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ME 419 Non-Destructive Testing

Unit:1 Introduction to NDT

1) Young`s Modulus is an Indicative of Property

(a) Resilience (b) Stiffness (c) Elasticity (d) Plasticity

2) Ability of Metal to withstand elongation or Deformation is known as

(a) Malleability (b) Stiffness (c) Ductility (d) brittleness

3) Universal testing machine is used for determining

(a) Tensile strength (b) Hardness (c) Fatique strength (d) (a) and (b) both

4) X-Rays was discovered by

(a) Hart Ford (b) W.C.Rontgen (c) Dr.H.H.Lester (d) Dr.Eimer Sperry

5) Magnetic induction system for inspecting rail road`s was developed by

(a) Hart Ford (b) W.C.Rontgen (c) Dr.H.H.Lester (d) Dr.Eimer Sperry

6) Lack of ductility is called as

(a) Hardness (b) Elasticity (c) Creep (d) Brittleness

7) High frequency sound waves are used in

(a) Ultrasonic Testing (b) Radiographic Testing (c) Magnetic Particle Testing

(d) Visual Inspection

8) First electromagnetic eddy current instrument was developed in

(a) 1926 (b) 1920 (c) 1925 (d) 1927

9) Ultrasonic waves are generated by

(a) Photoelectric (b) piezo electric effect (c) radio active decay (d) skin effect
10) Which one is an inherent discontinuity

(a) Scar (b)seams (c)crater cark (d)slag inclusion

11) Photo receptors , rods and cones are part of

(a) Retina (b)iris (c) pupils (d) lens

12) Difference in luminance that makes an object distinguishable is called as

(a) Brightness (b) contrast (c) vision (d) visual activity

13) …………….. is used for visual inspection.

(a) Transducer (b) Telescope (c) Binocular (d) None of the above

14) The method involved use of an oil usually made of a dark lubrication oil diluted with to
find surface defects

(a) Zyglo test (b) hammer test (c) oil and whitening test (d) A and C only

15) Inspection technique which must take place prior to during after welding

(a) Liquid penetrating test (b) ultrasonic testing (c) radio graphic testing (d)
visual inspection


1. Penetrants can be applied by

(a) Dipping (b) spraying (c) brushing (d) all of the above

2. Dry developers can be applied to

(a) Wet part (b) dry part (c) partially wet part (d) none of the above

3. Contamination on the surface of test object can lead to

(a) Shift in wavelength (b) high background fluorescence
(b) (c) lower background fluorescence (d) none of the above

4. Minimum penetrants dwell time is

(a) 5-10 mins (b) 10-15 mins (c) 25-100 mins (d) 5-60 mins

5. Wet soluble powder is to be checked

(a) Daily (b) weekly (c) monthly (d0 yearly
6. Developer are used to
(a) Draw out penetrant from discontinuity (b) provide contrast
(c) increase penetrant (d) both A and B

7. Emulsifier can be applied by

(a) dipping (b) spraying (c) brushing (d) both A and B

8. Which emulsifier is water based

(a) lipophilic emulsifier (b) type I emulsifier (c) hydrophilic emulsifier
(d) form A emulsifier

9. Rising the temperature

(a) will increase the evaporation speed of penetrant
(b) will decrease the evaporation speed of penetrant
(c) will increase the developer time
(d) will decrease the emulsifier time

10. Total time in which penetrant is in direct contact with test specimen
(a) soak time (b) baking time (c) dwell time (d) immersion time

11. Most effective NDT method for locating defects in ferromagnetic material

(a) Ultrasonic testing (b) magnetic particle testing (c) liquid penetrant testing
(d) radio graphic testing

12. Which of the following are ferromagnetic materials?

(a) aluminium,copper,iron (b) ironcopper,nickel
(c) copper,aluminium,silver (d) iron,cobalt,nickel

13.Narrower hysteresis loop in a material is due to

(a) higher residual magnetism (b) higher retentivity
(c) lower residual magnetism (d) higher permeability

14. Magnetic field applied to reduce the magnetic flux of magnetic material to zero is called
(a) permeability (b) residual magnetism (c) retentivity
(d) coercive force

15.In a magnet, exit poles are concentrated at

(a) dipole (b) north pole (c) south pole (d) flux density
16. Magnetic field contained completely within the test specimen is called as
(a) confined field (b) longitudinal field (c) circular field (d) saturated field

17. Circular field is produced by

(a) coil (b) heat shot (c) yoke (d) all of the above

18. Prod method is sensitive to cracks

(a) parallel to point of contact (b) tangential to radius of contact point
(d) perpendicular to axis of coil

19. Skin effect is noticeable in

(a) magnetic conductor carrying a DC current
(b) non-magnetic conductor carrying a DC current
(c) magnetic conductor carrying an AC current
(d) non-magnetic cinductor carrying an AC current

20. Wet method is superior to dry particle for detecting

(a) sub surface defects (b) fine surface defects (c) open surface cracks
(d) none of the above

Unit III Eddy Current Testing

1. Inductance is caused by
(a) Direct current (b) Resistance in the coil (c) Interaction of changing magnetic field
material with conductor (d) material

2. Pencil Probes are Prone to

(a) Skin effect (b) Low frequency Noise (c) Wobble (d) none of the above

3. Which Type of probe is used to inspect solid products

(a) Bobbin probes (b) Bolt hole probes (c) Encircling probes (d) Shielding probes

4. Higher the inductance of the coil

(a) Higher will be the penetration of eddy current (b) Higher will be sensitivity of coil
(c) lower will the sensitivity of the coil (d) All of the above

5. Sliding probes are usually operated in

(a) Differential mode (b) Absolute mode (c) Reflection mode (d) Through-Transmission
6. The depth of penetration is affected by
(a) Magnetic permeability (b) probe drive frequency
(c) Electrical resistivity (d) All of the above

7. Which type of probe is used to inspect the inside diameter of the bore?
(a) Pencil probes (b) Pancake probes (c) Bobbin probes (d) bolt Hole probes

8. Shielding of the eddy current probes is done by…..?

(a) Aluminum (b) Lead (c)Ferrite
(d) Both A and B

9. For inspecting sub surface defects, the frequency should be

(a) High (b) Low (c) at 900 to produce difference between lift off and flaw signals
(d) None of the above

10. Which type of probe is used to inspect the restricted spaces?

(a) Pencil probes (b) Pancake probes (c) Bobbin probes (d) bolt Hole probes


1. In Which method available for checking in Liquid Crystal Thermography

(a) Contact (b) Remote (c) Transcient (d) Radiant

2. Contact Infrared Thermography

(a) Based on the Properties of liquid crystals
(b) Based on the Properties of X-rays.
(c) Based on the Properties of Radiants.
(d) Based on the Properties of Refractory lines.

3. Infrared measurements carried out

(a) Encapsulated measurements
(b) Film thickness measurements
(c) Object size measurements
(d) Strain measurements

4. ECT Means
(a) Electrochemical therapy
(b) Electro convulsive therapy
(c) Electro-conductive therapy
(d) Electro-magnet therapy
5. Heat Ray Means
(a) Characteristic of Heating an object
(b) Characteristic of heated affected zone
(c) Characteristic of an deflection zone
(d) Characteristic of a wavelength visible light.

6. The most commonly used band for commercial Infrared imaging Range is
(a) 0.75-15 µm (b) 6-15 µm (c) 3-6 µm (d) 0.75-3 µm

7. The middle Infrared spectral band range is

(a) 0.75-15 µm (b) 6-15 µm (c) 3-6 µm (d) 0.75-3 µm

8. The near Infrared spectral band range is

(b) 0.75-15 µm (b) 6-15 µm (c) 3-6 µm (d) 0.75-3 µm

9. The far Infrared spectral band range is

(c) 0.75-15 µm (b) 6-15 µm (c) 3-6 µm (d) 0.75-3 µm

10. Which code & Standard is for minimum resolvable temperature difference for thermal
Imaging System?
(a) ASTM E 1311 (b) ASTM E 1213 (c) ASTM E 1543 (d) ASTM E 1653

11. Which code & Standard is for minimum detectable temperature difference for thermal
Imaging System?
(a) ASTM E 1311 (b) ASTM E 1213 (c) ASTM E 1543 (d) ASTM E 1653

12. Which code & Standard is for Noise Equivalent temperature difference for thermal
Imaging System?
(a) ASTM E 1311 (b) ASTM E 1213 (c) ASTM E 1543 (d) ASTM E 1653

Unit IV Ultra Sonic Testing

1 .Which waves travels through this section of material

(a) lamb wave (b) shear wave (c) surface waves(d) longitudinal waves

2 .Backing material is used in transducer to

(b) control the sound (b) provide impedance mismatch(c) control the ringing of active
elements (d) all of the above
3. . Acoustic impedance is characterized by symbol
(b) α(b) z (c) β (d) p

4.Number of cycle per second is called as

(a)Wavelength (b) frequency (c) velocity (d) none of the above

5.most commonly used active elements in acoustic transducer is

(b) piezoelectric ceramic(b) barium titanate(c) lithium sulphate (d) quartz

6. Combined effect of absorption and scattering is called as a

(b) impedance (b) propagation
(c) Attenuation(d) shear factor

7. Ability of locating a flaw or defect is defined by

(a) Frequency and size (b) space and time (c) sensitivity and penetrating intensity(d)
sensitivity and resolution

8.The velocity of longitudinal waves will be highest in

(a) Water (b) aluminum(c) air
(d) Stainless steel

9. Lower the crystal thickness

(a) Lower will be frequency(b) higher will be frequency(c) no affect
(d) None of the above

10. Ultrasonic wheels units are used for

(a) Straight beam examination (b) shear wave examination (c) surface wave(d) all of the

Acoustic Emission

1. Acoustic emission phenomenon is widely referred to in the literature as

(a) Hall effect (b) Kaiser effect (c) Piezo-electric effect (d) Dwell effect

2. Piezo-electic transducers frequency range is

(a) 30 KHz- 2MHz
(b) 33 KHz- 3MHz
(c) 35 KHz- 6MHz
(d) 25 KHz- 1MHz
3. Felicity Ratio Means
(a) 0.75 m and below
(b) 0.75 m and above
(c) 0.75 m to 1.5 m
(d) 0.75 m to 1.25 m

4. SWF Means
(a) Stress wave factor
(b) Strain wave factor
(c) Suitable wave length frequency
(d) Stress wise frequency

5. Air Pressurization of end shield signal obtain detection range

(a) 0.124-0.038 MPA
(b) 0.124-0.035 MPA
(c) 0.135-0.039 MPA
(d) 0.21-0.04 MPA

Unit V Radiography

1. Neutrons are classified according to their

a) Mass b) spin
c) Charge d) energy

2. A small dose of X-radiation received by a pregnant woman will

a) Result is fetal death b) causes brain damage
c) Change of birth defects d) all of these above

3. Mass is not a property of

a) Neutrons b) beta particles
c) X-rays d) alpha particles

4. Wavelength of ultraviolet ray is longer than

a) cosmic rays b)gamma rays
c) X-rays d ) all of these above

5. Electron volt (ev) is a unit of

a) energy b)gamma rays
c) electric charge d)none of the above
6. In decay of positron which particle is emitted
a) Alpha particles b) neutrons
c) Neutrino d) electrons

7. Ionizing radiation refers

A) Electromagnetic radiations b) corpuscular radiation
c) Just a beam d) radiation capable of producing ions

8. In decay of atomic number (z) change by

(a.) -1 (b) 0
(c).1 (d) 2

9. By increasing the frequency of gamma photons its

(a).wavelength will increase (b).velocity will increase
(c).velocity will decrease (d).wavelength will decrease

10. Half life of cobalt 60 is

a) 5.1 yrs (b) 5.2yrs
c) 5.3 yrs (d) 5.8yrs

11. Which of the following types of intensifying screens are not used in industrial
(a) Lead (b) Fluorescent (c) Silver Halide (d) All of the above

12 .Most of the energy applied to an X ray tube is converted into:

(a) X rays (b)Light (c) Heat (d) Ultraviolet radiation

13. The intensifying action of lead screens is caused by:

(a) Secondary X ray emission

(b) Secondary gamma ray emissions

(c) Fluorescence of lead screens

(d) Electron emission

14. The penetrating power of an X ray machine is indicated by:

(a) Milliamperage

(b) Tube voltage

(c) Filament current

(d) Anode current

15. The focal spot size of an X ray Machine must be known in order to determine:

(a) The Geometric unsharpness

(b) Kilovoltage peak output

(c) Required mA setting

(d) Exposure time

16. Film intensifying screens are normally used to:

(a) Decrease exposure time

(b) Increase grain size

(c) Shield film from stray light

(d) All of the above

17. A term which refers to the sharpness of the radiographic image is:

(a) Sensitivity

(b) Halo effect

(c) Shadow effect

(d) Definition

18. Of the following radiographic sources, which emits the most penetrating radiation?

(a) Co-60 (b) Ra-226 (c) Cs-137 (d) Ir-192

19. Radiographic contrast is dependent on:

(a) Density (b) Processing (c) Radiation energy (d) All of the above

20. The half-life of Co-60 is approximately:

(a) 74 days (b) 129 days (c) 5.3 years (d) 30.1 Years

21. Poor contact between lead screens and film is likely to cause:

(a) An Indistinct or “Fuzzy” image

(b) A mottled appearance on the film

(c) “Undercut” of the test piece image

(d) Increased geometric unsharpness

22. An Acceptable quality radiograph should include:

(a) Proper identification

(b) Correct penetrameter and visible holes

(c) Location markers

(d) All of the above

23. A depression at the edge of a weld where the base metal has been melted during welding is

(a) Burn through (b) Undercut (c) Root concavity (d) Root convexity

24. Which of the following welding discontinuities would be considered the most serious?

(a) Porosity (b) Incomplete penetration (c) Crack (d) Slag inclusions

25. Deep scratches on lead intensifying screens will cause?

(a) Selective image enhancement

(b) Irregular light lines on the film

(c) Dark lines on the film

(d) Unacceptable blockage of the primary radiation beam.