Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009) “Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources

2009” (5th Sep’ 2009)

A study on Environmental Impact of Madukkarai limestone mine, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, South India
S.Ravichandran
Assistant Engineer, TWAD Board Rural Water Supply, Dharampuri, Tamil Nadu, India

R. Nagarajan
Department of Science and Mathematics School of Engineering and Science Curtin University of Technology 98009, Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia Email: nagarajan@curtin.edu.my

V. Gayathri
Lot.5802, Desa Senadin, 98000, Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia Email : gayathriv4@rediffmail.com
Abstract: Rapid urbanization and industrialization particularly in developing countries have resulted in a considerable impact on the environment. Mining is the second largest industry after the agriculture and has played a vital role in the development of civilizations from times immemorial. In India, generally mineral resources and forest cover are seen together. Man is compelled to increase and diversify mining activity to meet his increasing demand, and on the other hand resultant changes in both rural and urban areas. Mining, in short, contains inevitably the seeds of pollution; if unchecked; they will grow and spread widely or sparsely as the case may be. Thus the environmental impacts of mining could be broadly classified into five categories, namely water, air, land, noise and Ground vibrations problems. Human has caused severe degradation of his environment, by mismanaging both the renewable and non-renewable resources. Environmental impact is any alteration of environmental condition or creation of new set of environmental conditions, adverse or beneficial, caused or induced by the action or set of actions under consideration. The Environmental Impact Analysis (EIA) should contain an analysis of the proposed action, alternative actions and associated impacts on the environment. Therefore, this paper attempts to assess the rapid environmental impacts of Limestone mining and the preparation of Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for the proposed and expansion of the Madukkarai limestone mines using matrix method. The magnitude of impact varies in broad range. Each mining action having an impact on environmental attribute is given a weight or Parameter Importance Unit (PIU) viewed by experts. The overall impacts have been assessed and remedies have been suggested for the Madukkarai Limestone Mine expansion project. The monitoring program will help in observing the improvements of various environmental parameters and will provide useful guidelines for taking remedial measures in time for the present

and future development activities. Adoption of various environmental friendly measures such as modern technological processes, installation of pollution control equipment for reduction of pollution loads, elaborate afforestation (126 Ha so far undertaken for afforestation) could reduce the mining impact on our environment. The present status of environmental and ecological scenario overall socio economic impact in the core zone and buffer zone of existing Madukkarai limestone mine put together positive effects. Keywords: Environmental Impact Madukkari limestone, Coimbatore, India; Analysis,

I.

INTRODUCTION

Environment is the totality of surroundings in which one is located. Man has caused severe degradation of his environment, by mismanaging both the renewable and non-renewable resources all the way through his development. Mining is the second largest industry after the agriculture and has played a vital role in the development of civilizations from times immemorial. In India, generally mineral resources and forest cover are seen together. Mining implies selection, selection in turn implies rejection of waste; and the very process of selection may produce smoke, dust, noises and other undesirable effects. The major impacts include impact of existing and proposed mining operations on ambient air quality and sensitive receptors, water quality, availability and uses of water, land use pattern, wild life habitats, socio-economic profile and occupational pattern of the neighboring population and infrastructure. Mining creates huge wastes and requires space for their dumping and thus triggers a number of environmental problems like degradation of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, water pollution, etc., further huge quantities of air and water pollutants are added to the environment

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Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009) “Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009) during beneficiation of minerals. Mine may have impact on the physical, chemical and biological attributes of surrounding environment. Environmental impact is any alteration of environmental condition or creation of new set of environmental conditions, adverse or beneficial, caused or induced by the action or set of actions under consideration (EPA, 1989). The Environmental Impact Analysis (EIA) should contain an analysis of the proposed action, alternative actions and associated impacts on the environment. The basic objective of Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management Plan (EMP) exercise is to minimize adverse impacts of any development on the environment (EGI, 1985; Abasis and Arya, 2000). This environmental impact assessment was carried out for the Madukkarai Limestone Mine owned by The Associated Cement Companies Limited located at Madukkarai in Coimbatore District of Tamilnadu, which is quarrying the lime stone from the year 1934 to till the day and proposed to mine up to the year 2020 and may be renewed in future. Therefore, this thesis attempts to assess the Rapid Environmental impacts of Limestone mining and the preparation of Environmental Management Plan for the proposed and expansion of the Madukkarai limestone mines. II. METHODOLOGY APHA, 1977. On-site monitoring was undertaken for various meteorological variables in order to generate the site-specific data. The Central Monitoring Station (CMS) equipped with continuous monitoring equipment was installed on top of the existing limestone mines office at a height of 4.0m above ground level to record wind speed, direction, relative humidity, temperature and atmospheric pressure. Rainfall is monitored by rain gauge. Hourly average, maximum and minimum values of wind speed, direction, relative humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressure and temperature have been recorded continuously at this station, for the study period starting from 1st February to 25th April 2003, the above generated Meteorological data were considered. Secondary information on meteorological conditions has been collected from the nearest IMD station at Coimbatore. Pressure, temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, cloud cover, wind speed and direction are measured twice a day viz., at 0830 and 1730 hr. The wind speed and direction data of IMD, Coimbatore station has been obtained for the past available 10 years (1993-2002). Ground water sources covering 5 km radial distance were examined for physico-chemical parameters in order to assess the effect of limestone mining and other activities on ground water. The samples were collected and analyzed as per the procedures specified in “Standard Method for the Examination of water and waste water” published by American Public Health Association (1991) (APHA). The ground vibration was monitored within the mine lease boundary to assess the impact of ground vibration due to mine blasting. 4493 V 2.5 Minimate vibration measuring equipment of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analyzer was used to measure the status of the vibration levels at the time of blasting (Lenard, 1975). III. STUDY AREA

To assess the environmental impacts of limestone mining in the proposed expansion of Madukkarai Limestone Mine, reconnaissance survey was conducted and sampling locations were identified on the basis of Topography, location of surface water bodies like ponds, canals and rivers; baseline data were collected and various environmental factors were considered for this study. Field was conducted for a period of three months (February 2003 to April 2003 – partly winter, pre monsoon seasons) to determine seasonal variation and also to determine existing conditions of various environmental attributes such as Ambient air quality (SPM, SO2, NOx), Meteorology, Water quality, Ecology, Noise levels, Soil characteristics, Land use, Socio-Economic aspects, Geology and Hydrology etc. At the selected sites, soil samples were collected using Auger/Core cutter. Approximately 2kg of samples were collected in polythene bags, sealed well and transported to laboratory for analysis for its physico-chemical characteristics. The methodology adopted for monitoring surface observations is as per the standard norms laid down by Bureau of Indian Standards (IS: 8829), Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) and

A. Geography and Physiography Limestone deposit at Madukkarai is located 2.50 km away from Madukkarai Cement Works, which lies 10 km from Coimbatore and is on National Highway – 47 connecting Cochin and Salem. Geographically the mining lease area (ML3) fall between the latitude 10° 55’ to 10° 56’ and longitude 76° 56’ to 76° 59’ and are covered on the survey of India Topo sheet no.58 B/13, 58 F/1,58 A/16. Madukkarai block is bounded on the north by Perur, on the NE by Sulur, on the east by Sultanpet, on the south by Kinathukadavu and on the west side by Thondamuthur blocks of Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu. The average elevation ranges from 362m to 465m in the area. The topography is gently undulated and surrounded by Calc – granulites hills. Ettimadai, 38

Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009) “Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009) Dharmalingam Malai and Ayyaswami Malai are the hill ranges located in 10 km radius from the limestone mining area, which are covered by shrubs and bushes. The area is characterized by a tropical climate. The temperature varies in the range of 14.9°Cto 37.8°C. The total annual rainfall in the area is about 574.2mm. The average humidity of the area ranges from 29% to 81%. The winds in the area are light to moderate during summer and winter. However, the speed of the wind increases during the end of the summer season .predominant wind direction is from southwest followed by northwest. The rainwater from the area drains out through seasonal nallas, which ultimately join the Munjiar nalla. The study covers core area of 10 km radius with the proposed expansion of the Lime Stone mining area as center. Area under the mining leases (ML3) of Madukkarai limestone mines is undulating with intermittent ridges/hillocks. Kurichi section of mining lease of ML1 located on the foot hill of the hillocks has abandoned quarry of about 15 m depth whereas, the roadside East section of ML3 has partly abandoned quarries covering the cuttings along the hillock slope upto a height of 400 m RL. These pits have 25 meter maximum depth from the surrounding ground level. The south east and north east corners of the roadside west section of ML3 has waste dumps built upto a height of 15 m. The roadside west section has a gentle slope towards east, i.e. towards NH 47. Beyond the southern limit of roadside west section, Dharmalingamalai hills having the highest peak at 615 m RL exist. ML1 is divided into northern and Kurichi sections by Munjar nallah passing through the lease area. Kurichi section is located around the foothill of a hillock extending to a maximum height of 400 MRL. In this section narrow abandoned quarry of 1.7 km length worked to the maximum depth of 15 m exist. B. General Geology The study area has huge deposits of limestone in Madukkarai, and Ettimadai region within 10 km radius. Country rock is garnetiferous sillimanite schist in most of the places, at places the limestone also occurs in association with charnockite and calc gneiss. The main crystalline limestone resources of Tamilnadu occurs mainly in four major belts. a. Tirunelveli – Ramanathapuram, b. Madurai – Dindigul – Tiruchi, c. Sankaridurg – Tiruchengodu – Namakkal and d. Madukkarai – Ettimadai. Madukkarai area is mainly associated with metamorphic rocks and are considered to belong to the middle Dharwars of southern peninsular shield with the following succession of rocks, Basic Dykes, Chiefly dolerites --------------------------------Felsites and porphyry dykes Chamockites Norite dykes Hornblendic dykes Peninsular gneiss --------- Unconformity ----------------Upper Dharwars – Cherty, Ferruginous silts, clays, calcareous silts. Middle Dharwars – Basic and ultrabasic intrusives with iron stone, Limestones etc. Lower Dharwars – Volcanics, Dykes and Flows. Rhyolites, Basic

C. Geology of the Study area The Madukkarai mining lease area is part of locally referred roadside west block of Madukkarai limestone deposit as they constitute the Western portion of single deposit separated by the National Highway 47. Four distinct limestone bands namely Band 1,2,3 and 4 of varying width are well exposed in roadside west block with intervening calc granulite bands. The limestone is greyish white and light to dark grey in colour, crystalline and coarse to fine grained in nature. It is generally observed that at the contact zone with calc granulite, the limestone is pink in colour. The limestone commonly shows inclusion of diopside, biotite, muscovite and graphite. Limestone bands are separated by calc granulite and at places there are thin lenses of calc granulite within the limestone band itself. Intrusions of pegmatite and occasional thin quarts veins are common within limestone. Occurrence of clay within the limestone is commonly observed. The clay infillings along the joints and fractures in the limestone appear to have been derived from the overburden soil. Another occasional impurity of reddish brown bodies are observed within limestone and locally termed as “oda”. This body is of two types, one is the Kankar variety which has appreciable calcium carbonate content and the other a harder type with quartz nuclii.

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Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009) “Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009) 2) Soil Quality Knowledge of soil characteristics, the erosional aspects, soil fertility etc., is vital for the planning and implementation of afforestation/green belt development measures, as part of maintaining the ecological balances of a region. Location and functioning of limestone mining industries, generation and dumping of waste material etc., could directly or indirectly affect the soil regime of the area surrounding the limestone mining industry. Hence, the study of the soil characteristics in and around the limestone mining complex become an important factor in the Environmental Impact Assessment studies (Jain et al., 1977, Cantes, 1977). 3) Meteorology The meteorological data recorded during the monitoring period is very useful for proper interpretation of the baseline information as well as for input prediction model for air quality dispersion. 4) Air Quality The levels of air pollution thus depend upon the magnitude of activities in the particular area as well as the meteorological conditions (Khopkar, 1993). Thus, the study of ambient air quality is the must to assess the impact of the industrial (Mining) activity on the environment and for advocating control measures. 5) Water Quality It is imperative to study the water quality of the regime likely to be influenced by the limestone mining and allied activities. The results of water quality parameters shown in the table. 4.

Figure 1. Satellite image showing the Madukkarai limestone mine (Soure:Goole map)

IV.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A. Existing Environmental Status of The Study Area 1) Land use The land use in general reflects the activities of human being on land thereby changing the land cover. Identification and periodic surveillance of land use and cover at site and in the vicinity of any developmental activity are one of the most important aspects of EIA (Munn, 1975).

Figure 2. Land Use Pattern of Core Zone of Madukkarai Limestone Mine

Area not available for cultivation 23.09%

Forest Land 3.11% Irrigated Land 33.53%

Culturable Waste Land 4.62%

Unirrigated Land 35.65%

6) Noise Level Noise beyond limits; interfere with communication in the work spot apart from annoyance and health hazard. Relevant noise emitters at Madukkarai lime stone mine are mining machinery and blasting operation. While blasting produces impulsive noise other mining operations involving various mining equipment produces continuous noise. The noise rating developed for community noise from all sources is the Day-Night Sound Level (Ldn). It is similar to a 24 hour equivalent sound level except that during night time period (9 pm to 6 am) a 10 dB (A) weighting penalty is added to the instantaneous sound level before computing the 24 hour average (NEP, 1969). The Ldn was calculated from the hourly Leq’s equation.
Ldn = 10 log {1/24 [16 (10 Ld/10) + 8 (10 (Ln+10)/10]}

Figure 3. Land use Pattern in the Study Area as per 1991 Census.

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Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009) “Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009) Where, “Ld” is the equivalent sound level during the day time (6 am to 9 pm) and “Ln” is the equivalent sound level during the night time (9pm to 6 am). 7) Ground Vibration The ground vibration during the study period was monitored within the mine lease boundary to assess the impact of ground vibration due to mine blasting. The Table 6. represent the ground vibration monitoring details in the study period. B. Ecology: Flora and Fauna The ecological study is an important aspect of environment, in view of the conservation of environmental quality and protection of natural flora and fauna (Odum, 1975). In this perspective the study/survey of biological environment of the project area was taken up. 1) Types and Composition of Vegetation The type of vegetation varies from place to place and depends on various climatic factors like temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, etc. The variation is mainly due to edaphic factors and topo-geographical conditions. The core and buffer zone contains vegetation of the Southern tropical dry deciduous scrub and tropical dry evergreen species, which can be observed in patches along road sides, within villages, etc. The core zone of limestone mining area was surrounded by shrubs, herbs and climbers. The trees like Neem trees, Acacia, etc have been planted along the National Highway (NH-47) in the mine lease areas in colonies, playgrounds, along roads sides, etc. The main agricultural crops in the buffer zone are Groundnut, Coconut, Mango, Paddy, Pulses, and Plantain etc. The climbers such as Cissus quadrangularis, Coccinia grandis, Cuscutta sps, Diplocyclos sps, Ipomoea sps, Passiflora foetida etc are found growing in the wasteland areas. 2) Fauna Assessment The core zone area is properly guarded to prevent the entry of grazing animals such cow, sheep, etc. However, small birds and reptiles like lizards, etc., are seen in this area. The birds like Grey Pelicans, Common heron, Egret, Green Parrot, Rock Dove, Green Imperial Pigeon etc., are observed. The reptiles like Chamaelon, Monitor Lizard are also observed in Buffer zone. The domestic animals like cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep etc are also seen everywhere. No sanctuary, biosphere, or national parks are situated in the buffer zone nor does if form a path for any migrating birds. V. DISCUSSIONS

A. Environmental Status of The Study Area The field data was generated for a period of three months i.e. from February 2003 to April 2003 covering partly winter, pre monsoon season. The monitored ambient air quality data indicate that the concentrations of SPM, SO2 and NOx are found to be in the range of 277.7 – 315.3 µg/m3, 7.7 – 12.8 µg/m3, 15.6 – 21.5 µg/m3 in core zone, and 71.0 – 141.2 µg/m3, 5.4 – 11.8 µg/m3, 5.8 – 18.0 µg/m3 respectively in buffer zone and the levels are well below the National Ambient Air Quality (NAAQ) standards for industrial, residential and rural areas. The Noyal River is located at a distance of 5.5 km north from the Madukkarai limestone mine. The study area experiences shortage for water resources. The annual rainfall is very less and is vagrant. Water catchment tanks in the area are only seasonal and they remain dry during most of the seasons. Here the ground water is developed by means of dug wells and bore wells and the ground water occurs in phreatic conditions in shallow aquifers, The hydro graphics prepared for this area by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), reveals that the rainfall is the principal source of recharge for ground water. The water quality results indicates that Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness, Chlorides in Machchampalayam village is exceeding the standards of 500 mg/l, 300 mg/l and 250 mg/l respectively and the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness in mine pit water is also exceeding the standards of 500 mg/l, 300 mg/l respectively (WHO, 1993). All the other parameters in all the wells and mine pit are below their respective permissible limits except coliform level in mine pit and Machchampalayam village. However the water could be suitable for drinking purpose after treatment but the Machchampalayam village water should be used for agricultural purpose only. Water levels monitored in buffer zone study areas within the range of 21.6 to 22.7 m in Machchampalayam village, 22.0 to 24.8 m in Kurichi Industrial Estate and 19.5 to 21.7 m in Kuniyamuthur. The average water level in the above area is 22.2 m, 24.4 m, 20.6 m respectively. Seven samples from agricultural and barren area within 5 km radius were collected and analyzed for physical and chemical constituents. The pH of soil indicates usually alkaline and neutral in nature. The soil texture is found to be silty clay. The nitrogen levels were observed to be less in barren land and having better quantity in agricultural areas. Similarly the potassium levels in the study area were observed to have very less quantity. The phosphorus levels in the study area were 41

Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009) “Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009) observed to have medium quantity in agricultural areas. It is observed that Day time (Ld) and Nigh time (Ln) noise levels in all the location were below the permissible limits except the day time noise levels in commercial zone of Kurichi market. The study area is predominantly agro eco system. Main crops in the region are cereals, vegetables, pulses and fruits. The forest area is 3.11%, cultivated land (irrigated and unirrigated) of about 69.18% in the study area. The study area did not record the presence of any critically threatened plant species. There is no Wildlife Sanctuary or National Parks or Biosphere or Hotspots in 10 km radius from the proposed and expansion of Madukkarai Limestone mine lease area. The Dharmalingam malai – Ettimadai R.F. of Bollavampatti forest range location is adjacent to the mine lease area on southwest side. B. Environmental Impact Analysis The magnitude of impact varies in broad range. As a result, one would like to know the magnitude of collective or overall impact and its nature i.e. beneficial or adverse. Matrix Method was used to assess the environment impact in the study area. A matrix having rows as environmental attributes or impact areas and columns having proposed limestone-mining activities is constructed. Each action having an impact on environmental attribute is given a weight or Parameter Importance Unit (PIU) viewed by experts. The predicted environmental impact rated on a scale of environmental scores multiplied by the corresponding weight then gives the weighted impact. All weighted impacts added together give the overall weighted impact of proposed Madukkarai limestone mining expansion project on environment. Negative sign in impact matrix indicates that the impact is of adverse nature. Results of Environmental Impact Analysis carried out on above concepts are presented in Table 7. The total impact is therefore assessed to be positive for the capacity expansion of Madukkarai Limestone Mine of Madukkarai Cement Works. In the matrix analysis method the weighted impact such as drilling, blasting, and loading are having negative impact sign in that blasting is having higher altitude it means that it is crating major adverse effects. C. Environmental Impact Pridiction Generally, the environmental impacts can be categorized as either primary or secondary. Primary impacts are those, which are attributed directly by the project and secondary impacts are those, which are indirectly induced and typically include the associated investment and changed patterns of social and economic activities by the proposed action. The proposed limestone-mining project would create impact on the environment in two distinct phases: Mine development phase and Mine operational phase. Potential Significant impacts and their Mitigation during Mine Operational Phase: 1) Land use Pattern The proposed expansion of limestone mining at expanded capacity will not have significant impact on alteration in relief. Because majority of mining will be concentrated in the existing disturbed area at greater depth. Backfilling of part of abandoned quarry at narrower portions of the mining lease will restore the already carried out alteration. 2) Ecological Environment The ambient air quality standards observed within the study area are likely to be within the AAQ standards. Therefore, the impact of these emissions on the surrounding agro eco system will be insignificant. Extensive plantation comprising of pollutant resistant will be undertaken in and around the proposed expansion of limestone mining project will be the mitigate measures. So the impact due to mine operational phase will minimal on the terrestrial eco system. There will not be wastewater discharge into the surface water stream. Hence, there will not any impact on the aquatic ecology. 3) Air Quality The observed values for all ambient air quality parameters in the core and buffer zone area of the study areas are within prescribed limits (CAA, 1970). Hence there will not be any impact on air quality. However in mine operational phase the pollution abatement measures will also be strictly implemented and monitored throughout in future years of mining at expanded capacity. Moreover deployment of Mega Rock Breaker will completely eliminate induced ground vibrations and air blast. It is therefore totally eco-friendly mining activity. 4) Water Quality Water quality in Machchampalayam well in buffer zone is exceeding the standards; it may be due to the leachate problem of abandoned stone quarry exists nearby the sampling stations. So the impact on water quality is short term and adverse. By providing safe discharge of wastewater from the nearest habitat will be the mitigative measures of impact on water quality. 5) Water level 42

Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009) “Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009) The hydro graphics prepared for this area by the Central Ground water Board (CGWB), reveals that the rainfall is the principal source of recharge for ground water and the water level fluctuations are in response to recharge for ground water. It is observed that, run off water flowing over the eastern and northern flank of the hill, Dharmalingam malai is partly entered into the limestone mine pit. In large scale of mining in mine operational phase, the run off flowing into the nearby Munjiar nallah in northern side of the mine lease area will be considerably reduced. So this may cause the negative impact on water resource in buffer zone after the mine operational phase. By, providing suitable drain in scientifically designed manner will be the mitigative measures. However the water could be suitable for drinking purpose after treatment but the Machchampalayam village water should be used for agricultural purpose only. 6) Noise level Noise levels measurements predicted in the buffer zone is within the standard limit. The predicted impact on noise in core zone is within the permissible limit. The noise pollution of the proposed expansion of limestone mining due to vehicular traffic is calculated. Hence noise level impact after the mine operational phase is negligible. 7) Ground Vibration Ground vibration monitoring at the time of blasting is within the standards. During the mine operational phase the safe charge per day is calculated for protecting even Kuchcha houses located at 100 m distance with a factor of safety of 2. Hence no major impacts on buildings are anticipated. 8) Social Environment There will be an overall socio economic development in the study area due to the proposed expansion of Madukkarai limestone mine. The development will be in the spheres of direct and indirect employment, communication, education and reduction in out migration. Ancillary/auxiliary industries around Madukkarai will be developed. The impact on health will be primarily occupational in nature. However, the workers will be provided with ear plugs/ear muffs. Over all impact will be positive in nature. D. Environmental Quality Monitoring The post project environmental quality monitoring may be undertaken by the Madukkarai limestone mine of Madukkarai Cement Works on a continuous basis. This monitoring program will help in observing the improvements in various environmental parameters and will provide useful guidelines for taking remedial measures in time for the present and future development activities. Due to adoption of various environmental friendly measures such as modern technological processes, installation of pollution control equipment for reduction of pollution loads, elaborate afforestation for over 126 Hectares so far undertaken by the Madukkarai Cement Works, etc., the present status of environmental and ecological scenario in the core zone and buffer zone of existing Madukkarai limestone mine is good. The hydro graphic prepared for this area by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), reveals that the rainfall is the principal source of recharge for ground water and the water level fluctuations are in response to recharge for ground water. VI.
CONCLUSION

The present study reveals that Madukkarai limestone pit act as a temporary water storage reservoir, which helps in ground water recharge at the micro scale as well as meeting requirements of the core zone. Hence no impact on ground water resources in the core zone is envisaged. But, the negative impact on water resource in buffer zone may be envisaged after the mine operational phase. By providing suitable drain in the mining area to discharge the collected rainwater all over the area to the Munjiar nallah facing north side of the mine lease boundary is the mitigative measures for strengthening the water resources in surroundings. As the proposed expansion of Madukkarai limestone mine will be carried out in the existing mining lease, there will be an adverse impact on despoliation of land, and no rehabilitation will rise, overall socio economic impact will be in positive effects.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors thank the Authority of Associated Cement Companies Limited, PWD, CGWB, IMD Madukkari, Coimbatore for their contribution during this study. REFERENCES [1] Abbasis, S. A. Arya D. S. “Environmental impact Assessment (Available techniques, emerging trends), Discovery publishing House, New Delhi– 2000. [2] American Public Health Associations, “Methods of Air
sampling and Analysis”, 1977.

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Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009) “Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009) [3] American Public Health Associations. “Standard Methods for the Examination of water and wastewater”, 1991. [4] Clean Air Amendments of 1970, 42 USC 1857 et.seq. as amended by the Clean Air Amendments of 1970, PL 91604. [5] Environmental Guidelines for industries, 1985 and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of development projects: Background Note, February 1989, MoEF. [6] Indian Standard Institution. (1991). Indian Standard
Specification for drinking water, IS:10500, 1–5.

[10] Leonard Meirovitch, “Elements of vibration Analysis”, McGraw – Hill, Inc, 1975. [11] Munn R.E. “Environmental Impact Assessment
Principles and Procedures”. John Wiley & Sons, New York – Toronto, 1975.

[12] National Environmental Pollution Act:42, USC 4321
et.seq. PL 91-190, 1969.

[13] Section 109 (j) Title 13, 23 USC 109 (j), Added by Section 136 (B)of Federal Aid Highway Act, PL 91-605, 1970. [14] The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and Environment (Protection) Rules (1989) issued there under including the Public Hearing Gazette Notification of 10th April, 1997. [15] WHO (World Health Organization). (1993). Guidelines for drinking water quality, recommendations (2nd ed). Geneva.

[7] Jain RK, urban LV, Stacey G.S., “Environmental Impact Analysis.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York 1977. [8] Khopkar, S.M. “Environmental pollution Analysis,”
Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi, 1993.

[9] Larry W.canter, “Environmental impact Assessment”, McGraw Hill Book Co., 1977.

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Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009) “Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009)
TABLE I. S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 SOIL ANALYSIS RESULTS IN CORE AND BUFFER ZONE OF LIMESTONE MINING STUDY AREA. Unit % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Soil Sample Identity S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 7.8 9.0 7.2 7.8 7.4 6.5 2.8 6.2 6.8 8.5 175.4 170.2 175.4 180.4 220.5 0.18 NIL 0.38 0.41 0.46 36 NIL 145.0 180.0 296.0 12.0 NIL 23.5 26.4 16.0 13.8 NIL 24.2 42.7 35.2 Particle size distribution 17.30 22.48 13.89 10.24 9.50 22.48 16.32 15.68 2.88 3.50 14.25 21.27 18.26 3.75 3.48 15.49 21.32 24.23 3.67 3.86 22.46 15.30 22.18 28.65 32.35 2.42 1.17 2.25 5.92 6.20 4.24 1.02 2.24 16.24 15.45 1.36 1.12 1.27 28.65 25.66 Silty Silty Silty Silty Silty clay sandy clay clay clay S6 7.8 7.5 186.4 0.41 161.4 39.7 47.3 10.24 2.88 3.75 3.67 28.65 5.92 16.24 28.65 Silty clay S7 7.2 7.6 175.8 0.48 180.0 34.0 29.0 16.80 23.50 15.20 16.30 20.62 2.25 3.77 1.56 Silty clay

Parameters of Analysis pH of 10% suspension Moisture content at 105°C Water holding capacity Organic carbon Free Ammonia cal Nitrogen Potassium as K Phosphorus as P Gravel Coarse sand Medium sand Fine sand Coarse silt Medium silt Fine silt Clay Textural class

S1 - Topsoil in Lease Area, S2- Overburden, S3 – Madukkaraiwest, S4- Madukkarai East, S5 - Kurichi, S6-Machchampalayam, S7-Pulakkadu

TABLE II. Month February March April

THE METEOROLOGICAL DATA GENERATED AT LIMESTONE MINING LEASE AREA (1ST FEB – 25TH APRIL 2003) Total Rainfall Temperature (°C) Relative Humidity (%) (mm) Max. Min. Max Min 37.1 21.2 3.7 3.4 1.0 38.0 20.1 3.9 3.4 62.5 39.1 14.2 3.8 3.5 Nil TABLE III. SPM µg/m3 Avg 305.4 286.6 305.6 111.8 96.0 115.7 114.1 108.0 77.8 103.4 98% Hile 314.5 301.5 315.3 127.6 105.3 135.8 141.2 125.6 89.6 118.9 Max 12.0 11.6 12.8 9.7 9.1 11.8 11.5 11.3 8.4 10.2 THE AMBIENT AIR QUALITY RESULTS SO2 Min 7.7 8.5 8.5 5.8 5.5 5.4 6.2 8.8 6.5 7.5 µg/m3 Avg 9.6 20.4 6.2 8.1 7.2 8.4 8.6 10.3 7.5 8.7 98% Hile 12.0 11.6 8.5 9.7 9.1 11.8 11.5 11.3 8.4 10.1 Max 21.5 18.0 19.2 11.8 11.2 13.1 12.6 13.7 18.0 11.7 NOx Min 17.1 15.6 16.5 6.0 6.4 5.8 7.1 10.6 15.7 8.7 µg/m3 98% Avg Hile 19.5 21.5 16.7 18.0 17.5 19.20 9.4 11.8 9.0 11.2 9.7 13.1 9.6 12.6 11.8 13.3 16.9 18.0 10.1 11.6

Station AAQ1 AAQ2 AAQ3 AAQ4 AAQ5 AAQ6 AAQ7 AAQ8 AAQ9 AAQ10

Max 314.5 301.5 315.3 127.6 105.3 135.8 141.2 127.6 89.6 120.4

Min 290.3 277.7 291.6 98.7 82.4 101.0 99.7 88.4 71.0 89.4

Station details AAQ1- AAQ10: Mining area view point, Mines Office, Haulage Road Rest Hall, Madukkarai West Village, Madukkarai School, Kurumbapalayam, Near Kurichi Industrial Estate, Ichchanari Village, Kuniyamuhur village and Kovaiputhur respectively.

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Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009) “Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009)
TABLE IV. Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS RESULTS WITHIN CORE & BUFFER ZONE OF MADUKKARAI LIMESTONE MINE Water quality of Samples collected within Parameters Unit Core Zone Buffer Zone W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 pH 7.2 7.5 7.3 7.2 7.4 7.5 Colour Hazen 4 6 3 2 <1 3 Taste Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Odour Unobjectio- Unobjectio- Unobjectio- Unobjectio Unobjectio- Unobjectionable nable nable -nable nable nable Temperature OC 23 25 24 23 22 23 Residual chlorine Mg/l < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 as d2 Total Dissolved Mg/l 415 621 397 455 412 690 Solids (TDS) Total suspended Mg/l < 0.5 0.63 < 0.5 < 0.5 < 0.5 < 0.5 solids Dissolved Mg/l 4.3 3.8 4.1 4.0 4.4 3.7 oxygen BOD (3 days at Mg/l < 3.0 < 3.0 < 3.0 < 3.0 < 3.0 < 3.0 27°C) Total hardness as Mg/l 164 312 174 288 240 540 CaCO3 Total Alkalinity Mg/l 184 322 84 125 268 340 as CaCO3 2+ Calcium as Ca Mg/l 61.5 71.1 58.9 62.6 62.5 64.6 Magnesium as Mg/l 13.4 22.4 11.2 13.8 13.4 15.6 Mg 2+ Chlorides as Cl Mg/l 140 205 95 230 200 634 Sulfates as SO42 Mg/l 41.2 42.3 41.2 35.6 34.4 37.6 Fluorides as F Mg/l 0.4 0.7 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.4 Nitrates as NO3 Mg/l 14.5 15.3 12.6 13.4 12.3 14.2 Total Coliforms MPN/ Absent 4 Absent Absent Absent 2 100ml
Kurichi Industrial Estate,

Limit as per IS:10500 6.5 – 8.5 10 Agreeable Unobjectionable $ 0.2 500 $ $ 3.0 300 $ 75 30 250 $ 1.0 45 Absent

NOTE: ($) Indicates no limits have been specified. Locations: W1 to W6: Madukkarai Limestone Mine Pit Kovaiputhur, Kuniyamuthur and Machchampalayam respectively

TABLE V. NOISE LEVEL LIMITS ON THE STUDY AREA Sl. No N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 Location Madukkarai East Kurichi Market Ichchanari Kuniamuthur Kovaipudur ACC Main Gate (Time Office) TABLE VI. Category Residential/Rural area. Commercial area Residential/Rural area. Residential/Rural area Residential/Rural area Industrial area L10 51.9 66.3 44.8 51.0 46.8 68.9 L50 49.7 59.4 39.2 44.7 41.6 63.4 L90 47.5 55.0 35.5 39.5 38.8 58.7 Leq 50.0 61.6 44.1 46.9 49.1 65.1 Lday 54.2 67.2 45.6 48.7 50.5 67.4 Lnight 42.6 54.5 39.0 40.6 42.0 63.4 Ldn 53.7 66.6 47.1 47.4 51.2 70.7

GROUND VIBRATION MONITORING DATA AT MADUKKARAI LIMESTONE MINE Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) mm/sec

Date 06.02.2003 20.02.2003 07.03.2003 09.04.2003

Time 15:16:22 16:02:18 16:38:08 16:30:23

Location Details Transverse Blast is taken at R.EAST pit no.1. Distance of observation is 100m. Record time is 4.0 Sec at 1024 SPS. Blast is taken at R.EAST pit no.1. Distance of observation is 100 m. Record time is 4.0 Sec at 1024 SPS Blast is taken at R.EAST pit no.1. Distance of observation is 100 mts. Record time 4.0 Sec at 1024 SPS Blast is taken at R.EAST pit no.1. Distance of observation 50 mts. 10.7 14.7 10.8 5.46 Vertical 1.78 3.94 7.87 2.35 Longitudinal 3.3 5.37 8.14 4.57

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Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009) “Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009)

TABLE VII.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT MATRIX FOR THE PROPOSED MADUKKARAI LIMESTONE MINING EXPANSION PROJECT Mining Activities III IV -3 7 -3 5 -2 3 -2 3 -2 5 -1 3 -1 5 -1 3 -2 3 -1 3 1 5 1 3 -3 7 -1 3 -1 2 1 3 0 3 -2 3 -66 -33 Total Score -57 -21 -6 -16 -25 115 -24 40 8 26 40

Sl. Environmental Attribute No. 1. Air quality 2. Noise levels 3. Land use 4. Soil Chemistry 5. Crop Yield 6. Occupational Structure 7. Terrestrial/ aquatic flora and fauna 8. Social interactions 9. Transportation 10. Aesthetics 11. Economy (5*7) Total Score

I -2 -2 0 -1 -1 4 -2 2 0 4 5 3 3 5 3 7 3 3 3 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 2 -2 3 -1 -1 -

II 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 7 3 -12

V -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 7 -1 3 3 0 50 7 3 5 5 5 10 3 5 5 3 3 2 3 1 0 1 3 1 5 -

VI 5 3 5 5 0 3 5 3 7 97

Mining Activities: I to VI; Drilling, Blasting, Loading, Crushing, Transportaion, Plantation/Landscaping

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