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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES M2 - 36 ST AUGUSTINE EXAMINATI RIUMAY ‘Code and Name of Course: PENG 6012 - Natural Gas Engineering Paper: Date aha Te: Mondeo asth tort aoib arm, Dutabon: 9 Hours INSTRUCTION TO CANDIDATES: This paper has 7 pages and 4 questions. Answer alll questions. Use of non-programmable calculators is allowed. Cartesian and log-log graph paper are provided separately for use and must be clearly labelled and submitted with your answer booklet. Question 1 PAGE? a. Based on exploratory drilling off the east coast of Trinidad, a gas field was discovered, Briefly compate the major factors which must be considered for the subsurface development of this gas field with that of an oil field, (S marks) b. The results of a differential laboratory separation experiment conducted on the initial gas produced fiom one of the reservoirs in the newly discovered field are given in Table 1, Other pertinent reservoir rock and fluid data are given in Table 2.. Calculate on an acre-ft basis, the following: i, Initial gross gas in place, MSCF. (4 marks) Initial liquids in place, bbl. (8 marks) Initial residue gas in place, MSCP. 2 marks) iv. Initial gas-oil ratio, SCF/bbL. (2 marks) ©. What type of reservoir is this? Justify your answer. (4 marks) (Total marks = 25) ‘Table 1 - Results of Differential Laboratory Separation Experiment P ‘Composition of produced gas increments Produced | Liquid | tiguid | 2-tactor (psia) (mole fraction) gas (om? | Vol, | Vol. (% | at 10°F atiso% | (em) | of | and cel and cell Hiydro- | Pressure Pressure) carbon Volume) ay fo} ce | o | ce | os | oe | cn 3500_| 075 | 0.07 | 0.050 | 0030 | 0,030 | 0.020 | 0.050} 0 o | o | on 3000_| 076 | 0972 | 0.055 | 0.030 | 0025 | oor7 | oos1| 190 | 0 | 00 | ove 2500_| 0.77 | 0073 | 0.085 | 0.028 | 0020 | 0015 | 0039} 240 | 0 | oo | ost 2000 | 0.76 | 0.07 | 0.050 | 0020 | 0024 | 0017 | 0050} 300 | 0 | oo | oss ‘Table 2 - Reservoir Data Connate water saturation, fraction Porosity, fraction Initial reservoir pressure, psia Reservoir temperature, °F Initial cell volume, cc Molar volume @ standard conditions, SCF Standard temperature, °F Standard pressure, psia Universal gas constant Components Recovery of liquids from separator, fraction Gallons of liquid / MSCF Useful Equations: pV =mRT Vigo = 43560 AhG(L-S,,) Conversion Factors R= °F +460 T acre = 43560 ft? Ibbl = 5.615 f° Ibbl = 42 gal PAGES 0.2 0.18 3500 150 1000 379.4 14.7 10.73 Cs Cs Ch Cw 025 05 0.75 10 32.0 36.3 410 47.7 PAGRA Question 2 a. ‘The volume of gas is the fundamental basis for settlement in most gas-sales transactions and the otifice meter is one tool used to measure these volumes. List five (S) constant errors and five (5) variable errors which can affect the accuracy of measurement obtained from an orifice meter. (5 marks) ‘A methanol producer at the Point Lisas Industrial Estate recently entered into an agreement with a gas supplier. Based on the contract, the Buyer’s Contract Gas Price will be linked to the Methanol Price in accordance with the parameters and methodology outlined in Table 3. The Gas Floor Price ‘was also set at US$1.95/MMBtu, escalating at 2.5% per annum, ‘Using these data, calculate the Buyer’s Contract Gas Price (US$/MMBTU) at the following methanol prices @ USs260MT Gi) Uss370Mr (iii) USS420/MT. (15 marks) (Total marks = 20) ‘Table 3 - Gas Pricing Data All prices are in United States Dollars (USS) Methanol Reference | Average Methanol Gas Price Gas Price Price ‘Market Price | Adjustment Factor | USS/MMBTU (Ref Pr) US Gulf (USS/MT) PH Methanol Ref Pr 1 150 1.9500 Methanol Ref Pr2 200 Between 1&2, 2.4500 0.010 Methanol Ref Pr 3 250 Between 2 & 3, 3.1000 0.013 Methanol Ref Pr4 300 Between 3 & 4, 3.8500 0.015, Methanol Ref Pr 5 356 Between 4& 5, 46250 0.0155 Methanol Ref Pr 6 400 ‘Between Methanol 5.4500 RefPr 5 & 6, OL OLGSHeeere | HEHE Methanol Ref Pr7 a5 Between Methanol 6.8000 Ref Pr6 & 7, 0.018 Greater than 0.020 Methanol Ref Pr 7 ‘MT = Metric Tonne Ref Pr = Reference Price PAGES Question 3 a A flow-after flow deliverability test was conducted by producing a gas well at a series of different stabilized flow rates, Reservoir data and the results of the flow after flow test are given in tables 4 and 5 respectively. Determine the absolute open flow potential of the well (10 marks) b. (Based on volumetric analysis, the gas initially in place was estimated to be 250 BSCF. Assuming a required contract rate of 30 MMSCED and a reservoir abandonment pressure of 2250 psia, what is the maximum length of the contract period that the producer can negotiate? (14 marks) Gi) Plot the anticipated production performance of the well based on the contract requirements. (6 marks) Cartesian and log-log graph paper are provided separately for use and must be clearly labelled and submitted with your answer booklet. You are also required to justify all answers. (G0 marks) ‘Table 4— Reservoir Data p(psia) —z-factor 3,162 0.85 2,828 0.89 2,450 0.92 2,000 0.96 1414 0.98 147 1.00 Table 5 ~ Deliverability Test Data 4 Pot (MMSCED) — (psia) ° 3162 34 3000 80 2828 130 2646 190 2450 Useful Equation toe(p? - p2,)= 1 oe(g)—tos()) 7 PAGES Question 4 a. The market for some of the gas from a condensate reservoir is an LNG plant. Starting at the wellhead, briefly discuss the field treatment processes and gas plant operations required prior to the production of the LNG. ‘The PVT report for the gas stream is given in Table 6 and you are required to justify your selection of processes. (10 marks) ‘Table 6 - Gas Composition Mole Component Fraction Methane 0.800 Ethane 0.070 Propane 0.045 [Butane S~«SOD Pentane 0.010 Hexane 0.005 Heptanes and heavier 0.010 Carbon Dioxide 0.030 “Mercury 0.005 | [tho tst=