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l-A-4932

**3

Two-Dimensional, Continuous,
Mukicomponent Eulerian Calculations

of Interactions of Shocks with


V Notches, voids, and Rods in Water

I o siia Iamos
I.,,
scientific laboratory
of the university of California
LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO 87544
4 1 \

UNITED STATES
ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION
CONTRACT W-7405 -ENG. 36
*-

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LA-4932
UC-34

ISSUED: May 1972

10s alamos
scientific laboratory
of the University of California
LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO 87544

Two-Dimensional, Continuous,
Mukicomponent Eulerian Calculations

of Interactions of Shocks with

V Notches, voids, and Rods in Water

by

Charles L. Mader
James D. Kershner
.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL, CONTINUOUS, MULTICOMPONENT
EULERIAN CALCULATIONS OF INTERACTIONS OF SHOCKS
. WITH V NOTCHES, VOIOS, ANO RODS IN WATER

by

Charles L. Mader and James D. Kershner

ABSTRACT

The new two-dimensional, multicomponent, continuous Eulerian hydro-


dynamic code, 2DE, has been used to study the interaction of shocks with
cylindrical aluminum rods, V notches, and cylindrical voids in water.
Agreement between the computations and the previously reported photo-
graphic and PHERMEX radiographic study of the systems was within the
reso ution of the experimental data.

1. NTRODUCTION

he interaction o a shock wave with a cylindri- equations of motion, real lstic equation of state

cal aluminum rod, a V notch, and a cylindrical void treatments for mixed cells, and the donor-acceptor-
in water has been studied experimentally using the cell method to calculate multi-material cell fluxes.

Los Alamos Scient if ic Laboratory “PHERMEX” radio- The exploslve-Plexiglas driving system was
.
graphic facility and using framing cameras. The sys- approximated, as In Ref. 1, as a constant-velocity
tems were further studied numerically using the PIC piston whose velocity was adjusted to give the ex-
technique for solving the two-dimensional hydrody- perimentally observed unperturbed position of the
namics. The results of the experimental and theoret- shock as it interacted with the density discontinu-
ical study were described in a report by Mader, Tay- ity. The equation of state parameters for water
lor, Venable and Travis.l They suggested that the and aluminum were identical to those used in Ref. 1.
experimental results could be used in evaluating The calculations were performed using 100 square
numerical hydrodynamic techniques for treating such cells in the Z direction and 50 in the R direction.

greatly distorted, complex, multicomponent flow prob- The calculations required approximately 10 min. of
1ems. 76OO computer time for each system studied. One

The two-dimensional, multicomponent, continuous Los Alamos atmosphere of air was used as the second
Eulerian hydrodynamic code, 20E,2 was designed to component in the V-notch and cylindrical-void cal-
solve such flow problems, so we decided to follow culations. This eliminated the problems associated
our own good advice and test the new 20E code by com- with attempting to program the interface movement
paring the previously reported experimental results that is characteristic of one-component continuous
with 20E calculations for the same systems. This Eulerian treatments.
report describes the results of that study.

Ill. RESULTS
Il. COMPUTATIONAL METHOD The experimentally observed interaction of a

The 20E code2 computes two-dimensional, reac- shock with an aluminum rod in water is wel described

tive, multicomponent hydrodynamic problems in slab by the computations, as is shown in Table Radio-

or cylindrical geometry using continuous Eulerian graphs and sketches of the PHERMEX results are shown
TABLE I

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND COMPUTATIONS


OF INTERACTION OF A SHOCK WITH A I-CM-RADIUS ALUMINUM ROD IN WATER

Time after Shock Arrived at Plexlglas-Water Interface ,


4.9 psec 6.0 psec 8.I psec 9.5 Dsec

Axial thickness
(height) of Al rod (cm) 1.89 I’.9O 1.67 1.70 1.70 1.60 1.60 1.50

Radial thickness
(width) of Al rod (cm) 2.00 2.00 2.10 2.10 2.20 2.40 2.30 2.45

Axial distance of shock


wave above top of Al rod (cm) 0.45 0.40 0.70 0.60

Radial distance of reflected


shock wave along axis
of Al rod (cm) 1.20 1.20 1.90 1.85 3.20 3.10 3.90 3.80

In Fig. 1, and. the 20E results are shown in Figs. The experimental radiographs and the computa-

2-6. tions for the interaction of a shock with a cylin-

shock
The

with
experimentally

a V notch
observed

in water also
interaction

appears to
of

be
a drical

time of
void

void
in water

closure
agree

as is
well

shown
except

in Table
near

Ill.
the
I
well described by the computations, as is shown in Framing-camera pictures of the void closure suggest

Table Il. Radiographs and sketches of the PHERMEX that interpretation of the PHERMEX radiographs IS

results are shown in Fig. i’, and the 2DE results difficult because of large density gradients, as is

are shown In Figs. 8-12. We plan to study the in- discussed in Ref. 1. The computations and framing-

teraction of a shock with a V notch in aluminum us- camera pictures agree within the resolution of the

ing the 20E code as soon as It has realistic de- experimental results. Radiographs of the PHERMEX

scriptions of two-dimensional elastlc-plastic flow results are shown in Fig. 13, and framing-camera

and spalling. As described In Ref. 1, fluid compu- pictures are shown in Fig. 14. The 2DE results are

tations that do not include spalling or elastic- shown in Figs. 15-19.

plastic flow yield similar results for water and


The contour intervals for Figs. 2-6 and 15-19
aluminum V notches. Although such computations 3
are 0.1 g /cm , 0.01 mbar, 20c10K, and 0.01 cm/Psec.
reproduce the water V-notch radlographir. results,
The contour intervals for Figs. 8-12 are 0.2 g /cm3,
they are completely inadequate to describe the alum-
0.02 mbar, 100°K, 0.01 cm/psec for velocrty in the
inum V notch PHERMEX observations.
R direction, and 0.02 cm/~sec for velocity in the Z

TABLE II direction. The locations of the mixed cells are

shown by asterisks.
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ANO COMPUTATIONS OF
‘INTERACTION OF A SHOCK WITH A V NOTCH IN WATER
TABLE I I I
Time After Shock Arrived EXPERltlENTALRESVLTSANDCOt4PUTAT10NS
OF INTEWICTION
at Plexlglas-Water Interface OF A SHOCK WITH A CYLINDRICAL VOIO IN wATER
2.5 psec 3.5 Nsec
Time After Shock Arrived
~—a =* at Plexiglas-Water Interface

Oistance of jet peak


+& ~ “s& +&
above initial apex
of V notch (cm) 0.90 0.8s 1.45 1.50 Axial distance
of Jet above
Inltlal bottmm t
Distance of lowest of void (cm) 0,70 0.60 1.30 1.20 2.4o 2.50
part of jet above
Initial apexof V
notch (cm) 0.70 0.68 1.10 1.10

2
i
Iv. CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
Agreement between the dynamic radiographs and 1. Charles L. Mader, Roger W. Taylor, Douglas
the numerical 2DE computations of the interaction of Venable, and James R. Travis, I’Theoretical and
Experimental Two-Dimensional Interactions of
a shock with an aluminum rod, a V notch in water,
Shocks with Density Discontinultles,” Los Alamos
and a cylindrical void in water is within the ex- Scientific Laboratory report LA-3614 (1967).

perimental resolution of approximately * 5%. 2. James D. Kershner and Charles L, Mader, “2DE:
A Two-Dimensional Continuous EulerIan Hydrody-
namic Code for Computing Multicomponent Reactive
.
Hydrodynamic Problems,” LOS Alams Scientific
Laboratory report LA-4846 (19T2).

.2
I

. . . .. . .. .

.4
Fig. 1. Radiographs and sketches of pranlnent features of the interaction of a shock In water with a
l-cm-radius aluminum rod at 4.9, 6.o, 8.I, and 9,5 psec after the shock wave arrived at the
water-Plexiglas interface.

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Fig. 7. Radiographs and sketches of prominent features of the interaction of a shock in water with a
, l-cm-deep V notch at 0.0, 2.5, and 3.5 psec. The apex of the notch Is 0.5 cm above the piston.

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Fig. 13. PHERMEX radiographs of a l-cm-radius cylindr~cal void In water centered 3.25 cmabove the Instde
bottom of a Plexiglas box at 0,0, 4,9,” 5.9, and 7.6 psec after the shock arrived at the Plexlglas-
water interface. The cylindrical void was formed by a thin-walled (0.006-in.) glass tube.

Fig. 14. Framing-camera photographs of the closure of a l-cm-radius cylindrical void In polyethylene in
the same geometry as that in Fig. 13. Time between frames is 0.21 ~sec, and exposure time IS
0.09 psec. The last frame Is a still photograph.

15
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