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Oxygenation -abdominal breathing

deep full breaths with minimal effort


Alterations in respiratory function. Purse Lip breathing
What affects respiratory function? -prevents airway collapse-positive airway pressure
1. The movement of air into or out of the lungs.
2. The diffusion of O2 and CO2 between the alveoli and Hydration
pulmonary capillaries. -to maintain moisture of mucous membranes
3. The transport of O2 and CO2 via the "to and from" the -promotes normal ciliary action
tissue cells. humidifiers
devices
Hypoxia-is a condition of insufficient oxygen anywhere in -add water vapor to inspired air
the body. -to prevent dry membranes
-losing secretions
Clinical manifestations
1. Rapid pulse PVD
2. Rapid shallow respirations and dyspnea percussion-clapping, is forceful striking of the skin with
3. Flaring of the Nares cupped hands
4. Subternal/intercostal retractions vibration-series of vigorous growth rings produced by
5. Cyanosis hands are placed flat against the client's chest wall.
Postural drainage-drainage by gravity of secretions from
Cause? various lung segments.
Hypoventilation -- inadequate alveolar ventilation
CO2 accumulates -- HyperCarbia Oxygen delivery systems
hypoxemia -- reduced O2 characterized by low partial
pressure of O2 or a low hemoglobin saturation Nasal cannula or nasal prongs
-easy to apply, most common and inexpensive device
Altered breathing patterns used to administer oxygen.
tachypnea (rapid) -- fevers, metabolic acidosis, pain, -Does not interfere with the client's ability to meet or talk.
hypercapnia or hypoxemia -Relatively comfortable, permits some freedom of
Bradypnea (slow) -- drugs (morphine), metabolic alkalosis, movement.
increased ICP -Well-tolerated by the client.
Apnea -- patay -Delivers oxygen 24% to 45% of flow rates of 4 to 6 LPM
Remember: the brain (cerebral cortex) could only last for
3 to 5 mins without oxygen. Purposes
1. To deliver a relatively low concentration of oxygen in
Hyperventilation-rate and depth increases only minimal oxygen is required.
-more CO2 eliminated then produced. 2. To allow uninterrupted delivery while the client's on
KUSSMAUL's breathing-compensate by giving off excess food or fluids.
body acids
Nursing considerations
HOW? 1. Put the cannula over the clients face of the outlet
Deep rapid breathing prongs getting into the nares and the elastic band around
the head.
Orthopnea-inability to breathe except in an upright 2. If the cannula will not stay in place, ticket at the sides
position. of the face.
3. Pad the tubing and band over the years and
Dyspnea-cardiac or respiratory disorder cheekbones as needed.

Deep breathing and coughing Facemask


-indicated for clients with restricted chest expansion -- -covers the client's nose and mouth
COPD -delivers oxygen concentration from 40% to 60% at liter
goal: to raise secretions allotting the clients expectorate flows of 5 to 8 LPM.
her swallow
Partial rebreather. The delivers oxygen concentration of
80% to 90% at liter flows of 6 to 10 LPM.

Non-rebreather. Delivers highest oxygen concentration


possible, 95% to 100% by other than intubation or
mechanical ventilation, 10-15 L/min.

Venturi Mask
delivers oxygen concentration varying from 24% to 40%
to 50% at liter flows of 4 to 10 LPM

Nursing considerations
-guide the mask to where the client space and apply it
from the nose downward. Fit the mask to the contours of
the face.
Rationale: the mask should mold to the phase so that very
little oxygen escapes into the eyes around the cheeks and
chin.

Face tent
-to provide high humidity
-to provide oxygen with Damascus poorly tolerated.
-To provide a high flow of oxygen when attached to a
venturi system.

Nursing consideration: place the tent over the client space


and secure the ties around the head.