pig iron contains
Si 0.5 – 3.5 % S Up to 0.05%
C 3- 4.5 % P 0.035-0.9%
Mn 0.4 – 1.25 % Fe Remainder
3. Ferroalloys
- Ferroalloys are alloys of pig iron, each rich in one specific element. They are used as
additives, in iron and steel industries, to control or alter the properties of iron and
steel. Examples of ferroalloys are as follows:
2
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
1. Ferromanganese, which is pig iron that contains from 74 to 82% manganese.
2. Ferrosilicon, which is pig iron with 5 to 17% of silicon content.
4.4 Wrought iron
Wrought iron is a mechanical mixture of very pure iron and a silicate slag. Wrought iron is a
ferrous material, aggregated from a solidifying mass of pasty particles of highly refined
metallic iron with which a minutely and uniformly distributed quantity of slag is incorporated
without subsequent fusion.
Chemical composition of wrought iron would be:
C 0.02-0.03% P 0.05-0.25%
Si 0.02-0.10% Mn Nil-0.02%
Slag 0.05-.50% S 0.0084.02%
Properties
- Wrought iron is never cast. All shaping is accomplished by hammering, pressing,
forging, etc.
- Wrought iron is noted for its high ductility and for the ease with which it can be
forged and welded.
- The ultimate strength of wrought iron can be increased considerably by cold working
followed by a period of aging.
- Wrought iron possesses a high resistance towards corrosion.
- Wrought iron possesses the property of recovering rapidly from overstrain, which
enables it to accommodate sudden and excessive shocks without permanent injury. It
has a high resistance towards fatigue.
- The mechanical properties of wrought iron are largely those of pure iron. Because of
the nature of the slag distribution, however, tensile strength and ductility are greater in
the longitudinal direction or rolling direction than in the direction transverse to
rolling.
Fig. 4.1 shows the distribution of slag throughout the ferrite matrix in transverse section of
wrought iron.
- Structurally, wrought iron is a composite material; the base metal and the slag are in
physical association, in contrast to the chemical or alloy relationship that generally
exists between the constituents of other metals.
The form and distribution of (iron silicate) slag may be stringer-like, ribbon-like or platelets.

3
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material

Fig. 4.1 Microstructure of wrought iron Slag (black) in ferrite matrix


- Tensile properties of wrought iron
Longitudinal Transverse
Tensile strength, kg/cm2 3380-3500 2530-2670
Elongation, % in 200 mm 18-25 2-5
Reduction in area, % 35-45 3-6
- Physical properties
Melting point ... 1510°C
Weight, kg/m3 ... 7680
Electrical resistance, 20°C, micro ohm/cm/sq. cm ... 11.97
Shear modulus, 26°C ... 0.83 x 106 kg/cm2
Poisson's ratio ... 0.30
Uses (Applications) of wrought iron
Wrought iron is available in the form of plates, sheets, bars, structurals, forging blooms and billets,
rivets, chains and a wide range of tubular products including pipe, tubing and casing, electrical
conduit, cold drawn tubing, nipples and welding fittings.
1. Building construction. Underground service lines and electrical conduit. Soil, waste, vent and
downspout piping.
2. Public works. Bridge railings, blast plates, drainage lines and troughs, sewer outfall lines,
weir plates, sludge tanks and lines.
3. Industrial. Condenser tubes, unfired heat exchangers, acid and alkali process lines, skimmer
bars, etc.
4. Rail road and marine. Diesel exhaust and air brake piping, ballast and brine protection plates,
hull and deck plating, tanker heating coils, etc.
5. Others. Gas collection hoods, coal handling equipment, cooling tower and spray pond piping.
4
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material

Manufacture of wrought iron


Wrought iron is produced by the following processes:
1. Puddling process. 2. Aston's process.
4.5 Gray cast iron

Characteristics
- Gray Iron basically is an alloy of carbon and silicon with iron.
- It is readily cast into a desired shape in a sand mould.
- It contains 2.5-3.8% C, 1.1-2.8% Si, 0.4-1% Mn, 0.15% P and 0.10% S.
- It is marked by the presence of flakes of graphite in a matrix of ferrite (Fig. 4.2) pearlite or
austenite.

5
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material

Fig. 4.2 Gray iron showing graphite flakes (black) and ferrite (white portion).
- Graphite flakes occupy about 10% of the metal volume.
- Length of flakes may vary from 0.05 mm to 0.1 mm.
- When fractured, a bar of Gray Cast Iron gives gray appearance.
- Gray Iron possesses lowest melting point of the ferrous alloys.
- Gray Cast Iron Processes high fluidity and hence it can be cast into complex shapes and thin
sections.
- It possesses machinability better than steel.
- It has high resistance to wear (including sliding wear).
- It possesses high vibration damping capacity.
- Gray iron has low ductility and low impact strength as compared with steel.
- Gray cast iron has a solidification range of 2400-2000°F.
- It has shrinkage of 1/8 inch/foot (1 mm/100 mm).
- It associates low cost combined with hardness and rigidity.
- Gray cast iron possesses high compressive strength.
- It has excellent casting qualities for producing simple and complex shapes.
Applications
- Machine tool structures (bed, frame and details).
- Gas or water pipes for underground purposes.
- Cylinder blocks and heads for I.C. Engines.
- Rolling mill and general machinery parts.
- Frames for electric motors.
- Manhole covers, Tunnel segment.

6
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material

- Ingot moulds.
- Sanitary wares.
- Piston rings.
- Household appliances etc,

4.6 Malleable cast iron

Fig. 4.3 Ferritic malleable iron showing ferrite matrix and temper carbon (dark)
Characteristics
- Malleable CI is one which can be hammered and rolled to obtain different shapes.
- Malleable cast iron is obtained from hard and brittle white iron through a controlled
heat conversion process.
a) A ferritic malleable cast iron has Ferrite matrix.
b) A pearlitic malleable cast iron has Pearlite matrix.
c) An alloy malleable cast iron contains chromium and nickel and possesses high
strength and corrosion resistance.
- Malleable cast iron possesses high yield strength.
- It has high Young's modulus and low coefficient of thermal expansion.
- It possesses good wear resistance and vibration damping capacity.
- It can be used from - 60 to 1200°F.
- It has a solidification range of 2550--2065°F.
- It has shrinkage of 3/16 inch per foot (1.5 mm/100 mm).
- It has low to moderate cost.
- Malleable CI contains 2-3% C, 0.6-1.3% Si, 0.2-0.6% Mn, 0.15% P and 0.10% S.

7
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
Uses
- Automotive industry. - Universal joint yoke.
- Rail road. - Rear axle banjo housing.
- Agricultural implements. - Truck tandem axle assembly parts.
- Electrical line hardware. - Automotive crankshaft
- Conveyor chain links. - Crankshaft sprocket etc.
- Gear case.

4.7 Nodular cast iron

Fig. 4.4 Nodular Cast Iron showing graphite nodules surrounded by ferrite (white)
Characteristics
- Unlike long flakes as in gray cast iron, graphite appears as rounded particles, or
nodules or spheroids in Nodular Cast Iron.
- The spheroidizing elements when added to melt eliminate sulphur and oxygen (from
the melt), which change solidification characteristics and possibly account for the
nodulization.
- Ductile cast iron possesses very good machinability.
- Soft annealed grades of Nodular cast iron can be turned at very high feeds and speeds.
- The properties of Nodular Cast Iron depend upon the metal composition and the
cooling rate.
- Nodular or Ductile Cast Iron contains 3.2-4.2% C, 1.1-3.5% Si, 0.3-0.8% Mn, 0.08%
P and 0.2% S.
- It possesses damping capacity intermediate between cast iron and steel.
- It possesses excellent castability and wear resistance.
Uses
8
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
- Paper industries machinery. - Valves and fittings.
- Internal combustion engines. - Steel mill rolls and mill equipment,
- Power transmission equipment. pipes
- Farm implements and tractors - Pumps and compressors.
- Earth moving machinery. - Construction machinery.

4.8 White cast iron (mottled iron)

Fig. 4.5 White cast iron showing massive carbide areas (white) in fine pearlite (dark)
Characteristics
- White cast iron derives its name from the fact that its freshly broken surface shows a
bright white fracture.
- Unlike gray iron, white cast iron has almost all its carbon, chemically bonded with the
iron - as iron carbide, Fe3C. Iron carbide is a very hard and brittle constituent.
- Thus, white iron possesses excellent abrasive wear resistance.
- White iron under normal circumstances is brittle and not machinable.
- By using a fairly low silicon content, cast iron may be made to solidify as white iron.
- White iron castings can be made in sand moulds.
- White iron can also be made on the surface of a gray iron casting provided the
material is of special composition.
- If iron of proper composition is cooled rapidly, the free carbon will go in the
combined form and give rise to white iron casting.
- The white iron contains 1.8-3.6% C, 0.5-2.0% Si, 0.2-0.8% Mn, 0.18% P and 010% S
- The solidification range of white iron is 2550-2065°F.
- Shrinkage is 1/8 inch per foot (1 mm/100 mm).
- White iron (of a particular, chemical composition) is the first step in the production of
9
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
malleable iron castings.
Uses
- For producing malleable iron castings. For manufacturing those component parts
which require a hard and abrasion resistant material.

4.9 Plain carbon steel

Fig 4.6 Plain carbon steel (0.20% C) showing ferrite grains and grain boundaries
- Plain carbon steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and it is malleable.
- Carbon steels are different from (cast) iron as regards the percentage of carbon.
- It contain from 0.10 to 1.5% C whereas (cast) iron processes from 1.8 to 4.2% C.
- Carbon steels can be classified as Low carbon steel (or Mild steel), Medium carbon
steel and High carbon steel.
4.10 Mild steel
Mild steels or low carbon steels may be classified as follows:
(1) Dead mild steel - C 0.05 to 0.15%.
- It is used for making steel wire, sheets, rivets, screws, pipe, nail and chain.
- It has a tensile strength of 390 N/mm2 and a hardness of about 115 BHN.
(2) Mild steel containing - C 0.15 to 0.20%
- It has a tensile strength of 420 N/mm2 and hardness 125 BHN.
- It is used for making camshafts, sheets and strips for fan blades, welded tubing,
forgings, drag lines etc.
(3) Mild steel C 0.20 to 0.30%
- It has a tensile strength of 555 N/mm2 and a hardness of 140 BHN.
- It is used for making valves, gears, crankshafts, connecting rods, railway axles, fish

10
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
plates, small forgings etc.

4.11 Medium carbon steels


- Medium carbon steels contain carbon from 0.30 to 0.70%.
- Steels containing 0.35 to 0.45% carbons have a tensile strength of about 750 N/mm2.
They are used for making:
1. Connecting rods 5. Spring clips
2. Key stock 6. Axles
3. Wires and rods 7. Gear shafts
4. Shift and brake levers 8. Small and medium forgings, etc.
- Steels containing 0.45 to 0.55% carbon have a tensile strength of about 1000 N/mm2
and are used for making parts those are to be subjected to shock and heavy reversals
stress such as
1. Railway coach axles, Axles 3. Crankshafts, etc.
2. Crank pins on heavy machines 4. Spline shafts
- Steels containing 0.6 to 0.7% carbon have a tensile strength of 1230 N/mm2 and a
hardness of 400-450 BHN. Such steels are used for making
1. Drop forging dies 6. Valve springs
2. Set screws 7. Plate punches
3. Die blocks 8. Cushion rings
4. Self tapping screws 9. Thrust washers etc.
5. Clutch discs
4.12 High carbon steels
- High carbon steels contain carbon from 0.7 to 1.5%.
- Steels containing 0.7 to 0.8% carbon have a tensile strength of about 1400 N/mm2
and a hardness of 450-500 BHN. These steels are used for making:
Cold chisels Wire for structural work
Drill bits Shear blades
Wrenches Automatic clutch discs
Jaws for vises Hacksaws, etc.
Wheels for railway
- Steels containing 0.8 to 0.9% carbon have a tensile strength of about 660 N/mm2 and
a hardness of 500 to 600 BHN. Such steels arc used for making:
11
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
Rock drills Circular saws Punch and dies
Railway rails Leaf springs Music wires
Clutch discs Machine chisels
- Steels containing 0.90 to 1.00% carbon (high carbon tool steels) have a tensile
strength of 580 N/mm2 and a hardness of 550-600 BHN. Such steels are used for
making:
Punch and dies Springs Shear blades
Seed discs Pins Keys etc.
- Steels containing 1.0 to 1.1% carbon are used for making:
Mandrels Machine tools Taps etc.
- Steels containing 1.1 to 1.2% carbon are used for making:
Taps Twist drills Thread dies,etc.
- Steels containing 1.2 to 1.3% carbon are used for making:
Files Reamers Cuting tool etc.
- SteeIs containing 1.3 to 1.5% carbon are used for making:
Wire drawing dies Metal cutting saw Tools for turning,

4.13 Alloy steels


- Steel is considered to be alloy steel when the maximum of the range given for the
content of alloying elements exceeds one or nu 11c of the following limits:
- Mn 1.65% - Si 0.60% - Cu 0.60%
- or in which a definite range or a definite maximum quantity of any of the following
elements is specified or required within the recongized field of constructional alloy
steels: Al, B, Cr, up to 3.99%, Co, Mo, Ni, Ti, W, V, or any other alloying element
added to obtain a desired alloying effect.
- Given below is the composition of a typical alloy steel
C 0.2-0.4% Cr 0.4-0.6%
Mn 0.5-1.0% Mo 0.15-0.3%
Si 0.3-0.6% Fe Balance
Ni 0.4-0.7%
- Alloying elements alter the properties of steel (which is an alloy of iron and carbon)
and put it into a slightly different class from ordinary carbon steel.
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Alloy Steel.
12
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
- The important advantages and disadvantages in the choice of alloy steel from the
general point of view in relation to plain carbon steel are listed in the following
tabulation:
Advantages Disadvantages
(That May be Attained) (That May be Encountered)
- - Greater hardenability. - - Cost
- - Less distortion and cracking. - - Special handling
- - Greater stress relief at given hardness - - Tendency toward austenite retention
- - Higher elastic ratio and endurance - - Temper brittleness in certain grades
strength Less grain growth
- - Lesser grain growths
- - Greater high temperature strength
- - Better machinability at high hardness
- - Greater ductility at high strength
Purpose of alloying
The purposes of alloying steels are:
1. Strengthening of the ferrite, 8. Improved ductility,
2. Improved corrosion resistance, 9. Improved toughness,
3. Better hardenability, 10. Better wear resistance,
4. Grain size control, 11. Improved cutting ability,
5. Greater strength, 12. Improved case hardening
6. Improved machinability, properties
7. Improved temperature stability,
Effect of alloying elements
Carbon:
- Hardness
- Tensile strength
- Machinability
- Melting point.
Nickel:
- Increases toughness and resistance to impact
- Lessens distortion in quenching
- Lowers the critical temperatures of steel and widens the range of successful heat
13
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
treatment
- Strengthens steels
- Renders high-chromium iron alloys austenitic
- Does not unite with carbon.
Chromium:
- Joins with carbon to form chromium carbide, thus adds to depth hardenability with
improved resistance to abrasion and wear.
Silicon:
- Improves oxidation resistance
- Strengthens low alloy steels
- Acts as a deoxidizer.
Titanium:
- Prevents localized depletion of chromium in stainless steels during long heating
- Prevents formation of austenite in high chromium steels
- Reduces martensitic hardness and hardenability in medium chromium steels.
Molybdenum:
- Promotes hardenability of steel
- Makes steel fine grained
- Makes steel unusually tough at various hardness levels Counteracts tendency towards
temper brittleness
- Raises tensile and creep strength at high temperatures
- Enhances corrosion resistance in stainless steels
- Forms abrasion resisting particles.
Vanadium:
- Promotes fine grains in steel
- Increases hardenability (when dissolved)
- Imparts strength and toughness to heat-treated steel
- Causes marked secondary hardening
Tungsten:
- Increases hardness (and also red-hardness)
- Promotes fine grain
- Resists heat
- Promotes strength at elevated temperatures.
14
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
Manganese:
- Contributes markedly to strength and hardness (but to a lesser degree than carbon)
- Counteracts brittleness from sulphur
- Lowers both ductility and weldability if it is present in high percentage with high
carbon content in steel.
Copper: Copper (0.2 to 0.5%) added to steel
- Increases resistance to atmospheric corrosion
- Acts as a strengthening agent.
Aluminium:
- Acts as a deoxidizer
- Produces fine austenitic grain size
- If present in an amount of about 1%, it helps promoting nitriding.
Boron: Boron
- Increases hardenability or depth to which steel will harden when quenched.
Cobalt:
- Contributes to red-hardness by hardening ferrite
- Improves mechanical properties such as tensile strengths, fatigue strength and
hardness
- Refines the graphite and pearlite
- Is a mild stabilizer of carbides
- Improves heat resistance
- Retards the transformation of austenite and thus increases hardenability and freedom
from cracking and distortion.
Vanadium: Vanadium (0.15 to 0.5%)
- Is a powerful carbide former,
- Stabilizes cementite and improves the structure of the chill.
4.14 prominent alloy steels
Some of the popular alloy steels are:
A. Silicon steel F. Molybdenum steel
B. Silicon-Manganese steel G. Chrome-Molybdenum steel
C. Nickel steel H. Chrome steel
D. Chrome-Nickel steel I. Manganese steel
E. Chrome-Vanadium steel J. Tungsten steel
15
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
K. Vanadium steel L. Cobalt steel.
(A) Silicon Steel
- Silicon steel contains C 0.10%, Mn 0.60% and Si 1.00%.
- Silicon imparts strength and fatigue resistance and improves electrical properties of
steel.
- Many bridges have been built of what is called Silicon Structural Steel. This is
stronger than carbon steel of equal ductility.
(B) Silicon-Manganese Steel
- Silicon-manganese steels contains C 0.40-0.55%, Si 0.04-1.8%, Mn 0.9-1.0%.
- Such steels are used for springs in the hardened and tempered condition (55 Si 2 Mn
90 steel), and for making punches and chisels.
(C) Nickel Steel
- Nickel steel contains C 0.35%, Ni 3.5%.
- Addition of nickel to structural steel results in an increase of strength, without a
proportionality great decrease of ductility.
- Nickel steels are used for storage cylinders for liquefied gases and for other low
temperature applications.
- Other uses of nickel steels are for heavy forgings, turbine blades, highly stressed
screws, bolts and nuts (40 Ni 3 steel).
(D) Chrome-Nickel Steel
- Chrome-nickel steel contains C 0.35%, Ni 1.25%, Cr 0.60%.
- Chrome-nickel steel will have, after heat treatment, almost the same strength and
ductility as 3.5% Nickel steel which has also been heat-treated, but it will not cost as
much.
- Chrome-nickel steels combine the effect of nickel (in increasing the toughness and
ductility) and chromium (in improving hardenability and wear resistance).
(E) Chrome-Vanadium Steel
- Chrome-vanadium steel contains C 0.26%, Cr 0.92%.
- Chromium and vanadium are added to low alloy steel to increase its hardenability and
to impart a grain structure that is finer than that of the standard chromium low-alloy
steels.
- Chrome-vanadium steel is used for making axles and shafts of automobiles, aero
planes and locomotives.
16
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
(F) Molybdenum Steel
- Molybdenum steel contains C 0.35%, Mo 0.76%.
- Molybdenum steel, when heat-treated, produces a structural steel which has increased
elastic limit without correspondingly decreased ductility. Molybdenum improves hot
hardness and strength of steel. Molybdenum steels are less affected by temper
brittleness.
- Molybdenum steels are used for making:
Aircraft landing gear Pressure vessels
Coil and leaf springs Transmission gear, etc.
(G) Chrome-Molybdenum Steel
- Chrome-molybdenum steel contains C 0.35%, Cr 1.06%, Mo 0.36%.
- Chrome-molybdenum steel has not as good a combination of strength and ductility as
nickel, chrome-nickel and chrome-vanadium steels, but it is quite easy to roll and
draw into tubes, to fabricate, and to weld, so that it is very popular for airplane
structural parts.
(H) Chrome Steel
- Chrome steel contains C 0.36%, Cr 0.57%.
- Chromium intensifies the effect of rapid cooling on steel. Therefore chromium is used
only in steels which are to be heat-treated.
- Chromium forms carbides and thus gives high hardness and good wear resistance. In
addition, chromium increases tensile strength and corrosion resistance of low alloy
steels.
- 8% of Cr steel use for Electrical purposes
- 15% of Cr steel use for Springs, ball and roller bearings.
(I) Manganese Steel
- Manganese low alloy steels contains Mn 1.6-1.9%, C 0.18-0.48%, Si 0.2-0.35%, S
and P < 0.040% each.
- Manganese increases hardness and tensile strength. A secondary effect is an increased
resistance to abrasion. The steel also withstands the shock test excellently.
- Manganese steels are used for making
Power shovel buckets
Grinding and crushing machinery
Railway tracks, etc.
17
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
(J) Tungsten Steel
- Tungsten low alloy steels are tool steels contains 2% tungsten, 1.70% chromium and
0.50% carbon.
- This is hard tough tool steel that is commonly used for making cutting tools.
- Tungsten forms carbides and prevents softening of the alloy at high temperatures.
- The tungsten steel may contain up to 1.5% tungsten. Tungsten steel is used for
making high speed cutting tools and permanent magnets.
(K) Vanadium Steel
- Vanadium is one of the most powerful scavengers that can be added to liquid steel for
the special purpose of removing oxygen. Vanadium has the effect of increasing the
strength and hardness of the metal. It produces a very small grain size.
- Except for castings, vanadium is seldom used as the sole alloying element in steel. It
is used together with chromium and other elements when high strength and anti-
fatigue properties are essential, as in springs, gears, shafts and heavy forgings.
(L) Cobalt Steel
- Cobalt tool steels are used where high frictional heats are developed. Cobalt imparts
additional red hardness to steel and cutting ability of tool is maintained at elevated
temperatures.

4.15 Tool steels


Tool and Die steels may be defined as special steels which have been developed to form, cut
or otherwise change the shape of a material into a finished or semi finished product.
Properties of tool steels
1. Slight change of form during hardening
2. Little risk of cracking during hardening
3. Good toughness
4. Good wear resistance
5. Very good machinability
6. A definite cooling rate during hardening
7. A definite hardening temperature
8. A good degree of through hardening
9. Resistance to decarburization
10. Resistance to softening on heating (red hardness).
18
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
Classification
The Joint Industry Conference (JIC), U.S.A. has classified tool steels as follows:
- T - W-High speed steel - O - Oil hardening steel
- M - Mo-High speed steel - W - Water hardening steel
- D- High C, high Cr steel - H - Hot work steel
- A - Air hardening steel - S - Shock resisting steel
As an example W8 means water hardening steel with 0.8% C.

4.16 stainless steels


When 11.5% or more chromium is added to iron, a fine film of chromium oxide forms
spontaneously on the surfaces exposed to air. The film acts as a barrier to retard further
oxidation, rust or corrosion. As this steel cannot be stained easily, it is called stainless steel.
All stainless steels can be grouped into three metallurgical classes, i.e.,
A. Austenitic B. Ferritic C. Martensitic
Based on their microstructures each of the classes has different welding requirements.
A. Austenitic stainless steels
- They possess austenitic structure at room temperature.
- They possess the highest corrosion resistance of all the stainless steels.
- They possess greatest strength and scale resistance at high temperatures.
- They retain ductility at temperatures approaching absolute zero.
- They are non-magnetic so that they can be easily identified with a magnet.
- They have the following composition
C 0.03-0.25% Si 1-2% Ni 3.5-22%
Mn 2-10% Cr 16-26% P and S Normal
Mo and Ti in some cases.
- They may find uses in
Dairy industry (milk cans) Food processing (kettles, tanks)
Aircraft industry (engine parts) Household items (cooking utensils)
Chemical processing (heat exchangers)
Transportation industry (Trailers and railways cars), etc.
B. Ferritic stainless steels
- They possess a microstructure which is primarily ferritic.
- Ferritic stainless steels have a low carbon-to-chromium ratio. This eliminates the
19
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
effects of thermal transformation and prevents hardening by heat treatment.
- These steels are magnetic and have good ductility.
- Such steels do not work harden to any appreciable degree.
- Ferritic steels are more corrosion resistant than martensitic steels.
- Ferritic steels develop their maximum softness, ductility and corrosion resistance in
the annealed condition.
- Ferritic stainless steels have the following chemical composition:
C 0.08-0.20% Mn 1 to 1.5%
Si 1% Cr 11-27%
- Ferritic stainless steels have the following uses:
Lining for petroleum industry Screws and fittings
Heating elements for furnaces Oil burner parts.
Interior decorative work
C. Martensitic stainless steels
- Martensitic stainless steels are identified by their martensitic microstructure in the
hardened condition.
- Because of the higher carbon-to-chromium ratio, martensitic stainless steels are the
only types hardenable by heat treatment.
- These steels are magnetic in all conditions and possess the best thermal conductivity
of the stainless types.
- Hardness, ductility and ability to hold an edge are characteristics of martensitic steels.
- Martensitic stainless steels can be cold worked without difficulty, especially with low
carbon content, can be machined satisfactorily, have good toughness, show good
corrosion resistance to weather and to some chemicals and are easily hot worked.
- Martensitic stainless steels have the following composition:
C 0.15-1.2% Mn 1%
Si 1% Cr 11.5 to 18%
- A few typical uses of martensitic stainless steels are as follows:
Pumps and valve parts Turbine buckets
Rules and tapes Surgical instruments, etc.
The structural condition known as austenite is favourable to the production of a tough and
ductile weld, capable of withstanding considerable stress without fracture. Hence, for
corrosion resistance and for a high degree of heat resistance Austenitic stainless steels are
20
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
used in welded assemblies in preference to Ferritic orMartensitic stainless steels. (Austenitic
stainless steels, except for the free-machining grades, are more weldable than the ferritic and
martensitic stainless steels).

4.17 high speed steel


- As named, the high speed steel removes metal (e.g., on a turning lathe) at much
higher speeds or rates than ordinary carbon steels.
- High speed steels are characterized by being heat-treatable to very high hardness
(usually Rockwell C64 or over) and of retaining their hardness and cutting ability at
temperatures as high as 540°C, thus permitting truly high-speed machining. Above
540°C, they rapidly soften and lose their cutting ability.
Properties
1. Excellent red hardness. 4. Fair machinability.
2. Good wear resistance. 5. Good non-deforming property.
3. Good shock resistance. 6. Poor resistance to decarburization.
Types
- Two main types of high speed steels are: (A)Tungsten base (B) Molybdenum base
- Both the types have similar important properties, but as compared to tungsten,
molybdenum being adequate and cheap, molybdenum high speed steel is more
common.
- Besides tungsten or molybdenum (or both) as the primary heat resisting additive,
there are other elements also present in the high speed steel. Carbon for high hardness,
chromium for ease of heat-treating, vanadium for grain refining and, in amounts over
1% for abrasion resistance, and sometimes cobalt for additional hardness and
resistance to heat softening.

Uses
1. For making all types of cutting tools such as drills, taps, reamers, milling cutters,
broaches, power-saw blades, lathe, shaper and planer tool bits etc.
2. In forming dies, drawing dies, inserted heading dies, knives, chisels, high temperature
bearings and pump parts.

4.18 Non Ferrous Material


21
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material

Ferrous alloys are consumed in exceedingly large quantities because they have such a wide range of
mechanical properties, can be fabricated with relative ease and are economical to produce. However,
they possess some distinct limitations, chiefly
1. A relatively high density; therefore heavier in weight,
2. A comparatively low electrical conductivity, and
3. An inherent susceptibility to corrosion in some common on environments.
Thus, for many applications it is advantageous or even necessary to utilize other alloys e.g., non-
ferrous alloys, having more suitable property combinations. On occasion, a distinction is made (in
non-ferrous alloys) between cast and wrought alloys. Alloys that are so brittle that forming or
shaping by appreciable deformation is not possible ordinarily are cast; these are classified as cast
alloys. On the other hand, those that are amenable to mechanical deformation are termed wrought
alloys.
In addition, the heat treatability of an alloy system is mentioned frequently. Heat-treatable designates
an alloy whose mechanical strength is improved b y precipitation hardening etc.
Non-ferrous metals/alloys are not iron-based. The more common non-ferrous materials are the
following metallic elements and their alloys:
1. Copper 4. Lead 7. Zinc
2. Aluminium 5. Nickel 8. Cobalt etc.
3. Magnesium 6. Tin

4.19 Copper and Copper alloys


The main grades of raw copper used for cast copper base alloys are:
a) High conductivity copper (electrolytic) having not less than 99.9% Cu. The oxygen content
may be of the order 0.40%, Pb and Fe less than 0.005% each. Ag 0.002% and Bi less than
0.001%. Electrolytic copper is used for electrical purposes.
b) Deoxidized copper having not less than 99.85% Cu, less than 0.05% As, 0.03% Fe, and
0.003% Bi. Other elements may be of the order of 0.05% P, 0.01% Pb, 0.10% Ni, 0.003%
and 0.005% Ag and Sb respectively.
c) Arsenical deoxidized copper having; 0.4% At, 0.04% P and remaining copper. It is used for
welded vessels and tanks.
d) Arsenical touch pitch copper containing 0.4% As, 0.065% oxygen, 0.02% Pb, 0.15% Ni,

22
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material

0.006% Ag, 0.01% Sb and less than 0.005% Bi, less than 0.020% Fe and remaining copper.
e) Oxygen free copper contains 0.005% Pb, 0.001% Ni, 0.001% Ag and less than 0.0005% and
0.001% Fe and Bi respectively. It is melted and cast in non-oxidising atmosphere.
Properties:
- Excellent resistance to corrosion.
- Non-magnetic properties.
- Easy to work, it is ductile a d malleable.
- Moderate to high hardness and strength.
- High thermal and electrical conductivity.
- It can be easily polished, plated and possesses a pleasing appearance.
- Resistance to fatigue, abrasion and corrosion.
- It can be soldered, brazed or welded.
- Very good machinability.
- Ease of forming alloys with other elements like Zn, Sri, Al, Pb, Si, Ni, etc.
Uses
- Copper is used for the Electrical parts, Heat exchangers, Screw machine products, for making
various copper alloys, such as brass and bronze, household utensils, etc.
Copper Alloys
- Copper alloys normally possess excellent corrosion resistance, electrical and thermal
conductivities and formability.
- Some copper alloys combine high strength and corrosion resistance, a combination desirable
for marine applications.
- Some copper alloys because of their wearing properties, high hardness or corrosion resistance
are used as surfacing metals.
- Some copper alloys are selected for decorative applications because of appearance.
- Elements such as aluminium, zinc, tin, beryllium, nickel, silicon, lead etc., form alloys with
copper.
- High copper alloys contain 96.0 to 99.3% copper.
- They possess enhanced mechanical properties due to the addition of small amounts of
alloying elements such as chromium, zirconium, beryllium and cadmium.
- A few typical high copper alloys are:

23
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material

1. Cu, 1% Cd 3. Cu, 0.12-0.30% Zr


2. Cu, 0.8% Cr 4. Cu, 1.5-2.0% Be
- Such alloys are used for electrical and electronic components, as resistance welding
electrodes, wire conductors, diaphragms and pump parts.

4.20 Brass and Brass Alloys


- Brasses contain zinc as the principle alloying element.
- Brasses are subdivided into three groups;
1. Cu-Zn alloys,
2. Cu-Pb-Zn alloys or leaded brasses, and
3. Cu-Zn-Sn alloys or tin brasses.
- Brass has high resistance to corrosion and is easily machinable. It also acts as good bearing
material. Zinc in the brass increases ductility along with strength.
- Brass possesses greater strength than copper, however, it has a lower thermal and electrical
conductivity. Various types of brasses are discussed below:
(1) Gilding Metal
- The gilding metals cover a range from 5% to 15% Zn (balance Cu) and possess shades of
colour from the red of copper to a brassy yellow.
- They are supplied mainly in the form of sheet strip and wire for jewellery and many other
decorative purposes. Like copper, gilding metal is hardened and strengthened by cold work.
Gilding metal is used for making coins, medals, tokens, fuse caps etc.
(2) Cartridge Brass
- Cartridge brass normally contains 70% Cu and 30% Zn. In the fully annealed condition it has
a tensile strength of over 300 N/mm2.
- Greater % elongation and tensile strength make this brass satisfactory for cold deformation in
presses and by spinning or other means, and have led to its almost universal adoption for
cartridge and shell cases, W, well as for countless cupped articles like the caps of electric
lamp bulbs, door furniture etc.
- Cartridge brass work hardens when deformed in the cold, and must be annealed if many
successive operations are to be performed. An annealing temperature of about 600°C is
satisfactory in most cases.

24
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material

(3) Admiralty brass


- Admiralty brass contains Cu 71%, Zn 28%, and Sri 1%.
- The small amount of tin added to brass improves its resistance to certain types of corrosion.
- Admiralty brass, though, it has been to a greater extent superseded by better materials for the
exacting conditions of marine condensers, it is still widely used for the tubes and other parts
of condensers coded by fresh water and for many other purposes. For such applications, the
modern alloy contains about 0.04% Arsenic, which improves resistance to a penetrative form
of corrosion known as dezincification.
(4) Aluminium brass
- Aluminium brass contains 76% Cu, 22% Zn and 2% Al; a little arsenic is added to inhibit
dezincification.
- In contact with sea water, a protective film builds up on the surface of this alloy in the early
stages of corrosion and prevents further attack. Moreover, if the film is damaged, by the
abrasive action of sand particles, for instance, it is self-healing.
(5) Basis brass
- Basis brass contains copper 61.5-64%, the remainder being zinc.
- Basis brass is used for press work where a relatively cheap material is required, and the main
commercial forms are sheet, strip and wire.
(6) Muntz metal
- Muntz metal or yellow metal contains 60% of copper and 40% of zinc and is essentially a hot
working material. It is manufactured in the form of hot rolled plate, and hot rolled rod or
extruded sections in a great variety of shapes and sizes. Yellow metal is frequently used as a
brazing alloy for steel.
- Other applications of muntz metal are as: Ship sheathing, Perforated metal, Valve stems,
Condenser tubes, Architectural work etc.
(7) Leaded 60:40 brass
- Leaded 60:40 brass is the chief material fed to automatic lathes and similar machines, usually
in the form of extruded bar.
- Lead is added to Cu-Zn alloy to promote machinability. The lead content ranges from about
0.5% to as much as 3.5%. Where machinability is the chief consideration, the lead content is
high, but alloys relatively low in lead are preferred for hot forging operations. Lead has no

25
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material

marked effect on the tensile strength, which is approximately the same as that of straight 60 :
40 brass, though lead tends to impair the weldability, ductility and impact strength.
- Leaded brass is used for: Keys, Lock-parts, Gears, Clock parts, Valve parts, Pipe unions,
Items for automatic water heaters.
(8) Naval brass
- Naval brass contains Cu 60%, Zn 39.25% and Sn 0.75%. The purpose of tin is to improve the
resistance to corrosion.
- Naval brass is used for structural applications and for forgings, especially in cases where
contact with sea water is likely to induce corrosion.
- Naval brass is obtainable as hot-rolled plate particularly for marine condenser plates, and in
the form of extruded rod for the production of machined or hot forged components. Both sand
and die castings are also available.
- Other applications of naval brass are: Propeller shafts, Valve stems, Pump impellers etc.
(9) Admiralty brass
- Admiralty brass contains 71% Cu, 28% Zn, and 1% Sn.
- It is used for decorative and architectural applications, screw machine products, heat
exchanger components, pump impellers etc.

4.21 Bronze and Bronze Alloys


- Bronze is a broad term defining an alloy of copper and elements other than nickel or zinc.
- Bronze is basically an alloy of copper and tin. Bronze possesses superior mechanical properties
and corrosion resistance than brass. Bronze is comparatively hard and it resists surface wear.
- Bronze can be shaped or rolled into wire, rod and sheets. Types of bronzes are:
(1) Phosphor Bronze
- Phosphor Bronze containing approximately 4% each of tin, lead and zinc has excellent free-
cutting characteristics.
- The most important copper-tin alloys are those which have been deoxidized with phosphorus
during the refining process and hence are known as phosphor bronze.
- The amount of residual phosphorus may range from a trace to about 0.35% or even higher in
some special grades.
- The excess phosphorus, which exists in solid solution, materially increases the hardness and

26
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material

strength of the alloy, but it does so at the expense of ductility.


- In amounts greater than 1.0% phosphorus causes excessive brittleness and impairs surface
appearance but affords a good bearing surface, as is evident by the use of high phosphorus
bronze compositions for gears and other machine parts subject to wear.
- Standard Phosphor bronze for bearing applications contains 90% Cu, 10% Sri (min), and
0.5% P (min). In sand cast condition it has a tensile strength of 220-280 N/mm2 and %
elongation 3 to 8%.
- Phosphor bronze for gears contains 88% Cu, 12% Sri, 0.3% (max) Zn, 0.50% (mw.) Pb and
0.15% (min) P. In sand cast condition, it has a tensile strength of 220-310 N/mm2 and 5-15%
elongation. This alloy is also utilised for general bearings, where its rigidity is of advantage.
- Leaded phosphor bronze contains 87% Cu, 7.5% Sn, 2.0% (max)Zn, 3.5% Pb, 0.3% (min) P
and 1.0% (max) Ni. In sand cast condition, it has a tensile strength of 190-250 N/mm2 and %
elongation is 3-12. This material is satisfactory for many bearing applications.
- In general phosphor bronze
Has high strength and toughness Has good load bearing capacity and
Is resistant to corrosion Has low coefficient of friction.
- Phosphor bronze is used for bearing applications, making pump parts, linings, springs,
diaphragms, gears, clutch discs, bellows etc.
(2) Aluminium bronzes
Aluminium bronzes have the following compositions:
Cu Al Fe Sn Mn(%)
89 7 3.5 0.35 -
91 6-8 1.5-3.5 - 1(max)
Aluminium bronzes possess the following properties:
- Good strength - Good heat resistance
- High corrosion resistance - Good cold working properties, etc
Aluminium bronze finds the following uses:
- Bearings - Propellers - Imitation jewellery
- Valve seats - Slide valves - Pump parts etc.
- Gears - Cams
(3) Silicon bronze

27
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material

Silicon bronzes have compositions:


- Si 1-4% - Mn 0.25-1.25%
- Fe 0.5-1.0% - Cu Balance
- Lead when added as 0.5% improves machinability.
- Silicon bronzes possess high strength and toughness as that of mild steel and corrosion resistance
as that of copper.
- Silicon bronze can be cast, rolled, forged and pressed hot or cold.
- Silicon bronzes find the following uses:
Bearings Screw down nuts Marine hardware
Ways and gibs Turntable bushings Die cast parts etc.
Roll mill sleepers Boiler parts

4.22 Gun metal


- Gun metal is an alloy of copper, tin and zinc.
- Zinc cleans the metal and increases its fluidity.
- A small amount of lead may be added to improve castability and machinability.
- Admirality gun metal contains 10% Sri, 2% Zn, 1.5% max. Pb, 1.5% max Ni and balance Cu.
It has tensile strength of 260-340 N/mm2. It is widely used for pumps, valves and
miscellaneous castings and is also used for statuary.
- Nickel gun metal contains 7% Sri, 2.25% Zn, 0.3% Pb, 5.5% Ni and balance copper. When
sand cast and heat treated it has a tensile strength of 430-480 N/nun2.
- Leaded gun metal contains 5% Sri, 5% Zn, 5% Pb, 2.0% max Ni. When sand cast it has a
tensile strength of 200-270 N/mm2. This is among the most widely used grades, particularly
where pressure tightness is required.
- In general gun metal is used for Bearings, Steam pipe fittings, Marine castings, Hydraulic
valves, Gears, etc

4.23 Bearing Materials


Bearings support moving parts, such as shafts and spindles, of a machine or mechanism.
Bearings may be classed as
(1) Rolling contact (i.e., Ball and roller) bearings, (2) Plain bearings.
28
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material

Copper-based alloys
- The term bronze covers a large number of copper alloys with varying percentages of Sri, Zn
and Pb.
- Typical compositions of bearing bronze are: Cu 80%, Sn 10%, Pb 10%
- Bronze is one of the oldest known bearing materials.
- Bronze (a) is easily worked; (b) has good corrosion resistance; (c) is reasonably hard.
- Tin bronze (10 to 14% tin remainder copper) is used in the machine and engine industry for
bearing bushes made from thin walled drawn tubes.
- Copper-based alloys are employed for making bearings required to heavier pressures such as
in railways.

4.24 Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys


Aluminium is a silvery white metal and it possesses the following characteristics:
- It is a light metal, with a density about a third that of steel or brass.
- Aluminium is a very good conductor of electricity. On a weight-for-weight basis aluminium
is a better conductor than copper.
- Aluminium has a higher resistance to corrosion than many other metals, owing to the
protection conferred by the thin but tenacious film of oxide which forms on its surface.
- Aluminium is a good conductor of heat.
- Aluminium is very ductile.
- Aluminium is non-magnetic.
- Melting point of pure aluminium is about 650°C and the fusion range of most of the
aluminium alloys varies between 520 and 650°C.
Aluminium Alloys
- Although pure aluminium is not particularly strong, it forms high strength alloys in
conjunction with other metals such as Cu, Cr, Ni, Fe, Zn, Mn, Si and Mg.
- Some of these aluminium alloys are more than 4 times as strong as the same weight of mild
steel.
- They are malleable and ductile.
- They exhibit toughness and become stronger at temperatures below the ordinary atmospheric
range.

29
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material

- They do not work well at temperatures of the order of 300 to 400°C.


- Aluminium and its alloys can be Cast, Forged, Welded, Extruded, Rolled, etc.
Uses of Al and Al-alloys
The intensive demand for Al and its alloys arises chiefly from their attractive physical, mechanical
and chemical properties. Aluminium and its alloys are frequently used for
- Transportation industry-structural frame-work, engine parts, trim and decorative features,
hardware, doors, window frames, tanks, furnishing and fittings.
- Trains, trucks, buses, automobile cars and aeroplanes use many component parts made up of
aluminium alloys.
- Overhead conductors and heat exchanger parts.
- In food industry, aluminium alloys find applications as food preparation equipments,
refrigeration, storage containers, bakery equipment, shipping containers, etc.
- In architectural field, aluminium alloys find uses such as window frames, doors hardware,
roofing, coping sills, railings, fasteners, lighting fixture, solar shading, grills, etc.
- Cryogenic applications.
- As heavy duty structures such as dragline booms, travelling cranes, hoists, conveyor supports,
bridges, etc.
- In process industries, parts made up of aluminium and its alloys are used to handle organic
chemicals, petrochemicals and drugs. Tanks, drums, pipes, heat exchangers, gratings, smoke-
stacks, precipitators, centrifuges, valves, fittings, etc. are produced from aluminium alloys.
- Types of aluminium alloys are:
1. Al-Mn 4. Al-Mg-Si 7. Al-Cu-Mg-Pb
2. Al-Mg 5. Al-Cu-Mg 8. Al-Mg-Si-Pb
3. Al-Mg-Mn 6. Al-Cu-Si 9. Al-Zn-Mg-Cu
- Aluminium alloys can be classified as follows:
1. Wrought alloys 3. Heat-treatable alloys
2. Cast alloys 4. Non-heat-treatable alloys.

4.25 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys


- Magnesium is a silvery white metal and has the lowest density of the common structural
materials.

30
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material

- It has a specific gravity of 1.74 and weighs only about 1 oz/cu in (1.73 gm/cu cm).
- Aluminium weighs 1.5 times more, iron and steel 4 times more, and copper and nickel alloys
5 times more.
- Magnesium has a melting point of 650°C.
- Magnesium is not employed in its pure state for use for engineering purposes because it is not
sufficiently strong. Usually it is necessary to use considerable thickness or utilize deep
sections so as to obtain adequate stiffness.
- Magnesium corrodes badly under many conditions and therefore need to be painted or given
some surface finish to avoid corrosion.
- Magnesium being costly, finds applications where light weight is a very important
requirement, such as in aircraft industry.
Magnesium Alloys
Magnesium is alloyed with elements such as Al, Zn, Mn, Zr, etc., to make it useful for engineering
applications. Alloying increases strength and corrosion resistance.
Properties
- High strength-to-weight ratio. - Good damping capacity.
- Good fatigue strength. - High thermal conductivity.
- Good dimensional stability. - Relatively high elect. Conductivity.
Uses
- For making parts such as airframes, engines, gear boxes, flooring, seating, etc., for
aeroplanes, helicopters, missiles and satellites.
- For parts such as engines, transmission pumps, differentials, floors and body panels of ground
transportation vehicles (trucks, etc.).
- For material handling equipments such as hand trucks, barrel skids, grain shovels, gravity
conveyors, foundry equipment, etc.
- For storage tanks and hoppers, ladders and scaffolds, electric drills, chain saws, power
hammers, etc.
- Moving parts of textile machines and printing equipment.
- Furniture, griddles, ladders and lawn movers.
- Typewriters, dictating machines, calculators, etc.
- Binocular and camera bodies.

31
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material

- In the production of Uranium, beryllium, zirconium, titanium, etc.


Types of Magnesium Alloys
(1) Cast alloys of magnesium
Sr. No. % Composition (Balance Mg) Characteristics
1. Rare earth metal 3.0, Zn 2.5, Zr Creep resistant upto 250°C, Excellent
0.6 castability. Pressure tight and weldable.
2. Al 8, Zn 0.5, Mn 0.3 General purpose alloy, Good founding
properties. Good ductility, strength and shock
resistance.
3. Al 8, Zn 0.5, Mn 0.3, Be 0.0015 General purpose pressure die casting alloy.
4. Al 7.5-9.5, Zn 0.3-1.5, Mn 0.15 General purpose alloy with good average
min. properties.

(2) Dow metal


- It contains 90% magnesium, 10% Aluminium and a small addition of manganese.
- Dow metal finds applications in auto and aircraft industries.
- Dow metal is extremely light and can be welded and machined.
(3) Wrought Magnesium Alloys
Sr. No. % Composition (Balance Mg) Characteristics
1. Zn 3.0, Zr 0.6 High strength sheet, extrusion and forging
alloy. Weldable under good conditions.
2. Th 0.8, Zn 0.6, Zr 0.6 Creep resistant up to 350°C, fully weldable.
3. Al 8.5, Zn 0.5, Mn 0.12 Min High strength alloy for forgings of simple
design.
4. Al 6.0, Zn 1.0, Mn 0.3 General purpose alloy, gas and arc weldable.

4.26 lead and its alloys


Lead is the oldest of the commonly used metals and the softest of the heavy metals. When it is cast
or cut, it is a lustrous silvery colour to begin with. After standing for a time, however, the surface
turns a dull bluish grey due to oxidation. Lead is poisonous and should not be brought into contact
with food. Lead has a F.C.C. crystal structure.
32
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material

Properties
- It has a low melting point of 327°C and density is 11.34 kg/dm3.
- It is very resistant to corrosion, against most acids, but not against HCl-HNO3 mixture.
- Its strength, hardness and elasticity are low, e.g., tensile strength 15 NNmm2, extensibility up
to 60%.
- It has low resistance to deformation but high formability, cold forming is preferred.
- Lead can be easily soldered, welded and cast. It can be spread over other metal surfaces.
- In addition lead has: Heavy weight, High density, Softness, Malleability, Lubricating
properties, High coefficient of expansion, Low electrical conductivity and poisnous.
Uses and applications of lead
- As an alloying element to improve the machinability of bronzes, brasses and free machining
steels.
- Tank linings for corrosion protection.
- Manufacture of storage batteries. - Lead sheathing of electric cable.
- Pipe and drainage fittings. - Low melting solders.
- Bearing metals. - Terne plate (lead-tin coated), etc.
- Lead compounds in paints. - Radiation protection (from x-rays).
Lead Alloys
- Lead alloys containing 8% to 10% Pb are used as bearing (antifriction) metals, in cable
sheaths, accumulation plates, etc.
- Antimony makes the alloy hard.
- Lead compounds include red lead and white lead.
- Lead glass (lead crystal glass) refracts light strongly.
Alloy Composition in % Uses
Lg Pb Sb 12 Sb 10.5-13, Cu 0.3-1.5, Ni In mechanical engineering, easily
(Bearing hard lead) 0-0.3, As 0-1.5, Rest lead soldered to steel, for lining
bearings.
Pb (Sb) Sb 0.2-0.3, Rest lead Drain pipes
Pb Sb As Sb 2.0-3.8, As 1.2-1.7, Rest Buckshot
lead

33
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
4.27 Nickel and Nickel Alloys
- The element nickel (along with the elements Fe and Co) constitute the transition
group in the fourth series of the periodic table.
- It has an atomic number of 28, an atomic weight of 58.71, density 8.908 g/cu cm at
20°C and melting point of 1453°C.
- The normal crystallographic system of nickel is F.C.C. at all temperatures.
- The usual commercial grade of wrought nickel ('A' nickel) nominally contains 99.0%
nickel + up to 0.4% cobalt, which traditionally are combined and reported as 99.4%
nickel.
- Commercially pure nickel is almost as hard as low-carbon steel.
- Nickel work-hardens rapidly when cold worked.
- With suitable modifications in temperatures, tools, pressures, rates etc., wrought
nickel is amenable to most of the fabrication processes used for mild steel. It can be
forged, rolled, bent, extruded, sheared, punched, spun, deep drawn, machined, ground,
polished and buffed.

Properties of Nickel
- Is a hard lustrous white metal.
- Possesses good corrosion and oxidation resistance.
- Has high tensile strength and can be easily formed hot or cold.
- Can take up high polish.
- Can be fabricated using processes similar for mild steel.
- Is ferromagnetic at ordinary and low temperatures but becomes paramagnetic at
elevated temperatures.
- Melting point ... 1453°C
- Density, gm/cu cm, at 20°C ... 8.908
- Coefficient of Thermal expansion x 10-6/°C (25 toJ00°C) … 13.3
- Tensile strength 65000 - 115000 psi (From hot (4565 to 8075 kg/cm2) to cold drawn)
- Modules of Elasticity ... 30 x 106 psi (2.11 x 106 kg/cm2)
- Hardness RB 40 to 100 (depends on whether Ni is hot rolled, annealed or cold drawn)
Uses of Nickle
- For corrosion protection of iron and steel parts and Zn-base die castings used in the
automotive field.
34
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
- In the chemical, soap, caustic and allied industries for the construction of evaporators,
tanks, jacketed kettles, heating coils, tubular condensers and many other processing
types of equipment.
- As an alloying element in both ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. Nickel is a strong
austenite stabilizer and with chromium is used to form the important AISI 300 series
of non-magnetic austenitic stainless steels.
- As a coating for parts subjected to corrosion and wear. Therefore the second
important use of nickel is in electroplating.
- In the incandescent lamp and radio industries.
- In electronic (vacuum electronic tubes) and low-current electrical applications.
- As permanent magnets.

Nickel Alloys:
Various nickel alloys are:
A. Nickel-Iron alloys D. Nickel-Chromium alloys
B. Nickel-Copper alloys E. Nickel-Molybdenum alloys
C. Nickel-Copper-Zinc alloys F. Super alloys
(A) Nickel-Iron alloys
- Nickel and iron form a series of alloys with thermal-expansion and magnetic
characteristics of commercial importance.
- Invar is the Trademark for an iron-nickel alloy containing 40-50% nickel and is
characterized by an extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion. Invar is used for
making precision instruments, measuring tapes, weights etc.
- The addition of 12% chromium, in lieu of some of the iron, produces an alloy
(Elinvar) with an invariable modulus of elasticity over a considerable temperature
range as well as a fairly low coefficient of expansion.
(B) Nickel-Copper alloys
1. The major nickel-based alloy with copper is Monel which nominally contains 66%
Ni, 31.5% Cu, 1.35% Fe, 0.90% Mn, plus residuals.
- Monel has a brighter appearance than nickel, is stronger and tougher than mild steel,
has excellent resistance to atmospheric and sea-water Corrosion and generally is more
resistant than nickel to acid, less resistant to alkalies and equally resistant to salts.
- Monel is used in architectural and marine applications where appearance and
35
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
corrosion resistance is important and in specialized equipment used by the food
pharmaceutical, paper, oil and chemical industries.
2. Several variations of monel have been produced to obtain an additional characteristic.
These include:
- An age-hardenable grade (K Monel),
- A free machining grade (R Monel),
- A hard-casting grade (H Monet),
- An age-hardenable casting grade (S Monel), etc.
3. Constantan, another alloy of nickel and copper contains 45% Ni and 55% Cu.
- Constantan has highest electrical resistivity, lowest temperature coefficient of
resistance, and highest thermal emf against platinum, of any of the copper-nickel
alloys.
- Uses in Electrical resistors, Thermocouples, Wheatstone bridges, etc.
(C) Ni-Cu-Zn alloys (Nickel-Silver)
- Nickel-copper-zinc alloys though known as nickel-silver, do not contain silver, and in
actuality they are brasses with sufficient nickel added to give a silvery white colour,
improved corrosion resistance and high strength.
- These alloys are used as low cost substitutes for silver in tableware and jewellery,
usually with silver or gold electroplate on the surface.
- Nickel silvers are also construction materials for many musical, drafting and scientific
instruments and are also used for marine and architectural applications.
(D) Nickel-Chromium alloys
- Nickel-chromium alloys with or without iron, form a series of corrosion and heat-
resistant materials.
- In this group the 80% Ni, 14% Cr, 6% Fe alloy (Inconel) with many modifications
resists progressive oxidation below 1093°C and is used in applications such as
furnace chambers, salt pots, aircraft exhaust manifolds, and high-temperature springs.
- It was originally developed for use in the milk industry as a corrosion-resistant alloy
and now is much used in many chemical industries because of its excellent corrosion
resistance.
- The 80% Ni, 20% Cr alloy (Chromel A, Nichrome V, Tophet A) and the 60% Ni,
16% Cr, 24% Fe alloy (Nichrome, Chromel C, Tophet C) form the bulk of materials
used for heater elements.
36
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
- The 90% Ni, 10% Cr (Chromel P) alloy in combination with alumel is much used as a
dependable base-metal thermocouple.
(E) Nickel-Molybdenum alloys
- Nickel-Molybdenum alloys such as Hastelloy A, Hastelloy C and Hastelloy D possess
very good resistance to corrosion.

Type of % Composition
Properties and Uses
Alloy Ni Mo Fe Cr W
Hastelloy A 57 20 20 - - High strength and ductility. Can be forged and
rolled. Resists attack of acids. Used in chemical
industry for equipments such as storage tanks
and for material handling and transportation.
Hastelloy C 54 17 5 15 4 Can he cast and machined. Resistant to HNO3,
free chlorine and acid solutions of salts such as
cupric and ferric. Used in chemical industry for
pumps, valves, spray nozzles etc.

(F)Super alloys
- The super alloys have superlative combinations of properties.
- These materials are classified according to the predominant metal in the alloy, which
may be cobalt, nickel or iron.
- Other alloying elements include the refractory metals (Nb, Mo, W, Ta), chromium
and titanium.
- Super alloys are at least five times as strong as steels routinely used for making
bridges and large buildings. They can withstand enormous strains and exhibit
remarkable resistance to metal fatigue. They possess high impact strength and
superior strength-to-mass ratio. They are probably the toughest materials ever
produced.
- Super alloys are used in aircraft turbine components, which must withstand exposure
to severely oxidizing environments and high temperatures for reasonable time
periods.
- Mechanical integrity under these conditions is critical; in this regard, density is an
important consideration because centrifugal stresses are diminished in rotating
37
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
members when the density is reduced.
4.28 Tin and Tin Alloys
Tin is it non-toxic white, soft and pliable metal adaptable to cold working such as rolling,
extrusion and spinning. Tin melts at a low temperature (231.9°C), is highly fluid when
molten and has a high boiling point (2270°C), which facilitates its use as a coating for other
metals. It can be electrodeposited readily on all common metals.
Properties:
- Boiling point ... 2270°C
- Specific gravity - α-form (gray tin) ... 5.77, β -form (white tin) ... 7.29
- Coefficient of linear expansion, 0°C ... 19.9 x 106
- Solidification shrinkage, % ... 2.8
- BHN 10 kg/5m, 180 sec - 20°C ... 3.9, 220°C ... 0.7
- Tensile strength, as cast 200°C 0.65 x 103 psi (45.65 kg/cm2)
15°C 2.1 x 103 psi (147.4 kg/cm2)
- 40°C 2.9 x 103 psi (204 kg/cm2)
- Tin has good resistance to acid corrosion. Therefore, it is used as a coating on steel
containers for food.
- Tin alloys with Cu, Sb, Bi, Cd and Ag and its hardness increases.
- Tin is usually sold as ingots; however, it can be obtained in a number of forms such as
granulated, mossy, fine powder, sheet, foil and wire.

Tin Alloys
(1) Soft Solders 20 to 70% tin and remaining lead.
Symbols Composition in % by weight Uses
and melting point range
L-Pb Sn 35 Sb containing Sn 34.5-35.5, Sb 0.5-2.0, Rest Solder for copper, tin, zinc,
antimony Pb 186°C-225°C used with soldering iron or
flame
L-Sn 50 Ph (Sb) Tin-lead Sn 49.5-50.5, Sb 0.12-0.5, Tinning, fine soldering,
solder low antimony Rest Pb 183°C-215°C electrical engineering
L-Sn 60 Pb Ag Sn 59.5-60.5, Ag 3.0-4.0, Rest Electronics, precision
Pb 178°C -180°C mechanics, production of

38
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
electrical appliances
- The eutectic alloy, with 63% tin is used extensively in electrical industry.
- Alloy with 50% tin is general-purpose solder.
- Lower tin solders (15-20% tin) are used as dipping solders for sealing automotive
radiator cores.
- Bi, Cd, Pb and tin alloys are used as fuses for fire-extinguishing equipment, boiler
plugs, etc.
(2) Copper-tin alloys (bronzes)
- Phosphor bronze containing 8-12% tin with small additions of phosphorus is used for
springs, condenser tubes, bearings, bushings and diaphragms.
- The gun metals, tin-bronze casting alloys with 1 to 6% Zn are used for valves and
fittings for water and steam lines.
- Babbitt bearing metals are essentially tin-base alloys.
(3) Aluminium-tin alloys
- The 6% tin-aluminium alloys can be bonded to steel by rolling.
- Low tin-aluminium alloys possess high fatigue strength and thus can carry fluctuating
loads.
(4) Pewter,
- It’s tarnish resistant alloy containing 7% antimony and 2% copper, is easy to cast and
to work into complicated shapes by spinning and hammering and is available as
plates, trays, bowls, pitchers, etc.
(5) Alloys of titanium
- Contains 2.5% Sn and 5% Al (or 13% Sn with 2.75% Al) find use in aircraft industry.

4.29 zinc and zinc base alloys


- Zinc is a blue to gray metallic element.
Characteristics:
1. Relatively low melting point, 419.5°C (die-casting).
2. Good resistance to atmospheric corrosion.
3. Solubility in copper (brass).
4. Inherent ductility and malleability.
5. Volume coef. of Ther Exp. 20-400°C ... 8.9 x 10-5/°C.
6. Thermal conductivity at 18°C ... 0.27 cal/sec/cm/°C
39
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
- Zn is produced commercially as slab, Anode, strip, wire, Powder and rod.
Applications:
- Stampings - Building materials (as for
- Die castings flashings, roofing, gutters, etc.)
- Anodes for electro-galvanising - Engravers' plates.
- Coating on steel (to protect it) - Wire for metallizing.
- Making different alloys - Lithographers' sheets, etc.
- Fabricated (and rolled) shapes.
- Shells for dry batteries.

Typical chemical composition (%):


(Pb + Cd + Zn
Pb Fe Cd Cu
Fe)
Rolled zinc 0.05 to 0.012 0.005 0.65 to - Remainder
0.12 max Max Max 1.25
High grade Slab zinc 0.07 0.02 0.07 - < 0.10 Remainder
Selected grade slab zinc 0.80 0.04 0.75 - < 1.25 Remainder
Zinc Alloys
Zinc alloys can be fabricated by Drawing, Bending, Extrusion, Spinning, Rolling, Soldering.
Zn makes alloys with:
1. Al 3. Cu 5. Mg 7. Fe, and
2. Pb 4. Cd 6. Sn 8. Ni
- Pb stimulates intercrystalline corrosion in Zn alloy die castings.
- Cd exerts an important hardening effect and raises the recrystallization temperature.
Zn containing Cd can absorb considerable amounts of work hardness during cold
rolling or drawing.
- Fe, some iron is desirable but excessive amounts are harmful to properties.
- Cu, Cu-Zn alloys are more ductile and easier to roll. Copper enters into solid solution
in zinc up to approximately 1%.
- Mg, when added in the presence of copper, increases resistance to creep.
40
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
- Al-Zn alloys containing Al in uncontrolled compositions are unstable when rolled.

4.30 Cobalt and Cobalt Alloys


Cobalt is a silvery-white metal with a faint bluish tinge, closely resembling nickel in
appearance and mechanical properties. Its chemical properties resemble, in part, those of both
nickel and iron. Below 421°C, cobalt is H.C.P.; above, it is F.C.C. structure.
Cobalt Alloys
%, Composition Application
Cr 19-27, Ni 0-32, W 0-15, M 0-5.5 Rest Cobalt High temperature alloy
Cr 26-33, W 5-14, C 1-2.5, Rest Cobalt Hard facing alloys (stellites)
Cr 30-32, Mo 1.3-3.5, C 0.05-2, Rest Cobalt Wear resistant alloys
Co 49-50, V 0.2, Rest Fe High permeability
Ni 18 -29, Co 17-18, Rest Fe Glass-metal seals (Kovar wrought)
Co 64, Cr 30, Mo 5 Dental Prosthesis and osteosynthesis
- Cobalt alloys can be Cast, Forged, Extruded, Rolled, Swaged, drawn, Welded, brazed,
Shaped by powder metallurgy.
Properties:
- The desirable high-temperature properties of the first alloy – high stress rupture,
creep, thermal shock resistance and resistance to carburization-may be the result of
the allotropic change of cobalt from a close-packed hexagonal at room temperature to
a face-centered cubic lattice at high temperatures.
- The stellite alloys are immune to all ordinary corroding media and are highly resistant
to many corrosive acids and chemicals, stellites combine high reflectivity,
permanence of finish and resistance to abrasion.
- Cobalt's high curie temperature (1121°C) imparts high damping characteristics useful
for alloys subjected to vibe ation, such as in high pressure, high-temperature steam
turbines.
- The interesting engineering property of cobalt-containing permanent, soft and
constant permeability magnets are a result of the electronic configuration of the metal
and its high curie temperature.
- In cutting alloys and high speed steel, cobalt seems to contribute to low coefficients of
friction and to maintaining red hardness.
- The Co-Cr-base alloys for dental and surgical applications are not attacked by the
41
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material
body fluids and hence do not set up an electromotive force in the body to cause
irritation of the tissue; thus the Vitallium alloys are also used as bone replacements.
They are ductile enough to permit anchoring of dentures on neighboring teeth.
- Cobalt reduces the hardenability of steel. When dissolved in ferrite, cobalt provides
resistance to softening at elevated temperatures.
Applications
- High temperature alloys. - Searchlight reflectors
- Permanent magnets. - Dies and cutting tools.
- Hardfacing purposes. - Nuclear reactors.
- Wear resistant components in nuclear submarines.
- Rocked and motor cases for the space age.
- Components of jet aircraft engines such as gas turbines, superchargers, turbojet
nozzles and vanes etc.
References
1. Material Science and Metallurgy by O. P. Khanna

42
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Material

Questionnaire
1. What is cast iron? Give composition, typical properties and uses of any three of the following
cast irons: (i) Grey cast iron (ii) White iron (iii) Malleable iron (iv) S.G. iron
2. Distinguish between plain carbon steel and alloy steel.
3. Give composition, important properties and uses of: Mild steel, medium carbon steel and high
carbon steel.
4. Give effects of following elements on cast iron: (i) Silicon (ii) Sulphur (iii) Phosphorus (iv)
Manganese (v) carbon.
5. Describe the effects of the following alloying elements on the properties of steel: (i)
Chromium (ii) Cobalt (iii) Manganese (iv) Nickel (v) Phosphorus.
6. What are the needs for alloying steels?
7. Give composition typical properties and uses of: stainless steel and high speed steel.
8. Write short notes on any three of the following: Heat resisting steels and Nickel steels
9. Give properties and applications of copper as an engineering material.
10. Describe important properties and uses of aluminium.
11. Discuss important properties and uses of any two of the following: (i) Nickel (ii) Tin
(iii) Zinc.
12. Give composition properties and uses of any three of the following: (i) brass (ii)
Muntz metal (iii) Manganese bronze (iv) Phosphor bronze.
13. (b) Distinguish between the Brasses and bronzes.
14. Discuss composition, properties and uses of any three of the following alloys: (i) Gun-
metal (ii) Phosphor bronze (iii) Aluminium bronze (iv) Nickel silver.
15. Briefly discuss the effects of the following as alloying elements on the properties of
aluminum: (i) Copper (ii) Silicon (iii) Magnesium (iv) Manganese.
16. Describe briefly any five heavy non-ferrous metals.
17. Write short notes on any Duralium.
18. What are the important requisite qualities of a satisfactory bearing alloy?
19. Write a short note on Nickel alloys.
20. Write short notes on Cobalt base alloys

43
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
Date: ___ /___ /______

EXPERIMENT NO. 5
Objective
To understand the concept of iron carbon diagram and TTT curve.

6.1 Introduction
- Alloys of the Iron-carbon system include steel and cast iron.
- Alloys with carbon content up to 2% are known as Steels whereas those having
carbon above 2% are called Cast-Irons.
- Alloys of the Iron-carbon system are of the most vital important to modern industry
due to their extensive, versatile applications.
- The Iron-carbon system provides the most prominent example of heat treatment and
property alteration based on polymorphic transformation and eutectoid
decomposition.
- Because of its outstanding commercial importance, the Iron-carbon system has been
studied in more detail than most all systems.
- The primary constituent of Iron-carbon system is the metal Iron.

6.2 Iron, Allotropy


- Iron is a relatively soft and ductile metal. Iron has a melting point of 1539°C.
- Iron is allotropic metal, which means that it exists in more than one type of lattice
structure (e.g., B.C.C. /F.C.C.) depending upon temperature.

1
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
Fig. 6.1 cooling curve for pure iron
In- its normal room temperature state, iron is B.C.C. in lattice arrangement, whereas at 908°C
it changes to F.C.C. and then at 1403°C back to B.C.C. again and vice versa.
One another change occurs at about 770°C (called the Curie point) at which the room
temperature magnetic properties of iron disappear and it becomes non-magnetic.
The iron remains non-magnetic until the temperature drops back below the Curie point upon
which its magnetic properties reappear.
- Fig. shows a cooling curve for pure iron with allotropic forms of iron marked over it.
- Iron is molten above 1539°C. It solidifies in the B.C.C. δ (delta) form.
On further cooling at 1400°C, a phase change occurs and the atoms rearrange themselves into
the γ (Gamma) form which is F.C.C. and nonmagnetic.
On still further cooling at 910°C, another phase change occurs from F.C.C. non-magnetic y
iron to B.C.C. non-magnetic α (alpha) iron.
Finally at 768°C, the α-iron (B.C.C.) becomes magnetic without a change in lattice structure.

6.3 Micro-Constituents of Iron and Steel


- When steel is heated above the austenitic temperature (Refer Fig. 6.4) and is allowed
to cool under different conditions (e.g., different rates of cooling), the austenite in
steel transforms into a variety of micro constituents discussed below.
- The study of these microconstituents is essential in order to understand Fe-C
equilibrium diagram and T.T.T. diagrams.
- Various micro-constituents are:
A. Austenite D. Ledeburite G. Martensite
B. Ferrite E. Pearlite H. Troostite
C. Cementite F. Bainite I. Sorbite
(A) Austenite
- Austenite is the solid solution of carbon and/or other alloying elements (e.g., Mn, Ni,
etc.) in gamma iron.
- Carbon is in interstitial solid solution whereas Mn, Ni, Cr, etc., are in substitutional
solid solution with iron.
- Austenite can dissolve maximum 2% C at 2066°F, the left hand corner of Fig. 6.4
- Austenite has:
Tensile strength 10500 kg/cm2
2
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
Elongation 10% in 50 mm
Hardness Rockwell C 40 (Approx)

Fig. 6.2 Microstructure of austenite at room temperature


- Austenite is normally not stable at room temperature. Under certain conditions,
however, it is possible to obtain austenite room temperature (as in austenite stainless
steels).
- Austenite is non-magnetic and soft.
(B) Ferrite
- Ferrite is B.C.C. iron phase with very limited solubility for carbon.
- The maximum solubility is 0.025% carbon at 1.333°F at extreme left hand corner of
Fig. 6.4, and it (i.e., ferrite) dissolves only 0.008% carbon at room temperature.
- Ferrite is the softest structure that appears on the Fe-C equilibrium diagram.
- Ferrite has:
Tensile strength 2800 kg/cm2 (Approx)
Elongation 40% in 50 mm
Hardness less than Rockwell C 0 or Rockwell B 90

Fig. 6.3 Microstructure of ferrite at room temperature


(C) Cementite
3
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
- Cementite or iron carbide, chemical formula Fe3C, contains 6.67% carbon by weight.
- It is a typical hard and brittle interstitial compound of low tensile strength (approx.
350 kg/cm2) but high compressive strength.
- Cementite is the hardest structure that appears on the iron-carbon equilibrium
diagram. Its crystal structure is orthorhombic.
(D) Ledeburite.
- Ledeburite is the eutectic mixture of austenite and cementite. It contains 4.3% carbon.
It is formed at about 1130°C (2065°F).
(E) Pearlite
- The pearlite microconstituent consists of alternate lamellae of ferrite and cementite.
- Pearlite is the product of austenite decomposition by an eutectoid reaction. Thus, pearlite
is an eutectoid mixture containing about 0.8% carbon and is formed at 1333°F (723°C),
point C in Fig. 6.4.
- Pearlite is shown in Fig. 40.5; the white ferrite back-ground or matrix which makes up
most of the eutectoid mixture contains thin plates of cementite (black).
- Pearlite has
Elongation 20% in 50 mm
Hardness Rockwell C 20
(F) Bainite
- Bainite is the constituent produced in a steel when austenite transforms at a
temperature below that at which pearlite is produced and above that at which
martensite is formed. Bainite is produced by Austempering.
- Thus bainite is a decomposition product of austenite, consisting of an aggregate of
ferrite and carbide.
- Bainite forms on isothermal transformation at temperatures below the nose of TTT
diagram (Refer Fig. 6.10)
- Bainite is an isothermal transformation product and cannot be produced by continuous
cooling.
- If bainite is formed in the upper part of the temperature range, its appearance is
feathery and it is called Feathery Bainite; it is known as Acicular Bainite. if it is
formed in the lower part of the temperature range. Acicular bainite resembles
tempered martensite because it has somewhat needle like structure.
(G) Martensite
4
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
- Martensite is a metastable phase of steel, formed by transformation of austenite below
the MS temperature (refer Fig. 40.10).
- Martensite is an interstitial supersaturated solid solution carbon in a-iron and has a
body-centered-tetragonal lattice.
- Martensite is considered to be highly stressed a-iron which is supersaturated with
carbon.
- Martensite forms as a result of shear-type transformation with virtually no diffusion.
- Martensite, normally, is a product of quenching.
- Martensite possesses an acicular or needle-like structure, Fig. 6.13
(H) Troostite
- Troostite (Nodular) is a mixture of radial lamellae of ferrite and cementite and
therefore differs from pearlite only in the degree of fineness and carbon content which
is the same as that in the austenite from which it is formed
- In steel heat treatment, the troostite, i.e., the microstructure, consisting of ferrite and
finely divided cementite is produced on tempering martensite below approximately
450°C.
- The constituent also known as troostite pearlite is produced by the decomposition of
austenite when cooled at a rate slower than that which will yield a martensitic
structure and faster than that which will produce a sorbitic structure.
(I) Sorbite
- Sorbite is the microstructure consisting of ferrite and finely divided cementite,
produced on tempering martensite, above approximately 450°C.
- The constituent also known as Sorbitic Pearlite, is produced by the decomposition of
austenite when cooled at a rate slower than that which will yield a troostitic structure
and faster than that which will produce a pearlitic structure.

Difference between Pearlite, Sorbite and Troostite


Pearlite, sorbite and troostite are all ferrite-cementite mixtures having a lamellar structure and
distinguishable from each other in eutectoid steel only by their degrees of dispersion.
The lower the decomposition temperature (higher degree of super cooling), the more
dispersed the ferrite-cementite mixture will be.
Pearlite is obtained at low degrees of supercooling. Sorbite, a finer mixture, is obtained at
higher degrees of supercooling.
5
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
At subcritical temperatures in the region of 500 to 550°C, troostite, .in even more dispersed
mixture, is obtained. Under an optical microscope, troostite is observed as a dark mass
because the ferrite and cementite particles cannot be resolved. Thus, unlike pearlite, troostite
is difficult to differentiate. However, structure of troostite is sufficiently clearly revealed
under an electron microscope.

6. 4 Iron-Carbon Equilibrium Diagram


Introduction
- An equilibrium, phase or constitutional diagram is a graphic representation of the
effects of temperature and composition upon the phases present in an alloy.
- An equilibrium diagram is constructed by plotting temperature along they-axis and
percentage composition of the alloy along the x-axis. This diagram shows ranges of
temperatures and compositions within which the various phase changes are stable and
also the boundaries at which the phase changes occur.

6
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System

Fig. 6.4 Iron carbon equilibrium diagram


- Iron-carbon equilibrium diagram (refer Fig. 6.4) indicates the phase changes that
occur during heating and cooling and the nature and amount of the structural
components that exist at any temperature. Besides, it establishes a correlation between
the microstructure and properties of steel and cast irons and provides a basis for the
understanding of the principles of heat-treatment.
- An iron-carbon equilibrium diagram forms a basis for differentiating among iron
(0.008% C or less), hypoeutectoid steels (0.008 to 0.8%C), hypereutectoid steels (0.8
to 2.0% C), hypoeutectic cast irons (2 to 4.3% C) and hypereutectic cast irons (above
4.3% carbon).
- The iron carbon equilibrium diagram has a peritectic (point J) an eutectic (point C)
and an eutectoid (point S).
- Peritectic reaction equation may be written as

7
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System

Delta (δ) + liquid 
Austenite
- The horizontal line at 2720°F shows the peritectic reaction.
- The eutectic reaction takes place at 2066°F and its equation may be written as

Lliquid 
Austenite + cementite [Eutectic Mixture (ledeburite)]
- Eutectic point is at 4.3% carbon. Eutectic mixture is not usually seen in the
microstructure, because austenite is not stable at room temperature and must undergo
another reaction during cooling.
- The eutectoid reaction is represented by the horizontal line of 1333°F and (point) S
marks the eutectoid point. The eutectoid equation may be written as

Solid 
Ferrite + cementite [Eutectoid Mixture (pearlite)]

6.5 Transformation in Different Steel Structure


Transformation which takes place in the structures of steels containing 0.4%, 0.83% and
1.2% carbon respectively (refer Fig. 6.4) when heated to a temperature high enough to make
them austenitic and then allowed to cool slowly (under equilibrium conditions), have been
explained below.
(1) Steel containing 0.4% C
Steel containing 0.4% carbon is a hypoeutectoid steel and is completely austenite aboveA3,
i.e., upper critical temperature line. As it is cooled below A3 line the iron begins to change
from F.C.C. to B.C.C. As a result, small crystals of body centered cubic (B.C.C.) iron begin
to separate out from the austenite (F.C.C.).
The B.C.C. crystals retain a small amount of carbon (less than (1.03%) and are referred as
crystals of ferrite.
As the cooling proceeds, ferrite crystals grow in size at expense of austenite.
By the time the steel has reached Al line, i.e., 1333°F (called lower critical temperature) it is
composed of approximately half ferrite and half austenite. At this stage the austenite contains
0.83% carbon and since austenite can hold no more than 0.83% carbon in solid solution at
1333°F (or 723°C) thus as the temperature drops further, carbon begins to precipitate as
cementite.
This cementite and still separating ferrite form alternate layers until all the remaining
austenite is consumed. The lamellae structure, i.e., eutectoid of ferrite and cementite contains
0.83% carbon and is known as Pearlite (refer Fig. 40.5).

8
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
All hypoeutectoid steels when cooled from austenite state will tra form into ferrite and
pearlite in the same way as explained above.
(2) Steel containing 0.83% C
Consider the transformation of a eutectoid steel containing 0. 83% carbon. It will remain
austenite up to the point S. The transformation will begin and end at the same temperature,
i.e., 1333°F (or 723°C). Since eutectoid steel contains 0.83% carbon initially, it follows that
the final transformed structure will be completely pearlite (see Fig. 6.5).

Fig. 6.5 Typical appearance of lamellar pearlite containing 0.83% carbon by weight, the
eutectoid composition
(3) Steel containing 1.2% C
Consider the transformation of hypereutectoid steel containing 1.2% carbon.
As the temperature drops and steel crosses Acm (i.e., upper critical temperature) line at point
d and moves towards e, the excess carbon above the amount required to saturate austenite
(i.e. 0.83%) is precipitated as cementite primarily along the grain boundaries (Fig. 6.4).
Thus above 1333°F, i.e., lower critical temperature line, the structure insists of austenite and
cementite.
As the temperature drops below 1333°F, the austenite has become less rich in carbon
(because of cementite precipitation), it contains only 0.83% carbon and it transforms to
pearlite as it does so in the cases of hypoeutectoid and eutectoid steels explained earlier.
The structure of hypereutectoid steel at room temperature consists of cementite and pearlite
(Fig. 6.4).
6.6 Transformation in Cast Iron
So far the discussions were only with regard to structures produced in steels by slow cooling
from austenite under equilibrium conditions.

9
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
In normal foundry practice, the rate of cooling is slightly faster and as a result more cementite
plates are nucleated and individual lamellae of pearlite become thinner and the structure is
called fine pearlite.
If castings are cooled at still faster rate to prevent transformation of austenite above
(approximately) 600°F, nartensite forms on further continuous cooling. Martensite is a hard,
strong and brittle constituent. It is a super-saturated solution of carbon in ferrite and the
presence of excess carbon distorts the normally cubic ferrite to a body-centered tetragonal
structure which is produced by a shear mechanism and is strained.
Transformations which take place in the structure of a cast iron containing 3% carbon is
shown in Fig. 6.4 and explained as under:
Case (a):
Cast iron containing 3% carbon is when cooled under rapid rate as a thin section of a sand
casting, from a temperature of about ?500°F, it begins to solidify with the formation of grains
of austenite. Austenite continues to solidify until the cast iron reaches the temperature of
2066°F. At this stage the alloy consists of 50% austenite and 50% liquid of eutectic
composition (austenite and cementite, i.e., ledeburite).
As the alloy cools below solidus, i.e., 2066°F, lledeburite (a form of eutectic consisting of
spheres of austenite embedded in cementite) freezes and cementite precipitates from austenite
because of the decreasing solubility of carbon in the austenite. This occurs between 2066 and
1333°F.
Cooling of the alloy below 1333°F involves the transformation of remaining austenite of
eutectoid composition (i.e., 0.83% C) to pearlite as explained earlier for steels.
Thus, the structure of alloy at room temperature consists of cementite, pearlite and
transformed ledeburite.
Cast iron of any composition between 2.0 to 4.3% carbon will solidify in exactly the same
way as has been described above.
Case (b):
If the above very cast iron is cooled at a slow rate, as usual, austenite will first form from the
melt (i.e., liquid) but eutectic freezing being slow, products of eutectic reaction will be
austenite and graphite [Fig. 6.6 (a)]. This is between 2066 and 1333°F.
As cooling continues, austenite gets depleted in carbon content and graphite flakes grow. At
1333°F, remaining austenite transforms to pearlite and the structure of the alloy at room
temperature looks as shown in Fig. 6.6 (b). It is pearlitic gray cast iron.
10
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System

(a) (b)
Fig. 6.6 Microstructures of pearlitic gray cast iron
Case (c):
Phase changes in the same alloy when cooled at a very slow rate will be similar to case (b)
above, except that, at the eutectoid, (i.e., 1333°F) cooling will be sufficiently slow to permit
graphite to precipitate rather than pearlite. Although no new graphite flakes form, the one
present, grow in size. Instead of pearlite as in case (b), the matrix of the alloy solidified in
this case is ferrite and graphite flakes are embedded in it.

6.7 Effect of Alloying Elements on Founding and other Properties of Steels


- An alloying element is one which is added to a metal to effect changes in properties
and which remains within the metal.
- Common alloying elements which are added to steel for the purpose are C, Ni, Mo,V
W, Mn, Cu, Bo, Al, Co, Si, Ti, Cr, etc.
Carbon:
- Hardness
- Tensile strength
- Machinability
- Melting point
Nickel:
- Increases toughness and resistance to impact and Strengthens steels
- Lessens distortion in quenching
- Lowers the critical temperatures of steel and widens the range of successful heat
treatment
- Renders high-chromium iron alloys austenitic
- Does not unite with carbon.
Chromium:

11
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
- Joins with carbon to form chromium carbide, thus adds to depth hardenability with
improved resistance to abrasion and wear
- Helps preventing corrosion and oxidation
- Adds some strength at high temperatures.
Molybdenum:
- Promotes hardenability of steel
- Makes steel fine grained
- Makes steel unusually tough at various hardness levels
- Counteracts tendency towards temper brittleness
- Raises tensile and creep strength at high temperatures
- Enhances corrosion resistance in stainless steels
- Forms abrasion resisting particles.
Vanadium:
- Promotes fine grains in steel
- Increases hardenability (when dissolved)
- Imparts strength and toughness to heat-treated steel.
- Resists tempering and causes marked secondary hardening.
Tungsten:
- Increases hardness (and also red-hardness)
- Promotes fine grain
- Resists heat
- Promotes strength at elevated temperatures.
Manganese:
- Contributes markedly to strength and hardness (but to a lesser degree than carbon)
- Counteracts brittleness from sulphur
- Lowers both ductility and weldability if it is present in high percentage with high
carbon content in steel.
Aluminium:
- Acts as a deoxidizer
- Produces fine austenite grain size
- If present in an amount of about 1%, it helps promoting nitriding.
- Cobalt:
- Contributes to red-hardness by hardening ferrite.
12
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
Copper: Copper (0.2 to 0.5%) added to steel
- increases resistance to atmospheric corrosion
- Acts as a strengthening agent.
Boron:
- Increases hardenability or depth to which steel will harden when quenched.
Silicon:
- Improves oxidation resistance
- Strengthens low alloy steels
- Acts as a deoxidizer.
Titanium:
- Prevents localized depletion of chromium in stainless steels during long heating
- Prevents formation of austenite in high chromium steels
- Reduces martensitic hardness and hardenability in medium chromium steels.

6.8 Effect of alloying elements on founding and other properties of ast iron
- Alloying elements are added to cast iron for attaining special properties such as
resistance to corrosion, heat and wear and to improve mechanical properties.
- Many alloying elements in cast iron will accelerate or retard graphitization and this is
one of the important reasons for alloying.
The Host common alloying elements in cast iron are, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, V, Mg, Mn and Zr.
Chromium: Chromium (0.15 to 1.0%) is used for
- Hardness
- Chilling power, i.e., depth of chill
- Improvement of wear resistance
- Strength
- Resistance to heat
- Chromium reduces and refines the graphite. However, chromium decreases
machinability.
Copper: Copper (0.5 to 2.0%)
- Toughens the matrix
- Increases the fluidity
- Tends to break up massive cementite and strengthens matrix
- Assists in control of chill depth
13
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
- Tends to increase and refine the graphite.
Molybdenum:
- In conjunction with Ni, Cu and Cr, Mo is used to produce high strength cast irons.
Molybdenum (0.3 to 1.0%)
- Improves mechanical properties like tensile strength, fatigue strength and hardness.
- Refines the graphite and pearlite
- Is a mild stabilizer of carbides
- Improves heat resistance
- Retards the transformation of austenite and thus increases hardenability and freedom
from cracking and distortion.
Vanadium: Vanadium (0.15 to 0.5%)
- Is a powerful carbide former
- Stabilizes cementite and improves the structure of the chill
- Reduces graphitization
- Improves tensile strength, transverse strength and hardness
- Adds resistance to wear and heat.
Nickel: Nickel (0.1 to 3.0%)
- Stabilizes austenite
- Refines pearlite and graphite
- Is a mild graphitizer
- Improves toughness and density of castings
- Minimizes extremes of hardness between light and heavy sections.
Magnesium: Magnesium (0.04 to 0.08%)
- Produces graphite in spheroidal form in as cast alloys
- Increases ductility.
Manganese: Manganese (0.3 to 1.25%)
- Stabilizes austenite
- Refines the graphite and pearlite
- Acts as a deoxidizer
- Refines grains
- Increases fluidity and density in castings.
Zirconium: Zirconium (0.10 to 0.3%)
- Assists formation of graphite
14
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
- Deoxidizes and improves the fluidity and density of castings
- Reduces hardness.

6.9 The Pearlite Transformation


- The microstructure Pearlite is very important in iron and steel technology, because it
may be formed in almost all steels by means of suitable heat treatments.
- Pearlite is a specific mixture of two phases formed by transforming austenite of
eutectoid composition to ferrite and cementite.
- When viewed in white light under a microscope, pearlite is readily recognised by its
lustrous appearance and its structure of alternate plates of ferrite and cementite.
- The transformation of austenite to pearlite starts by formation of cementite crystal
nuclei at austenite grain boundaries.
- Carbon diffuses from the surrounding austenite to the cementite and the growth of
(cementite) carbide begins. As carbon diffuses, t adjacent austenite is depleted in
carbon and transforms to ferrite [ref Fig. 6.7 (a) and (b)].
- With formation of ferrite, there is rejection of carbon from t ferrite region, (because
ferrite can dissolve much less carbon than austenite) i.e., effective enrichment of the
adjacent austenite. Th form the additional nuclei of cementite [Fig. 6.7 (c)].
- Because of the alternate formation of cementite and ferrite, cementite can only grow
away from the boundary of original austenite grain as a platelet, somewhat like the
filling in a sandwich [Fig. 6.7 (d)].

(a) (b) (c) (d)


Fig. 6.7 Pearlite-formation by nucleation and growth
- Nucleation and growth of alternate plates of cementite and ferrite occur at several
points along the austenite grain boundaries [Fig. 40.8 (a)]. This forms pearlite
colonies which are approximately hemispherical regions of alternate plates of
cementite and ferrite.
- Usually several such colonies form within any one austenite grain.
15
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
- These pearlite colonies grow until the entire austenite grain has been consumed and
has become a pearlite nodule.
- The process of pearlite formation is sometimes referred to as Side-Wise nucleation
and Edgewise growth [Fig. 6.8 (b)].

(a) (b)
Fig. 6.8 (a) Pearlite colonies (b) Edgewise growth

6.10 T.T.T. Diagram


- T.T.T. (Time-Temperature-Transformation) diagram is also known as S-Curve, C-
Curve, Bain's Curve or Isothermal Transformation diagram.
- A T.T.T. diagram shows the relationship between temperature and time (Fig. 40.12)
taken for a decomposition transformation to take place in a metal when the
transformation is isothermal, i.e., transformation is allowed to occur at constant
temperature.
- T.T.T. diagram is used more particularly in the assessment of de-Composition of
austenite in heat treatable steel.
Difference from Fe-C Equilibrium Diagram (and Importance of TTT Diagram)
- Many heat treatments of steels involve reaction conditions so far removed from
equilibrium that Fe-C equilibrium diagram is of only limited use in the study of steels
cooled under non-equilibrium conditions.
- The iron-carbon equilibrium diagram shows only the phases and the resulting
microstructures corresponding to equilibrium conditions.
The usefulness of Fe-C diagram is restricted to fixing the austenitizing temperature and
predicting the phases that are eventually obtained at a given composition (C%age) and
temperature.
- Many metallurgists realized that time and temperature of austenite transformation had
a profound influence on the transformation products and the subsequent properties of

16
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
the steel. For example, the microstructure and properties of (quenched) steel are
dependent upon the rate of cooling which prevails during quenching.
As the cooling rate increases, the experimentally observed transformation temperatures are
lowered and metastable (non-equilibrium) phases may be formed. For example, at very high
rates of cooling in the Neel, a metastable phase called rnartensite can develop which, of
course, h,a.s no place in the Fe-C equilibrium diagram.
The principal source of information on the actual process of austenite decomposition under
non-equilibrium conditions is the TTT Diagram, which relates the transfonnation of austenite
to the time and temperature conditions to which it is subjected.
Steps to Construct a T.T.T. Diagram
1. Obtain a large number of relatively small specimens (cut from the same bar).
2. Place the samples in a molten salt bath held at the proper austenitizing temperature, [refer
Fig. 6.9]. For 1080 (eutectoid) steel, this temperature is approximately 1425°F. Specimens
are kept in the molten salt bath for long enough to form complete austenite

Fig. 6.9 Steps in processing specimens


3. When austenitized, the samples are quickly transferred to another molten salt bath held at the
desired reaction temperature below A1, l or example at 1300°F.
4. After a given specimen has been allowed to react isothermally for a certain time, it is
quenched in cold water or iced brine.
The first specimen may be allowed to react isothermally for 2 secs., second specimen for 4
secs., third for 8 secs., fourth for 15 secs., and so on up to say 15 hours (Fig. 6.9)
The more the time is given to a specimen to react isothermally the more pearlite is formed
(Fig. 6.10).
5. As the specimen is quenched in water, this stops the isothermal reaction (or heat treatment)
by causing the remaining (untransformed), austenite to change almost instantly to martensite.

17
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
In microstructures shown in Fig. 6.10, both pearlite and martensite (white portion) can be
seen. Pearlite is the result of isothermal heat treatment and its amount depends upon the time
permitted for isothermal reaction to continue. Martensite is the result of water quenching of
the specimen after the isothermal heat treatment.
6. When a large number of specimens isothermally reacted for varying time periods are
metallographically examined, the result is the Reaction Curve as shown in Fig. 6.10

Fig. 6.10 Reaction curve found by metallographic examine of processed specimens


7. When the data obtained from a series of isothermal reaction curves over the whole
temperature range of austenite instability for a given composition of steel is summarized, the
result is TTT diagram for that steel.

18
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System

\Fig. 6.11 TTT diagram for the decomposition of austenite in eutectoid (0.8% C) steel
- Austenite is stable above A1 temperature line, and below this line, austenite is
unstable, i.e., it can transform into pearlite, bainite or martensite.
- In addition to the variations in the rate of transformation with temperature, there are
variations in the structure of the transformation products also.
- Transformations at temperatures between approximately 1300°F and 1020°F (550°C)
result in the characteristics lamellar microstructure of pearlite. At a temperature just
belowAI line, nucleation of cementite from austenite will be very slow, but diffusion
and growth of nuclei will proceed at maximum speed, so that there will be few large
lamellae and the pearlite will be coarse.
However, as the transformation temperature is lowered i.e., it is just above the nose of the C-
curve, the pearlite becomes fine.
- At temperatures between 1020°F and 465°F (the approximate, Ms temperature line),
transformation becomes more sluggish as the temperature falls, for, although austenite
becomes increasingly unstable, the slower rate of diffusion of carbon atoms in
austenite at lower temperatures outstrips the increased urge of the austenite to
transform. In this temperature range the transformation product is bainite.
Bainite consists, (like pearlite) of a ferrite matrix in which particle of cementite are
embedded. The individual particles are much finer than in pearlite.

19
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
The appearance of bainite may vary between feathery mass [Fig. 40. 16 (c)] of fine cementite
and ferrite for bainite formed around 900°F; and dark acicular (needle-shaped) crystals [Fig.
40.16 (d)] for bainite formed in the region of around 600°F.
At the foot of the TTT diagram, there are two lines Ms, (240°C or 465°F) and Mf (-50°C).
Ms, represents the temperature at which the formation of martensite will start and MJ, the
temperature at which the formation of martensite will finish during cooling of austenite
through this range. Mf is a fairly low temperature.
- Martensite is formed by the diffusionless transformation of austenite on rapid cooling
to a temperature below 465°F (approximately) designated as Ms Temperature.
The martensitic transformation differs from the other transformations in that it is not time
dependent and occurs almost instantaneously, the proportion of austenite transformed to
martensite depends only on the temperature to which temperature to which it is cooled. For
example the approximate temperature transforms to martensite are 330°F and 240°F
respectively.
Fig. 6.13 shows the effect of cooling rate on the formation of different reaction products e.g.,
pearlite, bainite and martensite

Fig. 6.12 cooling curves

20
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System

Fig. 6.13 effect of cooling rate on formation of different reaction product


Cooling Curve-a:
- Very slow cooling rate, typical of conventional annealing. Transformation product is
coarse pearlite with low hardness.
Cooling Curve-b:
- Transformation will start at 3 with the formation of coarse pearlite and finish at 4,
with the formation of medium pearlite. Since there is a greater temperature difference
between point 3 and 4 than there is between 1 and 2, the structure will show a greater
variation in the fineness of pearlite and a smaller proportion of coarse pearlite as
compared to that of curve-a.
- Curve-b involves a faster cooling rate than curve a (annealing) and may be considered
typical of normalizing.
Cooling Curve-c:
- This curve is typical of a slow oil quench and the microstructure will be a mixture of
medium and fine pearlite.
Cooling Curve-d:
- This curve is typical of an intermediate cooling rate and austenite will start to
transform (at point 5) to fine pearlite. As Ms Line is crossed, the remaining austenite
will transform to martensite. The final structure at room temperature will thus consist
of martensite and fine perlite.
Cooling Curve-e:
- This curve is typical of a drastic quench, the substance remains austenitic until the MS
line is reached, and changes to martensite between the Al, and Mf lines.
Cooling Curve-ef:
21
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
- It is possible to form 100% perlite or 100% martensite by continuous cooling, but it is
not possible to form 100% Bainite.
- Cooling Curve-ef obtains a bainitic structure by cooling rapidly enough to miss the
nose of curve and then holding in the temperature range at which bainite is formed
until transformation is complete.
Cooling Curve-g:
- This curve is tangent to the nose of TTT curve. The cooling rate associated with
curve-g is approximate critical doling rate (CCR) for this steel.
Any cooling rate equal to or faster than CCR (e.g., cooling rate-e) will form only martensite
and any cooling rate slower than CCR (e.g., cooling rates a, b and c) will form some softer
transformation products such as pearlite or bainite.

6.11 critical cooling rate


Concept
Refer Fig. 6.13, T.T.T, diagram, where critical cooling rate has been marked as "CCR",
Critical Cooling rate is that slowest rate of cooling at which, all the austenite is transformed
into 100% martensite.
Importance
- Critical cooling rate is important when hardening the steels (having proper carbon
content). In order to obtain fully martensitic (a very hard) structure, the cooling rate
must be more than the critical cooling rate.
- It is actually the cooling rate (refer Fig. 40.13 T.T.T. diagram) that determines the
type of structure which will be obtained on cooling. Slow cooling will produce a
pearlitic structure and higher cooling rate can form a martensitic structure.
- The final properties of the steel component thus cooled will depend upon, therfore, on
the magnitude of cooling rate.
Factors Affecting
Various factors affecting the critical cooling rate are:
1. Composition of steel
The critical cooling rate varies with the carbon content of the steel (Fig. 6.14). The critical
cooling rate is minimum when carbon is around 0.9%.

22
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System

Fig. 6.14 CCR versus carbon content of steel


2. Temperature of hardening
The higher is the quenching (hardening) temperature, the more uniform becomes the
austenite, the lower is the critical cooling time and more will be the critical cooling rate (Fig.
6.15).

Fig. 6.15 hardening temperature versus time


3. Purity of steel
The purer is the steel, the lesser will be the critical cooling rate for quenching.
6.12 The Bainite Transformation
- Bainite is an isothermal transformation product that forms at temperature below the nose
of TTT diagram(refer to cooling curve-ef ), it cannot be produced by continuous cooling.
- Bainite is an intimate mixture of ferrite and cementite, as is pearlite. Whereas pearlite has
alternate plates of ferrite and cementite, in bainite cementite apparently exists as tiny
spheroids or stringers [Fig. 6.16 (a)] uniformly distributed throughout the ferrite matrix.
- Fig. 6.16 (a) and (b) show respectively the upper (feathery) bainite formed at
temperatures just below the nose of the TTT diagram and the lower (acicular) (needlelike)
bainite formed at temperatures approaching Ms.
23
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
- Between about 1000° and 750°F, initial nuclei are ferrites which are coherent with the
austenite matrix. Cementite then precipitates from the carbon-enriched layer of austenite,
allowing further growth of the ferrite [Fig. 6.16 (a)].
- The carbides tend to lie parallel to the long axis of the bainite needle to form the typical
open feathery structure of upper bainite [Fig. 6.16 (a)].
- Below about 750°F, coherent ferrite, supersaturated with carbon, forms first and is then
followed by the precipitation of carbide within the ferrite needle, transversely at an angle
of 55°.
- A proportion of the carbide is Fe24C and the ferrite contains a little dissolved carbon. This
is lower bainite in which cementite is too fine f rr resolution and the structure or pattern is
acicular (needlelike) [refer Fig. 6.16 (d)].
- Due to differences in size, shape and distribution of cementite, bainite is normally harder,
stronger and tougher than fine pearlite of the same chemical composition.
- Moreover, whereas pearlite is initiated by cementite precipitation, hainite is initiated by
ferrite precipiiation.
- It is thought that bainite forms initially as supersaturated ferrite by a lattice shearing
process (somewhat similar to martensite).
- It is agreed that diffusion-controlled processes are involved in bainite formation.

(a) Upper Bainite (Feathery) Refer Fig. (c) also

24
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System

(b) Lower Bainite (Acicular) Refer Fig. (d) also

(c) Upper Bainite for eutectoid steel partially reacted at 540°C.

(d) Lower Bainite in eutectoid steel formed upon reaction at temp. near the martensite range
Fig. 6.16 (a) & (c) Formation of upper bainite (b) & (d) Formation of lower bainite
6.13 The Martensite Transformation
- Martensite is a metastable phase of steel, formed by transformation of austenite below Ms
temperature
- Martensite is an interstitial supersaturated solid solution of carbon in iron having a body-
centered-tetragonal lattice (Fig. 6.18).
- Martensite is normally a product of quenching.
25
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
- During most phase transformations, diffusion occurs to produce a difference in
concentration between the two (or more) phases involved. However, at low temperatures,
where diffusion occurs slowly, greatly super cooled solids can transform by the
martensitic mechanism, in which diffusion may be completely absent. In this type of
transformation the second phase has the same composition as the matrix, but it forms a
different crystal structure by shearing action within the matrix.
- Martensite is the result of a shear-type transformation with virtually no diffusion.
- Martensite is characterized by an acicular or needlelike pattern (Fig. 6.17).

Fig. 6.17 Martersite (Needle-like pattern)


- Since martensite has a non-cubic structure and since carbon is still present in the lattice,
slip does not occur readily and therefore martensite is very hard, strong and brittle.
- The carbon content of martensite may be the same as of the original austenite.
- Under relatively slow cooling, austenite transforms to ferrite, cementite and/or pearlite;
but a very rapid cooling rate is essential to transform austenite into martensite.
- The cooling rate must exceed a critical value depending on (steel) composition and
metallurgical history.
- The austenite-martensite transformation starts at temperature Ms and continues as the
temperature decreases to Mf, at which transformation reaction ceases even though
retained austenite may still exist.
- Thus, martensite forms in the range Ms - Mf only with decreasing temperature.

26
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
- Ms and Mf temperatures are influenced by the carbon content steel and both decrease
with increasing carbon content. Ms and Mf temperatures do not depend upon the cooling
rate.
- One may visualise the transformation of austenite to martensite as a transition stage in
the change from the F.C.C. structure of austenite to B.C.C. structure of ferrite.
- The low temperature at which martensite forms greatly decreases the chance for
carbon atoms to diffuse out of the lattice; hence they remain in solution in the
transition lattice. The excessive supersaturation of carbon distorts the normal BCC
structure to body-centered tetragonal(Fig. 6.18).

Fig. 6.18 Crystal lattice of martensite


- Since martensite formation from austenite is accompanied by an increase in specific
value (about 3%); this may be a solid reason why large stresses are set up in
hardening that distort the article being hardened and develop cracks.
- The lattice distortion in martensite is reflected in mechanic properties of high tensile
strength and hardness and low ductility.
- In fact, martensite being brittle, by itself, has limited application; the major interest
lies in the desirable combinations of properties which can be obtained by heat treating
(i.e., tempering) this (martensitic) structure.
- Formation of martensite is similar to slip and twinning since it is a shear
transformation, but differs since there is a change in crystal structure. Martensite
transformation is diffusionless, the sheared region remains coherently joined to the
matrix and shear propagates at about the speed of sound through the crystal.
- There are a number of important characteristics of martensite transformation such as:
1. The martensite transformation is diffusionless and there is change in chemical
composition.

27
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
2. The transformation proceeds only during cooling and ceases if cooling is interrupted.
Thus martensite transformation depends only upon the decrease in temperature and is
independent of time.
The amount of martensite formed with decreasing temperature is not linear. The number of
martensite needles produced at first is small, then the number increases and finally near the
end, it decreases again (Fig. 6.19).
Actually, martensite forms from austenite as individual platelets (needles) as temperature
decreases. Each platelet is formed in a short time interval (perhaps less than a micro-second).
Additional transformation on continued cooling is by formation of additional plates rather
than by growth of existing plates.
3. Martensite transformation of a given alloy cannot be suppressed, nor can the ms
temperature be changed by varying the cooling rate.
4. Martensite is probably never in a condition of real equilibrium, although it may persist
indefinitely at or near room temperature.
5. Martensite transformation associates high rates of nucleation and crystal growth at
low temperatures.

Fig. 6.19 percent of martensite formed as a function of temperature


- The mechanism of martensite transformation is perhaps nucleation and shear, which
implies a progressive shear wave rather than a homogeneous shear.
- It is believed that the strain energy of misfit between the martensite formed and the
untransformed austenite matrix (between Ms and Mf temperatures) is minimized by
formation of platelets (as observed) upon which a non-homogeneous shear is
imposed. This shear cancels the macroscopic changes in dimensions in the plane of
the plate.

28
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Iron Carbon System
- The martensite transformation, for many years, was believed to be unique for steel.
However, in recent years, martensite transformation has been found in a number of
other alloy systems such as Fe-Ni, Cu-Zn, and Cu-Al.
- The martensite transformation is therefore recognized as a basic type of reaction in
the solid state and the term martensite is no longer confined only to the metallurgy of
steel.
References
1. Material Science and Metallurgy by O. P. Khanna

Questionnaire
1. Explain any five of the following terms: (I) Ferrite (ii) Pearlite (iii) Cementite (iv)
Austenite (v) Ledeburite (vi) Martensite (vii) Troostite (viii) Bainite (ix) Sorbite (x)
Spheroidite.
2. Draw simplified iron-carbon diagram and briefly explain it. Interpret various
transformations when a liquid solution containing 0.5%C in iron is cooled to room
temperature.
3. Explain the Pearlite transformation.
4. Explain importance of TTT Diagram?
5. Describe various steps to construct a TTT diagram.
6. Explain bainaite transformation
7. Explain martensite transformation.

29
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Non Destructive Tests
Date: ___ /___ /______

EXPERIMENT NO. 6
Objective
To understand the procedure of Non Destructive tests.

6.1 Introduction
A nondestructive test is an examination of an object in any manner which will not impair the
future usefulness of the object. Although in most cases nondestructive tests do not provide a
direct measurement of mechanical properties, they are very valuable in locating material
defects that could impair the performance of a machine member when placed in service. Such
a test is used to detect faulty material before it is formed or machined into component parts,
to detect faulty components before assembly, to measure the thickness of metal or other
materials, to determine level of liquid or solid contents in opaque containers, to identify and
sort materials, and to discover defects that may have developed during processing or use.
Parts may also be examined in service, permitting their removal before failure occurs.

Fig. 6.1 Typical S-N (stress-cycle) diagrams


Nondestructive tests are used to make products more reliable, safe, and economical.
Increased reliability improves the public image of the manufacturer, which leads to greater
sales and profits. In addition, manufacturers use these tests to improve and control
manufacturing processes.
There are five basic elements in any nondestructive test.
1. Source: A source which provides some probing medium, namely, a medium that can
be used to inspect the item under test.
2. Modification: This probing medium must change or be modified as a result of the
variations or discontinuities within the object being tested.
3. Detection: A detector capable of determining the changes in the probing medium.

1
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Non Destructive Tests
4. Indication: A means of indicating or recording the signals from detector.
5. Interpretation: A method of interpreting these indications.
While there are a large number of proven nondestructive tests in use. This section will
concentrate on the most common methods and on one recent development.
The most common methods of nondestructive testing or inspection are:
 Radiography
 Magnetic-particle inspection
 Fluorescent-penetrant inspection
 Ultrasonic inspection
 Eddy current inspection

6.2 Radiography of metals


The radiography of metals may be carried out by using x-rays or gamma rays-short-
wavelength electromagnetic rays capable of going through relatively large thicknesses of
metal. Gamma rays may be obtained from a naturally radioactive material such as radium or a
radioactive isotope such as cobalt-60. Gamma radiation is more penetrating than that of x-
rays, but the inferior sensitivity limits its application. There is no way that the source may be
regulated for contrast or variable thickness, and it usually requires much longer exposure
times than the x-ray method.

Fig. 6.2 Schematic representation of the use of x-rays


X-rays are produced when matter is bombarded by a rapidly moving stream of electrons.
When electrons are suddenly stopped by matter, a part of their kinetic energy is converted to
energy of radiation, or x-rays.
The essential conditions for the generation of x-rays are
1. A filament (cathode) to provide the source of electrons proceeding toward the target,

2
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Non Destructive Tests
2. A target (anode) located in the path of electrons,
3. A means of regulating tube current to control the no. of electrons striking the target.
4. A voltage difference between the cathode and anode which will regulate the velocity
of the electrons striking the target and thus regulate the wavelength of x-rays
produced.
The first two requirements are usually incorporated in an x-ray tube. The use of x-rays for the
examination of a welded plate is shown schematically in Fig. X-rays are potentially
dangerous, and adequate safeguards must be employed to protect operating personnel.
A radiograph is a shadow picture of a material more or less transparent to radiation. The x-
rays darken the film so that regions of lower density which readily permit penetration appear
dark on the negative as compared with regions of higher density which absorb more of the
radiation. Thus a hole or crack appears as a darker area, whereas copper inclusions in
aluminum alloy appear as lighter areas.

While the radiography of metals has been used primarily for the inspection of castings and
welded products, it may also be used to measure the thickness of materials. Fig. 10.3 shows a
simple radiation thickness gauge

Fig. 6.3 a simple radiation thickness gauge


The radiation from the source is influenced by the material being tested. As the thickness
increases, the radiation intensity reaching the detector decreases. If the response of the
3
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Non Destructive Tests
detector is calibrated for known thicknesses, the detector reading can be used to indicate the-
thickness of the inspected material. With a suitable feedback circuit, the detector may be used
to control the thickness between predetermined limits.

6.3 Magnetic-Particle Inspection (Magnaflux)


This is a method of detecting the presence of cracks, laps, tears, seams, inclusions, and
similar discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials such as iron and steel. The method will
detect surface discontinuities too fine to be seen by the naked eye and will also detect
discontinuities which lie slightly below the surface. It is not applicable to nonmagnetic
materials.
Magnetic-particle inspection may be carried out in several ways. The piece to be inspected
may be magnetized and then covered with fine magnetic particles (iron powder). This is
known as the residual method. Or, the magnetization and application of the particles may
occur simultaneously. This is known as the continuous method. The magnetic particles may
be held in suspension in a liquid that is flushed over the piece, or the piece may be immersed
in the suspension (wet method). In some applications, the particles, in the form of a fine
powder, are dusted over the surface of the workpiece (dry method). The presence of a
discontinuity is shown by the formation and adherence of a particle pattern on the surface of
the workpiece over the discontinuity. This pattern is called an indication and assumes the
approximate shape of the surface projection of the discontinuity. The Magnaglo method
developed by the Magnaflux Corporation is a variation of the Magnaflux test. The suspension
flowed over the magnetized workpiece contains fluorescent magnetic particles. The
workpiece is then viewed under black light, which makes the indications stand out more
clearly.

Fig. 10.4 Principle of the Magnaflux test


4
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Non Destructive Tests
When the discontinuity is open to the surface, the magnetic field leaks out to the surface and
forms small north and south poles that attract the magnetic particles (see Fig. 10.4). When
fine discontinuities are under the surface, some part of the field may still be deflected to the
surface, but the leakage is less and fewer particles are attracted, so that the indication
obtained is much weaker. If the discontinuity is far below the surface, no leakage of the field
will be obtained and consequently no indication. Proper use of magnetizing methods is
necessary to ensure that the magnetic field set up will be perpendicular to the discontinuity
and give the clearest indication.

Fig. 6.5 illustrating two kinds of magnetization:


(a) Longitudinal magnetization; (b) circular magnetization.
As shown in Fig. 10.5 for longitudinal magnetization, the magnetic field may be produced in
a direction parallel to the long axis of the workpiece by placing the piece in a coil excited by
an electric current so that the long axis of the piece is parallel to the axis of the coil. The
metal part then becomes the core of an electromagnet and is magnetized by induction from
the magnetic field created in the coil. Very long parts are magnetized in steps by moving the
coil along the length. In the case of circular magnetization, also shown in Fig. 10.5, a

5
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Non Destructive Tests
magnetic field transverse to the long axis of the workpiece is readily produced by passing the
magnetizing current through the piece along this axis.
Direct current, alternating current, and rectified alternating current are all used for
magnetizing purposes. Direct current is more sensitive than alternating current for detecting
discontinuities that are not open to the surface. Alternating current will detect discontinuities
open to the surface and is used when the detection of this type of discontinuity is the only
interest. When alternating current is rectified, it provides a more penetrating magnetic field.
The sensitivity of magnetic-particle inspection is affected by many factors, including strength
of the indicating suspension, time in contact with the suspension, time allowed for indications
to form, time subject to magnetizing current, and strength of the magnetizing current.
All machine parts that have been magnetized for, inspection must be put through a
demagnetizing operation. If these parts are placed in service without demagnetizing, they will
attract filings, grindings, chips, and other steel particles which may cause scoring of bearings
and other engine parts. Detection of parts which have not been demagnetized is usually
accomplished by keeping a compass on the assembly bench.

6.4 Fluorescent-Penetrant inspection (zyglo)


This is a sensitive nondestructive method of detecting minute discontinuities such as cracks,
shrinkage, and porosity that are open to the surface. While this method may be applied to
both magnetic and nonmagnetic materials, its primary application is for nonmagnetic
materials. Penetrant techniques can be used for inspecting any homogeneous material that is
not porous, such as metals, glass, plastic, and some ceramic materials.
Parts to be tested are first treated with a penetrant. Penetrants are usually light, oil-like liquids
which are applied by dipping, spraying, or brushing, or in some other convenient manner.
The liquid penetrant is drawn into cracks and other discontinuities by strong capillary action.
After the penetrant has had time to seep in, the portion remaining on the surface is removed
by wiping or washing. This leaves the penetrant in all surface connected discontinuities. The
test part is now treated with a dry powder or a suspension of powder in a liquid. This powder
or developer acts like a sponge drawing the penetrant from the defect and enlarging the size
of the area of penetrant indication. In order for the inspection process to be completed, the
penetrant must be easily observed in the developing powder. One method is to use
contrasting colors for the penetrant and developer. A combination of white developer and red
penetrant is very common.

6
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Non Destructive Tests
Another method is to use a fluorescent penetrant. The major steps in fluorescent penetrant
inspection are shown in Fig. 10.6. The steps are exactly the same as described previously
except that the penetrating liquid contains a material that emits visible light when it is
exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Lamps that emit ultraviolet are called black lights, because
the visible light they might normally emit is stopped by a filter, making them appear black or
dark purple. When the part to be inspected is viewed under black light, the defect appears as a
bright fluorescing mark against a black background

Fig. 6.6 Major steps in fluorescent-penetrant inspection


Fluorescent penetrant inspection is used to locate cracks and shrinkage in castings, cracks in
the fabrication and regrinding of carbide tools, cracks and pits in welded structures, cracks in
steam and gas-turbine blading, and cracks in ceramic insulators for spark plugs and electronic
applications.

6.5 Ultrasonic Inspection


The use of sound waves to determine defects is a very ancient method. If a piece of metal is
struck by a hammer, it will radiate certain audible notes, of which the pitch and damping may
be influenced by the presence of internal flaws. However, this technique of hammering and
listening is useful only for the determination of large defects.
A more refined method consists of utilizing sound waves above the audible range with a
frequency of 1 to 5 million Hz (cycles per second)-hence the term ultrasonic. Ultrasonic is a
fast, reliable nondestructive testing method which employs electronically produced high-
frequency sound waves that will penetrate metals, liquids, and many other materials at speeds
of several thousand feet per second. Ultrasonic waves for non destructive testing are usually
produced by piezoelectric materials. These materials undergo a change in physical dimension
when subjected to an electric field. This conversion of electrical energy to mechanical energy
7
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Non Destructive Tests
is known as the piezoelectric effect. If an alternating electric field is applied to a piezoelectric
crystal, the crystal will expand during the first half of the cycle and contract when the electric
field is reversed. By varying the frequency of the alternating electric field, we can vary the
frequency of the mechanical vibration (sound wave) produced in the crystal. Quartz is a
widely used ultrasonic transducer. A transducer is a device for converting one form of energy
to another.

Fig. 6.7 The through-transmission and pulse-echo methods of ultrasonic inspection


Two common ultrasonic test methods, the through-transmission and the pulse-echo methods,
are illustrated in Fig. 6.7. The through-transmission method uses an ultrasonic transducer on
each side of the object being inspected. If an electrical pulse of the desired frequency is
applied to the transmitting crystal, the ultrasonic waves produced will travel through the
specimen to the other side. The receiving transducer on the opposite side receives the
vibrations and converts them into an electrical signal that can be amplified and observed on
the cathode-ray tube of an oscilloscope, a meter, or some other indicator. If the ultrasonic
wave travels through the specimen without encountering any flaw, the signal received is
relatively large. If there is a flaw in the path of the ultrasonic wave, part of the energy will be
reflected and the signal received by the receiving transducer will be reduced.

Fig. 6.8 Oscilloscope pattern for the pulse-echo method of ultrasonic inspection

8
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Non Destructive Tests
The pulse-echo method uses only one transducer which serves as both transmitter and
receiver. The pattern on an oscilloscope for the pulse-echo method would look similar to that
shown in Fig. 6.8. As the sound wave enters the material being tested, part of it is reflected
back to the crystal where it is converted back to an electrical impulse. This impulse is
amplified and rendered visible as an indication or pip on the screen of the oscilloscope. When
the sound wave reaches the other side of the material, it is reflected back and shows as
another pip on the screen farther to the right of the first pip. If there is a flaw between the
front and back surfaces of the material, it will show as a third pip on the screen between the
two indications for the from and back surfaces. Since the indications on the oscilloscope
screen measure the elapsed time between reflection of the pulse from the front and back
surfaces, the distance between indications is a measure of the thickness of the material. The
location of a defect may therefore be accurately determined from the indication on the screen.
In general, smooth surfaces are more suitable for the higher-frequency testing pulse and
thereby permit detection of smaller defects. Proper transmission of the ultrasonic wave has a
great influence on the reliability of the test results. For large parts, a film of oil ensures proper
contact between the crystal searching unit and the test piece. Smaller parts may be placed in a
tank of water, oil, or glycerin. The crystal searching unit transmits sound waves through the
medium and into the material being examined. Close examination of the oscilloscope screen
in this picture shows the presence of three pips. The left pip indicates the front of the piece,
the rights pip the back of the piece, and the smaller center pip is an indication of a flaw.
Ultrasonic inspection is used to detect and locate such defects as shrinkage cavities, internal
bursts or cracks, porosity, and large nonmetallic inclusions. Wall thickness can be measured
in closed vessels or in cases where such measurement cannot otherwise be made.

6.6 Eddy Current Inspection

9
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Non Destructive Tests
Fig.6.7 Eddy Current Test
Eddy current techniques are used to inspect electrically conducting materials for defects,
irregularities in structure, and variations in composition. In eddy current testing, a varying
magnetic field is produced if a source of alternating current is connected to a coil.
When this field is placed near a test specimen capable of conducting an electric current, eddy
currents will be induced in the specimen. The eddy currents, in turn, will produce a magnetic
field of their own. The detection unit will measure this new magnetic field and convert the
signal into a voltage that can be read on a meter or a cathode-ray tube. Properties such
hardness, alloy composition, chemical purity, and heat treat condition influence the magnetic
field and may be measured directly by a single coil.
An important use for eddy current testing is sorting material for heat treat variations or
composition mix-ups. This application requires the use of two coils (see Fig. 10.9). A
standard piece is placed in one coil and the test piece in the other coil. Acceptance or
rejection of the test piece may be determined by comparing the two patterns on the
oscilloscope screen. Eddy current testing may be used to detect surface and sub-surface
defects, plate or tubing thickness, and coating thickness.

References
1. Material Science and Metallurgy by O. P. Khanna
2. Introduction to Physical Metallurgy by Sidney H. Avner
Questionnaire
1. What is non-destructive testing? Describe any two tests for detecting surface defects
of materials or components.
2. Name amd explain any two tests for detection of internal defects.
3. Write short notes on: (i) Magnetic particle test. (ii) Gamma-ray radiographic test. (iii)
Acid pickling test. (iv) Dye-penetrant test.
4. What factors may be varied in taking a radiograph with x-rays?
5. In a radiograph, what will be the difference in appearance of gas cavities, cracks, and
impurities?
6. What are the limitations of magnetic-particle inspection?
7. What are the limitations of fluorescent-penetrant inspection?

10
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Non Destructive Tests
8. What are the limitations of ultrasonic inspection?
9. Explain the difference between through-transmission and pulse-echo methods of
ultrasonic inspection.
10. Which nondestructive testing method is best suited to determine the wall thickness at
the bottom of a steel tank?
11. Which nondestructive testing method should be used to sort out bars of mixed steel?

11
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes

Date: ___ /___ /______

EXPERIMENT NO. 7
Objective
To understand the concept of heat treatment and case hardening processes.

7.1 Definition
Heat treatment is a stage in the fabrication of structures and is often forgotten; but it has
perhaps more wide-reaching and important ramifications than many of the other stages in the
fabrication of structures or components.

Heat treatment may be defined as: An operation or combination of operations involving


heating and cooling of a metal/alloy in solid state to obtain desirable
1. Conditions, e.g., that of relieved stresses
2. Properties, e.g., better machinability, improved ductility, Homogeneous structure etc.

7.2 Classification of heat-treatment processes


Various heat treatment processes can be classified as
1. Annealing
a) Stress-relief annealing
b) Process annealing
c) Spheroidising (annealing)
d) Full annealing
2. Normalising
3. Hardening (by quenching)
4. Tempering
5. Martempering
6. Austempering

1
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes

7.3 purpose of heat treatment


- One or the other heat treatment process is carried out in order to
- Cause relief of internal stresses developed during cold working, welding, casting,
forging etc
- Harden and strengthen metals.
- Improve machinability.
- Change grain size.
- Soften metals for further (cold) working as in wire drawing or cold rolling.
- Improve ductility and toughness.
- Increase, heat, wear and corrosion resistance of materials.
- Improve electrical and magnetic properties.
- Homogenise the structure; to remove coring or segregation.
- Spheroidize tiny particles, such as those of Fe3C in steel, by diffusion.

7.4 Principles (fundamentals) of heat treatment


- Steel heat treatments are made possible by the eutectoid reaction in the iron-carbon
system. All basic heat-treating processes for steel involve the transformation or
decomposition of austenite.
- The nature and appearance of thus obtained transformation products develop a variety of
useful physical and mechanical properties in steels.
- Cooling rate plays an important role in the transformation of austenite to pearlite or
martensite, etc.
- Heat treatment is effective only with certain alloys (e.g., Fe-C, Aluminium bronze, etc.)
because it depends upon, one element being soluble in another in the solid state in
different amounts under different circumstances.
- The theory of heat treatment is based on the principle that an alloy experiences change in
structure when heated above a certain temperature and it undergoes again a change in
structure when cooled to room temperature. Cooling rate is an important factor in
developing different (soft or hard) structures.
- Slow cooling from above the critical range in steel will produce a pearlitic (soft) structure
whereas rapid cooling (depending upon steel composition) will give rise to a martensitic
(hard) structure.
2
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
Stages of Heat Treatment Process
1. Heating a metal/alloy to definite temperature.
2. Holding (or soaking) at that temperature for a sufficient period to allow necessary
changes (e.g., austenitizing) to occur.
3. Cooling at a rate necessary to obtain desired properties associated with changes in the
nature, form, size and distribution of micro-constituents (such as ferrite, pearlite.
martensite, etc.).

7.5 annealing
Definition
Annealing, primarily is the process of heating a metal which is in a metastable or distorted
structural state, to a temperature which will remove the instability or distortion and then
cooling is (usually at a slow rate) so that the room temperature structure is stable and/or strain
free.
Purpose
- Inducing a completely stable structure (full annealing)
- Refining and homogenising the structure.
- Reducing hardness.
- Improving machinability.
- Improving cold working, characteristics (process annealing) for facilitating further
cold work.
- Producing desired microstructure.
- Removing residual stresses.
- Removing gases.
- Improving mechanical, physical, electrical and magnetic properties.
Concept
- When applied to ferrous alloys, the term annealing, generally implies fill annealing.
- When applied to non-ferrous alloys, the term annealing implies a heat treatment
designed to soften an age-hardened alloy by causing a nearly complete precipitation
of the second phase in relatively coarse form.
- Any process of annealing will usually reduce stresses, but if the treatment is applied
for the sole purpose of such relief, it should be designated stress relieving.
(A) Stress relieving
3
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
- Stress relief annealing (or stress relieving) relieves (essentially eliminates) stresses
produced by casting, quenching, machining, cold working, welding, etc.
- Stress relief annealing applies equally well to ferrous and nonferrous metals.
- Stress relief is often desirable when a casting is liable to change dimensions to a
harmful degree during machining or use. Stresses if not relieved might later cause
warpage or even failure of the casting.
- Thermal stress relieving requires heating the casting to a temperature at which
relaxation of the elastic (residual) stress is brought about by plastic deformation
corresponding to the elastic strain.
- Stress relieving does not affect the metallurgical structures of the castings and is
essentially one of creep; the temperature required for stress relief of a casting varies
from 0.3 MP to 0.4 MP where MP is the melting point of the cast metal or alloy
- Stress relief is also known as Recovery.
(B) Process annealing
- Process annealing is usually subcritical (operation takes place below the lower critical
temperature) annealing and is applied to remove the effects of cold work, to soften
and permit further cold work as in sheet and wire industries.
- Ferrous alloys are heated to a temperature close to, but below the lower limit of the
transformation range (550-650°C), are held at that temperature and then cooled
usually in air in order to soften the alloy for further cold working as in wire drawing.
- Process annealing associates with it only partial recrystallisation of the distorted
ferrite and since mild steel contains only a small volume of strained pearlite, a high
degree of softening is induced.
- Process annealing does not involve any phase change and the constituents ferrite and
cementite remain present in the structure throughout the process.
- Process annealing is generally carried out in either batch-type or continuous furnaces,
usually with an inert atmosphere of burnt coal gas; cast-iron annealing pots may be
used, with their lids being luted on with clay.
- Fig. 7.1 shows temperatures for various heat-treating processes.

4
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes

Fig. 7.1 Heat treating temperature for carbon steel


(C) Spheroidise annealing

Fig. 7.2 Spheroidising


Spheroidise annealing or spheroidizing involves subjecting steel to a selected temperature
cycle, usually within or near the transformation range in order to produce a spheroidal or
globular form of carbide in steel (Fig. 7.2).
Spheroidizing:
- Improves machinability.
- Facilitates a subsequent cold working operation
- Obtains a desired structure for subsequent heat treatment.
- Softens tool steels and some of the air hardening alloy steels.
- Improves surface finish during machining; the steels can be machined freely.
- Prevents cracking of steel during cold forming operations.
A spheroidized steel has a lower hardness and tensile strength and a correspondingly higher
relative elongation and reduction of area than steel subjected to normal annealing.
Spheroidizing is extensively employed for high carbon (tool) steels to transform lamellar
pearlitic cementite into spheroidal type (Fig. 7.2). Cementite spheroids are embedded in a
matrix of ferrite (Fig. 7.3).
5
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes

Fig. 7.3 Spheroidized annealed (1%) steel showing spheroidized cementite in a ferrite matrix
The spheroidized condition is produced by one of the following methods:
1. Heating steel and then its prolonged holding at a temperature just below the lower
critical line (between 650 and 700°C).
- Whilst no basic phase change takes place, surface tension causes the cementite part of
pearlite to assume a globular form (Fig. 43.2), in a similar way to which droplets of
mercury behave when mercury is spilled on a flat surface.
- If some form of quenching treatment is given to steel prior to spheroidizing, the steel
will be sphroidized more quickly and will produce much smaller globules of
cementite.
- Small cementite globules tend to improve surface finish during machining and also
are dissolved more quickly when a carbon steel tool is ultimately heated for
hardening.
2. Heating and cooling steel, alternately between temperatures that are just above and
just below the lower critical line.
3. Heating to a temperature above the lower critical line (i.e., between 730-770°C) with
subsequent holding at this temperature followed by slow cooling, at a rate of 25 to
30°C per hour, to 600°C.
(D) Full annealing
Full annealing implies annealing a ferrous alloy by austenitizing (heating to austenite
condition) and then cooling slowly (in the furnace itself) through the transformation range.
The austenitizing temperature for hypoeutectoid steels is usually between 723°C (1333°F)
and 910°C (1670°F); and for hypereutecoid steels, austenitizing temperature is between
723°C (1333°F) and 1130°C (2066°F).
Full annealing, thus, involves:
- Heating steel to proper annealing temperature in the austenitic zone.
% C in steel Approx Annealing Temperatures (°C)
6
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
0.10 to 0.50 950 to 815
11.50 to 0.80 815 to 760
0.90 to 1.50 760 to 780
- Holding the steel object at that temperature for a definite period of time depending
upon its thickness or diameter (about 2.5 to 3 minute per mm thickness) so that it
becomes completely austenitic; and then
- Cooling very slowly the steel object through the transformation range, preferably in
the furnace or in any good heat-insulating material, till the object acquires a low
temperature. Because of very slow cooling involved, annealing comes close to
following the Fe-C equilibrium diagram.
Slow cooling associated with full annealing enables the austenite to decompose at low
degrees of super cooling so as to form
- A pearlite + ferrite structure in hypoeutectoid steels,
- A pearlite + cementite structure in hypereutectoid steels
Full annealing
- Refines grains.
- Removes strains (from forgings and castings)
- Induces softness and machinability.
- Improves formability.
- Improves electrical and magnetic properties.
7.6 Normalizing
Normalising or air quenching consists in heating steel to about 40-50°C above its upper
critical temperature (i.e., A3 and Acm line) and , if necessary, holding it at that temperature for
a short time and then cooling in still air at room temperature (Fig. 7.1)
Normalising differs from full annealing in that the rate of cooling is more rapid and there is
no extended soaking period.
The type of structure obtained by normalising will depend largely on the thickness of cross
section as this will affect the rate of cooling. Thin sections will give a much finer grain than
thick sections.
Normalising produces microstructures consisting of ferrite (white network) and pearlite (dark
areas) for hypoeutectoid (i.e., up to about 0.8% C) steels (Fig. 7.4).
For eutectoid steels, the microstructure is only pearlite and it is pearlite and cementite for
hypereutectoid steels.
7
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes

Fig. 7.4 Normalized 0.5%, C steel (heated to 982"C and air cooled)
Purpose
- Produces a uniform structure.
- Refines the grain size of steel, which may have been unduly coarsened at the forging
or rolling temperature.
- May achieve the required strength and ductility in steel that is too soft and ductile for
machining.
- Reduces internal stresses.
- Improves structures in welds.
- Produces a harder and stronger steel than full annealing,
- Eliminates the carbide network at the grain boundaries of hypereutectoid steels.
- In general, improves engineering properties of steels.

7.7 hardening (by quenching)


Introduction
Hardening is that heat treatment of steel which increases its hardness by quenching (and
tempering). Tools and machine parts required to undergo heavy duty service are oftenly
hardened.
- The hardening of steel requires the formation of martensite.
- Quench hardening and tempering are confined in application to the so-called heat
treatable steels (i.e., steels containing C in excess of 0.3% and, perhaps, containing alloy
additions), nodular graphite irons and alloy cast irons.
- However, in steels, the maximum % increase of hardness by quenching is obtained if they
contain between 0.35 and 0.60 % carbon.
- Hardening followed by tempering

8
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
- Hardens steel to resist wear.
- Enables steel to cut other metals.
- Improves strength, toughness and ductility.
- Develops best Combination of strength and notch-ductility.
Hardening procedure
Steel with sufficient carbon (0.35 to 0.70%), Is heated 30 to 50°C above A3 line (Fig. 7.1), Is
held at that temperature from 15 to 30 minutes per 25 mm of cross-section, Is cooled rapidly
or quenched in a suitable medium (e.g., brine, water, oil, etc), To produce desired rate of
cooling, and A suitably hardened steel.
The degree of hardness produced in steel depends upon
- Composition of steel (0.35 to 0.50% C steels harden more).
- Nature and properties of quenching medium.
- Quenching temperature.
- Size of the objective to be quenched.
- Homogeneity of austenite.
- Degree of agitation.
- Rate of cooling.
Alloying elements (e.g., Ni, Cr, Mn, etc.) when added to steel increase the depth of
hardening; they do so by slowing down the transformation rates. Thus alloy steel can be
hardened by much less drastic quenching than is necessary for plain carbon steel.
Structure of hardened steels
Depending upon the factors affecting hardness (and listed above):
1. A very rapid rate of cooling forces carbon to remain in solution and austenite
transforms to martensite.
2. Comparatively slower rate of cooling produces fine pearlie and still slower cooling
rate gives rise to coarse pearlite.
Quenching Rate Of Structure Hardness Ultimate Tensile
Media Cooling Produced Obtained Rc Strength MN/m2
Water Very fast Martensite 65 1725
Oil Low Very fine pearlite 35 1100
Air Medium Fine pearlite 25 865
Furnace Cool Very slow Coarse pearlite 15 520

9
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
Pearlite is harder than austenite (or ferrite) and martensite is harder than pearlite. This
accounts for the increased hardness of the (quenched) steel.
Quenching Medium
- A quenching medium is one into which heated metal objects are plunged in order to
withdraw heat from the objects rapidly.
- The quenching medium (for hardening) must provide for a cooling rate above the
critical value (such as curves g and e in Fig. 40.13) to prevent austenite decomposition
in the pearlite, etc.
- In the martensite transformation temperature range, cooling should be slower to avoid
high internal stresses, warping of the hardened part and cracking.

Types Quenching Media


Given below are some industrial quenching media, in order of decreasing quenching severity;
- 5 to 10% Caustic soda......very drastic quench.
- 5 to 20% Brine (NaCI).
- Cold / Warm water
- Mineral oil (Obtained during the refining of crude petroleum).
- Animal oil (Produced by boiling the blubber of seal and whale or by rendering down
other animal tissue to obtain neats foot or lard oils).
- Vegetable oil (such as linseed, cottonseed and rapeseed).
- Water is preferred when hardening plain carbon steels and oils are suitable for
quenching alloy steels and Air... ...Least drastic quench.
Quenching characteristics of (liquid) coolants are controlled by the following factors:
1. Temperature of quenching medium.
2. The specific heat (i.e., the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature one
degree per unit weight).
3. The heat of vaporization (i.e., the amount of heat necessary to vaporize unit weight)
4. Thermal conductivity of the quenching medium.
5. Viscosity (i.e., coefficient of resistance to flow, reciprocal fluidity).
6. Agitation (the rate of movement of work piece or flow of coolant).
Relative cooling rates for some quenching media

10
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
Quencing Medium Cooling rate relative to that of water at 18°C
720 to 550°C 200°C
10% Caustic soda (NaOH) 2.06 1.36
Water at 0°C 1.60 1.02
Water at 18°C 1.00 1.00
Oil (Rapseed) 0.30 0.055
Water at 100°C 0.044 0.71
Air 0.028 0.007

Quenching severity relative to still water as 1.0 for various conditions of quench.
Method of cooling Oil Water Brine
No agitation of piece or No circulation of liquid 0.25 – 0.30 0.9 – 1.0 2
Mild circulation or agitation 0.30 – 0.35 1.0 – 1.1 2 – 2.2
Good circulation 0.40 – 0.50 1.4 – 1.5
Violent circulation 0.80 – 1.10 4 5

The rate of heat transfer from a hot metallic body into the quenching fluid depends upon the
body itself, i.e., the body’s
1. Size and shape: thin section will cool fast and transform to martensite completely.
2. Temperature.
3. Thermal conductivity.
4. Specific heat.
5. Surface condition.
Stages of Quenching
Stage-l: Vapour-blanket cooling stage.
- The temperature of the metal is so high that the quenching medium is vaporized at the
surface of the metal and a thin stable film of vapour surrounds the hot metal.
- Job is cooled by conduction and radiation through the gaseous film and since vapour
films are poor heat conductors, the cooling rate is relatively slow through this stage.
Stage 2: Vapour-transport cooling stage.
- This stage starts when the metal has cooled to a temperature at which the vapour film
is no longer stable.

11
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
- Vapour-blanket is broken intermittently, allowing liquid to touch the hot metal at one
instant but soon being pushed away from it by vapour bubbles. TI e bubbles escape
from the surface and the liquid touches the hot metal again.
- In the stage, since hot metal surface is wetted by the quenching liquid, violent boiling
occurs that generates bubbles on the surface of the metal being cooled.
- Very rapid cooling takes place in this stage that soon brings the metal surface
temperature below the boiling point of the liquid.
Stage-3: Liquid Cooling Stage.
- Third stage begins when surface temperature just reaches the boiling point of the
quenching liquid.
- Cooling in this stage takes place by simple convection and conduction.
- The rate of cooling decreases as the temperature of the metal falls.
- The rate of cooling is slowest in this stage.
7.8 Tempering
- Quench hardening produces structures – martensite and retained austenite.
- The martensitc formed in quench hardened steel is exceedingly brittle, hard and highly
stressed; the cracking and distortion of the hardened article is liable to occur after
quenching. For this reason, the use of steel in this condition is inadvisable except in cases
where extreme hardness is required.
- Secondly, quench hardened steel besides containing martensite has some retained
austenite too. Retained austenite is, also, an unstable phase and as it changes with time,
dimensions may alter e.g., dies may alter 0.125 mm.
- It is therefore necessary to return towards equilibrium after quench hardening, by heating
the (hardened) steel to a temperature below the lower critical temperature (A1); this is
tempering.
- Tempering requires
1. Heating hardened steel below the lower critical temperature
2. Holding it at that temperature for 3 to 5 min. for each mm of thickness or diameter;
3. Cooling the steel (in water, oil or air) either rapidly or slowly except in case of steels
susceptible to temper brittleness.
[Note: Temper brittleness is generally used to describe the notch impact intergranular
brittleness induced in some steels by slow cooling after tempering above about 600°C and
also from prolonged soaking of tough material between about 400°C and 550°C. Temper
12
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
brittleness seems to be due to the segregation of solute atoms to the grain boundaries on slow
cooling from 600°C]
Essentially the tempering reaction can be pictured as the change from carbon atoms dispersed
in the martensite to precipitated carbide particles of increasing size.
Purpose:
- Relieve residual stresses.
- Improve ductility.
- Improve toughness.
- Reduce hardness.
- Increase % elongation.
Theory of Tempering
Quench hardened steel produces structures-martensite and retained austenite. These being
unstable phases have a tendency to change to a stable structure. This change cannot take
place at room temperature because of the low mobility of atoms at this temperature. As the
temperature of hardened steel is raised (for tempering) the mobility of atoms increases and
the phases tend to pass into a stable/equilibrium condition. For this change to occur both
temperature and time are important variables, but temperature is far the more important
variable, and the time of tempering usually adopted is about one hour.
- Tempering consists of heating the hardened steel to some temperature below A1 for
about one hour to produce tempered martensite.
- Essentially the tempering mechanism/reaction can be pictured as the change from
carbon atones dispersed in the martensite to precipitated carbide particles of
increasing size Fig. 7.5 indicates a number of stages by which this change is believed
to occur
- When the fresh martensite is heated to below the critical temperature, it becomes
softer and more ductile and internal stresses are relieved. Little benefit is derived
below 150°C.
Stages of Tempering
1. At low tempering temperatures (Approx. 80-200°C) a hexagonal close-packed carbide
(called epsilon carbide) begins to form, and with this rejection of carbon the crystal
structure of martensite changes ultimately from tetragonal to the body-centered-cubic
characteristic of ferrite.

13
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes

2. The second stage at about 200 to 300°C, depending upon the steel is characterized by
transformation of the retained austenite to bainite.

Fig. 7.5 Changes in structure and hardness that accompany the tempering of eutectoid
carbon steel.

3. At low tempering temperatures (Approx. 80-200°C) a hexagonal close-packed carbide


(called epsilon carbide) begins to form, and with this rejection of carbon the crystal
structure of martensite changes ultimately from tetragonal to the body-centered-cubic
characteristic of ferrite.
4. The second stage at about 200 to 300°C, depending upon the steel is characterized by
transformation of the retained austenite to bainite.
5. During third stage from 300 to 475°C (Approx.) there is formation of (i) Fe3C
(cementite) from epsilon carbide and (ii) change from low-carbon martensite to cubic
ferrite.
6. From 450 to 705°C (Approx.) the cementite (Fe3C) agglomerates and coalesces. The
structure becomes an aggregate of ferrite with cementite in quite fine spheres, referred
to as tempered martensite and tempered bainite.

14
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes

Fig. 7.6 Quench hardening and tempering cycle.


Tempering may be classified into following types:
1. Low temperature tempering
- This treatment is carried out in the temperature range from 150 to 250°C
- Internal stresses are reduced.
- Toughness and ductility get increased without any appreciable loss in hardness.
- The structure still contains martensite.
- Low temperature tempering is applied to cutting tools of carbon steels and low alloy
steels and to the components that are surface hardened and carburized.
2. Medium Temperature Tempering
- Medium temperature tempering is carried out in the temperature range from 350°C to
450°C.
- This treatment develops troostite structure.
- With this treatment, hardness and strength of steels decrease, while % elongation and
ductility increase.
- Medium temperature tempering imparts to steels the highest (attainable) elastic limit
with sufficient toughness.
- Medium temperature tempering is applied to objects such as coil, springs, laminated
springs, hammers, chisels, etc.
3. High Temperature Tempering
High temperature tempering is carried out in the temperature range from 500°C to 650°C.
High temperature tempering:
- Eliminates internal stresses completely,
- Imparts high ductility in conjunction with adequate hardness, and

15
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
- Is used for components such as (i) Connecting rods, (ii) Shafts, (iii) Gears, etc.
Temper Colours
Temp., °C Colour Type of Component
220 Pale yellow Hack saws, scrapers.
230 Straw Planning and slotting tools.
240 Dark straw Shear blades, drills, paper cutters.
250 Light brown Metal shears, punches, dies.
270 Purple Axes, gimlets, augers.
280 Deeper purple Cold chisels (for steel & C.I.) chisel for woods
290 Bright blue Screw drivers
300 Dark blue Springs, wood saws.
- The tempering of quenched steel, in fact, is sometimes controlled by observation of
the temper colours (e.g. straw at 230"C, blue at 300°C, etc.) produced on the clean
(steel) metal surface when heated.
- Temper colours are produced due to interference effects of thin films of oxide formed
during tempering.
7.9 Interrupted quenching
The continuous rapid cooling (Quenching) to room temperature ordinarily used to cause
martensite formation has the disadvantages of
- Setting up severe quenching stresses. (which are the result of contraction during cooling
and expansion caused by martensite)
- warping and distorting the object, and
- Promoting crack formation in the steel.
If instead of rapid cooling, slow air cooling is employed, definitely the quenching stresses
will become minimum, but one will have to go for steel with sufficient hardenability to form
martensite on air cooling; and such steels, i.e., air hardening steels are expensive.
In other words, to obtain desired hardness in a given object either one should select a less
costly steel, rapidly cool it and take the risk of creating severe quenching stresses or one
should go for expensive air hardening steel and decrease the stresses by cooling the steel in
air.
For example, air hardening steels are selected in making complex dies for which preliminary
machining cost is high therefore it is economical to protect the investment in machining

16
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
operations by using an air hardening steel that can be hardened with a minimum danger of
developing stresses, distortion or cracking.
One more, comparatively less costlier, alternative to achieve the desired hardness with
reduced stresses is to use steels of moderate hardenability and subjecting them to an
interrupted Quenching Procedure.
Interrupted quenching is a two-stage process. The piece is first quenched in a medium which
cools it rapidly past the nose of the TTT diagram (Fig. 7.7).
After that, the piece is further quenched in a second medium which cools it rapidly enough
(but much more slowly than the first medium) to avoid the bainite transformation.
The most generally useful type of interrupted quenching is called Martempering.

7.10 Martempering

In Martempering, steel is
1. Heated to above the critical range to make it all austenite; is then
2. Quenched into a salt bath maintained at a temperature above the Ms and is held at this
temperature long enough until the temperature is uniform across the section of the
workpiece (i.e., from surface to core) without transformation of the austenite; and
3. subsequently cooling the workpiece in air through the martensite range (Fig. 7.7).

Fig. 7.7 Martempering and Austempering


- The result is the formation of martensite with a minimum of stresses, distortion and
cracking.
- The steel thus obtained may be further tempered in order to increase ductility.

17
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
- Large sections cannot be heat treated by martempering because the time required to
obtain temperature uniformity (of workpiece surface and its core) exceeds the start of
transformation of austenite into bainite.
- Actually, in practice, in order to utilize benefits of martempering, alloying elements
are added to steel. Otherwise the critical cooling rate is too fast and the benefits of the
martensite hardness cannot be realized in parts that are large or even medium in size.

7.11 Austempering
- Austempering is not a hardening treatment.
- Austempering is another type of interrupted quenching, that forms Bainite (and not
martensite). In structure and properties, however, the bainite thus formed closely
resembles tempered martensite.
- In general, steels treated thus are tougher and more ductile than steels of tempered
martensite having equal hardness and tensile strength.
- Fig. 7.7. Shows the austempering process.
- However, a major limitation is that size is restricted to relatively thin selections so
that the entire piece can quickly attain the temperature of quenching bath.
- For steels of high hardenability, larger sections can be used.
- An additional disadvantage is the relatively long time required for the isothermal
transformation of austenite to bainite.
- Tempering is rarely needed after austempering.
Austempering consists in
- heating the steel above the critical range to make it all austenite; is then
- quenched at a critical cooling rate into a salt bath or lead bath held in the bainite range
(usually between 205°C and 425°C);
- the steel piece remains in the bath until the austenite is completely transformed to
bainite and then it is
- Allowed to cool to room temperature, the rate being immaterial.
Advantages of Austempering
- Greater ductility and toughness (impact strength) along with high hardness.
- Less distortion.
- Less danger of quenching cracks because the quench is not very drastic.

18
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
7.12 Case hardening and surface treatment processes
Introduction
Numerous industrial applications such as cams, gears, etc., require a hard wear resistant
surface called the case and a relatively soft, tough and shock resistant inside, called the core.
No plain carbon steel can possess both these requirements at the same time; because a low
carbon steel, containing about 0.1% carbon, will be tough, whilst a high carbon steel of 0.9%
or more carbon will possess adequate hardness when suitably heat treated.
However, both these requirements may be met by employing a low carbon steel with suitable
core properties and then adding (or penetrating) Carbon, Nitrogen or both to the surface of
the steel part in order to provide a hardened case (or layer) of a definite depth. These
treatments are known as Case Hardening.
The processes used to create hardened cases are:
1. Carburizing 3. Cyaniding
2. Nitriding 4. Carbonitriding

Another method to obtain tough core and hard case in a steel part is to take medium carbon
steel in the normalized condition and then introduce local hardness at the surface by some
hardening processes such as.
3. Flame hardening.
4. Induction hardening.
Surface treatments involve applying coatings to the surface of metals/alloys in order to
- Improve corrosion, heat or wear resistance,
- Rebuild worn or undersized parts,
- Serve as an ornamental finish,
- Lengthen the useful life of a part manufactured from a low cost material having
surface characteristics unsuited for a given installation.
Coatings may be broadly classified as
(a) Metallic coatings obtained by
- Hot dipping - Impregnating - Facing
- Electroplating - Spraying - Cladding
(b) Non-metallic coatings, which include
- Oxide coating - Vitreous enamel coating.
- Phosphate coating
19
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes

7.13 Carburizing
Carburizing is a method of introducing, carbon into solid iron-ha ,r alloys such as low carbon
steels in order to produce a hard case (surface). Carburizing is also called cementation.
- Carburizing increases the carbon content of the steel surface by it process of
absorption and diffusion.
Process
- Low carbon steel (about 0.20% carbon or lower) is heated at 87() l 925°C in contact
with gaseous, solid or liquid carbon containing sub stances for several hours.
- The high carbon steel surface (thus obtained) is hardened by quenching from above
the AI temperature.
Characteristics
- Case depth is about 0.05 inch (1.27 mm).
- Hardness after heat treatment is Re 65.
- Carburizing causes negligible change in dimensions.
- Distortion may occur during heat treatment.
Uses:
In the case hardening of Gears, Camshafts, Bearings.
Methods
There are three general methods of carburizing, depending upon the form of the carburizing
medium, namely
A. Pack Carburizing employing solid carburizing medium.
B. Gas Carburizing employing suitable hydro-carbon gases
C. Liquid Carburizing employing fused baths of carburizing salt
The choice of a particular method out of the three listed above depends upon:
1. The characteristics of the case which are desired,
2. The equipment available,
3. The quantity of parts which is to be handled.
A. Pack Carburizing
Pack carburizing involves packing the components into cast iron or eel boxes along with the
carburizing material so that a space of approximately 50 mm exists between the components.

20
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
Carburizing medium consists essentially of wood, or bone charcoal or charred leather,
together with an energizer (a mixture of sodium carbonate and barium carbonate) which may
account for up to 40% of the total composition.
The energizer accelerates the carburizing process.
After the components and the carburizing medium have been packed in the boxes, the lids are
luted on to them and the boxes are then slowly hated to the carburizing temperature, between
900 and 950°C, and then kept at that temperature up to five hours depending upon the depth
of case desired. When carburizing is complete, the parts are quenched or cooled slowly in the
boxes, depending upon the nature of the subsequent heat-treatment to be applied.
Fig. 7.1 shows the relationship between Time and Temperature of carburizing treatment and
the depth of case produced.

Fig. 7.1 Relationship between depth of case, carburizing temperature and time of treatment.

Fig. 7.2 schematic diagram of pack carburizing process

21
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
The mechanism by which carburization proceeds involves following stages:
1. Formation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the box containing carburizing material when
heated to between 900 and 950°C.
2. Dissociation of CO with the evolution of atomic carbon
2CO  CO2 + C atm
3. Enrichment of the steel surface layer with carbon
2CO + 3Fe  Fe3C + CO2
(CO2 thus liberated reacts with the carburizing material to form more CO at the
expense of the charcoal)
Although the reaction may be represented in this manner, in this manner carbon is not
in the form of iron carbide, but instead is in the form of elemental carbon dissolved in
gamma iron, forming austenite.
4. Diffusion of carbon, absorbed by the steel surface, deep into the metal. The rate of
diffusion of carbon in austenite, at a given temperature, is dependent upon the
diffusion coefficient and the carbon concentration gradient. Of course the higher the
temperature, the more rapidly carbon will be diffused.
If it is desired to prevent any area of a component from being carburized, that area
1. May be electroplated with copper to a thickness of 0.075-0.10 mm because carbon is
insoluble in copper at the carburizing temperature;
2. Should be coated with a mixture of fireclay and ignited asbestos made into a paste
with water and then allowed to dry on the surface before the component is carburized.
B. Gas Carburizing
Principles
- Gas carburizing can be applied in mass production. It is readily adaptable to all types and
configurations of steel parts in either batch or continuous operation.
- In gas carburizing, components are heated at about 900°C for three or four hours in an
atmosphere containing gases which will deposit carbon atoms at the surface of the
components.
- The most commonly used atmosphere for gas carburizing consists of approximately 20%
CO, 40% hydrogen and 40% Nitrogen.
- This endothermic atmosphere is applied both as a source of carbon from CO and as a
carrier gas to dilute hydrocarbon gas such as methane (or propane) which is used both as
a source of carbon and to control 'ace chemical reactions.
22
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
- The gaseous atmosphere can be generated as follows: A neutral carrier gas is first
prepared by burning town gas with the correct amount of air to give complete
combustion. The resulting combustion gases are cooled and passed over silica gel to
remove water vapours. CO2 is removed by passing over heated coke or charcoal at
1000°C or by absorption in an organic solvent such as ethanolamine or tetramine.
- The product thus left, which is mainly CO, N, and H2 is termed the carrier gas and a
proportion of propane or butane or methane is added to it to give the necessary
carburizing mixture.
- Gas carburizing requires specially designed atmosphere-tight furnace capable of
maintaining a positive pressure of atmosphere to prevent the infiltration of air. Furnace is
provided with a fan to circulate the atmosphere throughout the heating chamber.
- Following major reactions take place during the process of Gas carburizing.

3Fe + 2CO 
Fe3C + CO2

Fe3C + 2H2 
3Fe + CH4
3Fe + CO + H2 Fe3C + H2O

CO2 + CH4 
CO + 2H2

CH4 + 3Fe 
Fe3C + 2H2
- By suitable adjustment of time, temperature and gas composition, the case depth can be
varied to suit the work in hand.
- The depths of case vary from 0.25 mm on articles for light work, 0.5-1.0 mm for much
automobile work, to 0.37 mm for roller bearings and ball races where compressive
stresses are high.
Advantages of Gas Carburizing
- Pack carburizing cannot be accurately controlled with regard to case depth and it
requires considerable labour in the packing, loading and unpacking of boxes. Gas
carburizing eliminates these handicaps and in addition eliminates pack material,
which results in more favourable heat treatment economies.
- Labour costs are lower than in pack carburizing.
- Heating is more rapid and uniform than in pack carburizing.
- The carbon potential can be closely controlled.
- Less time is required than pack carburizing, since there is no need to pack and handle
boxes containing workpieces to be treated. For the same reason, the floor space
required is less.
23
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
- Gas carburizing provides cleaner surroundings, closer quality control and greater
flexibility of operation in comparison with pack carburizing.
- Gas carburizing may be feasibly mechanised.
Disadvantages of Gas Carburizing
- As compared to pack carburizing, higher skilled personnel arc required to maintain
the necessary controls.
C. Liquid carburizing
Principles
- Carburizing in liquid baths is of comparatively recent origin and is an outgrowth of the
older process of cyaniding.
- Liquid carburizing is employed principally for relatively shallow cases (0.104.25 mm)
which can be produced at lower cost by this process than with pack or gas carburizing.
- Liquid carburizing is carried out in baths containing 20 to 50% Sodium Cyanide, together
with up to 40% Sodium carbonate and varying amounts of Sodium or Barium Chloride.
- This cyanide-rich mixture is heated to a temperature of 870-950°C and the workpieces
contained in wire baskets are immersed into the liquid bath for periods varying from
about 5 minutes to one hour, depending, upon the depth of case required.
- The following chemical reaction perhaps occurs in liquid carburizing
2NaCN + 2O2  Na2CO3 + 2N + CO
- Dissociation of CO at the steel surface then takes place with the same result as in pack-
carburizing.
- Moreover, nitrogen, in atomic form, also dissolves in the surface and produces an
increase in hardness by the formation of nitrides.
- Thus in liquid carburizing, like cyaniding (or carbonitriding) both C and N are added
to the steel surface.
- However, liquid carburizing may be distinguished from Cyaniding by the character
and composition of the case produced.
- In cyaniding, case is higher in nitrogen and lower in carbon; the reverse is true in
liquid carburizing.
- Cyanide cases are seldom to a depth greater than 0.25 mm; liquid carburizing permits
cases as deep as 6.25 mm.
Advantages of liquid carburizing:
Liquid carburizing offers advantages of
24
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
- Rapid heat transfer
- Low distortion
- Negligible surface oxidation or decarburization
- Rapid absorption of carbon and nitrogen
- Uniform case depth and carbon content
- Reduced time for steel to reach the carburizing temperature.
- Flexibility to handle a wide range of parts of varied design and varied case depths.
Disadvantages of liquid carburizing
- Cyanide salts are highly poisonous when taken internally (even as fumes) or when in
contact with open wounds.
- Molten cyanide explodes on contact with water, so all work should be dried carefully
before it is placed in the liquid bath.
- Parts need thorough washing after treatment to prevent rusting.
Applications
- Gas carburizing is particularly suitable for mass production of thin cases in small and
medium size parts.
Heat treatment after carburizing
- Because of prolonged heating at a high temperature in the carburizing operation, both
the core and the case exhibit overheated structures, which are unsatisfactory for
severe service. The carburized parts are therefore heat-treated
1. To refine the core.
2. To refine and harden the case.
- To refine the grain of the core and consequently toughening it, the part is heated to just
above its upper critical temperature (about 870°C for the core) when the coarse ferrite-
pearlite structure will be replaced by refined austenite crystals. The component is then
water or oil quenched to give a fine dispersion of ferrite in martensite.
- Then, for refining the case, the component is again heated to about 760°C so that the
coarse martensite of the case changes to fine grained austenite. Quenching then gives a
fine-grained martensite in the case.
- Finally, the component is tempered at about 200°C to relieve any quenching strains
present in the case.
- The above treatments, are highly desirable from a theoretical approach, but generally the
heat treatment of a case-harden, it steel is modified as under:
25
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
1. Component may be quenched direct from the carburizing temperature and then given
a low temperature tempering to remove quenching strains. This treatment serves well
in case of steels with slow grain growth at the carburizing temperature.
2. Component may be slowly cooled from the carburizing temperature and then reheated
to 760°C and water quenched.This treatment will give a soft ductile core and hard
case. OR
3. Component may be slowly cooled from the carburizing temperature, reheated to
820°C, water quenched and then tempered at 200°C to give a fairly (not maximum)
tough core and hard case.

Case hardening of steels


Composition, characteristics and uses of a few case hardening steels are given below:
Composition Characteristics and uses
1. 0.1% C, 0.8% Mn Max. Toughness of core. Machine parts requiring shock
resisting properties.
2. 0.17% C, 0.7% Mn Very hard surface and a tough core. Gears, shafts, cams etc.
3. 0.25%C, 0.5% Mn High duty ball and roller bearings.
4. 0.15% C, 0.5% Mn, For combined hardness and toughness as in gear wheels,
3.0% Ni crank pins etc.
5. 0.15% C, 0.4% Mn, Parts requiring a glass hard surface and toughness of core-
3.5% Ni, 0.8% Cr high duty gears, worm gears, clutch gears, crown wheels etc.
6. 0.15% C, 0.4% Mn, For a combination of surface hardness, stress-bearing and
4.0% Ni, 1.2% Cr shock resisting properties. Used for crown wheels, bevel
pins, aero reduction gears etc.

7.14 Nitriding
Nitriding accompanies the introduction of nitrogen into the surface of certain types of steels
(e.g., containing Al and Cr) by heating it and holding it at a suitable temperature in contact
with partially dissociated ammonia or other suitable medium. This process produces a hard
case without quenching or any further at treatment.
Process Characteristics
- Case depth is about 0.381 mm.

26
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
- Extreme hardness (Vickers 1100),
- Growth of 0.025-0.050 mm occurs during nitriding.
- Case has improved corrosion resistance.
Uses:
- Valve seats - Aircraft engine parts
- Guides - Aero engine cylinderst
- Gears - Crank pins and journals
- Gauges - Moulds for plasters
- Bushings - Aero crankshafts, air screw shafts
- Ball races
Table shows that steels suitable for nitriding must contain such alloying elements as Al, Cr
and V to form hard nitrides because iron nitride does not confer hardness to any extent.

Heat-treatment temp (°C) Tensile


Hardne (VPN)
Composition (%) strength
Oil quench Tempering ss core case
(N/mm2)
1 C 0.39, Cr 1.6Mo 0.2, Al 1.1 900 650 880 269 1050
2 C 0.39, Cr 3.2,Mo 1.0, V 0.12 940 625 1310 380 900
3 C 0.5, Cr 1.3,Mo 1.0, Ni 1.8 870 620 1450 - 700
4 C 0.2, Mn 0.45,Cr 3.0, Mo 0.4 900 600 – 700 772 - 800 – 850
5 C 0.3, Mn 0.45,Cr 3.0, Mo 0.4 900 600 – 700 1000 - 800 – 850
C 0.4, Mn 0.5, Cr 3.0,Mo 1.0, V
6 900 550 – 650 1390 - 850 – 900
0.25
C 0.35, Mn 0.5, Cr 2.0,Mo 0.25, V
7 900 600 – 700 741 - 750 - 800
0.15
Nitriding process
Before being nitrided, the components are heat treated to produce the required
properties in the core. The normal sequences of operations are:
1. Oil quenching from between 850 and 900°C followed by tempering at between 600
and 700°C.
2. Rough machining followed by a stabilizing anneal at 550°C for five hours to remove
internal stresses.
3. Finish machining, followed by nitriding.

27
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes

Fig 7.3 principle of nitriding process


- The components are placed in a heat-resistant metal container which is then filled
with ammonia whilst cold. When it is completely purged, it is sealed, placed in a
furnace and raised to a temperature of approximately 500°C.
- At this temperature the ammonia dissociates.
- NH3  3H + N, and N is absorbed in the surface layer of steel.
- Parts are maintained at 500°C for between 40 to 100 hours (40 hours for 025 mm and
100 hours for 0.75 ntm case depth, (approximate values)) depending upon the depth
of case required; after which the parts are allowed to cool in the container.
Advantages of Nitriding
- Very high surface hardness of the order of 1150 VPN may be obtained.
- Since nitrided parts are not quenched, this minimizes distortion or cracking.
- Good corrosion and wear resistance.
- Good fatigue resistance.
- Whereas in a carburized part, hardness begins to fall at about 200°C, a nitrided part
retains hardness up to 500°C.
- No machining is required after nitriding.
- Some complex parts which are not carburized satisfactorily can be nitrided without
difficulty.
- The process is economical when large numbers of parts are to be treated.
Disadvantages of Nitriding
- Long cycle times (40 to 100 hours).
- The brittle case.
- Only special alloy steels (containing Al, Cr and V) can be satisfactorily treated.
28
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
- High cost of the nitriding process.
- Technical control required.
- If a nitrided component is accidentally overheated, the surface hardness will be lost
completely and the component must be nitrided again.

7.15 Cyaniding
In cyaniding, carbon and nitrogen are introduced into the surface of steeI by heating it to a
suitable temperature and holding it in contact with molten cyanide to form a thin skin or case
which is subsequently quench hardened.
Characteristics of the process
- Case depth is about 0.25 mm.
- Hardness is about Re 65.
- Negligible dimension change is caused by cyaniding.
- Distortion may occur during heat treatment.
Uses
- Screws
- Nuts and bolts
- Small gears
- Plain carbon or alloy steels containing about 0.20% C usually hardened by cyaniding
Process
- Low carbon steel is heated between 800 and 870°C in a molten sodium cyanide bath
for a period of between 30 min and 3 hour, depending upon the depth of case
required.
- Quenching in oil or water from this bath hardens the surface of steel.
- In cyaniding, the bath usually-contains 30% NaCN, 40% Na2CO3 and 30% NaCl.
- This mixture has a melting point of 1140°F (615.6°C) and remains to stable under
continuous operating conditions.
- This mixture, when used at temperatures ranging from 787 to 898°C, composes to
free carbon and nitrogen which are then absorbed into the steel to form a hardened
carbide-nitride case.

2NaCN + 2O2 
Na2CO3 + CO + 2N
2CO CO2 + C
2NaCN +O2 2NaCNO (Sod. cyanate)
29
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes

NaCN + CO2 
NaCNO + CO
3NaCNO NaCN + Na2CO3 + C + 2N
- In order to obtain hardness after cyaniding, it is necessary to quench directly into oil
or water from the cyaniding bath.
- In cyaniding, nitrogen imparts inherent hardness, whereas the increased carbon
content makes the surface of steel respond to a quenching treatment.
- Probably the greatest use of cyaniding is for parts that arc to be subjected to relatively
light loads and that require improvement in the surface-wear resistance.

7.16 Carbonitriding
- Cases (surfaces) that contain both carbon and nitrogen are whereas produced by liquid
salt baths in cyaniding, they are produced by the use of gas atmospheres in
carbonitriding.
- Carbonitriding implies introducing carbon and nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by
holding above Act in an atmosphere that contains suitable gases such as hydrocarbon,
carbon monoxide and ammonia.
- The carbonitrided alloy is usually quench-hardened.
- Metals Usually Hardened by Carbonitriding. Plain carbon steels containing about
0.20% carbon.
Process characteristics
- Case depth is about 0.5 mm.
- Hardness after heat treatment Re 65.
- Negligible dimensional changes.
- Distortion is less than in carburizing or cyaniding.
Uses: Carbonitriding mostly uses for Gears, Nuts, Bolts
Process
Carbonitriding is a modification of gas carburizing process because anhydrous ammonia gas
is added to the furnace atmosphere to cause both Carbon and Nitrogen to be absorbed by the
surface of steel at the carbonitriding temperature.
- The atmospheres used in carbonitriding usually comprise a mixture of carrier gas,
enriching gas (about 5%) and ammonia (about 15%).

30
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes

Fig 7.4 principle of carbonitriding process


The carrier gas is usually a mixture of nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced in
an endothermic generator, as in gas carburizing. The carrier gas is supplied to the furnace
under positive pressure to prevent air infiltration and acts as a diluent for the active gases
(hydrocarbons and ammonia), thus making the process easier to control.
The enriching gas is usually propane or natural gas and is the primary source for the carbon
added to the surface.
At the furnace temperature, the added ammonia breaks up to provide the nitrogen to the
surface of the steel.
Carbonitriding is carried out at lower temperatures than gas carburizing. The temperature
range from 650 to 885°C with 845°C being most common. Low carbon steel is heated at this
temperature for several hours in the gaseous atmosphere discussed above.
Nitrogen in the surface layer of steel increases hardenability and permits hardening by oil
quench (instead by water quench) and thus reduces distortion and minimizes danger of
cracking.
Since nitrogen increases the hardenability, carbonitriding the less expensive carbon steels for
many applications will provide properties equivalent to those obtained in gas carburized alloy
steels.

7.17 Flame hardening


Principle
1. Rapid heating of the surface of heat-treatable steel by means of a flame, to a
temperature within or above transformation range (austenite range).
2. Followed immediately by quenching (Fig. 7.5). The highly heated surfaces became
hard but the core remains soft and tough.
31
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes

Fig. 7.5 principle of flame hardening


- Objects are heated by an oxyacetylene flame.
- Steels having 0.3 to 0.6% carbon are hardened by flame hardening. Small amounts of
nickel (up to 4%) and chromium (up to 1%) can be added with advantage.
- Flame hardening is essentially a shallow hardening method.
- Depth of the hardened zone may be controlled by an adjustment of the flame
intensity, heating time or speed of travel.
- Overheating may result in cracks after quenching.
- The heating time is 7y2 seconds (where y is the depth of the hardens, I layer in mm);
the torch is traversed along with the work-piece (or vice versa) at a speed of 72/y mm
per second.
Equipment
- A flame hardening unit comprises the source of acetylene supply, an oxygen plant,
quenching devices, hardening control desk, instruments and set of torches and tips. A
torch may have single flame, slit type or multiple flame tips.
Methods
Four methods are in general use for flame hardening.
1. Stationary. Both workpiece and torch are stationary. This method is used for spot
hardening of small parts, e.g., valve stems and open end wrenches.
2. Progressive. Torch moves over stationary workpiece. Large parts such as the guide
ways of lathes can be hardened by this method. This technique is also suitable for
hardening teeth of large gears.
3. Spinning. Torch is stationary while the workpiece rotates. The method hardens
circular parts such as precision gears, pulley etc.
4. Progressive Spinning. Torch moves over a rotating workpiece. Long shafts and rolls
are hardened by this method.
32
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
- Before hardening by any of the above methods, the work piece. Is generally
normalized, so that the final structure will consist of a martensite case about 3.75 mm
thick and a tough ferrite pearlite core.
- After hardening (i.e., quenching) the workpiece should be stress relieved by heating in
the range of 180 to 205°C and then cooling in air. Stress relieving does not
appreciably reduce surface hardness.
Advantages
- Flame hardening is a useful and economical method of surface hardening.
- The hardened zone is generally much deeper than that obtained by carburizing; it
ranges from 3 to 6 mm in depth.
- Thinner cases (about 1.5 mm) can be obtained by increasing the speed of heating and
quenching.
- Large machine parts can be surface hardened economically.
- Surfaces can be selectively hardened with minimum warping and with freedom from
quench cracking.
- Flame hardening is easily adaptable and involves portable equipment.
- Electronically controlled equipment provides precise control of case properties.
- Flame hardening can treat workpieces even after their surfaces have been finished,
because there is little sealing, decarburization or distortion.
Disadvantages
- To obtain optimum results, a technique of flame hardening must be established for
each design.
- Overheating can damage the components.
- It is difficult to produce hardened zones less than 1.5 mm in depth.
Applications
- Ways of lathes - Worms - Pulleys
- Spindles - Open end - Mill rolls, etc.
- Teeth of gears wrenches
- Valve stems - Shafts

7.18 Induction hardening

33
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
The danger of either overheating or burning the surface of the metal by flame hardening may
be avoided by inducing heat electrically in the surface of the metal. Induction hardening
involves:
- Heating medium carbon steel by means of an alternating magnetic field to a temperature
within or above the transformation range (the hardening temperature is about 750 to
800°C). Followed immediately by quenching.
- This process may be applied for both surface hardening and full annealing.
- The principle of induction hardening is similar to that employed in the induction melting
of steels by the high frequency induction process in which heat is produced by currents
induced in the metal charge itself.
- Heat generated in the metal by induction is mostly confined to the outer surface of the
component to be induction hardened.
- The higher the frequency of current, the closer the heat is to the surface of the component.
At 50 cycles/second, the effective current flow through a surface layer of about 7.5 mm
deep, whilst at 10,000 cycle/second, the surface layer is reduced to 0.5 mm deep.
Procedure
High frequency currents are generated using
- Motor generators with frequencies of 1,000 to 10,000 cycles/second and capacities to
10,000 kW.
- Spark gap oscillators with frequencies of 100,000 to 400,000 cycles/second and
capacities to 25 kW.
- Vacuum-tube oscillators operating at 500,000 cycles per second with output
capacities of 20 to 50 kW.
The component part to be induction hardened (i.e., heated) is placed in the so called Inductor
or Inductor coil or Work coil (Fig. 7.6).
- Inductor coil comprises one or several turns of copper tube or busbar and is water
cooled. When high frequency (alternating) current is passed through the inductor coil,
it sets up a magnetic field (the intensity of which varies periodically in magnitude and
direction).
- As the alternating magnetic lines thread through the surface of the component (being
heated) placed in the inductor coil, they induce in component's surface an alternating
current of the same frequency but reversed in direction. Heating results from the
resistance of the metal (of the component) to passage of these currents.
34
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
- The high frequency induced currents tend to travel at the surface of the metal. This is
known as skin effect.

Fig. 7.6 Operation of induction hardening

- The component is held stationary in the inductor coil and the whole of the surface of
the component is heated simultaneously. The temperature of the surface layer rises to
above its upper critical temperature (the hardening temperature is about 755°C for a
0.5% carbon steel approximate values i.e., austenite range) in a few seconds.
- The surface of the component (after it has been heated to the required temperature) is
then quenched by pressure jets of water which pass through the holes existing in the
inductor block (Fig. 7.6). As after flame hardening, the induction hardened
component also needs be stress relieved.
Advantages
- Time required for hardening a component is sharply reduced. The heating time varies
between 1 and 5 seconds.
- It can be applied to both external and internal surfaces.
- Components may be heated with practically no scaling and distortion.
- Higher hardness can be' obtained in a given (%C) steel than with thermal heating.
- A hardness of about 60 Re may be obtained in certain types of steels to a depth of
about 3 mm.
- Through proper design of the heating coils, the shape of the hardened portion can be
controlled very closely.
35
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
- Depth of hardening can be controlled by selecting current of appropriate frequency
Frequency, cycles/second 1000 4000 10,000 120,000 500,000
Depth of hardening (mm) 6.0 3.0 2.5 1.5 0.751'
- Hard case and tough core is obtained.
- Induction hardening process can be made nearly automatic so that it can be carried out
with unskilled labour.
Disadvantages
- Cost of equipment is high.
- Steels having less than 0.40% carbon cannot be induction hardened.
- Irregular shaped components cannot be handled easily and economically.
- It is beneficial in mass production only.
- It associates high maintenance costs.
- Before induction hardening the component needs some treatment, e.g., normalising.
Applications
Typical parts hardened by this method are
- Piston rods - Camshafts - Automobile parts
- Crankshafts - Spur gears
- Pump shafts - Cams

7.19 Clad coating (metal cladding)


- A clad metal is a composite metal containing two or three layers that have been
bonded together. The bonding may have been accomplished by rolling, welding,
casting, heavy chemical deposition or heavy electroplating.
- Cladding is the method by which coating (or layer of another material) becomes an
integral part of base metal. The base metal gets sandwiched between pieces of the
coating metal.
- Cladding may be done on one or both surfaces of the base medal However, two layer
combinations are most common.
- In cladding, the surface coating exceeds about 3% of the total mass of the base metal.
Purpose of cladding
1. To obtain the properties of the cladding (coating) in the bars material at lower cost.

36
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
2. To obtain a combination of properties not available in either metal alone. For example
in copper-clad steel wire, copper exterior provides high electrical conductivity and
good corrosion resistance, while the steel core provides high tensile strength.
3. The principal objective for cladding is to produce a corrosion resistant surface. For
example Alclad is the name applied to aluminium alloys which are clad with pure
aluminium to improve corrosion resistance.
4. Cladding is also employed for making bimetal strips for temperature control devices.
Available forms
Clad metals are available in strip, sheet, foil, plate, wire, rod, tube form etc.
Methods of cladding
1. Rolling
a) Roll bonding, cold
b) Roll bonding, Hot
Cladded duralumin is obtained by placing the duralumin ingot between two sheets of
pure aluminium and rolling this pack (or sandwich together). This pack is hot rolled to
a thickness of 6 mm and then cold rolled with intermediate process annealing
operations.
2. Extrusion. This method is used for making tubing. Mechanical assemblies (or
electroplated metals) are extruded together.
3. Continuous brazing. In this method the brazing alloy distributed between strips is
fused as strips are continuously heated and rolled.
4. Casting. This method consists of one metal being cast against another, generally by
centrifugal casting process.
5. Welding. In this method, one material is deposited on the other and it may be rolled
afterwards.
6. Explosive bonding. Here the detonation action of a sheet of explosive drives the base
metal and coating metal together and bonds them. This method has made available
titanium, nickel and stainless clad steel in large plates.
Applications for clad metals
Cladding Base metal Applications
1. Copper Stainless steel To improve thermal properties for
heaters and heat exchangers.
2. Pure aluminium Wrought Reflectors, cooking utensils, chemical
37
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
aluminium (Alclad) equipment, marine applications.
3. Stainless steel Carbon and low For improved corrosion resistance of
alloy steel storage and mixing tanks and process
equipment.
4. Stainless Steel Aluminium Cookware, automotive trim and
chemical process vessels.
5. Titanium Steel Chemical process equipment.
6. Silver Unlimited variety For use as an electrical contact.
7. High chrome carbide Carbon and low Wear plates in chutes, conveyors and
stainless steel alloy steel earth-moving equipment.
7.20 Faced coatings
Metal facing or hard surfacing is the operation of welding metal to the surface of a part in
order to:
1. Improve abrasion, corrosion or heat resistance of the surface;
2. Improve resistance to wear, erosion, galling, cavitation and chemical reactions;
3. Rebuild worn or eroded parts.
Facing materials
1. High carbon and high alloy steels.
2. Cobalt and Nickel-base alloys.
3. Carbides of tungsten, tantalum and boron mounted in suitable alloy binders to
increase their toughness.
4. Copper base alloys, etc.
Base metals
Almost any steel or cast iron, but usually a medium carbon steel.
Surfacing methods
1. Oxyacetylene process. It is used where it is necessary to achieve a surface with the
minimum of required finishing. It is especially good in applying crack-free
applications of non-ferrous alloys.
Tungsten carbide particles are put in a mild steel tube and in the tube melts under the
flame, the tungsten carbide particles become fused to the surface in a matrix of mild
steel.
2. Inert gas process. It is used where a flawless deposit is required, mainly on new
construction.
38
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
3. Atomic hydrogen process. It is preferred where a large mass of metal requires a
small overlay of hard surface.
4. Submerged arc process. It is used where, in large quantities the facing material is to
be deposited.
5. Manual metal arc process. It is quick, economical, easily adaptable and the one most
frequently used for short jobs.
6. Plasma arc process. Because of its very high temperatures, this process greatly
extends the capabilities of surfacing.

Applications
Metal Coating Thickness Applications
1. Resistance to wear
- Molybdenum 0.25 mm Splined shaft (53 mm dia.)
- Babbit 1.00 mm Refrigeration pistons 990 mm dia.)
2. Resistance to corrosion
- Aluminium 0.20 mm Bridge dams.
- Zinc 0.20 mm Overhead crane.
3. Resistance to corrosion and wear
- Monel 1.0 mm Turbine shaft (100 mm dia.)
- Phosphor bronze 1.0 mm Gas compressed piston (380 mm dia.)
4. Resistance to heat and corrosion
- Aluminium 0.15 mm Exhaust stack in chemical plants
- Nikrome and Al (separate Layer) 0.50 mm Lead-annealing pans.

References
1. Material Science and Metallurgy by O. P. Khanna

39
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Heat Treatment Processes
Questionnaire
1. Define heat treatment. List various objectives of heat treatment.
2. Explain what you understand by the following regarding heat-treatment of steel: (i)
Lower critical temperature (ii) upper critical temperature (Ui) critical range.
3. Write short notes on important factors in the heat-treatment of steel.
4. Give definition, purposes and process for the following heat-treatment operations for
steel: (i) Annealing (Ii) Normalising.
5. Distinguish between normalising and annealing in the following respect: (i)
Temperature for heating (ii) Heating and soaking time (Iii) Rate of cooling (iv)
Manners of cooling (v) Structural changes involved (vi) Applications.
6. Give purposes, process and structural changes involved in the fallowing heat-
treatment processes for steel: (i) Hardening (Ii) Tempering
7. Give reason why low carbon steel cannot be hardened practically by hardening
operation.
8. Describe any two of the following surface hardening processes used for low-carbon
steels: (i) Case- hardening (ii) Nitriding (iii) Cyaniding.
9. Differentiate between 'hardening' and 'case-hardening' processes.
10. Discuss the following surface hardening processes used for medium and high carbon
steels: (i) Induction hardening (ii) Flame hardening.
11. What are the requisites of a good quenching medium? Discuss various quenching
media used in the heat treatment of steel.

40
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Powder Metallurgy
Date: ___ /___ /______

EXPERIMENT NO. 8
Objective
To understand the concept of powder metallurgy.

8.1 Definition and Concept


- Powder metallurgy is an art and science of producing fine metal powders and then
making objects from individual, mixed or alloyed metal powders with or without the
inclusion of non-metallic constituents.
Components are produced in their final form by pressing metal powders into the desired
shape, usually in a metal mold, and then heating the compacted powder, either concurrently
or subsequently, for a period of time at a temperature below the melting point of the major
constituent.
For making a component by powder metallurgy,
1. The metal in the powder form must be able to respond to solid phase welding;
2. The metal powder must be capable of sufficiently close packing under pressure to
permit welding to take place and, in case of alloying, be capable of being sufficiently
intimately mixed.

8.2 APPLICATIONS OF POWDER METALLURGY


- Porous products, e.g., bearings and filters.
- Refractory parts, e.g., components made out of Tungsten, Tantalum and Molybdenum
are used in electric bulbs, radio valves, oscillator valves, X-ray tubes in the form of
filament, cathode, anode, control grids, etc.
- Products of complex shapes that require considerable machining when made by other
processes, e.g., toothed components such as gears.
- Automotive components such as electrical contacts, crankshaft drive or camshaft
sprocket, piston rings and rocker shaft brackets, door mechanisms, connecting rods
and brake linings, etc.
- Products made from materials that are very difficult to machine, e.g., tungsten
carbide, etc. Components are: gauges, wire drawing dies, wire guides, deep drawing,
stamping and blanking tools, stone hammers, rock drilling bits, etc.
- Products where the combined properties of two metals or of metals and non-metals
1
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Powder Metallurgy
are desired: non-porous bearings, electric motor brushes, etc.
- Tungsten parts are employed in plasma jet engines, etc., which are operated at about
1850°C. Silver infiltrated tungsten is used in nozzles for rockets and missiles.
- Use as parts in military and defence systems, e.g., in military arms.
- Atomic energy applications.
- Parts made by powder metallurgy have also been used in clocks and timing devices,
typewriters, adding machines, calculators, permanent magnets, laminated bimetallic
strips, etc.
- Grinding wheels that incorporate steel and diamond powder may be manufactured by
powder metallurgy.

8.3 ADVANTAGES OF POWDER METALLURGY


- The dimensional accuracy and surface finish obtainable are such that for many
applications all machining can be eliminated.
- Cleaner and quieter operation and longer life of the components.
- High production rates.
- Control of grain size, relatively much uniform structure and defect (e.g., voids,
blowholes, etc.) free components.
- No material is wasted as scrap; the process makes use of 100% raw material unlike
casting, press forming, etc.
- Quite complex shapes can be produced.
- Components shapes obtained possess excellent reproducibility.
- Porous parts can be produced that could not be made in any other way.
- Parts with wide variations in compositions and materials can be produced.
- Structure and properties can be controlled more closely than in other fabricating
processes.
- Highly qualified or skilled labour is not required.
- Impossible parts (e.g., super-hard cutting tool bits) can be produced.
- The use of diamond in industry has been made possible mainly through powder
metallurgy.
- Powder metallurgy is free from the limitations imposed by phase diagram. For
example, it is difficult to produce copper-lead bearing alloys containing large amounts
of lead, since the two metals are insoluble as liquids. However, mixed powders of
2
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Powder Metallurgy
copper and lead can be successfully shaped by powder metallurgy.
8.4 LIMITATIONS OF POWDER METALLURGY
- Complicated shapes, such as produced by casting, cannot be made by powder
metallurgy, because metallic powders lack the ability to flow to the extent of molten
metals.
- Parts made by powder metallurgy, in most cases, do not have as good physical
properties as wrought or cast parts.
- Relatively high tool and die cost is associated with the process.
- The size of products (as compared to casting) is limited because of the large presses
and expensive tools which would be required for compacting.
- Powdered metals are considerably more expensive than those in wrought forms.
- Extreme care is required in handling pyrophoric powders (e.g.,Mg, Th, Zr) to prevent
fires or explosions and with toxic powders (e.g., U, Be, Th) to minimize health
hazards.
- Powder metallurgy is not economical for small scale production.
- It may be difficult, sometimes, to obtain particular alloy powders.
- Parts pressed from the top tend to be less dense at the bottom.
- Some metals are difficult or impossible to compress, since they tend to cold-weld to
the walls of the die and thus cause excessive wear on the die.
- There are design limitations as regards the parts being made by powder metallurgy.
A part must be of such a configuration that it can be ejected from the die. This means that re-
entrant angles, featheredges or deep and narrow splines must be handled as secondary
operations after the part has been made by powder metallurgy; this adds additional cost
factors.

8.5 POWDER METALLURGY PROCESS


The principal steps in powder metallurgy process include:
a. Obtaining/producing metal powders in a suitable degree of fineness and purity.
b. Weighing and mixing of the necessary powders (and lubricants) to arrive at a composition
which processes satisfactorily and which produces desired properties in the fabricated part.
c. Pressing the powder (mixture) in a suitable mold (of required size and shape) to cause
cohesion to occur between the powder particles.
d. Presintering the powder compact by heating and holding it at a moderate temperature.
3
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Powder Metallurgy
Presintering develops additional green strength and drives off mixing lubricants and/or
moisture.
e. Sintering the compacted mass at a temperature high enough to cause diffusion and
intergranular crystal growth to occur.
f. Finishing and sizing the final product.
g. Annealing.
h. Repressing for greater density or closer dimensional control.
i. Machining.
j. Polishing.
k. Rolling, forging or drawing.
l. Surface treatments to protect against corrosion.
Different steps in a powder-metallurgy process are shown in Figure. 8.1

Fig. 8.1 Powder metallurgy processess

8.6 CHARACTERISTICS OF METAL POWDERS


The performance of metal powders during processing anal the properties of powder
4
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Powder Metallurgy
metallurgy products are highly depend upon the characteristics of metal powders used.
Most important characteristics of metal powders are:
1. Purity, 5. Particles shape,
2. Chemical composition, 6. Particle microstructure
3. Particle size, 7. Apparent density, and
4. Size distribution, 8. Flow rate.
Chemical Composition implies the type and percentage of alloying elements and impurities
and usually determines the particle hardness and compressibility. The chemical composition
of a powder can be determined by chemical analysis methods.
Particle Size is expressed by the diameter for spherical shaped particles and by the average
diameter for non-spherical particles as determined by sieving method or microscopic
examination. Metal powders used in powder metallurgy usually vary in size from 4 to 200
microns. Particle size influences mold strength, density/porosity of the compact,
permeability, flow and mixing characteristics, dimensional stability etc.
Particle-size Distribution is specified in terms of a sieve analysis. i.e., the amount of powder
passing through 100-, 200-, etc., mess sieves. Particle-size distribution influences packing of
the powder and its behaviour during molding and sintering.
Particle Shape influences the packing and flow characteristics of powders. There are various
shapes of metal powders, e.g.
- Spherical (Condensed zinc)
- Rounded (Atomized copper)
- Angular (Mechanically atomized antimony).
- Acicular, dendritic, flakes, irregular, etc.
Spherical particles have excellent sintering qualities, however, irregular-shaped particles are
superior for practical molding.
Particle Microstructure reveals various phases, impurities, inclusions, fissures and internal
porosity.
Apparent Density is defined as the weight of a loosely heaped quantity of powder necessary
to fill a given die cavity completely. Apparent density is influenced by chemical composition,
particle shape, size, size distribution, method of manufacture, etc. The apparent density of
iron powder (electrolytic) having average particle size of 63 microns is 2.56 gm/cc.
Flow Rate is defined as the rate at which a metal powder will now under gravity from a
container through an orifice both having the specific shape and finish.
5
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Powder Metallurgy
Flow rate measures the ability of a powder to be transferred. Flow rate is an important
characteristic because the die must be filled rapidly with powder to achieve high rate of
production and economy.
Flow rate depends upon particle size, shape, apparent density, etc. Spherical shaped metal
powders possess maximum flow rates whereas dendritic ones the least.

8.7 PRODUCTION OF METAL POWDERS


The particle size of powders falls into a range of 1 to 100µ (1µ = 10-6 metre), with the range
of 10 to 20µ (micron) being predominant. There are various methods of manufacturing
powders of this size, but those commonly used are:
1. Atomization 5. Milling
2. Reduction 6. Condensation of metal vapours.
3. Electrolysis 7. Hydride and carbonyl processes.
4. Crushing

Fig. 8.2 Methods of producing metal powders


(1) In Atomization, the molten metal is directed through an orifice and as it emerges, a high
pressure stream of gas or liquid impinges on it causing it to atomize into fine particles.
Frequently an inert gas is employed in order to improve the purity of the powder.

6
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Powder Metallurgy
Atomization is used mostly for low melting point metals because of the corrosive action of
the metal on the orifice (or nozzle) at high temperatures.

(2) In Reduction process, the compounds of metals (usually oxides, e.g., iron oxide) are
reduced with CO or H2 at temperatures below the melting point of the metal (e.g., iron) is an
atmosphere-controlled furnace. The reduced product is then crushed and ground.
Sponge-iron powder is produced this way.
Fe3O4 + 4C = 3Fe + 4CO
Fe3O4 + 4CO = 3Fe + 4CO2
Copper powder can be produced by the same method i.e., by heating copper oxide in a stream
of hydrogen,
Cu2O + H2 = 2Cu + H2O
Powders of W, Mo, Ni and CO are also manufactured by reduction process. Reduction
process is a convenient, economical and flexible method and perhaps the largest volume of
metallurgical powders is made by the process of oxide reduction.

(3) Electrolysis is principally used for the production of extremely pure powders of copper
(and Iron). Electrolysis is similar to electroplating. For making copper powder, copper plates
are placed as anodes in a tank of electrolyte, whereas aluminium plates are placed into the
electrolyte to act as cathodes. High amperage produces a powdery- deposit of anode metal on
the cathodes.
After a definite time period, the cathode plates are taken out from the tank, are rinsed to
remove electrolyte and are dried. The (Cu) deposit on the cathode plates, is then scraped off
and pulverized to produce powder of the desired grain size.

(4) Crushing requires equipments such as stamps, hammers, jaw crushers or gyratory
crushes. Various ferrous and non-ferrous alloys can be heat-treated in order to obtain a
sufficiently brittle material which can be easily crushed into powder form.

(5) Milling operation is carried out by using equipments such as ball mill, impact mill, eddy
mill, disk mill, vortex mill, etc. Milling (or grinding) can be classified as comminution of
brittle, friable, tough and hard materials and pulverization of malleable and ductile metals.
A ball mill is a horizontal barrel-shaped container holding a quantity of balls which, being
7
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Powder Metallurgy
free to tumble about as the container rotates, crush and abrade any powder particles that are
introduced into the container.Generally, a large mass to be powdered, first of all, goes
through heavy crushing machines, then through crushing rolls and finally through a ball mill
to produce successively finer grades of powder.
(6) Condensation of metal powders. This technique can be applied in the case of metals,
such as Zn, Cd, and Mg, which can be boiled and the vapour are condensed in a powder form.
A rod of metal (say Zn) is fed into a high temperature flame. The vaporized droplets of metal
are allowed to condense on to a cool surface of a material to which they will not adhere.
This method is not very useful for large-scale production of powder.

(7) Hydride and Carbonyl Processes


- Tantalum, niobium and zirconium, when made to combine with hydrogen form
hydrides that are stable w. room temperature, but begin to dissociate into hydrogen
and the pure metal (e.g., tantalum or niobium) when heated to about 350°C.
- In the same way, nickel and iron can be made to combine with CO to form volatile
carbonyls. The carbonyl vapour is then decomposed in a cooled chamber so that
almost spherical particles of very pure metal are deposited.
Ni + 4CO  Ni (CO) 4 (Nickel carbonyl)

8.8 BLENDING AND MIXING OF POWDERS


Before the powders are pressed into shape, they are usually blended for the following
reasons:
1. To add lubricants (such as stearic acid, graphite, oils, paraffin, glycerin, etc.) (to
powder) to reduce friction during the pressing operations. Powder particles get coated
with lubricants. This reduces die wear and lowers the pressure required for pressing.
2. To mix powders of different materials (i.e., alloying action), in order to obtain
properties of heat resistance, friction, heavy weight and hardness.
3. To obtain uniform distribution of particle sizes.
4. To add volatilizing agents to give a desired amount of porosity.
Different powders in correct proportions are thoroughly mixed either wet or dry, in a ball
mill. In wet mixing, water or a solvent is used to obtain better mixing. Moreover, wet mixing.
1. Reduces dust,
2. Lessens explosion hazards which are present with some finely divided powders, and
8
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Powder Metallurgy
3. Prevents surface oxidation.
Proper blending and mixing of the powders are essential uniformity of the finished product.
However, over-mixing should be avoided since it may decrease particle size and work
hardens the particles.
Typical flow sheets showing steps in the manufacture of powder metal parts are shown in
Figure 8.3

8.9 COMPACTING
After blending and mixing, the next step is that of compacting or pressing the powders into
their semi-finished form preparatory to sintering.
The purpose of compacting is to consolidate the powder into the desired shape and as closely
as possible to final dimensions, taking into account any dimensional changes that result from
sintering. Compacting also imparts
1. The desired level and type of porosity, and
2. Adequate strength for handling.
Powders are compacted by using high pressures. The degree of pressure depends upon:
1. The required density of the final product, and
2. The ease with which the powder particles will weld together.
9
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Powder Metallurgy
Compacting pressures may be applied in the following ways:
1. Die Pressing
2. Roll pressing
3. Extrusion
1. Die pressing is done in special presses that include a feed hopper for the powder, the
shaping die to form the product, an upper punch and a lower punch to apply correct pressures
onto the powder being compacted.Weighed- quantity of powder is placed in the die through
the hopper and is compressed under pressure ranging from 8 to 158 kg/sq. mm.

Fig. 8.3 Die pressing.


2. Roll pressing is used for production of continuous strip section, using a system as shown
in Fig. 8.3There are two rolls of appropriate size into which a regulated stream of powder is
guided, so that the rolls are able to apply the necessary compacting pressure in a continuous
sequence.

Fig. 8.4 Roll compacting


3. The Extrusion method of compacting does not give such efficient control as that given by
pressing or by rolling. It is difficult to obtain high densities and some porosity is always left.

10
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Powder Metallurgy

Fig. 8.5 Extrusion method


8.10 PRESINTERING AND SINTERING
Presintering
- Frequently, powder metallurgy is used to make parts from materials that are very
difficult to machine.
When some machining is required on such parts, one goes lot presintering before the actual
sintering operation.
After presintering operation, the compacted part acquires sufficient strength to be handled
and machined without difficulty. Moreover, very little dimensional change takes place, then
in the final sintering, therefore, machining after final sintering may be eliminated.
- For presintering, the compacted parts are heated for a shot time at a temperature
considerably below the final sintering temperature.
- Presintering is necessary when holes are to be drilled in hard to machine parts.
- Presintering, in addition, removes lubricants and binders added to the powders during
the blending operation.
- Presintering can be eliminated if no machining of the final product is required.
Sintering
- After being compressed into a briquette of the shape required in the finished
component, the agglomerated metals are sintered. Sintering is done to achieve all
possible final strength and hardness needed in the finished product.
- Sintering consists of heating pressed metal or cermet compacts in batch or continuous
furnaces` to a temperature below the melting point of the major constituent in an inert
or reducing atmosphere (of hydrogen, dissociated ammonia or cracked hydrocarbon),
where time, temperature, heating rate and cooling rate are automatically controlled.
- Most metals are sintered at 70 to 80% of the melting temperature. Certain refractory
materials may be sintered at 90% of the melting point.
11
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Powder Metallurgy
The sintering time varies from thirty minutes up to several hours. Sintering temperatures and
times vary considerably with different materials, e.g., Porous bronze bearings require
treatment for only a few minutes at 800°C; iron base compacts and cemented carbides require
treatment for up to 2 hours at 1200-1250°C, etc.
The relationship between time, t, and temperature, T, is given by
Log (t1/t2) = Qs/R (1/T1 – 1/ T2)
Where QS is the activation energy of sintering
and R is the gas constant.
As the sintering proceeds, volatile materials are driven off. Advantage is taken of this
phenomenon is making certain types of (i.e., porous) bearings and fine filters by the powder
metallurgy process.
- Sintering is essentially a process of bonding solid bodies (particles) by atomic forces.
Bonding of powder particles during sintering can take place in any of the three ways:
1. Melting of a minor constituent,
2. Volume diffusion, although surface diffusion, evaporation and condensation also
contribute to bonding.
3. Mechanical bonding or entrapment of non-metallic particles in a metal matrix.

8.11 HOT PRESSING


Concept
Hot pressing involves applying pressure and temperature simultaneously so that molding
(compacting) and sintering of the powder takes place at the same time in the die.
The effect of time is important, due to the viscous nature of the compact material, and the
higher the temperature the shorter the time.
Die materials include steels, graphite and ceramics. High speed steels may be used for short
times at 600°C and graphite for 700-3000°C. However, graphite dies are limited to pressures
of 140 kg/cm2 and also react with metals to produce carbides.
Advantages of Hot pressing
- Reduction in gas content and shrinkage effect.
- Higher strength and hardness.
- Higher density and sound compacts.
- Hot pressing breaks-down any oxide film and exposes fresh surfaces.
Disadvantages of Hot pressing
12
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Powder Metallurgy
- High cost of dies (to withstand pressures at elevated –temperatures).
- Process takes a considerable time to complete.
Applications of Hot pressing
- Hot pressing is used for the production of very hard cemented carbide parts.

8.12 SECONDARY OPERATIONS


In many cases, the metal parts may be used in the as-sintered condition, but in other cases
where desired surface finish, tolerance or metal structure cannot be obtained by briquetting
(Briquetting is the act of converting loose powder into a green compact of accurately defined
size and shape. The briquette is considered fairly fragile, but it can be handled), certain
additional operations must follow. They are
1. Sizing 4. Impregnation 7. Heat treatment
2. Coining 5. Infiltration 8. Joining
3. Machining 6. Plating
1. Sizing.
Sintering process produces some distortion and alterations in size. After the part has been
sintered, in order to make it dimensionally correct, it is placed in a die and is repressed.
Sizing improves surface finish of the component also. However, a slight change in density
occurs during sizing.
2. Coining.
The sintered part is repressed in the die to reduce the void space and impart the required
density.
3. Machining.
Features such as threads, under cuts, grooves etc., are usually not practical for powder
metallurgy fabrications, and are generally machined on parts after they have been presintered.
Boring, turning, drilling, tapping, etc., can be done on presintered parts using tungsten
carbide cutting tools.
4. Impregnation
Sintered parts may be impregnated with oil, grease, wax or other lubricating materials, in
case self-lubricating properties are desired. Parts are immersed in lubricants heated to
approximately 93°C. The porous structure gets completely (about 90%) impregnated in 10 to
20 minutes. The lubricant is retained in the part by capillary action.
The sintered part may be impregnated with plastics also. This is done in order to,
13
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Powder Metallurgy
1. Improve corrosion resistance,
2. Seal prior to plating.
3. Improve machinability.
4. Introduce pressure tightness.
5. Infiltration
A part is first pressed and sintered from iron powder to about 77% of theoretical density.
Then a replica (or infiltration) blank of copper (or brass) is placed over the part which is sent
through the furnace. The infiltrant melts and soaks through the porous part, producing a
density close to 100%.
Infiltration provides increased strength, hardness and density not obtainable by straight
sintering.
6. Plating
Plating is carried out in order to,
1. Impart a pleasing appearance (Cr plating).
2. Protect from corrosion (Ni plating).
3. Improve wear resistance (Ni or Cr plating).
4. Improve frictional (Tin plating) and hardness characteristics (Cr plating)
5. Improve electrical conductivity (Cu and Ag plating).
- Before plating, the part is impregnated with plastic resin so that the electrolyte is not
entrapped in the porous structure during plating.
- Sintered parts, then, may be plated with Cr, Ni, Co, Cd, Zn, brass, etc.
7. Heat treatment
Sintered parts are heat treated in order to improve:
1. Wear resistance. 3. Hardness.
2. Grain structure. 4. Strength.
To prevent oxidation of the internal structure, the heat treatment is carried out in controlled
atmosphere. The porosity of sintered parts decreases the heat conductivity, therefore longer
heating and shorter cooling periods are required. Following heat treatment processes are
usually applied to parts made by powder metallurgy.
1. Stress relieving 5. Through hardening
2. Carburizing 6. Induction hardening
3. Carbonitriding 7. Precipitation hardening.
4. Nitriding
14
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Powder Metallurgy
8. Joining of sintered parts
Parts may be joined after they have been sintered or the joining may be incorporated into
sintering operation. Various joining, techniques are
1. Soldering (on Al and Cu based sintered parts).
2. Brazing (carried out in vacuum or controlled atmosphere. High frequency heating is
preferred).
3. Welding (TIG welding, projection welding, friction welding, electron beam welding,).

References
1. Material Science and Metallurgy by O. P. Khanna

Questionnaire
1. Briefly describe various steps in the production of a product through powder-
metallurgy process.
2. Briefly describe any five engineering products produced by powder metallurgy.
3. Briefly give advantages and disadvantages of powder metallurgy process.
4. Why is particle-size distribution important in the packing of powders?
5. Discuss the importance of particle shape on the properties of sintered compacts?
6. List the three common methods of powder production and discuss their influences on
the properties of the final product.
7. Contrast mechanical and hydraulic compacting presses with regard to advantages,
disadvantages, and applications.

15
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Powder Metallurgy
8. Why is sintering carried out in a controlled-atmosphere furnace?
9. Why do elevated temperatures tend to favor the sintering process although sintering
forces tend to decrease with increasing temperature?
10. What are the advantages and disadvantages of hot pressing as compared with cold
compacting and sintering?
11. Give' three specific applications of powder metallurgy parts. Describe how these parts
may be manufactured by other methods, and give the advantages of the powder
metallurgy method.
12. Why is pore size important in the manufacture of self-lubricating bearings? How may
pore size be controlled?

16
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Jomeny end quench test

Date: ___ /___ /______

EXPERIMENT NO. 9
Objective
To understand the concept of hardenability and obtain the hardness distribution curve with
the help of Jomeny End quench test apparatus.

9.1 Hardenability
When a steel piece of a larger cross section is heated to austenite temperature and then
quenched, the cooling rate decreases from the surface to the interior. Martensite is obtained at
the surface due to the highest cooling rate. But it is not possible to get a martensitic structure
at the centre due to the relatively slow cooling rate. Hence, a gradient of hardness exists from
the surface to the centre. Since every grade of steel has its own transformation characteristics,
the depth of penetration of hardness across the cross section differs. The measure of this
property is termed as hardenability of steel.
Hardenability is defined as the relative ability of steel to be hardened by quenching and it
determines the depth and distribution of hardness across the cross section. Hardenability
should not be confused with maximum hardness of steel.
Hardenability is a very useful and important property of steel. It determines the rate at which
the given steel should be quenched. Maximum hardness is mainly a function of carbon
content. Hardenability of steel depends on
1. Composition of steel
2. Method of manufacture
3. Section of the steel
4. The quenching media
5. Quenching method
In industry, a simple experiment called Jominy end quench test (named after Walter Jominy,
American metallurgist) is used to determine the hardenability of steel.
9.2 Equipment
1. Electric Furnace
2. Jominy End Quench Test Fixture
3. Jominy Specimens (Made as per ASTM standard)
4. Rockwell Hardness Testing Machine

1
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Jomeny end quench test

9.3 Test Procedure


1. Preheat the furnace to 1700°F.
2. Place the Jominy specimen in the furnace and soak for one hour.
3. Turn the water on at the Jominy sink. Adjust the free water column to about 2.5 in.
Swivel the baffle plate to block the water column so that there is no contact between
water and the test specimen when the test specimen is initially placed on the fixture.
4. Remove the Jominy specimen from the furnace and place it in the fixture as shown in
Figure 10.10. Swivel the baffle out of position so that the water impinges on the bottom
of the specimen without wetting the sides of the specimen. Leave water running for about
15 minutes.

Fig 9.1 Apparatus used in the test and Standard form of test piece
5. Remove the Jominy specimen from the fixture and grind a flat on the side of the
specimen.
6. Mark points on the ground surface at an interval of 1.6 mm distance from the
quenched end as shown in Figure 10.11.
7. Take readings at an interval of 1.6 mm intervals. Near the quenched end, this interval
is reduced to 0.8 mm as hardness values vary rapidly.
8. The results are expressed as a curve of hardness value versus distance from the
quenched end (Jominy distance). This curve is called the Jominy hardenability curve.

2
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Jomeny end quench test

Fig 9.2 Hardness variation in quenched Jominy bar

9.4 REPRESENTATION OF HARDENABILITY DATA


Hardenabiiity curves
A typical hardenability curve is shown In Fig. 10.11. The quenched end is cooled
rapidly and exhibits more hardness. This is because the product is 100% martensite at
this position. Cooling rate decreases with the distance from the quenched end and the
hardness also decreases accordingly. The diminishing cooling rate leads, to the
formation of a softer pearlite, which is mixed with martensite and bainite.

Fig. 9.3 Hardenability curves for five different steels, each containing 0.4% C and
varying alloy compositions

3
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Jomeny end quench test

High hardenable steel retains large hardness values, for a relatively long distance. Fig. 10.11
shows the typical Jominy curves for different steels having the same carbon content, but
differing in alloy composition.
All these steels have identical hardness at the quenched end (57 HRC) because hardness is a
function of carbon content. But hardenability is low for plain carbon steel because the
hardness drops off more steeply after a short Jominy distance. By contrast, the changes in
hardness for other alloys are more gradual. That is, the high quenched hardness would persist
to a much greater depth. Comparatively, alloy A is more hardenable than others.
Hardenability Band
A Jominy curve is strictly valid only for steel having a particular chemical composition and
average grain size. But, during industrial production of steel, there is always a slight variation
in chemical composition and average grain size from one batch to another. This result in
some scatter in the measured hardenability data, and these data are plotted as a band rather
than as a single curve. Hardenability curves of all batches lie in this range. These bands are
termed as hardenability bands.

Cooling rate curves


Distance from Cooling rate °F/s Distance from Cooling rate, °F/s
quenched end, IN at 1300°F Quenched end, In at 1300°F
1/16 490 11/16 19.5
1/8 305 3/4 16.3
3/16 195 13/16 14.0
1/4 125 7/8 12.4
5/16 77.0 15/16 11.0
3/8 56.0 1 10.0
7/16 42 1¼ 7.0
1/2 33 1½ 5.1
9/16 26 1¾ 4.0
5/8 21.4 2 3.5

Cooling rates at distances from the water-cooled end of the standard end-quench
hardenability test bar

4
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
Jomeny end quench test

Cooling rate at different locations inside the bar of varying cross sections such as round, flat
or square is correlated with the cooling rate at different distances along the quenched end of
the Jominy bar. Fig. 10.13 shows cooling rate as a function of diameter at the surface, three
quarter radius, mid radius and centre position for cylindrical bars quenched in mildly agitated
water and oil. The equivalent Jominy distances are included along the bottom axis.

(a) (b)
Fig. 9.4 CRC for cylindrical bars quenched in mildly agitated (a) Water (b) Oil
Use of Hardenability Data
1. By using the hardenability curves and cooling rate curves, the hardness existing at a
particular section in a steel specimen after quenching could be predicted. For example, the
centre of the 75mm diameter round bar quenched in oil has a cooling rate of 5.6°C/s. Since
the centre of the round bar has the same cooling rate as a Jominy test bar at a point 25mm
from the quenched end, the hardness at the two positions are the same. The hardness at 25mm
from the quenched end is found from the hardenability curve of that steel. This is equal to the
centre hardness of a 75mm bar after quenching.
2. These curves are also used to select a particular type of steel to meet a minimum hardness at a
given location in a part quenched under given conditions.

References
1. Material Science and Metallurgy by O. P. Khanna
2. Introduction to Physical Metallurgy by Sidney H. Avner
5
Material science and Metallurgy (2131904)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology