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Man and knowing Linguistic analysis-reality incenses founded by a one-to-

one correspondence; relation of signifier and signified,

Truth-agreement between concepts and reality; through language is verified through relation of the signifier as a
language and the world that it represents. symbol and signify test object to be perceived.
Psychoanalytic-knowledge as a form of developmental
Epistemology-concerned with theories of origin, process, each from a relation connected with upbringing
structure and possible scope of human knowledge. and imbued with consciousness.
Eidetic reduction/Phenomenology-the integration of
Process of knowing experience without any form of prejudice to validate and
authenticate knowledge, through the process of
Sense perception-sensory vehicle which we obtain phenomenology, knowledge is firsthand and personal
about the world; process of knowing through the use of experience with the removal of prejudice.
census and experience forming image turned as blurred
representation form as phantasm. Ways of acquiring knowledge

Abstraction-the activity of the mind works with concepts Dialectic-a.k.a. Socratic method; knowledge is acquired
that are entirely general; process of forming an idea by through question; question-and-answer approach.
abstracting out what is common to a variety.
Syllogistic-agreement and disagreement between term;
Word/name/term -any expression that refers to an deductive and inductive reasoning.
object; this includes names, an idea that is uttered or
written. Methodical doubt - accept nothing is true, process of
doubting every thought arrived at certainty.
Proposition-that which is proposed or stated; the
expression of the mental act of judgment. Reconstruction project-go to the facts themselves for
everything; destruction of the idols that besets man's
Theories of knowledge thinking; idols of the cave.
-knowledge is from reason -Personal prejudices, idols of the theater-ideological
-the idea from Platonism prejudices, idols of the tribe-natural prejudices, and
-knowledge is the representation of the mind idols of the marketplace.
-the mind has innated knowledge Social Prejudices

Empiricism Phenomenological-knowledge is an objective process

-senses are important in knowledge. Epoche or philosophical bracketing of concepts.
-Knowledge is limited, since it is based on
experience Man and freedom
-experience as a necessity for philosophy
-mind is Tabu La Rasa Will-personal faculty or function/externalized result of
interaction of conflicting elements/manifestation of
Skepticism-doubts as the foundation to make things personality/an intellectual tendency/act pertaining to one's
certain, no such things as true. desire

Validity of knowledge Freedom-absence of restraints/ability to do or act

without any form of constraints.
Correspondence theory of truth-regards individual
statements as true if they simply agree with facts to which Freewill -an act of volition/act of self-control/having a
they refer and as false if they simply did not. hold of life/freedom to act without any restraints.
Coherence theory of truth-truth is not a property of
individual's isolated judgment or statement, but that truth Every action starts with a certain form of desire (Gusto).
must involve a judgment's being consistent with a large Man's will is based on his nature, on what he is capable
body of judgment forming an interconnected rational (Kaya) in his physical nature. There will is also based
system; knowledge is there if there is consistency, if it and acted upon what is permitted (Pwede) by society
forms harmony or consistency with other ideas. and what is ought (Dapat) to be done.
Pragmatic-the claim that knowledge is true if it is useful
or practical; truth is based on utility. Determinism-concept of every intent, including human
Intersubjective-the claim that knowledge is relative, cognition and behavior, decision and action is causally
that it holds truth based on one's perspective, the way determined in an unbroken chain of occurrences.
that the subjective might reconcile with the objective;
reflective knowledge. Hard determinism-no one is free; no one has free will.
Listening process regrouping syllabifying the word and grouping number of
Listening - can be defined as a process or an activity of
paying attention to what one hears in trying to understand Association-when making Association, the listener is
or to get the meaning conveyed or implied by the speaker. linking this announcement his/her field of experiences,
memories, and backgrounds.
Macro-communication skills
-listening can be acquired, learn, and practiced. Auding-at this final stage of listening, the listener assigns
-When we listen effectively, we really pay attention and meaning to the sounds using his "experiential
think about what we hear. background"and some thinking skills listed below.
-Combination of what we hear, what we understand, and
what we remember. Indexing-the thinking skill is arranging the material
-Speaker's accent or pronunciation, his grammar and his according to importance through searching of main ideas
vocabulary. down to its subordinating ideas.

Micro-skills Note sequencing-this time, the listener arranges the

-predicting what people are going to talk about. material in terms of time, space, position or some
-Guessing at unknown words or phrases without relationship.
-Using one's own knowledge of the subject to help one Forming sensory impression-the skills of using
understand. different senses to form "sensory images"or "visual
-Identifying relevant points; rejecting relevant information. impression" for added dimension to the verbal message.
-Retaining relevant points (note taking, summarizing)
-recognizing discourse markers, e.g. well, all, another Appreciating-finally, when auding, the listener must
thing is, now, finally; etc. appreciate or respond to the "aesthetic nature of the
-recognizing cohesive devices, such as an image, including message" especially when the material needs an
the court, pronouns, references, etc. "emotional response."

Understanding different intonation patterns and use of Types of listening

stress, etc., which give clues to meaning and social
setting. a. Passive listening-this is the same as hearing or just
process of receiving the sounds through the soundwaves.
The listening process
-listening according to the experts is a dynamic, b. Active or attentive listening-this happens when a
transactional, and active and complex process rather than listener hears the sound, tries to understand it,
stagnant, linear, passive, and an easy one. remembers it, and most importantly, acts on it
Auditory acuity-ears capacity to respond to various
frequencies and tones at various levels of loudness or c. Critical/analytical-when one has decided whether to
intensities. accept or reject what one has told, or decide on the true
worth information mentioned, make a judgment on the
Masking-this is evident when 2 competing sounds are claims made, and make decisions, critical/analytical
present, for instance, the message that you intend to listening becomes inevitable.
receive in the background noise fall within the same
frequency. d. Appreciative listening-deriving entertainment or
pleasure from what he/she hears. Ex: tune, tempo,
Auditory fatigue-the effect of continuous and prolonged rhythm of the song.
exposure to sounds of certain frequencies such as dull,
monotonous voice of the speaker, and exposure to noise

Identifying and recognizing-this is the next stage in

the listening process. Pattern and relationships.

Auditory analysis-the listener compares the sounds that

are heard with the ones that are known to him/her in
terms of their likeness and differences.

Mental recognition-this is done by the listener when

he/she uses a "system" in order to remember and
structure the incoming sounds as recording and