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The sacrifice of a celestial horse.

(Ahsvamedha)
(Brihadaaranyaka Upanishada, first chapter, first Brahmin---with
original texts in English fonts and meanings.)
(First edition.)
(Written following the teaching of my Gurus, the great seer
BijoyKrishna Chattopaadhyaaya (1875-1945) and his principle
disciple Tridibnath Bandopaadhyaaya (1923-1994).)

Note: Sanskrit words which are written in italics in this article are
the i-trans version of Devanagari (Sanskrit) Text and can be read
in the Sanskrit English Lexicon by Sir Monier Williams available in
the internet at < http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/monier/
>

Introduction----Animal Sacrifice.
The article here is on the first chapter and first part of
Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad. The seer or Rishi of this Upanishad is
yaj~navalkya and he has described how the self-revealing, active
eternal Consciousness is existing in the physical form as the earth
and the Universe, and how the Consciousness after creating us, is
carrying us back beyond the death.

It is said that the Consciousness carries us back as a horse. In this


presentation, the meaning and significance of ‘horse sacrifice’ has
been explained. In this chapter of the Upanishad, it has not been
told where the Consciousness carries us, i.e. whether the
destination is the place ‘beyond death’. However, elsewhere in
Chandogya and Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad it is explicitly
mentioned that as a ‘horse’, the praaNa or mukhya (principal)
praaNa carries us beyond the death.

The intention of the seers was not to camouflage what they wanted
to tell from their experience by using allegories. Their words
inherently carry the entirety of an expression as they know the
mysteries of the words. By the word horse, he sees the
‘Consciousness running as time and pulling all of us as well as the
animal named horse.

They have taught us how the expressing Consciousness has


become the universe itself including all of us. Thus, they know how
the Consciousness or the expressions or words of Consciousness
have become physical. The expressing Consciousness has been
described as of two personalities, vaak (female) and praaNa
(male). vaak shapes praaNa in all the forms, which we perceive as
the universe. So, the formed and processed words are called
‘vakya’ or formation of vaak.

So, every object, every event, every moment and every being is the
‘word’ of Consciousness. When they (the seers) say ashva or
horse, their saying contains the knowledge of how the expressing
Consciousness has become ashva or a horse. Thus, the word at
the root is not confined to only a four-hoofed animal called ‘horse’.
The word defines and describes all the aspects of Consciousness
that represents the ashva; a horse is called ashva because such
aspects are naturally visible in it.

Similarly, all the religious rituals laid down by the seers, express the
function and work of the Universal consciousness. The description
of ashvamedha (ritual in which a horse is sacrificed) is one such.

Here, below, we have briefly presented the mysteries behind animal


sacrifice which we have learnt from our guru, the great seer
BijoyKrishna Chattopadhaya (lived from 1875-1945 and known as
Howrah’s Thakur—god of the place called Howrah where he lived).

Some of the family members advised Rishi BijoyKrishna to


abandon the ritual of animal sacrifice. Animal sacrifice used to be
carried out only during the Kali puja (worship of the goddess Kali)
which was performed in the ancestral house of the Rishi (seer) in
the village called Nikash. One of the reasons why Rishi
BijoyKrishna did not interfere with the same could be because the
ritual of animal sacrifice was in practice by several generations of
his family. Sacrifice was also performed by the Rishi during the puja
(worship) of the goddess Durgaa and the goddess Vishwamaataa
(Universal Mother goddess) in Howrah every year. In these puja-s
(worships) a vegetable called ‘ash gourd’ (winter melon)
representing the sacrificial animal(pashu) was used and is still
being used by his followers. (The reason for not using an animal in
his puja could be two—(i) sacrifice is meant for destructing the
animal instincts by attaining the divinity and which was his action on
his disciples leading them to divinity; (ii) death fearing persons tend
to get upset or confused if a live animal is sacrificed.) However, in
his preaching, he has addressed the mysteries behind ‘animal
sacrifice’ and here is a quote from his sayings on a November day
in the year of 1934:

Quote
“Human beings follow the laws of karma (transformation and
consequences due to one’s desire, determination and consequent
actions or deeds)), but this is not the case with creatures which are
lower than the human beings in the domain of evolution (to
eternity). So, such creatures do not have to go through the rules of
karma (deeds and their effects) as experienced by the human
beings. After their deaths, they (animals) are transformed to the
other states of existence in a very straightforward manner and fast.
They usually are reborn within 10 to 15 days of their death. This is
unlike the case for human beings, whose rebirth happens after
several years. The human beings, after their deaths, pass through
various stages of existence or states and experiences and this is as
per their living on the earth. This is not the case with animals and
lower beings. Such animals or beings cannot stay in the higher
planes of existence as they are driven by nature or instincts and not
by karma (or by the considerations of vice and virtues, right and
wrong); thus, they are not responsible for their deeds.
In what a crafty way, the Mother (Universal consciousness)
transfers them (from life to death and to rebirth)! In the economy of
nature, the mighty one devours or kills those which are small and
weak; so many die by the turmoil of nature or by floods and by
some other destructive events; majority die like this. When they are
killed like that, the picture of the death scene is drawn and
imprinted very vividly in their heart. Consider an ant is being
devoured by a frog. During that time, the ant may be feeling that if it
would have had the piercing stings it could have stung the frog or if
it would have had the fast running capability it could have run away
from the frog. This heart rendering feeling during the death is
created in it by the Mother and following this feeling during the
death its (ant’s) rebirth happens accordingly.
Animals do not experience any consequences for their deeds after
their death. If they are slaughtered, they are reborn as evolved
creatures (rising up in the ladder of evolution).

(Note: The intense feelings during the death becomes the cause of
the transformation or evolution after the death. The ant so died,
may become an insect that can fly away or may become another
creature that can run away fast or a creature that can fight with a
frog. Thus, it gets some new features and some of its previous
capabilities are enhanced. This is how its rebirth is determined and
evolution happens.)
However, human sacrifice is a completely different subject. By
sacrifice, it is possible to raise a person to a level of higher being, if
the one carrying out the sacrifice can merge with the person to be
sacrificed and take control over him. However, if it is not carried out
properly, the person thus sacrificed will be debased due to the
sudden termination of life.

Ritual of human sacrifice is not a doctrine mentioned in the Vedas;


indeed, in some of the Tantric rituals it has been described but, it
carries no value at all.

So, this is all about vali (sacrifice). The performer, who has to
perform the sacrifice, is only eligible to do so if he possesses a very
strong determination that can act on the animal (to be sacrificed)
and uplift it to a higher being.

The seers (Rishi-s) have never performed any thing for their sole
benefit.
Rishis who are omniscient, cannot introduce a ritual (animal
sacrifice) which actually is an act of atrocity during the worship of
the goddess, which is the sheer slaughter of an innocent animal or
which is an act of barbarism under the guise of religion.
They (the seers) would never have prescribed animal sacrifice if
there would not be a real auspicious intention behind the same.
Those who are death-fearing, they will never understand the
underlying mysteries behind the ritual of animal sacrifice.

The Rishis (seers) have symbolized the gist of the whole Vedas
through the ritual of animal sacrifice established by them. This was
same as the offering soma to the gods. Sacrifice or vali means to
lift someone from the animalism (animal instincts) to the divinity.

The deities called Fire, Air and Sun were animals. They performed
the yaj~na (sacrifice--- the act of getting joined to the divinity) by
using their animalhood and thus they have become eternal. I myself
will do the yaj~na by my humanity and by that only I will
become eternal. In such a sacrifice, you will remain living even if
you are killed----“tasmat (that’s why) yaj~nae (in yaj~na) vadho
(slaughter) avadho (is not the slaughter)”----that’s why in yaj~na
killing does not kill !
Unquote

(Note---etymological meaning of yaj~na----ya + j~na; ya= ya (who)


+ j~na (know / knowledge)---(i) who knows or the Universal knower
or Universal Consciousness; (ii) the act or the ritual to know ‘who
knows everything’; (iii) ya (joining/ join) + j~na (knower/
knowledge)---joining the knower or the Universal Consciousness;
(iv) ya (restraining or controlling) + j~na (knower/knowledge)---act
of control by knowing or by knowledge or by Consciousness.)

During one of the pujas (worships), he (Guru) mentioned, ‘valaaya


(since strength is achieved) vali (vali) ucahhte (is said)—since one
gets strength (vala) through sacrifice, so it is called ‘vali’.

Getting into divinity is getting strength, because then one gets


emancipated from the tentacles of physicality and one dominates
over physicality. Physicality becomes a part of the Consciousness,
to the one who gets into divinity. Consciousness controls the
physicality.

vala is called strength or force. By force the change in motion or


change of state is done. This is praaNa or Active Consciousness
and also called ‘kaala’ or ‘time’.

In vali, the head (shira) is to be severed (Cheda) from the body


(decapitation) because the head or the face is the seat of the
Consciousness who controls and reveals. The rest of the body
represents the physicality.
We are not going here into further details on the mantras and
methods of vali. Except that a few mantras related to vali referred
above are quoted below:

(i) (the sacred words addressed to the animal to be sacrificed


during the vali)

agnih (agni) pashuraasIt (was an animal)

The deity called agni (god of Fire) was an animal.

tena (by that /by the animalism itself) ayajanta (performed


yaj~na----joined with the divinity)

He performed the sacrifice (yaj~na) by it (by his animal-hood


—by connecting animalism to divinity).

sa (he) aetam (this) lokam (domain/ abode) ajayat


(conquered)

He (agni) conquered this domain (kingdom of the deity agni).


(He attained the state of the deity agni.)

yasmin (where is) agni (agni) sa(that) te (yours) loko


(location / abode) bhavishyati (will become)

Wherever the deity agni is, that shall be your abode.

tam (you) yeShyasi (will excel)

You will excel.

piva (drink) aetah (this) aapah (water/ spirit).


Drink this water (which will lead you to ‘agni’).

Similar hymns are chanted for the animal with reference to


the deity vaayu (Air) and sUrya (Sun).

Thus, the animal is raised to the basic plane of divinity. This


is because, the three main deities (as mentioned in
Upanishad) are agni or vaak, vaayu or praaNa, sUrya or
manas (mind) who are invoked as stated above.

(ii) yaj~naarthe (for the sake of yaj~na) pashavha (the animals)


sRiShTaa (are created) yaj~naarthe (for the sake of yaj~na)
pashu (the animals) ghaatanam (are slaughtered)

atostam (hence you) ghaatayiShami (I will kill) tasmat (since)


yaj~ne (in yaj~na) vadho (killing) avadhah (is not killing/
does not lead to death).

The animals are created for the sake of yaj~na.

The animals are slaughtered for the sake of yaj~na.

Hence, I will kill you, since in yaj~na killing does not kill one.

Brihadaaranyaka Upanishada, first chapter, first Brahmin.)

This is the first Brahmin (braahmaNa) of the first chapter of


Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad. Each part is called a braahmaNa or a
form of brahma. brahma means the Universal Consciousness who
is expanding, and exceeding everyone. The word brahma is from
the root word bRih meaning ‘to expand’ or ‘to grow’.

praaNa is the active form of Universal Consciousness. praaNa =


pra (principal) + aNa (animation). Everything is animated and
changing due to praaNa. Where there is no activity, where all
energy is at rest, there is nothing but the soul or the assertion-
less self or aatman or Universal Oneness and from there praaNa
originates.

Who is mentioned as praaNa in veda (aagama) is the same one


who is mentioned as kaala in tantra (nigaama). ‘kaala’ is felt by
us as ‘time’.

Now ‘aatman’ is also called ‘sva’ (‘svayam’ ) and ‘kaala’ time is


called ‘shva’. Also, the word ‘ashva’ means ‘praaNa’. However,
commonly, the word ‘ashva’ means ‘a horse’.
The words ‘sva’ and ‘shva’ both represents two fundamental
states of the Universal Consciousness. ‘sva’ means ‘su + a’---
meaning the One who is characterized by bliss or ‘sukha’.
‘su + a’ also means flow (su ) of a(aatman)—flow of the Universal
soul. This flow is praaNa.

‘shva’ means ‘shu + a’—meaning that is characterized by ‘shakti’ or


energy or motion. The word ‘shu’ is from the root word ‘shav’,
which means ‘to change’. Thus, ‘shva’ is the power or shakti of the
Universal Consciousness by which the Consciousness brings
about changes.

So, as stated above, ‘sva’ and ‘shva’ are both the properties of the
Universal Soul or the Universal Consciousness who is the origin
of everything, cause of everything and the element (constituent)
of everything. One state of the Universal Consciousness is
absolute Oneness or absolute bliss and the other state of the
Universal consciousness is active, emitting energy, multiplying
the Oneness into duality, into many. Though One, the
Consciousness is becoming different, becoming dual and still
remaining the One. There is nothing other than the Universal One
and so it is the Universal One as activity, as energy is bringing
change in everything. By this activity, by this flow of energy we
are travelling from childhood to maturity, from maturity to old
age and so on. We call this aging---but this is praaNa (when we
feel it inside) and we call ‘kaala’ or time in external sense This is
behind the process of cycles of creation, existence and
termination; in this process, each of us is evolving.

The activity of the Universal Consciousness is creating many out


of One; everyone, every entity that is created is being taken back
by the Universal Consciousness in the Universal Oneness. Thus,
with each creation there is a motion of the creature toward the
source. This is appearing as the evolution of every entity and this
is appearing as the multiple cycles of ‘birth, existence and death
and re-birth….’

This active Universal Consciousness or praaNa’ is in us and that’s


why we are animated. Thus, Vedas have hailed praaNa as
‘aa~Ngirasa’ meaning rasa or the elixir or marrow of the anga or
body. This Universal Consciousness or praaNa as the universe is
always keeping us live and conscious by revealing Himself/
Herself in us as sound, touch, light, taste and smell; nourishing
us. praaNa is flowing in us as the senses and becoming our part
and parcel. This is ‘medhaa’ or ‘sap’ or ‘marrow’—becoming our life
in us, our vitality. Following this aspect of ‘praaNa’ or ‘ashva’, the
word ‘ashvamedha’ has been created. Thus ‘praaNa’ is sacrificing
in us, and this is called ‘ashvamedha’ and the ritual of horse
sacrifice is based on this.

In the other way, our running around riding the horses (which are
our sensory organs and other associated organs) is by the
inspirations or by the controlling action of the ‘praaNa’. As we
realize that our motions in the senses are by the action of the
‘Universal sense’, we also realize that our senses and actions are
parts of the senses and actions of praaNa or of Universal
Consciousness. Thus, these horses (the eyes, ears etc.) start
merging in the Universal Consciousness; so, this is also ‘sacrifice’.
This sacrifice ultimately leads us beyond death, beyond decay.
The senses don’t decay and die any more. The senses become
super i.e. the senses transcend death or limitation; so, then what
is unheard is also heard, what is unseen is also seen, what is
unknown is also known.

This ‘knowledge’ is worshipped by performing the ceremony of


‘horse sacrifice’ or ‘ashva medha yaj~na’, a ceremony used to be
famous in those days of Vedic era. The seers have narrated in the
veda that this Universal Consciousness, that this praaNa is
carrying us as ‘horse’ (haya / ashva) from the death to the
eternity. Further, they ( in Upanishad ) have named this praaNa
as the goddess ‘dUr ’because the death remains away from her.
‘dUr’ means distance in Sanskrit. The ‘death’ always remains at a
distance from the goddess. The goddess ‘durga’ is the goddess
‘dUr’. Upanishad has mentioned ‘mRityu (death) aetasmat (from
her) dUram (distance) gacchati(goes)’ (the death goes away from
her). These two words ‘dUram’ (distance) and ‘gachhati’ (goes
away) together make the word ‘dUrga’. Even these days the
goddess ‘durga’ is worshipped in India and the knowledge on
which this worship is founded is the same knowledge on which
the ‘horse sacrifice’ or ‘ashva medha yaj~na’ is based.
Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad is a part of shukla yajur veda. yajur
means ‘joining’. That we are connected to the Universal
Consciousness and that Universal Consciousness is connected to
us---- this joining, communication and correspondence of the
praaNa or Universal Consciousness is the foundation of all the
sacred words laid in yajur veda. In the form of sound, touch,
vision, taste and smell, the senses are coming from the external
or from the Universal Consciousness to us and thus praaNa is
entering in us and getting in us all the time. In a reciprocating
manner, we are getting active, using our sensory and associated
organs to interact with the external world and getting merged
with the external or with the Universal Consciousness. This is
how praaNa is merging in us and we are also merging in praaNa.
This is sacrifice. Both the motions, praaNa coming in us and we
going to praaNa are represented in us as ‘in
breathing’ (nishvaasa) and out breathing (prashvaasa). Both are
the steps of the horse, ‘ashva’. Also, the regulations of these two
and fro motions are controlled by two deities who are twins and
known as ashvin (meaning related to ‘ashva or horse’ or
‘possessing horses’). All illness can be healed by the praaNa; all
illness praaNa can heal by praaNa’s regulation in us. This provides
the clue as to why the ashvin-s have been described as the divine
doctors in the Vedas. They replaced the head of the seer
‘dadhikraa’ by a ‘horse head’ so that the seer becomes eligible to
receive ‘madhuvidya’ (the knowledge of the sweetness of
Universal Consciousness) from ‘indra.
Thus, praaNa is merging in us, becoming our life, our spirit, our
‘being’. This spirit, this elixir or this juice is ‘medha’. Accordingly
the Vedas have hailed praaNa as ‘angirasa’ meaning ‘angam (of
the limbs) rasa (juice, spirit)----the spirits of the organs and limbs.
praaNa is sacrificing by becoming our ‘medha’. By getting
ourselves active in the ‘praaNa’ we are sacrificing ourselves to
praaNa. In this way we are automatically crossing the boundary
of our limitations, evolving and getting merged in the Universal
Consciousness or praaNa.
It is noteworthy that the goddess ‘durga’ also belongs to ‘yajur
veda’.

The name of an animal has been given by the seers by observing


how the Universal Consciousness or praaNa is active in it
characterizing the creature---i.e. the name characterizes how the
divinity is present in the creature to characterize the animal.
Like, in a horse, the strength and vitality, motion, the habit of
carrying, all time activeness, firmness etc. are quite vivid. Thus,
the species named ‘horse’ is called ‘ashva’. For similar reasons, a
dog in Sanskrit is called ‘shva (time/kala/praaNa)’. It is because a
dog follows its master religiously. They always follow the rules of
the ‘time’ or the ‘master’. May be the word ‘dogma’ was created in
the same sense. Similarly, a predator is called ‘shvaapada’. Like
the time (shva) runs after us (pada—foot) and snatches away our
life at some (pre-determined) moment, like predator {pre—dat(e)-
or} following its prey and devouring it.

(It is noteworthy that the root word shvi means ‘to swell’ and
implies the growing Consciousness. Thus in Brihadaaranyaka, the
seer has mentioned the swelling or growing of the Consciousness
by the word ‘ashvat’ (derived from the verb shvi) meaning
‘inflated or swelled in a sphere’ and has related it to the word
‘ashva’….Brihadaaranyaka—1/2/7.)

Like we are created with forms and definition, with bodies and
limbs by the Universal Consciousness, similarly this expressed
Universe is the existence of praaNa as a personality with
appearance, with body, organs and limbs. As praaNa is limitless,
unbounded, so is the knowledge and vision of the seers who
know praaNa. Thus RiShi, the seer yaaj~navalka, narrated
seamlessly the body and organs of a horse and those of the
Universal consciousness (as the formed universe) in one go in
this part of the Upanishad (upaniShad).

bRihadaaraNyaka upaniShad is a part of the branch (shaakhaa)


named ‘yaaj~navalka’ which is also the name of the seer who has
narrated this part and many other parts of bRihadaaraNyaka
upaniShad.
Below is quotation on yaj~navalkya from my guru --- the great
seer ‘BijoyKrishna Chattopadhyaaya’

Quote
‘There are two parts in the word ‘yaaj~navalka’----yaaj~na and
valka’. One is yaj~na= ya (who) + j~na (knower)---the One who is
knower (Consciousness is knowing and everything is the form of
the knowledge of Consciousness) and valka meaning bark of a
tree (embracing the trunk and stems) i.e. the universe or the
creation embracing the creator (knower). It is just not j~na (the
knower, the Consciousness who is knowing) it is along with valka’
(bark or the creation or formation out of the ‘knowing’); it cannot
happen just with j~na (the knower), it has to be also with valka
(the bark or the creation); the tree dies if the bark is removed.
Thus this name (yaj~navalka) connects two----the knower and the
knowledge i.e. the knower and the universe embracing the
knower; for this reason yaj~navalka had two gurus (teachers)
named vaishampaayana and aditya. yaj~navalka thus had
everything in pair. Not only two gurus, he had two wives ---
kaatyaayanI and maItreI ‘kaatyaayanI’ means –kati (so many)
ayana ( forms)---in how many forms you are there! And, mayItreI
is the Shakti (power or consort) of ‘mitra’ or ‘aditya’.

( Note: mitra and aditya are the names of the sun. aditya is the
son of aditi {who is without duality)}. Sun is also called aditya
(the center of oneness) because everyone is synchronized to the
sun or the center of oneness.)

katayanI means ‘so many forms, shapes and hues!’.


(katayanI is the Universal Consciousness as expressed universe in
many forms, dimensions and shapes; maItreI is the Universal
Consciousness who is holding or regarding the universe in
Oneness (aditya))
yaj~navalkya’s teachings are also of two types---‘brahma exists in
two forms’ dve vaavo brahmaNo rupe’ (‘there are two forms of
brahma’). Further he composed two Vedas ---kriShNa yajur veada
and shukla yajur veda.

One day yaj~navalkya announced: “maItreI now I will depart for


the wilderness! Then he decided to distribute his properties
between his two wives. But maItreI told ----I don’t need anything;
let everything remain with kaatyaanI, I am going to accompany
you.
Let kaatyaaNI remain as kaatyaaNI—let the world continue to
remain as world---I will enter in the Oneness---tat vanam iti
upaasitavyam’ (He is to be worshipped as the great wilderness---
within which everything grows).’
Unquote
(The above is quoted from veda-vaaNI---26th volume, page 37-45.)

We present below the original text of the first Chapter first part
(braahmiN) with word by word meaning and brief explanation by
following the teaching that we have learnt.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------
shaanti mantra
(Words those bring peace.)
oM purNamadha
(oM, that is whole)
purNamidam
(This is whole)
purNaat purNam udachatye
(From the whole emerges the whole)
purNasya purNam aadaya
(When the whole is taken out of the whole)
purNameva avaShishyate
(What is left is indeed the whole.)
oM shaantiH oM shaantiH oM shaantiH
(oM peace be there, oM peace be there, oM peace be there)

First Brahmin (Chapter) {prathama braahmaNa }

1.1.1

(a) om uShaa vaa ashvasya medhyasya shiraH

om (Om) uShaa (Ushaa is) vai (verily) ashvasya (horse’s)


medhyasya (sacrificial) shiraH (head).

om uShaa (the goddess of dawn) is verily the head of the


sacrificial horse.

(b) sUryashchakShUrvaataH praaNo


sUryah (The sun is) chakShuH (the eye); vaataH (the air is)
praaNaH (praaNa or the life).

The sun is its eyes; the air is the life (praaNa) flowing in it.

(c) vyaattamagnirvaishvaanaraH
vyattam (the gaped mouth is) agniH (the Fire) vaishvaanaraH

The gaped mouth is the Fire vaishvaanara.

(d) saMvatsara aatmaashvasya medhyasya.


saMvatsaraH (a full year) aatmaa (soul /nature) ashvasya (of the
horse) medhyasya (sacrificial).

The annual cycles are due to habitual action of the sacrificial


horse.

( e) dyauH pRiShThamantarikShamudaraM

dyauH (the divinity) pRiShTham (is posterior); antarikSham (the


inner sky) udaram (is stomach)

The heaven (divinity) is its posterior; the inner sky is its stomach.

(f) pRithivI paajasyam


pRithivI (the earth is) paajyasyam (the hoofs)
The earth is its hoofs.

(h) dishaH paarshve avaantaradishaH parshava

dishaH (the directions) paarshve (are the sides) avantara (other or


intermediate) dishaH (directions) parshavaH (the other sides /
ribs)

The directions are its sides; the intermediate directions are its
ribs.

(i) Ritavo a~Ngaani maasaashchaardhamaasaashcha


parvaaNyahoraatraaNi pratiShThaa

RitavaH (the seasons are) a~Ngaani (body and the limbs)


maasaH (the months) cha (and) ardhamaasah (fortnights) cha
(and) parvaaNi (the layers) ahaH (the day) raatraNi (the nights)
praaTiShThaa (status)

The seasons are the limbs; the months and the fortnights are the
layers; the days and the nights are its status.

(j) nakShatraaNyasthIni nabho maaMsaani


nakshatraaNi (the stars are) asthIni (the bones); nabhaH (the
atmosphere) maaMsaani (the flesh)

The stars are its bones; the atmosphere is its flesh.

(k) UvadhyaM sikataaH

UvadhyaM (the undigested foods are) sikataaH (the sands)


Uvadhya---U / Una (not) + vadhya (killed or digested);

The undigested foods are the sands.

(l) sindhavo gudaa

sindhavaH (the rivers are the) gudaa (guts /channels/entrails )

The flowing rivers are the channels and entrails.

(m) yakRichcha klomaanashcha parvataa

yakRit (the liver) cha (and) klomanaH (colon) cha (and) parvataaH
(the hills)

The liver and the colon are the hills and rugged terrains.

(n) oShadhayashcha vanaspatayashcha lomaani


oShadhyaH (the herbs and plants) cha vanaspatyaH (trees
providing shelters) cha (and) lomaani (body hairs)

The plants, herbs and the nurturing trees are the body hairs.

(o) udyan pUrvaardho

udyan (rising—rising sun) pUrva (eastern /frontal) ardhaH (half)


part

The rising sun is its frontal part.

(p) nimlocha~njaghanaardho

nimlochana (going down—setting sun) jaghana (hind) ardhaH (half


/ part

The descending or the setting sun is its hind part.

(q) yadvijRimbhate tadvidyotate

yad (that) vijRimbhate (it yawns) tad (that is) vidyotate (lightning)

That it yawns, that is the lightning.


(r) yadvidhUnute tat stanayati
yad (that) vidhUnute (it shakes the body and brushes off dust) tat
(that) stanayati (rumbling of clouds)

That it brushes the dirt (off the skin), that is the rumbling of
clouds.

(s) yanmehati tadvarShati

yad (that) mehati (it effuses) tad (that) varShati (rains)

That it effuses is the rain.

(t) vaagevaasya vak


vaak (vak—the shakti or the goddess who is the root of all words
or expression) aeva (indeed) asya (its) vaak (words).
vaak (the goddess who is the root of all words) is its vaak (vaakya
—words---formed or processed words.)

vaak indeed is its vaak.

nirukta ---Inner meaning

{ nirukta ---niH (nija / soul) + ukta(uttered)—Uttered by the soul


(Revealed in the soul) }
1) om— When the universal soul ( universal oneness) { whom
everyone is feeling as one’s (assertion-less) self or one’s
soul} expresses, the first expression is ‘om’. The first
expression of the Consciousness is the ‘word’. This is why
everything in this world has a name, has a definition. In this
first word ‘om’, exist whatever can be expressed by a word or
a sound. In this expression ‘om’ exist whatever was created,
whatever is being created, whatever will be created.

In Chandogya Upanishad, ‘om’ has been also described as an


‘anuj~naa (granting) akShara (word)’ or as an ‘OK’ from the
Universal Consciousness.

2) ashva---‘ashva’ means the one from whom ‘shva’ or the


‘time’ is flowing out---it is the source of time and time in
action. As stated earlier ‘shva’ means ‘time’. Some connected
words are ‘parashva’ meaning ‘day after tomorrow’, or
‘nashvara’ means ‘momentary or mortal’.

The animal in whom the aspects of time like motion, strength,


rigidity, ‘being always on feet’ etc. are vivid are also called ‘ashva’
or ‘horse’.
When the ‘Absolute One’ or the ‘Universal Soul’, whom everyone
feels as one’s (assertion-less) self, becomes active, the active
form is called ‘praaNa’ (the life-god). This activity is animation in
us. praaNa is ashva.
3) medhya—medhya means who or what can ‘merge’--- who
enters us and mixes with us and merges in us. This Universal
Active Consciousness, who is the dynamism, life, animation,
vibration everywhere, in every being, who is always entering
in us as our senses, as sound, touch, vision, taste and smell
and merging in us, becoming our ‘medhaa’, our sap, our
vitality, our ‘being’.

4) uShaa---uShaa means who makes everyone uSh~na or warm


by the fervor of consciousness or life. uShaa is also the
goddess of dawn. uShaa is the one who ushers everything in
us. Everything dawns in us by her. Thus, uShaa is the head of
ashva or praaNa because this dawn, this rise from the
darkness or transition from death to light or to eternity is the
first thing which dawns in us as we approach praaNa.

5) sUryaH (sun) chakShuH (eye)—the sun is its eyes.

sUrya (sun)= sU (sUchana= beginning, start) + Ri (motion and


vision or dimension) + ya (yamana= control)-----by whom
everything or every event is initiated, and then it is set in motion
and then it is provided with dimensions or a form (or a vision is
created) and also who is the controlling center of this initiation
and formation.
chakShu (eye)---cha +kSha +u;
cha= chamana (act of sipping)
kSha= kSharaNa= to flow, to decay, flow of time
chakShu= center from which everything is flowing out and
whatever is flowing out is also sipped and tasted---this is eye (in
us) or the sun (in the external space) where our feelings or
visions are created and accordingly we are moving or flowing in
the stream of time. Where all our feelings are flagrant, are
revealing splendidly, that centre is called ‘eye’. This flagrant,
revealing aspect of the eye or the Consciousness is called vision
and is appearing as the sun in the physical space or the sky. The
feelings in us and the consequent changes and formation of us
by the feelings are controlled in the centre called moon. Thus,
moon is called ‘soma’ and is the centre where all soma or elixir or
the feelings are stored. It (the moon internal and in external) is
the centre of feelings. The light of the sun is absorbed and
reflected by the moon and it becomes its own light, similarly the
senses coming in us from the Universal Consciousness is getting
absorbed in us and is constructing us, merging with us. Thus,
there is an expression of Consciousness called ‘vision’ and there
is ‘feeling or knowing’ everything that is being expressed or
created in consciousness---this is the ‘sipping of soma’. So indra,
the divine or the eternal observer is called ‘somapaayI’ which
means the one who drinks ‘soma’.
In Brihadaaranyaka Upanishada, yaj~navalkya has said that the
entity or the one who is residing in the eye is called ‘indha’ as
well as indra’.
indha means who is flagrant or illuminated, i.e. who is revealing.
indra means ‘idam (it) + dra (draShTRi—observer /seer), i.e. who is
observing whatever is being reveled. Thus, indra is feeling or
knowing or regaling every revelation.

As mentioned above, there is a component, ‘kSh(a)’ in the word


‘chakShu’. ‘kSha’ means ‘kSharaNa’ or decay or the action of time.
The connected word ‘khaNa’ means ‘moment’. Thus, the revealing
source of time in us is our ‘eyes’ and is the sun in the external
space.
This is why the Vedic word ‘IkShaNa’ (I + kShaNa) means to see as
well as ‘action of time’.

6) vaataH praaNah---vaata or air is the ‘flowing life’ or


‘praaNa’.The word vaata is from the root word ‘vaat’ meaning
‘flow of air’. It is the flowing Consciousness, who is internally
flowing in everyone. In the external it is called air or vaayu.
Inside it is life or aayu. Its nature is to exercise (to flow) and
maintain connectivity. Thus, god vaayu (Air) has been
mentioned in the first hymn of yajur (joining) veda, implying
‘joining’ or ‘connectivity’.

7) vyaattam agniH vaishvaanaraH


vyaatta—vyaatta means the gaped open mouth.
vyaatta—vi + aatta
vi---in different directions
aatta---seized, grasped
vyaatta---everything is grasped or taken within the gape of its
mouth.
The word mouth is ‘mukha’ in Sanskrit. mukha also means ‘chief’
or ‘principal’. The active Universal Consciousness or Universal
praaNa is called mukhya praaNa. mukha (mouth) is the seat of
mukhya praaNa. Mouth or mukha is the seat of all the sensory
organs. mukha----mu (mouth, source) + kha (sky) (inner sky) is the
source of all feelings or the seat of the feelings----from here all
the feelings are coming out or revealing.
From the sky or the void within the mouth, the words or the
senses are coming out as expressions. These words are the
expressions of the Consciousness and formed by the expressive
power or shakti called vaak who is the mother of all words.
Upanishad has mentioned vaak as the shakti of praaNa or shakti
of agni. agni is the ‘fire god’ or the ‘self-revealing dynamic
Consciousness’. It is for this reason vedas have cited ‘vaak vai
agni’ (vaak is agni ), ‘mukhat agnih ajayata’ ( agni or fire was
created from the mouth).
So here in this text, it is mentioned ‘vyaattam agniH’.

8) vaishvaanara—vishvaa + nara. vishvaa is derived from the


word vishva.
The word vishva means ‘universe’.
vishva---vi (in all directions) + shva (the flow of time or life,
breathing in all directions)----the spread of praaNa or
Consciousness in all directions.
nara means ‘a man’.
nara---na (certainly) + Ri (to move)
nara---through whom the Consciousness is spreading.
Another connected word ‘naari ’means ‘pulse’.
{In the Bengali (Bangla) language (one of the Indian languages
mainly comprising of Sanskrit words or words derived from
Sanskrit) the word ‘naraa’ means to ‘move’ or ‘to change state’.}
vaishvaanara : So, vaishvaanara means the Universal
Consciousness or the praaNa who has created every one and who
like the ‘spokes of a wheel’ (araa) is spreading or flowing in
everyone, in everything. vaishvaanara is the universal pulse.

9) saMvatsara (a full year) aatmaa ( is nature) ashvasya (of the


horse) medhyasya (who is sacrificial)

samvatsara---sama + vatsara.

sama = perfect or complete; something that is duly done;


something which is synchronized (sama =same) with the Soul.

vatsa means an offspring. vatsa= vat (like) + sa (saH—he/ she/it)---


like praaNa. A child resembles its parent.
samvatsara means a ‘full or complete year’ and is the time to rear
the child or offspring perfectly.

Whatever has been created from the Universal praaNa or the


Universal Consciousness is a part or fraction of the Universal
Consciousness (though each fraction is ‘whole’ also!). All such
parted souls are having separate identity. They are going back to
the source from where they are originated. The time taken for
this complete cycle is called samvatsara. It is the time duration in
which each parted soul returns to the source. This is why it is
stated that samvatsara is the ‘soul’ or the ‘nature’ of the
‘sacrificial horse’ because the habit of praaNa is to take back
every soul created or separated as duality into Oneness.

10)dyauH (the divinity, the heaven or the divine plane)


pRiShTham (backside).
dyau—dyu—div---divinity—is the plane from where the days are
getting revealed or it is the ‘plane of revelation’. The significance
of the word dyau/dyu/div is the revelation from the soul by the
soul, i.e. creation of duality without duality.

11) antarikSham (the inner sky) udaram (is the stomach)

antarikSham is the derivative of antarIkSha.


antarIkSha----antara (inner, inside) + IkSha/ IkShaNa (viewing, act
of time)---where everything is felt or seen inside; where
everything is achieved inside is the ‘inner sky’ or antarIkSha.
IkShaNa means ‘seeing, feeling, flowing of time’.

‘udaram’ is the derivate of the word ‘udara’ meaning stomach.


udara= ud (upward) + ara (going / spokes of a wheel). udara or the
stomach is the centre from where whatever we are acquiring
(foods) they are being energized and illumined and propelled
upward (toward the soul or oneness). Whatever we take, whatever
we eat, that gets digested here, the physical part goes to the
body/physicality/earth. The subtle parts go to our mind, to praaNa
(emotional or middle plane) and to vaak (the plane above the
emotions, where we are in the form of ‘words’ or ‘mantra’ (where
our instincts are seeded). The foods become shining by the touch
of Consciousness and are blazed in several colours. Thus, stomach
is called ‘manipura chakra’. ‘mani’ means ‘gems’. ‘pura’ means
‘abode’. ‘chakra’ means centre.

The ‘inner sky’, ‘anatarIkSha’ is the stomach or ‘udara’ of the


Universal praaNa or Universal consciousness, where we are all
held in Her/His inner shine (moon shine) or in ‘HER’. She / He is
holding us there ‘sans physicality’, ‘above the earth and
mortality’.

12) pRithivI (the earth is the) paajasyam (hoofs)


pRithivI (earth) is the one who gives everyone a ‘pRithak’ or
separate ‘identity’ or ‘status’. ‘pRithak’ means ‘separately’.

paajasyam (hoofs) is derived from the root word ‘paj’ meaning’ ‘to
solidify or to harden’. Like water freezing into ice, similarly
Consciousness burning as fire, revealing and driving everyone,
everything, every event and also called praaNaagni (praaNa+agni)
has cooled down and condensed as earth or physicality. So, the
hoofs are the ‘earth’. Further, the word ‘paajas’ means ‘shining’,
‘shining heaven and earth’ as well as it means the ‘rigidity or
resoluteness’. Like the hoofs of a horse which are rigid and solid,
which keep its feet protected from the reactions of motion and
from the weight of its body and enable it to remain always on the
feet steadily and sturdily, similarly the Universal Consciousness
has become the physicality, has become the earth and created
the foundation and stability of everyone. What is earth in the
external is the body in us.

13)dishaH (the directions) paarshve (are the sides) avantara


(other or intermediate) dishaH (directions) parshavaH (are
the other sides / ribs)

The inclination of Consciousness, the trend or direction, that


leads to the creation of ‘touch’ (sparsha) is called
‘side’ (paarshva). This is why our hands (the organs for touch or
sparsha) are located on the ‘sides (paarshva)’.

Example of intermediate direction: When you see a flower, the


direction (dik) toward flower is activated or that direction called
‘flower’ is created. Then the ‘colour’, ‘fragrance’, ‘shape’ of that
flower come to you or your corresponding senses are activated.
Thus, the other directions are created in the Consciousness. Then
you get involved in the flower, you get activated, and that is the
creation of space or dimensions (desha). The drive (inspiration)
you get toward flower is by praaNa or kaala. That in those
moments you are driven toward a flower and not toward a food is
driven by ‘time’ (kaala).

14) RitavaH (the seasons are) a~Ngaani (the limbs): The word
RitavaH is the plural of the word Ritu which means ‘the
seasons’.
Ritu is from the root word ‘Ri’. ‘Ri’ means ‘to flow’. The streams of
praaNa are the Ritu or the seasons. They flow to make us, our
definition, our body and limbs. Thus, the body or the limbs are
called ‘a~Nga’. a~Nga= am + ga. ‘am’ is the ‘teja’ or the radiant
Consciousness about to split.
‘ga’ is ‘go’ or motion. Thus from the radiance or ‘desire’ of the
Consciousness we are created and defined in shapes.
From praaNa, from ‘so called external, along the flow of time
(kaala) the senses and feelings which are coming to us in
streams, are broadly identified as six seasons. In the external sky,
the most prominent and physical center of this is the Sun from
whom we are getting our life along the years, seasons, months,
weeks days and nights. The seasons are six in numbers. (I do
remember in my childhood time, during late 50’s and early 60’s
we used to get all the six seasons in Bengal.) The number six /
ShaT (‘sex’ in Latin) represents ‘sweetness’ or ‘honey’. Thus, the
Mother Consciousness is imbuing us with streams of ‘honey’ or
‘soma’ in HER ceaseless care to raise every grain of the universe
to eternity. Whatever SHE (Consciousness) has created SHE knows
that as HER own form and as HERSELF. This is the sweetness—the
two hearts or triangles together making six.
Briefly we describe below the six seasons as they are working
within us following the explanation of our guru Shri. BijoyKrishna
Chattopadhaya:

(i) vasanta (Spring): When a sense or an event comes to


you, it shrouds you with it. It becomes your cover or
dress. This dress is called vasana. You sit on it or reside
in it. This seat or residence is vaasa.

(ii) gRiShma (Summer)—The word gRiShma is from the root


word gras meaning ‘to eat’, ‘to devour’. What comes to
you and covers you with a dress (Spring), you eat it. It
starts going into you. You get the heat or the spice or
calorie out of it.
(iii) varShaa (Rainy season, monsoon)----What you eat and
chew, it rains the taste in you. The more you chew it,
more you get into it. More its spirit, its juice, its
perceptions fill you. This is rain and you get wet.

(iv) sharada (Autumn)---As you digest the same, it becomes


your part, your constituent. You know it; you rely on what
you know or experience. It gives you a shelter or
reliance.

(v) hemanta (pre-winter)---- It is from the root word him or


hIM which is the expression of Consciousness that
represents ‘certainty’). (Refer ‘hIM/hImkaara in
Chandogya Upanishad). This is the maturity of your
knowledge or experience you get during ‘autumn’ as
mentioned in iv) above. This makes you certain on
something which you have learnt from experience or
‘knowing’.

(vi) shIta / shishira (Winter)--- Both the words are from the
root word shyai meaning ‘to congeal or to freeze. What
we learn through experience, finally it becomes frozen or
rock heard in us. It becomes our instinct. This is the
‘clear winter sky’. This is pitRiloka or the domain of the
divine fathers. This is the domain where our instincts are
located.

15) maasaaH (months) cha (and) ardhamaasaaH (fortnights) cha


(so/and) parvaaNi (layers): The months and the fortnights are the
layers of its body
Month and fortnight means a lunar month or the two lunar
periods of waxing and waning phases. Moon is that center of the
Universal consciousness from where or by whom the flow of
senses which merge in us is administered, regulated,
proportioned and absorbed. So, what is effusing from moon is
‘soma’ the elixir. The waxing and waning periods together make a
month or a maasa; the English word ‘together’ is ‘samaasa’ (sa +
maasa) in Sanskrit. We are waxing and waning in our reflections,
in our feelings; in the lunar dimension of ours and we are being
thus constructed. soma, elixir, is the flow of senses streaming
from the Universal Consciousness to blend in us.

16) ahaH (days) raatrani (nights) (are the) status.


The two words aha(day) and aham (I am) convey the same
meaning. This has been mentioned in Brihadaaranyaka
Upanishad.
aha (day) and aham (I am), both are the assertions of praaNa or
the Consciousness. In the morning, when we get up from the
sleep, the first thing that comes in the Consciousness is ‘I am’.
This revelation of praaNa, this revelation of active Universal
Consciousness has been described by the words ‘hanta aham’ in
Chandogya Upanishad. The word ‘hanta’ is an exclamatory
expression in Sanskrit and is derived as ‘aahaa’ in some Indian
languages. It is an ‘heart felt’ expression. It is notable that ‘hanta’
is also an exclamatory word in Japanese. From this exclamation
of the Universal Consciousness, the sense that we call ‘day’ or
‘aha’ and the sense that is called ‘aham’ (I am) are created in all
of us.

‘raatri’ (night) means ‘daatRi’ or ‘the goddess who gives us


everything’. Whatever we get throughout the day, whatever every
moment brings in us, it comes from the ‘kingdom of night’. The
black, obscurity contains everything that is perceived by us as
‘day’ or ‘revelation’ or ‘perception of senses’.

In us, at every moment, a sense or a feeling is coming and it is


getting replaced by another one. Thus, in every moment there is a
‘rise’ and there is a ‘setting’ of the sun or the Consciousness who
controls our time. This is why we are called ‘aho (day)-
ratro(night)-maya (characterized)’----beings characterized by ‘day
& night’. (This is also the root of ‘circadian rhythm’.)

17) nakshaatraaNi (the stars are) asThIni (the bones)


nakShatra---na (like /similar to) kShatra (kShatra---the kShatriya
race);

kShatra or kShatriya are those who protect others from kShata or


‘wound’. Thus, kShatriya is the name of the race of warriors
protecting others from invasion.

kShatra---kShahta (wound /decay) + tra (traaNa or relief)----who


relieves from wound or decay—who helps to see our immortal
soul. The stars and constellations are those personalities of the
Universal Consciousness, in whose locations aging mortality
(which are characters in planets) are absent or not felt. There it
is the endless day or constant revelation and time is not
characterized as the sequence of day & night (aho-raatro). These
stars, the self-revealing, radiating personalities of the Universal
Consciousness (under the leadership of Universal Moon or soma)
are making the constellations or geometries to refract or
modulate the abundant flow of soma (the rays flowing out of
moon) or the flow of senses (from the Universal Consciousness)
to everyone, to every destiny, thus making our destiny and fixing
our stay or status. This is ‘asthi’ or bones. asthi---as (ayam /this)
sthiti (stay)’.

18) nabhaH (the atmosphere) maaMsaani (the flesh)

nabho (the atmosphere) (are the) maaMsaani (fleshes):


‘maaMsaani’ meaning ‘fleshes’ is derived from the root word
‘maMsa’ meaning ‘flesh’.
This body, this physicality, is the formation of Consciousness. The
way the Consciousness is knowing, correspondingly the body and
the limbs are formed. Activity of Consciousness is ‘knowing’.
Everything is the ‘knowledge of Consciousness’---this physicality
has also been formed in the ‘knowledge’ or in the
‘Consciousness’. Thus, in every part of the body, the senses or the
words of the Consciousness are embedded. The stars are the
bones. nabha/nabhas (atmosphere) is the embrace of praaNa,
embrace of the Consciousness. Like the flesh embracing the
bones.

(maMsa = flesh----maM (mine) + sa (he/she)—She/he is mine.


Atmosphere = atmo---aatman (soul) + sphere—
sphuraNa(manifestation))

19) UvadhyaM sikataaH (the sands).


Uvadhya—U / Una (not) + vadhya (killed); Uvadhya means which is
not killed or digested.
sikataaH derived from the word ‘sikta’ which means ‘soaked’ and
the corresponding root word is ‘sic / sik ’. Whatever is still under
digestion or undigested foods in the belly of the ‘horse’ are the
sands.

20) sindhavah (the flowing rivers) gudaah (intestines).


The word sindhava is the plural of the word ‘sindhu’. ‘sindhu’
means the ‘flowing river’. sindhu is from the root word ‘sidh’.
‘sidh’ means ‘to flow towards the objective or toward what is
‘desired’. The objective of a river is to meet the ‘sea’. Thus in the
context of this meaning (confluence), ‘sindhu’ also means ‘sea’ in
addition to a ‘flowing river’.

gudaaH--- (intestines / channels);


guda----gut---gastrointestinal tract or channel. praaNa has laid
the channels to bring back the separated souls or to assimilate
whatever is of desire, whatever to be achieved / acquired. To
make it to merge, to bring back all the separated soul in the
Oneness, the channels are laid out by praaNa and are these
flowing rivers or ‘gudaH’.
(Bengali or Bangla language is a derived language from Sanskrit.
‘guda’ in Bengali means ‘vagina’. Vagina is the channel through
which we come out from the ONE or the Mother as a separate
entity and also it is the channel through which we can enter ‘HER’
who is ‘shakti’.
It may be noted that every part of the physical body represents
an aspect of the Universal Consciousness.)

21) yakRit cha klomanH cha (the liver and the colon) (are)
parvataH (hills)
‘yakRit’ means the ‘liver’. yakRit---yat (in line with) + kRit (deed or
performance).
The way you live, your future is constructed in that way. This is
‘karman’ (karma / deeds) and ‘phala’ (consequences). The way you
live or you perform, is actually the way you ‘feel or sense’ or the
way you are active in your Consciousness. The way you feel,
sense and digest, you are transformed accordingly and your
future is also taking the form accordingly. So, this is how the
‘liver’ or the center called ‘liver’ or ‘yaKrit’ in Consciousness is
working. The action of yakRit is to transform you as you digest;
how will you digest depends on such action and such action
depends on your deeds or how you live in your Consciousness.

klomana--- colon ----The function of colon is to purge or expel


what is unwanted It is noteworthy that stones are formed in
this part of the body when it does not function well.
It may be because of this feature as well as the channels, these
parts of the ‘horse’ have been termed as ‘parvata’ or ‘hills /
rugged terrain’ (and there must be more mysteries which are the
reasons behind word ‘hill’).

22) oShadhyaH (the herbs and plants) cha (trees providing


shelters) vanaspatyaH cha (and) lomaani (body hairs)
The plants, herbs and the nurturing trees are the body hairs.

oShadhi / oShadhI ---who holds or preserves the ‘oSh’ or the


uShmaa or warmth of praaNa (the Life god) and through whom
this warmth or vigour is entering us. This vigour is held
predominantly and explicitly by the vegetation and plants. The
lunar centre revealed as moon in the physical sky is the centre of
‘soma’ and controls the saps in the vegetation and plants and in
everywhere and in every being.
The herbs, the plants and creepers etc. are also called ‘oShadhi’
as the extracts from them make the medicine and heal the
ailments. By the regulation of praaNa or by oShadhi, the flow of
life in us becomes balanced and normalized; the disease is cured.

vanaspati---vanaH + pati ;
vanaH is derived from the word ‘vana’. ‘vana’ and ‘nava’ are
‘retroverted words’. Thus ‘vana’ means ‘old’ or ‘who does not
change’ and ‘nava’ means ‘new’. ‘vana’ means who is before
everyone or everything. The One who is ‘vana’, who is pristine and
before anyone, is the abode and shelter of all the beings. This is
why forests are also called ‘vana’ in Sanskrit. ‘pati’ means lord.
This ‘great forest’ is harbouring everyone of the Universe with its
great trees having sturdy trunks, spreading branches, flowers and
fruits and the roots ending in the eternity. This is why, in the
language of Sanskrit the magnificent trees are called ‘vanaspati’.

loma--The word ‘loma’ and ‘roma’ both mean ‘body hair’. The word
‘roma’ is from the root word ‘ruh’ meaning ‘to grow’. The growth
from the touch of Consciousness or praaNa is the air. The word
‘loma’ means ‘the one who is aligned with the flow’. Thus
‘anuloma’ means along the flow and ‘viloma’ means against the
flow. The body hairs represent this flow of sap, the undercurrent
of Consciousness on which the physicality has formed. The water
percolates through the soil, flows and spray life or soma and the
vegetation, herbs and plants sprout. Similar are the body hairs
and the body hairs of the ‘horse’.

23) udyan (rising –the rising sun) pUrva ardhaH (the front, frontal
part).

Everyone rises by the praaNa, by the drive of Consciousness.


When praaNa rises in a particular way in us or raises a thing or
an event in us, the direction ‘east’ is formed.
The desire of the Universal consciousness motivates or moves
everyone; time is created from this desire and also the days and
nights, diurnal motion. Whatever rises, whatever is rising, is the
frontal part of praaNa and the east--- the direction where the
face is located. (East is from the Sanskrit word iShTa meaning
‘desired’. The sun rises, praaNa rises, to bring the ‘desired’ in us.
(This is why the Sun god is called mitra meaning ‘friend’. Also he
is mitra because he embraces us with ‘oneness’).

24) nimlochana (going down—setting sun) jaghana (hind) ardhaH


(half / part).
nimlochana is derived from the word ‘nimlocha’ which means
‘setting of the sun’. The word ‘nimlocha’ is from the root word
‘mluch’ which means ‘to move downward’, ‘to bring to rest’.
The realm of the deity lord varuNa is ‘nimlochani’ The west is the
direction where the things remain covered Whenever a sense or
a feeling comes in us, rises in us, everything else gets covered or
shrouded at that moment. Suppose you are reading and then
someone calls you, you then get into that ‘call’ or the ‘call’ rises,
and the ‘reading’ sets down. This rising Consciousness is called
mitra. When the Consciousness covers or shrouds everything,
Consciousness is called varuna. varuNa is related to the word
aavaraNa meaning ‘a cover or a shroud’ and both the words are
from the root word vRi meaning ‘to cover or to conceal’. The
deities mitra and varuNa are paired Vedic deities.

‘jaghana’ means ‘part of the body that contains loins and hips’.
‘jaghana’ = ‘ja’ (generated) + ‘ghana (dense)’----from where the
‘density’ / ‘solidity’ or ‘physicality’ is generated.
Also, it means: ja (jala—water) + ghana (dense)---where water or
liquidity becomes dense and becomes the solid earth or
physicality. This vast expanse of water body, the oceans, which
belong to the kingdom of varuNa, are reigning over the
physicality and behind the changes of the hard rocks and the
soils---behind the formation and transformation of physicality.
What is earth in the external is same as the body in us. It is for
this reason, the ‘vagina’ is part of the ‘jaghana’, or in the region
of ‘loins and hips’; it is the place from where we come out from
the mother’s womb after the ‘water’ breaks and then we get
connected to the external earth or physicality. This setting sun is
the hinder part or the ‘jaghana’ of this celestial horse, of our
praaNa.

25) yad (that it) vijRimbhate (yawns) tad (that is) vidyotate
(lightning)

vijRimbhate is derived from the word ‘vijRimbhana’ meaning ‘to


yawn’. This word originates from the root word ‘jRimbh’. ‘Yawn’
reveals the ‘void’ or the ‘sky’. It reveals the state of ‘neutrality’
from where a ‘specified’ or a ‘defined’ thing or an event is
created. Thus, we yawn when we are sleepy or when we are bore
i.e. when there is no particular spirit in us. This ‘yawn’ is like our
‘inner sky’ getting extended or connected to the ‘outer sky’. This
‘void’, this ‘sky’ which is the same in external as well as in
internal is the neutral field behind every creation. This is not just
void or ‘inane’, it is the neutrality of the ‘Universal
Consciousness’. The sky is called ‘aakaasha’ in Sanskrit meaning
the ‘kaasha’ or radiance of ‘aa’ or ‘aatman’ or ‘soul’. (Thus the
physical space or void is full of energy.) Because of our obsession
in physicality we find this void as ‘inane’.
The root word ‘jRimbh’ mentioned above can be broken into ‘jRi’ +
‘ambha(s). The general meaning of the word ‘ambhas’ is ‘water’.
‘ambhas’ is ‘am’ (radiation, teja) + bha (bearing; bhRi means ‘to
bear’ or ‘to hold’.
‘ambhas’ is the ‘water bearing the heat’ or the ‘radiating water’ or
‘water that condenses or becomes rain to create what has been
radiated out of the desire of Consciousness’. It also means ‘the
cloud bearing water and electricity’.
jRi means ‘to come near, to approach’. Thus ‘jRimbh’ means to
move or approach to create or reveal or rain.
So the seer has said as it yawns it flashes ‘lightning’.

vidyotate---flashes electricity or lightning. vidyotate is derived


from the word ‘vidyut’ meaning ‘electricity’. The word ‘vidyut’ is
from the root word dyut’. ‘dyut’ means ‘to shine’ and also ‘to tear
apart’. Here in this sky, in this state of neutrality, the Universal
Consciousness flashes electricity. The creation exhibits ‘radiation’
and ‘splitting’, tearing apart the ‘oneness’ into duality. In the
word ‘vijRimbhana’ the word ‘vi ’ means ‘many’ or ‘various’. This
means, it (yawning) is the act of revealing the specifics of
‘praaNa’ or of ‘Universal Consciousness. Thus, specific creatures
and universes are created; thus is the multiplication of Oneness
into many.
For example, ‘whatever could be the kind of flower’, ‘whatever is
conveyed by the concept ‘flower’, whatever kind of flower was/is
and will be in anywhere and in any time, is seeded in the space
or the sky of flower’. In this ‘void’ or space all the ‘directions’ or
‘inclinations’ of praNa or Universal Consciousness are held in
equilibrium. This is why space is generally felt as ‘spherical’. Thus,
as a state of equilibrium this ‘space’ or ‘void’ is neutral. The
physical space is the root of physicality. The gap between two
physical objects is this void as felt in physicality. This space is full
of directions or propensities of praaNa. So, in the direction called
‘flower’, in that ‘direction’ all kind, flowers of all time and space
exist. This way of revealing or creating is lightning or electricity.
So, electricity or ‘vidyut’ also means ‘vid’ (existence) + ut
(supreme) or supreme state of existence. In these directions of
Consciousness when we can identify ourselves, we realize our
supreme state of existence which is sans physicality, sans any
limitation. As all directions are held in equilibrium in the sky, so
we see it round from the earth. It is true that the sky is round
because the earth is spherical but this truth reveals the deeper
truth that directions are in equilibrium in the sky or in the state
of neutrality.

26) yad (that) vidhUnute (it shakes the body and brushes off dust)
tat (that) stanayati (rumbling of clouds)

vidhUnute is from the root word ‘vi-dhU’ meaning to ‘shake off’,


‘to disperse’. By this shake, by this action of praaNa or the air, the
clouds are dispersed or moved. Cloud is called ‘megha’ and is
from the root word ‘mih’ or ‘migh’ meaning ‘to sprinkle’ or ‘to
make water’ The rumble of the clouds is called ‘stanaitnu’ which
means the expression of the Mother consciousness to feed the
creation with Her breast milk. The word ‘stana’ means ‘breast’ and
is from the root word ‘stan’ meaning ‘to roar or thunder’. The
word ‘stanana’ means ‘sound’. The ‘words’ in us rain the
‘meanings’. The Consciousness as ‘goddess vaak’, as the mother
of the ‘words’ are feeding us with senses, with life and vitality
stana= sta (stu / praise) +ana/an (praaNa)---the self-praising, self-
nourishing ‘word’ or ‘goddess vaak’. From ‘stana’ the milk effuses
to build us. (Thus, the breasts are located below the neck, the
organ of voice.)

27) yad (that) mehati (milks herself or effuses) tad (then) varShati
(it rains).

This rain is the ‘rain of life’ coming out of the ONE or the
Universal soul, effusing all over the universe out of the self-
praising, self- appreciating, self-revealing hymns or ‘words’.

28) vaak (vaak---the mother of all words or expressions)


aeva(indeed)asya (its—this horse’s vaak)
This part may have several meanings like (i) vaak is its vaakya
(words); (ii) its vaakya (words) are ‘vaaak’; (iii) its ‘vaak’ is ‘vaak’.

(i) vaak means the consort or shakti of the Soul. In soul,


there is no differentiation; soul is soul’s power or
consort; however, to describe the creation and duality,
the seer has mentioned vaak as the consort or shakti
or power of ‘praaNa’. (praaNa means when
Consciousness is active. In praaNa there is both
oneness and duality.) The Universal Consciousness
who is One and only One, in whom there is no sense of
duality, creates duality out of Oneness. ONE multiplies
ONE into many by ONE. This power by which
Consciousness multiplies is called (goddess) ‘vaak’.
The goddess with her sword cuts the Oneness into
many. What bleeds out of this incision is ‘time’
creating the sequence of ‘beginning, existence and
termination’. vaak has given everyone a name, a
definition a word. Everyone is created by vaak and
controlled by vaak. Thus, whatever has been created
from vaak it is the ‘word’ or ‘vaakya’ of ‘vaak’. vaakya
(word) = vaak +ya(controlled / processed). Every word,
every creation, every definition is from vaak and by
vaak.
What we feel in us as our ‘inner sky’ or ‘inner space’ is the field of
expression of our Consciousness. From there the elemental
words, alphabets, quantum of Consciousness is created. Those
fundamental or elemental words, or forms of vaak, coalesce to
form cloud in our plane of feelings or emotions, in our heart.
Then it rains and, we get feelings and emotions. We become
desiring. Those make us deterministic, drives us into actions in
our mind and further into physical work. Whatever we sense in
our mind are made of words. They have definitions. They have
appearance. In the innermost phase, it is vaak or Consciousness
radiant with urge to express; further it is feeling, emotion, desire;
then in mind it is formed idea, determination and action. It ends
in physicality. This is why the Seer has said that the earth is the
body of vaak. The entire physical universe is the body of vaak.

(ii) Its word is vaak--- This means whatever this celestial


horse is speaking, whatever is coming out of
Consciousness is Consciousness or vaak herself

(iii) vaak is its vaak --- this means vaak is the Shakti
(vaak) or consort or power of Consciousness.

1.1.1 aharvaa ashvaM pUrastaanmahimaanvajaayata

ahaH vai (the day is indeed) ashvam (the horse’s) pUrastat


(eastern) mahimaa (magnificence) anu (accordingly) ajaayata
(was born).

The day is indeed the eastern magnificence of the horse and was
born in accordance.

tasya pUrve samudre yonI


tasya (its) pUrve (in the east) samudre (sea) joniH (the origin)
Its origin is the sea in the east.
raatrirenaM pashchaanmahimaanvajaayata tasyaapare samudre
yoniretou vaa ashvaM mahimaanaavabhitaH saMbhUvatuH.
haayo vUtvaa devaanvahadvaajI gandharvaan arvaa asuraanashvo
manuShyan
samudra aevaasya vandhuH samudro yoniH.

raatri (night) aenam (its) pashcaat (westernly) mahimaa


(magnificence anu (accordingly)ajaayata (was born).

Night is its magnificence in the west and it was born in


accordance.

tasya (Its) apare (in the other) samudre (sea) yoniH (origin)
Its (night’s) origin is in the other sea.

aetou (These two) vai (indeed) ashvam (the horse’s) mahimaanou


(two majesties) abhItaH (towards it /following it) saMbhUvatUH
(were formed appropriately).
These two indeed are its two majesties and were formed
appropriately following it (horse).

hayaH (As the horse named haya) bhUtvaa (by becoming) devan
(dieties) avahat (it carried).

By becoming ‘haya’ it carried the deities (beyond the death).


vaajI (as the horse named vaajI) gandharvan (gandharva),
By becoming vaajI it carried the gandharva.

arvaaH (As the horse named arvaa) (asura-s)


By becoming arvaa it carried the asura.

ashva manuShyan (the human beings).

By becoming ashva it carried the human beings.

samudrah (The ocean/sea) aeva (indeed asya (its) vandhuH


(friend/companion) samudraH (the ocean) yoniH (origin).

The ocean is its companion, the ocean is its origin.

nirukta ---Inner meaning

ahaH –Alphabets and words are the expressions of the


Consciousness. The elemental stage of the Consciousness is the
are the alphabets which are the components. They are called
‘varNa matRikaa’, ‘the mothers as alphabets’. They join to create
the words and the worlds. The alphabet ‘a’ the first vowel and the
alphabet ‘ha’ is the last consonant. All the alphabets from ‘a’ to
‘ha’ have made ‘aham’ or ‘I am’ or ‘me’. Thus whatever is there, it
is the expression of the Universal “I’ (or the vision of the
Universal ‘eye’). The radiant alphabets from ‘a’ to ‘ha’ are making
the Universe; and this ‘time’, ‘this period’ or ‘this mood’ of
Consciousness that characterizes the creation is ‘aha’ or the ‘day’.
pUrva is the ‘east’ direction. It is direction that leads you to ‘pU’
or completeness by achieving what is desired. The direction
which the Universal soul or the Sun or praaNa takes to rise and
to bring in us what we desire is the ‘east’. The word ‘east’ is from
the Sanskrit word ‘IShTa’ meaning what is ‘desired’. Thus with
every day we get back the world which we long to live. So, the
Sun is called ‘mitra’ in Vedas. ‘mitra’ means a friend. (It may be
noted that the rise of the sun is the rise of praaNa and from
whom we and the earth get our motion and time. This includes
the diurnal and annual motions. Thus there is nothing wrong to
say that the sun rises and moves. Whatever is our motion is the
motion of Consciousness.)

ahaH vai (the day is indeed) ashvam (the horse’s) pUrastat


(eastern) mahimaa (magnificence) anu (accordingly) ajaayata
(was born)— ‘aha’ or the day rises following the Consciousness or
‘praaNa’ or ‘following the desire or motion of Consciousness’. The
appearance and disappearance of senses and feelings in us, the
diurnal cycles, all the periodicity of time are due to the
‘praaNa’ (the ‘Consciousness in motion or Consciousness
flowing’).

‘mahimaa’ is derived from the word ‘mahiman’ or ‘maha’ which


means the ‘majesty’ or ‘might’ or ‘greatness’ The eastern majesty
or magnificence is the ‘day’ or ‘aha’.
tasya (its) pUrve (in the east) samudre (sea) joniH (the origin)

samudra (sea) = sam (perfectly, rightly) + udRi = rises---from


whom everything rises to the surface.

Another meaning of samudra (sea) is ----sa (He/it) + mudra /


mudraa (print or impression)----where everything remains
imprinted. This is why palmistry is called ‘samudra vidya’ i.e. the
knowledge by which what is stored for you can be read from the
lines imprinted on your palm.
The great divine memory, the memory of the Universal
consciousness, in which we all stay and remain imprinted and
from where we are again reborn or recreated is the sea (arNava).
These vast water bodies, the oceans, which we are perceiving in
the physicality is the physical expression of this ‘divine memory’.
Thus we get back things like before after we get up from the
sleep or when we are reborn after the death.

raatri (night) aenam (its) pashcaat (westernly) mahimaa


(magnificence) anu (accordingly)ajaayata (was born) tasya (its
apare samudre (sea) (origin)
raatri means ‘night’. raatri > rati + tra. rati = rata + i. ‘rata’ means
the act of staying or remaining fixed in a place or in a particular
status. The time when we sleep is also termed as ‘raatri ’because
during the sleep we rest in the ‘soul’. Thus in the sleep, we do not
feel about existence or non-existence, but we can always recall
after the sleep whether we have had a sound sleep or not. Also
the word ‘rati’ means ‘act of sexual intercourse’ and implies the
power of staying in a ‘female’ or ‘shakti’.

Also, raatri> raati----willing to give; rati also means ‘rest’; like the
word ‘virati’ means ‘an interval’ or ‘time between two events’.
Thus ‘raatri’ is the goddess or the personality of the Universal
Consciousness who ‘gives us or nourishes us while we rest in Her.
As we are invigorated and animated and driven in the time called
‘aha’ (day), similarly we are pacified, tranquilized and driven to
the rest during the time called ‘raatri’ (night). Our activities in the
state of existence or ‘aha’ is controlled in the ‘sea located in the
east’. In the state of negativity or rest the Consciousness reviews
and keeps looking at the ‘sleeping one’. This reviewing centre is
located in the sea at the other sea. (Upanishad has described
every soul or entity having two parts—one remaining always
awake and the other who wakes and sleeps; during the sleep, the
waking one keeps looking at the sleeping one-----asuptaH
{waking/ ever-waking soul} suptaan {who is sleeping}
abjichaakashIti {looks at})----the ever waking soul keeps looking
at its sleeping part!)(Brihadaaranyaka—4/3/11)

etau vai ashvam (horse’s) mahimaanau (the two


majesties)abhItaH (following it) saMbhUvatuH (were formed).
Thus, the day and the night are the two aspects of praaNa
manifested as praana’s majesties.

hayaH (as the horse named haya) bhUtvaa (by becoming) devan
(dieties) avahat (it carried).

hayaH is derived from the word ‘haya’. mukhya (principal) praaNa


or eternal praaNa has carried the deities beyond the death. This
is also stated in Chandyogya Upanishad. The word ‘mukha’ means
‘mouth’, and it is that seat where all the activities of praaNa (or
the sensory organs) are located. Since the senses are praaNa’s
flow, so the Universal Consciousness is also called mukhya
(principal) praaNa. mukhya is derived from ‘mukha’. mukha also
means ‘principal’ or ‘main’. Also, vaak as vaakya or words are
coming out from ‘mukha’ or mouth’. vaak is the Shakti of praaNa.
Now,’mukha’ is also called ‘aasya’ in Sanskrit. In Chandogya
Upanishad the seer has said that mukhya praaNa is also called
‘aayaasya’ since praaNa is coming out of ‘aasya’ or mouth (aasyat
{from the mouth} yat{since} ayayte{coming out}). Thus, ‘haya’ has
a meaning like this: aasyat(from the mouth) hi (indeed) ayayte(is
coming out). (Chandogya---1/2/12)

The Consciousness, by whom we are also Conscious, whose vision


creates our eyes and sights, whose act of listening creates our
ears and sense of hearing and so on, is coming out of our mouth
or from the void or sky inside our mouth as formed and defined
words or expressions. Thus the seers have said: ‘mukhaat (from
the mouth) agniH(the fire) ajaayataH (was created)’ ---the fire or
the all revealing personality of Consciousness was created from
the mouth (of the Universal Consciousness). mukha---mu / mud
(joy)+ kha (sky/void)---the sky full of joy!

haya---In whom ‘ha’ or the void ends (ya). ‘ha’ is the last
consonant in Sanskrit and denotes the Consciousness as neutral
space or void. So, where this void also vanishes into Oneness or
Soul is called ‘akShara aatman’ (Immutable Soul) {--—Refer
Brihadaranyaka Upansihada : the conversation between
Yajnavalkya and Gargi.}

The divinity or the deities are nearest to the ‘akShara


aatman’ (Immutable Soul). The eternal praaNa or mukhya praaNa
carried the deities to His oneness or to the Soul in order to take
them beyond the death and He is thus known as ‘haya’.

vaajI (as the horse named vaajI ) gandharvan (gandharva)---


By becoming vaajI it carried the gandharva:

The word ‘vaajI’ is derived from the root word ‘vaaja’.


vaaja = vaak + ja ---what is generated (ja) from vaak.
Also, vaaja = vaak + ja----from vaak everything is generated ( ja ).
Thus the name of ‘ap / aapa’ or divine water is ‘jala’ meaning the
plane that supports ‘life’. ‘ap’ or ‘jala’ is generated from ‘vaak’.
vaak is also called teja meaning tad (that) + aejati (vibrates)---
vibration of Oneness or the Soul. This vibration is the radiance or
teja which splits oneness in duality. The cosmic radiations,
radioactivity, electricity, electromagnetic radiations etc. all are
forms of this teja and so also the warmth of life in us. From teja,
apa or water (jala) is generated. apa is the water or the cooling,
satisfying, bestowing Consciousness. This is why, we first feel
thirsty and then drink to quench the thirst; this is why a fire is
doused by pouring water; this is why the season of summer is
followed by monsoon; this is why thunder & lightning are
followed by rain; this is why hunger adds to the taste. (These are
not the reasons from a simpleton. If you think this is unscientific,
then you are missing a vital thing about how to read and
interpret what all you are sensing in the course of your living.)

Thus the seers in Upanishad have said, Consciousness first


becomes vaak and then apa. This universe is apa or water or the
‘acquirement’ (aqua) of the Consciousness. HE/ SHE has achieved
or acquired HIMSELF/HERSELF as the universe. Similarly, whatever
we are getting or achieveing every moment, whatever we are
sensing every moment, it is due to the Consciousness in us who
is revealing as radaiance or units of expressions within us. This is
vaak as teja. Then Consciousness holds an unit or the sperm in
HER to develop it further. Thus vaak is named as ambhRiNI which
means who carries (bhRi) the unit / sperm or teja (am). Thus as
the cloud holds the water before the rain, so vaak is holding
every sense before our sensing. Then we have feelings in the
heart which is water. Further it acts in the mind and body (earth).

gandharva---who are characterized by gandha or fragrance.


gandha or sense of smell represents that faculty of praaNa by
which praaNa holds us and provides stability.
gandha = gam (to go > motion) + dha (act of holding).

praaNa who is the active aspect of the Universal consciousness,


whose activity is felt as time and who is flowing as life in us, who
is characterized by motion (legs of viShNu) and expressions
(vision / eyes of viShNu), has created a stability in us amidst this
motion or dynamism. This is why we feel the ‘stability’ though we
are aging / changing or in motion all the time! This is ‘holding
(dha) the motion (gam)’ or gandha or sense of smell / olfaction.
This praaNa as air is entering us, through our nose in the process
of inbreathing and leaving us in the process of out-breathing.
This cyclic motion through the nose, keeps us alive and keeps us
stable.

Thus what is smell in our sense, is the earth and physicality in


the external.The sense of smell has the role to provide the sense
of being ‘static’ and ‘stable’ This is why what is physical and
mortal to us is not so to gandharva; because they know them as
the physicality of praaNa or Consciousness and not just the
physicality. So, they dominate on the physicality and so they live
in ‘ ap / aapa’ or ‘water’. Their consort or shakti is called ‘ap-
saras’. They are celestial muscisans and composers and fond of
opposite sex.

Thus teja or vaak becomes ‘ap’ or ‘aapa’. So, praaNa as ‘vaajI ’


carries the gandharva-s from the ap (water) to teja (radiance) and
from teja to the universal Oneness of ‘universal soul (aatman) ’.

arvaaH (as the horse named arvaa) (asura-s)


By becoming arvaa (it carried) the asura.

asura (commonly means demon) = asu + ra.


asu means praaNa :asu = a(aatman / soul) + su (flowing)
asura = asu (praaNa) + ra (ra~njan -- colour).
Thus ‘asura’ means those who are obsessed or dyed by the colour
or revelation of praaNa and in the process have lost the
connection with the source (aatman or praaNa) from which
everything is revealing.

arvaa---This word arvaa (the name the horse took when it carried
asura beyond death) is from the word ‘ara. ‘ara’ means spokes of
a wheel or the radii originating from the centre and running
toward the circumference. Like the spokes of a wheel remain
connected to the centre, so we all are remaining connected to
our source or praaNa, however away we may be or whatever
ignorant we may be. This why the seers have said---yatha araa iva
rathanaabhau praaNe sarvaM pratiShThitam----like the spokes of
a chariot wheel connected to the centre, similarly everything is
founded in praaNa. Thus praaNa rescues us from the physicality
and death by rising in us with this ‘reality’ of connection to the
centre. This is how ‘arvaa ’ carries asura beyond the death.
(It is noteworthy that the word ‘arvaa’ in Sanskrit also means
‘Arabian’ people.)

ashvaH manuShyan---as the horse named ashva it (praaNa)


carried the human beings beyond the death.

As explained earlier, ashva means the flow of life (air), breathing,


flow of Consciousness, flow of time. So, praaNa takes us beyond
the death along the normal streams of our life. We human
beings are balanced creatures. We think of good and bad, we
respect lineage and relations, we are eager to know what is
unknown and beyond death. This is how we are; our heart
dominates over the mind. Heart is the place of singularity and
duality together as in praaNa who is simultaneously one and
many. Thus, we evolve from this state to eternity.

The word ‘manushya’ (man)consists of two parts, ‘manu’ and


‘IShat’
manu is related to the word mana or manas meaning mind. manu
is the one who has got the entire universe in the mind. As ‘vaak’
becomes ‘vakya’ or formed / defined words in our mind, similarly
this entire physicality is the shapes and dimensions of the
Universal or divine mind. When we start realizing this, our words
become ‘mantra’ i.e. such words or such mind provide ‘tra’ or
‘rescue’ or reveals what is beyond physicality. This faculty, though
slight (IShat) is inherited by the ‘human beings’. This is why we
are ‘manu + IShat’ or ‘little manu’.
Mind is the outer cover of praaNa. Where praaNa is directly
acting on the physicality it is the mind (and the sun is radiant
form of the divine mind as manifested in our space).
Beyond mind are the realms of feelings, love, hatred, dualities.
This is the realm of praaNa (in this context). In the external sky
this is ‘moon’.
As we realize the words and physicality as the formation of mind,
we become more tuned to praaNa and spirited. praaNa means
who is vision and view, who is hearing and sound, who is skin and
the touch and so on. Then the word spoken, can bring in entirety
of what is meant by the word. This is called ‘mantra chaitanya’.
This is common in the elevated souls among human beings. Thus,
from the mind we can enter into praaNa and we cross the death
to eternity.

(Notes:
Deities (deva) are principally characterized by teja The root word
of deva is div meaning (self)-revealing.
gadharva-s are characterized by the joy and attainment acquired
by living in praaNa predominating over the physicality.

The human beings are balanced creatures. They apply ‘heart’


whenever they act. They live by comparing good and bad, evil and
virtue. They are more oriented to deeds and works and its
outcome (karma).

asura-s are dazzled by the grandeur of the universe and not


inclined toward the origin of the same. Thus they are physical.

The goddess durgaa taking deities to eternity.


The following quotes from Brihadaaranyaka Upanishada are
noteworthy.
(i) sa vaa eShaa devataa durnaama----She that deity is
named as dUr ‘; dUram hyasyaa mRityuH -----the death
remains away from Her;
dUraM ha asmaanmRityurbhavati ya aevang veda---the
one who knows the deity) , the death remains away from
the one. (Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad 1/3/9)

(ii) saa vaa eShaa devataitaasam devataanaM paapnaanaM


mRityumapahatyaathainaa mRityumatyavahat.
(She, that goddess, carried these deities away from the
sins which are the forms of the death by severing the
death from them. (Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad 1/3/11))