# Injection Molding

2.810 Fall 2008 Professor Tim Gutowski

Short history of plastics
1862 first synthetic plastic 1866 Celluloid 1891 Rayon 1907 Bakelite 1913 Cellophane 1926 PVC 1933 Polyethylene 1938 Teflon 1939 Nylon stockings 1957 velcro 1967 “The Graduate”

Outline
• Basic operation • Cycle time and heat transfer • Flow and solidification • Part design • Tooling • New developments • Environment

– Molding and Casting pp584 -610

• Boothroyd Dewhurst
– Design for Injection Molding pp 319 - 359

• Kalpakjian (5th ed) see Ch 19 • Injection molding case study;Washing machine augers; see on web page

30 ton, 1.5 oz (45 cm3) Engel

Injection Molding Machine for wheel fabrication

idsa-mp.Process & machine schematics * * Schematic of thermoplastic Injection molding machine * Source: http://www.org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_process.htm .

tool opening Shot size: screw travel Processing window Temp.Process Operation • • • • Temperature: barrel zones. Thermal degradation Flash Shortshot Melt Pressure . hold. tool. die zone Pressures: injection max. hold Times: injection.

Typical pressure/temperature cycle * * Time(sec) Time(sec) Cooling time generally dominates cycle time tcool * Source: http://islnotes.html (half thickness )2 = α α = 10 −3 cm 2 sec for polymers .edu/trp/inj/inj_time.cps.msu.

Calculate clamp force.8 lbs = 2245 cm3 =75 oz Actual . 2 cavity 800 ton . & shot size F=P X A = 420 tons 3.

Clamp force and machine cost .

Heat transfer Note. α 1-dimensional heat conduction equation : qx qx + Δqx Tool > αpolymer Fourier’s law ∂q ∂ ( ρ ⋅ c p ⋅ T )ΔxΔy = − x ΔxΔy ∂t ∂x ∂T q x = −k ∂x ∂T ∂ 2T ∂T ∂ 2T ρ ⋅ cp = k 2 or =α 2 ∂t ∂x ∂t ∂x 1st kind 2nd kind 3rd kind T ( x = x' ) = constant ∂T ( x = x' ) = constant −k ∂x ∂T −k ( x = x' ) = h (T − T∞ ) ∂x Boundary Conditions: The boundary condition of 1st kind applies to injection molding since the tool is often maintained at a constant temperature .

.C. tch = L2/α . FO = 2 Non-dimensionalize: θ = Ti − TW L L Dimensionless equation: Initial condition Boundary condition ∂ 2θ ∂θ = 2 ∂FO ∂ξ FO = 0 θ =1 θ =0 θ =0 ξ =0 ξ =2 Separation of variables .C. matching I. – wall temp.Heat transfer Tii t TW x Let Lch = H/2 (half thickness) = L .) -L +L T − TW α ⋅t x . FO ) = ∑ f ( FO ) g (ξ ) . ΔTch = Ti – TW (initial temp. θ (ξ . matching B. ξ = + 1.

θ = 0.1.Temperature in a slab Centerline. Fo = αt/L2 = 1 Bi-1 =k/hL .

htm . Fill time 1s For Die casting −1 μ = 103 N ⋅ s m 2 Re = 10 −4 3 ⋅103 × 10 −1 × 10 −3 Re ≈ = 300 −3 10 * Source: http://www. LZ = 10 −3 m thickness Part length 10 V≈ = .org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_process.Reynolds Number Reynolds Number: V2 inertia ρ ρVL L = Re = V μ μ 2 viscous L For typical injection molding ρ = 1 g cm3 = 103 N m 4 s 2 .idsa-mp.

Molding 102~103 10~102 103~104 1~10 “Shear Thinning” ~ 1 sec-1 for PE γ& .Viscous Shearing of Fluids F h 1 v F/A μ F v ∝ A h Generalization: v τ =μ h v/h Newtonian Viscosity τ = μγ& γ& : shear rate Injection molding τ = η (γ& ) γ& Typical shear rate for Polymer processes (sec)-1 Extrusion Calendering Injection molding Comp.

Viscous Heating Rate of Heating = Rate of Viscous Work Rate of Temperature rise P F ⋅v F v ⎛v⎞ = = ⋅ = μ⎜ ⎟ Vol Vol A h ⎝h⎠ 2 ρ ⋅ cp dT ⎛v⎞ = μ⎜ ⎟ dt ⎝h⎠ 2 or dT μ ⎛v⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ dt ρ ⋅ c p ⎝ h ⎠ 2 Rate of Conduction out dT k d 2T k ΔT ~ = dt ρ ⋅ c p dx 2 ρ ⋅ c p h 2 Viscous heating μv 2 = Conduction kΔT Brinkman number For injection molding.1 to 10 . order of magnitude ~ 0.

1cm ~ ⋅ ≅ 10 − 2 Heat xfer rate 4 0.5 −3 2 Heat xfer rate 4 10 cm / s 10cm For Die casting of aluminum Flow rate 1 10cm / s × 0.1cm ~ ⋅ = 2.1cm 0.Non-Isothermal Flow v Flow rate: 1/t ~V/Lx Heat transfer rate: 1/t ~a/(Lz/2)2 Flow rate V ⋅ L2 1 VLz Lz z ~ = ⋅ Heat xfer rate 4α ⋅ Lx 4 α Lx For injection molding Small value => Short shot Flow rate 1 10cm / s × 0. therefore it requires thick runners .3cm 2 / s 10cm * Very small.1cm 0.

Injection mold die cast mold .

“Principles of Polymer Processing” .cps. ** Z.Fountain Flow * ** * Source: http://islnotes. Gogos.html .msu.edu/trp/inj/flw_froz. Tadmore and C.

Menges and W.Shrinkage distributions sample Transverse direction V=3.5cm/s V=8cm/s * Source: G. “Influence of processing conditions on Molecular Orientation in Injection Molds” . Wubken.

976 Before shrinkage After shrinkage Air entrapment Gate Center gate: radial flow – severe distortion Edge gate: warp free.0 60° 1.0 1.32° Shrinkage Direction of flow – 0.012 2.020 in/in Perpendicular to flow – 0.96 60. air entrapment Diagonal gate: radial flow – twisting End gates: linear flow – minimum warping .Gate Location and Warping Sprue 2.

030 0.025 LDPE PP Acetal Shrinkage Nylon 6/6 0.010 0.020 0.005 Nylon 6/6 0.005 PMMA 0.030 0.010 0.020 LDPE Acetal PP with flow PP across flow Shrinkage 0.015 0.Effects of mold temperature and pressure on shrinkage 0.000 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 0.025 0.015 0.000 6000 PMMA 10000 8000 12000 14000 16000 18000 Mold Temperature (F) Pressure on injection plunger (psi) .

Where would you gate this part? .

Sink mark Gate Weld line Mold Filling Solidified part Sink mark * Source: http://www.idsa-mp.Weld line.htm Basic rules in designing ribs to minimize sink marks .org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_design_7.

htm .org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_design_2.Injection Molding * * * Source: http://www.idsa-mp.

Where is injection molding? .

005 PMMA 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 0.010 0.030 LDPE Acetal PP with flow 0.000 Pressure on injection plunger (psi) .Effects of mold pressure on shrinkage 0.025 0.015 PP across flow Nylon 6/6 0.020 Shrinkage 0.

Tooling Basics Sprue Nozzle Cavity Plate Core Plate Moulding Cavity Core Cavity Basic mould consisting of cavity and core plate Gate Runner Melt Delivery .

Tooling for a plastic cup Nozzle Knob Runner Cavity Part Stripper plate Core .

Tooling for a plastic cup Nozzle Nozzle Runner Cavity Runner Part Cavity Cavity Knob Part Part Stripper plate .

** http://www.htm (E-trainer by HZS Co.Ltd.org/proc/plastic/injection/.idsa-mp.) .Tooling * * * * * ** * * Source: http://www.hzs.co.jp/english/products/e_trainer/mold/basic/basic..

etc. with final drilling to eliminate weld lines . small angles (1/4°) will do – Problem for gears • • • • Even wall thickness Minimum wall thickness ~ 0.025 in Avoid sharp corners Hide weld lines – Holes may be molded 2/3 of the way through the wall only.Part design rules • Simple shapes to reduce tooling cost – No undercuts. • Draft angle to remove part – In some cases.

Gas assisted injection molding .New developments.

New developments . injection molding with cores Injection Molded Housing Cores used in Injection Molding Cores and Part Molded in Clear Plastic .

Environmental issues • System boundaries • Polymer production • Compounding • Machine types • Out gassing & energy during processing .

Oil.) Packaging Note to Reader: = Focus of this Analysis = Also included in the Paper FACTORY GATE 1 kg of Injection Molded Polymer Service Period Waste Management .. water & land Injection Molding Emissions to air. & land Polymer Delivery Injection Molder Energy Production Industry Internal Transport Drying Emissions to air. water & land Thermoplastic Production (Boustead) Polymer Delivery Extrusion Building (lights.heating. ect. water.. & land Scrap Anciliary Raw Materials Building (lights.heating. water. ect.) Emissions to air.CRADLE Naphtha. Natural Gas Ancilliary Raw Materials Additives Compounder Internal Transport Drying Pelletizing Emissions to air.

46 118.50 ------------------126.00 82.70 ------84.07 64.00 78.41 79.80 136.40 33.00 67.00 PC 115.50 53.30 107.00 PP 72.07 68.56 111.18 ------LDPE 73.40 96.20 ------------------81. Thiriez ‘06 .00 LLDPE 77.55 92.00 52. [Patel 1999] 3 E Handbook [OIT 1997] Energieweb HDPE 76.45 ------80.00 PVC 58.49 111.Polymer Production Largest Player in the Injection Molding LCI What is a polymer: How much energy does it take to make 1 kg of polymer = a lot !!! Sources Boustead Ashby Patel Kindler/Nickles [Patel 1999] Worrell et al.24 57.00 PS 86.50 ------------------131.00 64.14 ------59.20 53.00 70.00 PET 77.65 80.80 81.00 Values are in MJ per kg of polymer produced.60 71.79 ------------------------121.

Thus it has a similar energy consumption profile. Environmentally Unfriendly Additives: •Fluorinated blowing agents (GHG’s) •Phalates (some toxic to human liver.Compounding . to bestow the polymer with the required characteristics. kidney and testicles) •Organotin stabilizers (toxic and damage marine wildlife) . but without a mold and continuous production. Similar to an injection molding machine.extrusion • • • An extruder is used to mix additives with a polymer base.

ca/pdf/br ochures/br-hylectric03a. electric. hydro-electric .Injection Molding Process Source: http://cache.husky.pdf Machine types: Hydraulic.

85 tons 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 5 10 Throughput (kg/hr) 15 20 Material: PP Source: [Thiriez] . SEC is constant as throughput increases. SEC ≈ pv 9 8 7 All-Electric .85 tons SEC (MJ/kg) 6 Hydraulic .All-electrics have very low fixed energy costs (small idling power).

Raise Resin to Inj.7 MJ/kg !!! . Source: [Thiriez] Enthalpy value to melt plastics is just 0. Temp .For Hydraulics and Hybrids as throughput increases.Raise Resin to Inj. SEC k. Temp .1 to 0. 8 7 6 SEC (MJ/kg) 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 50 100 Throughput (kg/hr) 150 200 Variable Pump Hydraulic Injection Molding Machines.HDPE Does not account for the electric grid. HP 25 HP 50 HP 60 HP 75 HP 100 Low Enthalpy .PVC High Enthalpy .

hybrid 120 Cool Ton Buildup Clamp open-close Inject high Power Required (kW) 100 Plasticize 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 Time (seconds) MM 550 Hybrid NT 440 All-Electric 5 12 13 14 t Inject low Source: [Thiriez] The hydraulic plot would be even higher than the hybrid curve .All-electric vs.

Driers • • Used to dry internal moisture in hygroscopic polymers and external moisture in non-hygroscopic ones.8 Specific Power Consumption (MJ/kg) 1.8 0. 1.6 1.4 0.2 0 0 500 1000 W600 W800 W1000 W2400 W1600 W3200 W5000 W150 W300 W400 W200 Power Trendline R2 = 0.8225 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Throughput (kg/hr) Source: [Thiriez] Same as P0 P E = = SEC = +k & & m m m .2 1 0. It is done before extruding and injection molding.4 1.6 0.

31 Building (lights.6 117.12 0.0 111.24 avg low high Polymer Delivery Compounder Internal Transport 0.8 79.2 52.06 0.LCI Summarized Results ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY STAGE in MJ/kg of shot Thermoplastic Production HDPE LLDPE LDPE 89.8 118.19 0.2 70.70 0.5 PS 87.2 74.5 79.7 92.82 5.7 97.8 69.19 0.0 Extras Generic by Amount PET Consumed Inj. ect.4 102.7 78.01 Polymer Delivery avg low high 0.12 0.57 1.09 --------avg low high 5.8 78..0 avg low high 0.00 Pelletizing 0.99 --------- avg low high Subtotal . Molded PC 81.0 PP 83.7 62.25 8.7 64.4 79. heating.2 59.51 3.30 1.5 PVC 59.9 79.) 0.7 73.6 111.6 95.1 77.4 96.62 Extrusion 3.16 0.0 64.24 Drying 0.

3 MJ/kg is needed for PP Granulating .in the case of pelletizing an extra 0.68 3.45 15.47 11. For hygroscopic materials such as PC and PET additional drying energy is needed (0.Injection Molder Internal Transport 0.79 8.30 1.60 71.04 7.05 0.46 124. heating.24 7.99 --------- avg low high avg low high Subtotal avg low high TOTAL w/ Generic Inj.29 13.65 MJ/kg in the case of PC and 0.97 8.. In order words.70 6.70 0.) 0.the values presented assume no knowledge of the materials' hygroscopia.20 69.96 19.35 4. ect.06 All-Electric 87.68 18.84 81.11 1.52 MJ/kg in the case of PET) Pelletizing .18 12.99 3.56 4.80 69. Molded Polymer TOTAL w/o Polymer Prod Notes avg low high avg low high Drying .65 178.66 26.57 Hydraulic 93.a scarp rate of 10 % is assumed Source: [Thiriez] .03 0.89 11.57 6.29 3.12 Building (lights.62 Injection Molding .35 72.34 13.87 70.04 --------Drying 0.22 Hybrid 87.77 117.08 5.54 Injection Molding (look below) Scrap (Granulating) 0.17 18. they are averages between hygroscopic and non-hygroscopic values.Choose One Hydraulic Hybrid All-Electric 5.

7% Oil 3.0032 mg of Hg .24 g of CH4 0.1% Nuclear 19.1% Gas 16.6% Other 0.Energy Production Industry United States Electricity Composition by Source Hydro 7.0% Coal 50.2% The Grid is about 30% efficient For every MJ of electricity we also get: 171.94 g of CO2 0.31 g of NOx 6.76 g of SO2 0.7% Waste/ Renewable 2.

34E+07 2. LLDPE.S. PS.S.01E+08 6.06 x 108 GJ in total energy). GJ/year 9.68E+08 The Injection Molding Industry in the U. PVC Compounder and Injection Molder 6 Main Thermoplastics All Plastics U.06E+08 Global GJ/year 4. PP. consumes 6. In such a scale imagine what a 0. This is larger than the entire electric production of some small countries.19 x 107 GJ of electricity (or 2.Scale HDPE. LDPE.1 % energy savings mean !!! .

The printer goes in the hopper… .

.And comes out….

360 S. Boothroyd et al.. 4.Readings 1. Shingo. 584 . "Design for Injection Molding“ p. Z. 6. "Single Minute Exchange of Dies“ Thiriez et al. "An Environmental Analysis of Injection Molding“ "Injection Molding Case Study“ Kalpakjian Chapter 19 (Chapter 18) . 3.610 G. 5. Tadmore et al.319 . 2.. "Molding and Casting" p.