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Title of article:

The Online News Media Perception on Cooperatives in Croatia

Author:
Boris Bogunovic

Affiliation:
Independent researcher,
Master of Culture and Tourism, University of Pula, Croatia

Abstract:
The subject analyzed in this paper initially stems from claims that cooperatives in Croatia
have not been sufficiently recognized and adequately presented in general public. This is
actually in accord with general public attitudes which usually looks upon cooperatives as a
relict of communist past or a kind of obsolete association. One of the reasons for poor image
of cooperatives could lie in the way the media informs about the cooperatives. This paper
offers an overview on the cooperative media coverage in attempt to identify specific
perception on the cooperatives in Croatia. All of the articles were collected using web search
engines for the period from January 2012. to April 2014. The methodology is based on
content analysis in respect of 8 categories including judgments, importance and placement of
cooperative and type of journalistic approach. Highlighting and citing certain points
emphasized in articles was used to elaborate positive or negative inclination toward
cooperatives. Number of 166 analysed articles indicates that cooperatives in greater part of
media are not represented regularly and that stereotypes and prejudices affecting the
perception of cooperatives still exist. On other hand there is predominantly affirmative
orientation and positively toned attitude toward cooperatives.

Keywords: Cooperatives, online media, news websites, content analysis


Introduction
For general public the media are one of the key factors affecting not only the process of
acquiring information, but a formation of the settled way of thinking toward certain persons,
things or events as well. What kind of message and what sort of attitude toward cooperatives
the reader is receiving are some of questions this paper has offered as a perspective. However,
the aim of this research was to collect broad sample of published Croatian online news media
articles with cooperatives as the subject and on that basis conduct content analysis to show the
prevailing intonation and the most common traits found in the articles reviewed.
The cooperative sector assert it may present an organizational solution for many market
problems faced by an individual manufacturer or service provider and even being more
resilient to the economic crisis than an ordinary capital based enterprise. In other words
cooperation grounded on the cooperative values and principles as well solidarity could be a
solution for turning the trends of economic weakening and unemployment in particular local
or regional society. On the other side that kind of assertion is actually in disagreement with
general public attitude in Croatia which usually looks upon cooperatives as a relict of former
political system or a kind of obsolete association. Among the others Mataga (2005), Tratnik
(2009) and Matijašević (2009) claim that acceptance of cooperatives in Croatian general
public is still far from satisfying and the reasons they found in the communist past. Because at
that period people were forced to enter into the cooperatives and this is completely opposite to
the cooperative principle of voluntary and open membership. One of the reasons for above
mentioned poor public image of cooperatives could lie in the way the media informs on the
cooperatives as Kanižaj (2004: 86) asserts that perception on certain topic is created mostly
on the basis of media report, editorial selection of events and statements of public figures on
the subject.
Media discourse refers to interactions that take place through broadcast platform, whether
spoken or written, in which the discourse is oriented to a non-present reader, listener or
viewer (O'Keefe, 2006). In the terms of editorial policy authors of the articles by specific
content, position, graphical presentation, timing and context as well exhibit certain attitudes
and views on chosen subject. Therefore specific selection of themes represents the
hierarchically structured selection of events that have related significance and on that basis
media space, time and specific position is given to them (Elezović, 2012). Consequently the
scope of this research was directed to acquire diverse information about the modes in which
the cooperatives were presented in online news media. That was done in the way to find
which prevailing framing the redaction or particular authors of the articles had in presentation
of cooperatives. In that way, through this research an attempt is made to find if general public
view coincides with the content framing of articles about cooperatives.
However, the codes and modes of classifications in media research are not unambiguous
enough to get completely objective view because any media monitoring is characterized by
given criteria. Regarding this any monitoring is subjective and can be viewed as a sort of
media critic, namely produced knowledge is always defined by criteria which were used
(Elezović, 2012: 62).
Considering the results of research there are two additional data that could be important.
First is statistics on internet use in Croatian households and by individuals which for 2013. It
shows that percentage of households who have Internet access at home stays at level of 65%.
In that measure all forms of Internet use are included and the population considered is aged 16
to 74 (Eurostat, 2014). Next important information is how many people actually visits
particular online news portal. According to Croatian internet audience measurement service
(Audience, 2014) the most visited websites in Croatia in April of 2014. were two online news
media, namely 24sata 1 with 1.140.122 real visitors and Jutarnji 2 which follows with
1.026.391 visitors. Nonetheless it's worth mentioning that among the 10 most visited websites
were another 6 online news media e.g. Vecernji 3 , Tportal 4 , Net 5 , Dnevnik 6 , Dnevno 7 and
Slobodnadalmacija 8.

Methodology
In search for the articles an online newspaper is defined as online version of a newspaper,
either as a stand-alone publication of an online news service or as the online version of a
classical printed periodical. By using the Internet search options researchers can today access
news from many years ago, however chosen period for this research was from January 2012.
to the end of April 2014.
To collect the relevant number of online news articles the search was done by combining a
few methods. First by the Google 9 search engine which has in essence two search options:
universal and advanced. First option present mode of inscribing key word directly and with
this we are directed not only to online news media content but anything else. A problem with
this search mode is that it would offer only two results from one particular Internet page.
Another way of searching was using advanced search options with key words but inside
specific web domain (Google, 2014). In Croatia there are no commercial online database
services with digitalized media content like LexisNexis 10 , Dialog 11 or Factiva 12 however
almost all classical news media have own online editions in full, extended or partial versions
(Brautović, 2009). In addition the news aggregation service Naslovnica 13 that offer diverse
search options was used. Other web sites like Novine 14 or Hrportali 15 were also consulted
because they offer the long list of online news portals.
By reviewing the search results appropriate articles were chosen regarding the relevance
and repeated articles on several news portals were omitted from the sample. Also the articles
about the school (pupils) cooperatives where not taken into account (because these
cooperatives are not listed in the cooperative legislation). Therefore, the final data were
gathered by method of web engine search on the basis of combined use of following key
words: cooperatives, media and news in the title or as the subject of an article which was
published on online news media in Croatia during chosen period.
To achieve the objective of the research, the media content analyses of the published
articles was conducted. In media content analysis the frequently used method is quantitative
content analysis. This is the method in which an objective, quantitative and justified
description of content is given and by which adequate connections and relationships between
phenomenons in a dataset are presented (Elezović, 2012). Van Dijk (1985: 3) states that
content analysis is interested in principles of description when it tries to account for the basis
of unification, and structural properties of media discourse can be attended to, at least from

1
www.24sata.hr, May 15. 2014.
2
www.jutarnji.hr, May 15. 2014.
3
www.vecernji.hr, May 15. 2014.
4
www.tportal.net, May 15. 2014.
5
www.net.hr, May 15. 2014.
6
www.dnevnik.hr, May 15. 2014.
7
www.dnevno.hr, May 15. 2014.
8
www.slobodnadalmacija.hr, May 15. 2014.
9
https://www.google.hr/?gfe_rd=ctrl&ei=N2YZU9zMJoze8gfS9YHwBg&gws_rd=cr, May 15. 2014.
10
http://www.lexisnexis.com/en-us/products/nexis.page, May 15. 2014.
11
http://www.dialog.com/, May 15. 2014.
12
https://global.factiva.com/factivalogin/ login.asp?productname=global, May 15. 2014.
13
http://naslovnica.info, May 15. 2014.
14
http://www.novine.org, May 15. 2014.
15
http://www.hrportali.com, May 15. 2014.
quantitative point of view. According to Kyung Hye Kim (2014) a quantitative, corpus-based
approach is most illuminating for describing collocation and other recurrent patterns
associated with specific lexical items across an entire corpus, while a qualitative, critical
discourse analysis approach is best suited for scrutinizing specific stretches of text at various
levels.
The content analysis used for this paper was arranged on the combined basis of
categorization and features of contextual nature as Sinčić Ćorić and Vuković (2012) designed
and further categorization by the author. In attempt to determine the criteria for specific
content analysis of cooperatives subject found on online news articles the analytical matrix
with eight categories for classification was designed. Hence, the articles were classified and
analyzed in respect of:
1. The importance and placement of a cooperative subject. Every article is analyzed with
respect to shaping the content, namely does the cooperative topic present the dominant subject
(cooperative way of association is main context), collateral subject (article just present a
cooperative subject) or just mentioned (in context which is not necessary connected to
information about cooperatives).
2. The placement of a cooperative subject in the specific context. Every article is
determined as political (the topic included a government/political or legislative subject),
business or other.
3. The style of a journalistic reporting in three varieties: informative (gives the basic
information), explanatory (gives additional information) and evaluative (gives in-depth
analysis);
4. The context of an article i.e. if the article emphasizes an advantage, an issue or other
context of a cooperative subject.
5. The presence of a cooperative subject in the title of an article according to prevailing
intonation in three modes: positive, negative or neutral and the titles where the term
cooperative was not mentioned i.e. labeled as irrelevant.
6. The genre of journalistic writing in five forms: news, review, column, feature and
interview. In that sense following definitions were used: a news relay an information in a
straightforward, accurate and unbiased manner; a review accurately describe or identify the
subject being reviewed and provide an opinion of the subject; a column is based primarily on
the personality of the author, allowing him or her to write about subjects in a personal style
(En Jio, 2010); a feature may interpret or add depth and color to the news, instruct and
entertain (Marks, 1993); an interview is a meeting in which someone is asked questions for
newspaper article, television show, etc.
7. The placement of the cooperative subject according to the prevailing geographical
distribution in four varieties: local, regional (i.e. counties), national and international;
8. A type of the cooperative association referred to in an article as: agricultural, workers,
social etc.
Yet it has to be said that methodology used in this research has some limitations. Namely,
analyzed material include only articles which were found on online news media and because
of that the results can't be generalized to all informative space but to that particular
informational channel. Another point is possibility of partiality on the side of researcher in
analysis approach and evaluation of content respectively. Further, in spite of all the effort to
collect as much articles as possible these which were found should be regarded as an
overview and in no sense total number of published articles during chosen period.

Results and Discussion


The media content analysis in this paper displays qualitative and quantitative elements of
online news articles which were available to the general Internet users and consequently
contributed to the creation of particular image on the cooperatives. The results of research are
presented in the form of categorization of data within before mentioned classification.
The final research sample consisted of 166 articles by 101 different authors (and 47
unsigned i.e. considered as redaction) published on 59 different online news media which
have had the cooperative topic as subject.
The results of content analysis in regard to above mentioned classification were as follows:
1. In respect with the importance and placement of the cooperative subject there were: 46
(28%) articles in which cooperatives were dominant notion; 95 (57%) articles in which
cooperatives were collateral notion and 25 (15%) articles in which cooperatives were just
mentioned. This outcome shows that majority of articles are written with central topic on
cooperative subject, and almost every third of articles have had in detail approach.
2. According to placement of the cooperative in broader context there were: 38 (23%)
articles in political context, 97 (58%) articles with business context and 41 (31%) articles in
other context. Therefore, the conclusion is that the greater parts of articles were concerned
with the economical activity of cooperatives. Furthermore, almost one quarter of articles refer
to the statements of politicians (especially in the news from various conferences or
cooperative fairs).
3. In connection with the style of journalistic reporting there were: 93 articles (56%) with
informative, 48 (29%) with explanatory and 25 (15%) with evaluative character. It shows that
more than half of it was shorter articles with intention to give basic information about the
cooperative subject or issue. Also, this figure corresponds with the results given under first
classification.
4. With reference to the general context of an article there were: 88 (53%) articles with
emphasize on an advantage, 60 (36%) articles which discuss mostly on an issue and 18 (11%)
articles with a cooperative subject in another context. The result indicates that predominant
attitude is favorable toward the cooperatives and discussion on issues is usually oriented to
improvement, and not mere criticism.
5. Regarding to presence of cooperative in the headlines of the articles there were: 65
(39%) with positive, 26 (16%) with negative and 27 (16%) with neutral tone. Another 48
(29%) articles had irrelevant titles i.e. it didn't has the term cooperative in headline. The larger
part of the articles also confirms beneficial way of presentation of cooperatives. Besides that,
the articles which were classified as irrelevant had mostly positive tone.
6. According to a genre of the journalistic writing there were 66 (39%) articles in category
of news, 64 (39%) in features, 10 (6%) interviews, 5 (3%) column and 21 (13%) reviews. The
results shows that the most used journalist forms were news and extended news (features),
namely intended to give information and personal story about cooperatives.
7. With regard to the placement of cooperative subject according to geographical position
there were 66 (40%) articles which have dealt with local, 34 (20%) with regional, 49 (30%)
with national and 17 (10%) with international subject. The prevailing orientation to local
cooperative subject is in accord with cooperative principle of concern for local community.
8. With reference to the type of cooperative enterprise as main subject there were 65 (39%)
articles with topic on agricultural cooperative, 23 (14%) on veterans cooperatives, 16 (10%)
on workers cooperatives, 13 (8%) on energy cooperatives, 12 (7%) on social cooperatives, 7
(4%) on banking cooperatives, 5 (3%) on fishery cooperatives, 2 (1%) on housing
cooperatives and 23 (14%) which were concerned with more types of cooperatives in one
article. It reflects the actual general distribution of cooperatives enterprises in Croatia because
40% of total coop number at the end of 2012. was in agricultural sector (Bašić, 2013).
Apart from before mentioned quantitative elements collected from the reviewed article
further analyses of articles discovers some qualitative and more specific features. For instance,
the assertion that public image of cooperatives in Croatia is still burdened with memories
from former political system is supported in various forms of statements in number of articles.
Regarding the weak position of cooperatives in Croatia there is a claim that: "cooperatives…
were eliminated in the beginning of 90's as a relict of socialism". 16 Another author found
justification for avoiding coop association in following: "…Croatia is doing misinterpretation
that this is Marxist and other political doctrine product". 17 Other writer affirms that reluctance
to get into a cooperative comes: "…because of negative experiences in the former socialist
system to that form of the organization (trade unions in which the peasants entered
coercively) there is still a certain gap". 18 Another approach confirms that situation:
"…cooperatives are associated with something that is out of date, old-fashioned, which does
not correspond to the new challenges". 19 Or mentioned little bit different: "…in our country
there is still negative connotation when it comes to co-operatives, because it is still connected
to the kind of co-operatives from the former system when the men were impelled to that
associations, the property was taken away from them, they were forced to do the things".20
More elaborate explanation express this in following terms: "Wishing to be presented as a
highly ethical and social justice society the past system has abused the fundamental values of
the cooperative organization and cooperative as the primary economic entity, through
selective recognition and application of only those cooperative principles that foster the
ideological dimension of communion". 21 Additionally, some deal with the issue of free
choice: "…since in the socialist period the people were forced into cooperatives these small
producers did not want to be coop member because they considered it as deprivation of
liberty". 22 One author put the accent on external causes: "In communism, the cooperatives
unfortunately got bad reputation because of external pressures and bureaucratic
management". 23 That prejudices are quite resistant what suggests next interlocutor: "Although
the imposed socialist model of cooperatives has passed by more than half a century ago, the
negative associations of people are still unreasonably strong". 24 And this is confirmed by
another article: "The word 'cooperative' is inevitably associated with socialism and former
"collectivization of villages"… 25 In spite of this there is an interviewee who has a more
spirited view: "…our farmer run away from the cooperatives like from the devil. This is
question for sociologist not for an agronomist". 26 Even the sport journalist use prejudices on
cooperatives as in the article which describes the bad game of a football team: "I do not like
that term, but they acted like a peasant's cooperative". 27
Moreover, all that prejudices are reflected in business sector too. Because of that
management and operations of cooperatives in such environment is frequently realized as
troubled task. This could be seen in following quote: "In business circles cooperatives

16
http://www.agroportal.hr/poljoprivreda/povrtlarstvo/zadruge-eliminirane-pocetkom-90-ih-kao-relikt-
socijalizma-ponovno-se-vracaju/, May 15. 2014.
17
http://www.agroklub.com/poljoprivredne-vijesti/poljoprivredno-zadrugarstvo-u-hrvatskoj/11002/, May 15.
2014.
18
http://www.banka.hr/komentari-i-analize/zadruge-nisu-relikt-socijalizma, May 15. 2014.
19
http://stari.dalmacijanews.com/Hrvatska/View/tabid/77/ID/128517/U-malim-mjestima-zadruge-su-sve-kad-
nestane-zadruga-nestane-i-selo.aspx, May 15. 2014.
20
http://www.glas-koncila.hr/index.php?option=com_php&Itemid=41&news_ID=22916, May 15. 2014.
21
http://www.glas-slavonije.hr/180067/11/zadruge, May 15. 2014.
22
http://www.novilist.hr/Vijesti/Gospodarstvo/Ljerka-Puljic-Bez-rasta-potrosnje-ne-moze-biti-ni-investicija,
May 15. 2014.
23
http://www.agroklub.com/stocarstvo/drzava-dize-ruke-od-stocarstva-i-mlijeka/8196/, May 15. 2014.
24
http://www.agroklub.com/poljoprivredne-vijesti/udruzivanjem-do-uspjeha/9706/, May 15. 2014.
25
http://www.h-alter.org/vijesti/hrvatska/kriza-kao-poticaj-za-osnivanje-zadruga, May 15. 2014.
26
http://m.slobodnadalmacija.hr/Novosti/Najnovije/tabid/296/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/212939/Marin-
Marasovi-Udruimo-se-u-zajednikom-poslu-.aspx, May 15. 214.
27
http://www.jutarnji.hr/komentar-t--zidaka--raspusteno-i-bahato-drustvo---prava-seljacka-radna-zadruga-
/1130476/, May 15. 2014.
virtually provoke mocking, and among the citizens they have a negative reputation for
bringing back the experience of the communist system". 28 The same happens if a cooperative
is in the search for an investment: "The banks have their hair raising when they see some
cooperative want to do the business with them because it is known how most of them worked
and finished". 29
However, the signs of better times for cooperatives were recently noticed, as one author
concludes: "Although still exists a problem of cooperatives having the image of the socialist
system it is no longer as significant as the problem of public ignorance. 30 And another
interviewee sees possible changes for cooperative way of doing business: After two last
decades in which the unions were condemned as unwilling residue of self-management
socialism, during recent years the official policy, however, began again to support such forms
of business". 31
The residues of former political system could be seen in strong role of the state likewise. In
a number of articles the state is accused for bad conditions in cooperatives like in following
quote: "For such a situation in the cooperative the state and those who govern are to be
blamed. In the cooperative some people watch only their own interests, and for others
whatever will be, will be". 32 In another article there is the further elaboration of this process:
"In the recent history the cooperative movement in Croatia declined due to inconsistent
government policies, poorly managed transition and favoring other forms of entrepreneurship
at the expense of cooperatives". 33 Speaking of development of an agricultural cooperative one
article asserts: "Declaratively they are "of special interest" to the state, but in reality they have
hindered access to the working capital in which case cooperatives exist only in literally
sense". 34 And another author hopes for better cooperative development were seen in the
power of the state: "When we would have incentive by the state in form quality credit and
proper subsidies, it could be something done..." 35 Besides the financing issues there is
legislation as next assertion confirms: "The cooperative enterprise could be improved by
several measures, and passing of a legislative acts certainly has an importance". 36
In certain articles an accent is put on the specific types of cooperative association. The
cooperatives were presented as good solution for an individual producer and this is evident in
following: "Everybody knows that the biggest problem of manufacturer is the selling and
billing. We were just forced to establish a cooperative…" 37 People of different business
orientation could use the advantage of cooperative association, for example for a winemaker:
"As these properties are small an individually driven wine business would not make sense, so
they found solution by joining in the cooperative". 38 Even the journalists were looked upon as

28
http://varazdinske-vijesti.hr/gospodarstvo/rjesenja-su-radnicko-dionicarstvo-i-drustveno-poduzetnistvo.html,
May 15. 2014.
29
http://www.poslovni.hr/domace-kompanije/uspjesno-poslovanje-zadruge-na-zahtjevnom-trzistu-201115, May
15. 2014.
30
http://www.makarska-post.com/index.php/okrugli-stol-matice-hrvatske-u-splitu-zadrugarstvo-je-neiskoristeni-
pokretac-gospodarstva-dalmacije/, May 15. 2014.
31
http://danas.net.hr/novac/zadruge-su-dobar-odgovor-na-gospodarsku-krizu, May 15. 2014.
32
http://www.slobodnadalmacija.hr/Dubrovnik/tabid/75/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/161346/Default.aspx,
May 15. 2014.
33
http://www.agroklub.com/poljoprivredne-vijesti/udruzivanjem-do-uspjeha/9706/, May 15. 2014.
34
http://www.glas-koncila.hr/index.php?option=com_php&Itemid=41&news_ID=24127, May 15. 2014.
35
http://www.agroklub.com/povrcarstvo/poljoprivredna-zadruga-obnova-trogir/11772/, May 15. 2014.
36
http://www.agroportal.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/poljoprivredne-zadruge-proslost-ili-buducnost/, May 15. 2014.
37
http://www.034portal.hr/clanak.php?id=12244, May 15, 2014.
38
http://www.agroklub.com/vinogradarstvo/ucetverostrucena-proizvodnja-poljoprivredne-zadruge-
vrbnik/10871/, May 15. 2014.
someone who could have an advantage through cooperative: "…connecting journalists in the
cooperatives could provide employment opportunities and restore degraded public trust". 39
As aftermath of the homeland war in Croatia (1991-1995) there were many veterans, and
the new model of particular veteran cooperatives was developed, and it is presented quite
positively: "…model of cooperative is very interesting to veterans because it in itself presents
mutual trust, companionship, fellowship, and the closeness of wartime friends continues in the
business". 40 The outcome of such association came out as very positive which is especially
vivid in the next words: "In a veteran cooperatives there are no suicides, no domestic violence,
no alcoholism, there are no problems, only positive stories..." 41
Through another articles the cooperative way is highly promoted in the light of Croatian
EU access, for example: "In front of Croatia there is a great and regulated market of the
European Union. Only united, Croatian farmers may seek a better future". 42 There are hopes
that it would have positive reflection on fundraising as seen from following quote: "…through
the cooperative EU funds can be easily accessed. The most people still do not seem aware of
the benefits that the unifying could bring". 43 The previous assertion is reflected in other
words: "People are encouraged to cooperate. However, we should change a mindset of the
people. Now they are estranged, every one is looking at himself". 44 And the ultimate way to
achieve cooperation according to one author lies in following: "Raising the children in the
cooperative spirit seems to me the best pedagogical approach". 45
In spite off all the disputes and to conclude in positive spirit the quote from another article
offer straightforward answer: "Are you looking for a way to save a good deal in the struggling
economic situation? Join together! Establishing a cooperative is the answer". 46
As regards to future trends of publishing articles about cooperatives it could be expected
greater presence of cooperative subject in the online media as the distribution of articles on
the time scale (as presented on table in Appendix 1.) approves.

Conclusion
The media are frequently understood as one of key factor affecting not only the process
of acquiring information, but formation of the settled way of thinking toward certain persons,
things or events. What kind of message and what attitude toward cooperatives a media reader
is receiving were some of research questions and this paper has attempted to offer some
possible answers. In other words, by reviewing a particular media content connection and
relation between certain phenomena of online news media and cooperatives were established.
However the conducted media content analyses is necessarily fragmentary because in first
place it should be fairly assumed that there is a number of articles not discovered in this
research due to the limitation of online search and secondly the content analyses as any other
interpretation based analyses inevitably incorporate certain level of subjectivity.
In that way, this study could be seen as partial insight into the Croatian online media image
of cooperatives according to analyses of several modes of journalists and editorial processing

39
http://www.business.hr/ekonomija/zadruge-spas-za-hrvatsko-novinarstvo, May 15. 2014.
40
http://www.antenazadar.hr/clanak/2014/02/ministar-matic-ovo-su-branitelji-koji-ne-kukaju-nego-rade-i-
uspjesno-privreduju/, May 15. 2014.
41
http://www.tportal.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/318669/Odusevljen-sam-zadrugarima-nisu-sjeli-u-kladionice-nego-
rade.html, May 15. 2014.
42
http://www.agroklub.com/poljoprivredne-vijesti/spas-u-zadrugama/8807/, May 15. 2014.
43
http://www.glasistre.hr/vijesti/pula_istra/zadruge---interesa-malo-a-korist-velika-367773, May 15. 2014.
44
http://www.zadarskilist.hr/clanci/27012012/zadrugarstvo-na-prekretnici, May 15.2014.
45
http://www.agroklub.com/poljoprivredne-vijesti/izaberimo-peru-kvrzicu-za-ministra-poljoprivrede/7438/, May,
15. 2014.
46
www.advance.hr/vijesti/uspjeh-radnicke-kooperative-new-era-u-sad-u-i-nuznost-povezivanja-radnistva-na-
globalnoj-razini, May 15. 2014.
of articles. Following this, a few aspects of media role in raising the consciousness of general
public on cooperatives were recognized. The number and frequency of articles on cooperative
subject and issues in most online news media indicate that cooperatives were not represented
adequately and on the regular basis. On the other side majority of articles about cooperatives
were predominantly affirmative and positively toned. Also a great number of articles
represented cooperatives as very beneficial business organizations.
However, one conclusion could be drawn, namely that stereotypes and prejudices affecting
the prevailing perception on the cooperatives as a part of communist past are still widespread
in Croatia and as such reflected in online news media. Another attitude which is supported
from various statements in numerous articles was belief that strong role of the state is crucial
element for prosperity of cooperative. Fortunately for the cooperatives that situation is
changing and there is a fair number of articles with the news about freshly formed
cooperatives or the necessity of cooperative approach in doing business. That shows growing
public interest for cooperatives as a sound business organizations. Nonetheless, it is quite
obvious that new researches and case studies would provoke further interest and contribute to
better understanding of cooperatives in expert and general public likewise.
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APPENDIX 1.

Distribution of articles with cooperative content by online news media in chosen period
January 2012. - April 2014.

Online news media 2012. 2012. 2012. 2013. 2013. 2013. 2014.
No. Total
(1-4) (5-8) (9-12) (1-4) (5-8) (9-12) (1-4)
1. 034portal.hr 1 1
2. 057info.hr 1 1
3. 24sata.hr 1 1 1 3
4. advance.hr 1 1
5. agroklub.com 1 1 1 2 4 3 12
6. agroportal.hr 2 1 1 4
7. antenazadar.hr 1 1
8. balkans.aljazeera.net 1 1 2
9. banka.hr 1 1 2
10 baranjamedija.hr 1 1
11 business.hr 1 1
12 dalmacijanews.com 1 1
13 dalje.com 1 1 2
14 danas.net.hr 1 1
15 dnevnik.hr 1 2 3
16 dnevno.hr 1 1 2 4
17 dulist.hr 1 1
18 dw.de 1 3 4
19 emedjimurje.com 1 1 1 3
20 ezadar.hr 1 1 2
21 evarazdin.hr 2 2
22 glasistre.hr 2 1 3
23 glas-koncila.hr 1 1 2
24 glaspodravine.hr 1 1
25 glas-slavonije.hr 1 3 1 2 1 1 9
26 gospodarski.hr 1 1
27 h-alter.org 2 5 1 1 2 11
28 hrt.hr 1 2 3
29 index.hr 1 1
30 in-portal.hr 1 1
31 ipress.hr 1 1
32 jutarnji.hr 1 1 2
33 kastela.org 1 1
34 kulturistra.hr 1 1
35 kulturpunkt.hr 1
36 liderpress.hr 1 1 1 3
37 makarska-post.com 1 1
38 mnovine.hr 1 1
39 mojzumberak.com 2 2
40 muralist.hr 1 1
41 nasice.com 1 1
42 nezavisni.hr 1 1
43 novilist.hr 1 1 1 3
44 novossti.com 1 1 1 1 4
45 obnovljivi.com 1 1
46 panorama-vukovar.com 1 1
47 politikaplus.com 1 1
48 poslovni.hr 1 1 1 1 4
49 privredni.hr 1 1 2
50 profitiraj.hr 1 1
51 slavonski.hr 1 1
52 slobodnadalmacija.hr 3 2 2 1 1 9
53 slobodnifilozofski.com 1 1 2
54 suvremena.hr 1 1
55 tportal.hr 1 2 2 2 1 8
56 varazdinske-vijesti.hr 1 1
57 vecernji.hr 2 1 2 2 2 3 10 22
58 voxportal.hr 1 1 2
59 zadarskilist.hr 2 1 3
TOTAL 15 16 18 26 24 26 41 166

Source: Created by the author, 2014.


APPENDIX 2.

List of online news media articles reviewed

1. www.034portal.hr/clanak.php?id=12244, May 15, 2014.


2. www.057info.hr/vijesti/2013-12-03/braniteljske-zadruga-preko-bajama-i-smokava-do-eu-
novaca, May 15, 2014.
3. www.24sata.hr/lifestyle/palac-gore-za-urbane-sklopive-vrtove-zadruge-martinov-plast-
331771, May 15, 2014.
4. www.24sata.hr/sutra-ispred-arena-centra-ureujemo-urbane-povrtnjake-361662, May 15,
2014.
5. www.24sata.hr/pametnakuna/donosimo-mrsicevih-7-mjera-u-borbi-protiv-nezaposlenosti-
281890, May 15, 2014.
6. www.advance.hr/vijesti/uspjeh-radnicke-kooperative-new-era-u-sad-u-i-nuznost-
povezivanja-radnistva-na-globalnoj-razini, May 15, 2014.
7. www.agroklub.com/stocarstvo/braniteljske-zadruge-najaktivnije-u-poljoprivredi/11533/,
May 15, 2014.
8. www.agroklub.com/poljoprivredne-vijesti/izaberimo-peru-kvrzicu-za-ministra-
poljoprivrede/7438/, May 15, 2014.
9. www.agroklub.com/poljoprivredne-vijesti/spas-u-zadrugama/8807/, May 15, 2014.
10. www.agroklub.com/sajmovi-dogadjanja/sajam-zadruga-suradnjom-do-klastera/12367/,
May 15, 2014.
11. www.agroklub.com/poljoprivredne-vijesti/poljoprivredno-zadrugarstvo-u-
hrvatskoj/11002/, May 15, 2014.
12. www.agroklub.com/povrcarstvo/poljoprivredna-zadruga-obnova-trogir/11772/, May
15, 2014.
13. www.agroklub.com/poljoprivredne-vijesti/promasena-emisija-o-zadrugarstvu-u-
hrvatskoj/13156/, May 15, 2014.
14. www.agroklub.com/poljoprivredne-vijesti/udruzivanjem-do-uspjeha/9706/, May 15,
2014.
15. www.agroklub.com/poljoprivredne-vijesti/poljoprivrednici-i-ruralni-razvoj-
dalmacije/10721/
16. www.agroklub.com/poljoprivredne-vijesti/na-hrt-u-krece-emisija-o-zadrugarstvu-
stvarajmo-zajedno/13027/, May 15, 2014.
17. www.agroklub.com/stocarstvo/drzava-dize-ruke-od-stocarstva-i-mlijeka/8196/, May
15, 2014.
18. www.agroklub.com/vinogradarstvo/ucetverostrucena-proizvodnja-poljoprivredne-
zadruge-vrbnik/10871/, May 15, 2014.
19. www.agroportal.hr/vijesti/aktualno/bez-udruzivanja-u-manje-ili-vece-zadruge-za-
poljoprivrednike-nema-buducnosti/, May 15, 2014.
20. www.agroportal.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/poljoprivredne-zadruge-proslost-ili-buducnost/,
May 15, 2014.
21. www.agroportal.hr/poljoprivreda/povrtlarstvo/zadruge-eliminirane-pocetkom-90-ih-
kao-relikt-socijalizma-ponovno-se-vracaju/, May 15, 2014.
22. www.agroportal.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/ministarstvo-pokrece-emisiju-o-zadrugarstvu/,
May 15, 2014.
23. www.antenazadar.hr/clanak/2014/02/ministar-matic-ovo-su-branitelji-koji-ne-kukaju-
nego-rade-i-uspjesno-privreduju/, May 15, 2014.
24. balkans.aljazeera.net/vijesti/zadruge-ostale-imune-na-krizu, May 15, 2014.
25. balkans.aljazeera.net/vijesti/hrvatska-pomaze-borackim-zadrugama-u-bih, May 15,
2014.
26. www.banka.hr/komentari-i-analize/zadruge-nisu-relikt-socijalizma, May 15, 2014.
27. www.banka.hr/danske-farme-vjetra/print, May 15, 2014.
28. www.baranjamedija.hr/dogadanja-u-baranji/939-braniteljska-zadruga-donji-grad-
ponovno-pobjednik-kobasijade, May 15, 2014.
29. www.business.hr/ekonomija/zadruge-spas-za-hrvatsko-novinarstvo, May 15, 2014.
30. http://stari.dalmacijanews.com/Hrvatska/View/tabid/77/ID/128517/U-malim-
mjestima-zadruge-su-sve-kad-nestane-zadruga-nestane-i-selo.aspx, May 15, 2014.
31. http://dalje.com/hr-zagreb/t-holjevac-podruprla-stambeno-zadrugarstvo-sugradjana-
trece-zivotne-dobi/441417, May 15, 2014.
32. http://dalje.com/hr-svijet/raguz-osudjen-na-14-godina-zatvora-zbog-propasti-hrvatske-
stedne-zadruge/451596, May 15, 2014.
33. http://danas.net.hr/hrvatska/le-monde-diplomatique-ponovno-u-hrvatskoj, May 15,
2014.
34. http://dnevnik.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/branitelji-ogorceni-na-vlast-zbog-ukidanja-
braniteljskih-zadruga---328637.html, May 15, 2014.
35. http://dnevnik.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/predsjednik-josipovic-zasadio-maslinu-i-postao-
kum-braniteljske-zadruge-lintar---283653.html, May 15, 2014.
36. http://dnevnik.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/veliki-sajam-braniteljskih-zaduga-u-zadru---
325478.html, May 15, 2014.
37. www.dnevno.hr/vijesti/svijet/68298-britanske-banke-u-panici-milijuni-prelaze-u-
kreditne-zadruge.html, May 15, 2014.
38. www.dnevno.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/116355-predrag-matic-u-braniteljskim-zadrugama-
nema-samoubojstava-nasilja-i-alkohola.html, May 15, 2014.
39. www.dnevno.hr/novac/117519-david-i-golijat-moze-li-mala-braniteljska-zadruga-mir-
preuzeti-kupare-pod-nosom-todorica-i-drugih-divova.html, May 15, 2014.
40. www.dnevno.hr/novac/103638-stravicno-austrijska-mafija-uz-pomoc-korumpiranih-
javnih-biljeznika-tjera-hrvate-iz-domova.html, May 15, 2014.
41. www.dulist.hr/branitelji-bi-ulagali-u-kupare-bez-spekulacija/24595/, May 15, 2014.
42. www.dw.de/zajedni%C5%A1tvom-protiv-krize-zadruge-u-zaletu/a-16079132, May
15, 2014.
43. www.dw.de/starci-i-klinci-pod-istim-krovom/a-16973352, May 15, 2014.
44. www.dw.de/socijalisti%C4%8Dka-nostalgija-u-slova%C4%8Dkom-selu-mladosti/a-
17051835, May 15, 2014.
45. www.dw.de/zadrugarstvom-do-humanijeg-i-uspje%C5%A1nijeg-gospodarstva/a-
16980399, May 15, 2014.
46. www.emedjimurje.hr/gospodarstvo/socijalna-zadruga-humana-nova-svi-na-
minimalcu-i-sretni-su, May 15, 2014.
47. www.emedjimurje.hr/crna-kronika/je-li-curica-ostetio-braniteljsku-zadrugu-za-400-
tisuca-kuna, May 15, 2014.
48. http://emedjimurje.hr/drustvo/u-medjimurju-varazdinu-i-vrbovcu-obiljezen-
medjunarodni-dan-zadruga, May 15, 2014.
49. www.evarazdin.hr/provalnik-iz-poljoprivredne-zadruge-ukrao-sjemenski-kukuruz/,
May 15, 2014.
50. www.evarazdin.hr/modna-revija-socijalne-zadruge-humana-nova-u-varazdinu/, May
15, 2014.
51. www.ezadar.hr/clanak/tunuara-ribarske-zadruge-su-siguran-put-u-eu, May 15, 2014.
52. www.ezadar.hr/clanak/u-sedam-godina-od-miniranog-krsa-do-vrhunskih-proizvoda,
May 15, 2014.
53. www.glasistre.hr/kolumne/pregled/398061, May 15, 2014.
54. www.glasistre.hr/vijesti/pula_istra/zadruga-dva-roga-zeli-pokrenuti-stocarstvo-u-istri-
369829, May 15, 2014.
55. www.glasistre.hr/vijesti/pula_istra/zadruge---interesa-malo-a-korist-velika-367773,
May 15, 2014.
56. www.glas-koncila.hr/index.php?option=com_php&Itemid=41&news_ID=24127, May
15, 2014.
57. www.glas-koncila.hr/index.php?option=com_php&Itemid=41&news_ID=22916, May
15, 2014.
58. http://glaspodravine.hr/2013/12/u-pola-godine-prikupili-10-tona-tekstilnog-otpada/,
May 15, 2014.
59. www.glas-slavonije.hr/217181/7/Bajci-Braniteljske-zadruge-naj.. , May 15, 2014.
60. www.glas-slavonije.hr/207639/3/Flacer-Kome-je-cilj-da--propa.. , May 15, 2014.
61. www.glas-slavonije.hr/223298/7/Hrvatska-poljoprivreda-ostala-.., May 15, 2014.
62. www.glas-slavonije.hr/200372/4/Prva-hrvatska-zadruga-za-uzgoj.. , May 15, 2014.
63. www.glas-slavonije.hr/174527/3/U-vrijeme-krize-zadruga-bivsih.. , May 15, 2014.
64. www.glas-slavonije.hr/187760/4/Valpovstina-dobiva-prvu-poljo.. , May 15, 2014.
65. www.glas-slavonije.hr/180067/11/zadruge, May 15, 2014.
66. www.glas-slavonije.hr/183554/1/Maras-Cilj-nam-je-do-kraja-20.. , May 15, 2014.
67. www.glas-slavonije.hr/177419/4/Zadruge-zaposlile-pet-hrvatskih.. , May 15, 2014.
68. www.gospodarski.hr/Publication/2013/23-24/udruivanje-
poljoprivrednika/7909#.U4MTlnYu4rg, May 15, 2014.
69. www.h-alter.org/vijesti/ekologija/energiju-dati-narodu, May 15, 2014.
70. www.h-alter.org/vijesti/ljudska-prava/mogu-li-zadruge-zaposliti-rome, May 15, 2014.
71. www.h-alter.org/vijesti/svijet/solidarnost-kao-ekonomski-pojam, May 15, 2014.
72. www.h-alter.org/vijesti/hrvatska/treba-nam-dobra-ekonomija, May 15, 2014.
73. www.h-alter.org/vijesti/ljudska-prava/zadrugarstvo-kao-lijek, May 15, 2014.
74. www.h-alter.org/vijesti/pritisak-odozdo/12-otvorena-radionica-o-direktnoj-
demokraciji-radnicke-i-seljacke-kooperative, May 15, 2014.
75. www.h-alter.org/vijesti/ekologija/zadrugom-do-solarne-energije#news_view, May 15,
2014.
76. www.h-alter.org/vijesti/hrvatska/budjenje-banktivizma, May 15, 2014.
77. www.h-alter.org/vijesti/pritisak-odozdo/energetske-zadruge-partnerstva-za-odrzivi-
razvoj-zajednica, May 15, 2014.
78. www.h-alter.org/vijesti/hrvatska/kriza-kao-poticaj-za-osnivanje-zadruga, May 15,
2014.
79. www.h-alter.org/vijesti/pritisak-odozdo/medjunarodni-dan-zadruga, May 15, 2014.
80. http://vijesti.hrt.hr/unapreenje-zadruga-ili-drzavni-nadzor, May 15, 2014.
81. http://radio.hrt.hr/clanak/zadruge-su-buducnost/32292/, May 15, 2014.
82. http://radio.hrt.hr/radio-zadar/clanak/zadruzno-poduzetnistvo/9589/, May 15, 2014.
83. www.index.hr/vijesti/clanak/austrijske-kreditne-zadruge-napokon-na-udaru-
drzave/719193.aspx Austrijske, May 15, 2014.
84. www.in-portal.hr/clanak/medunarodni-dan-zadruga-zajedno-smo-jaci, May 15, 2014.
85. http://ipress.hr/istra/predavanje-u-puli-kako-osnovati-energetsku-zadrugu--21105.html,
May 15, 2014.
86. www.jutarnji.hr/domaci-cesnjak-ubio-je-uvoz--a-zelimo-li-ga-jesti--morat-cemo-
obnoviti-zadrugarstvo--/1077741/, May 15, 2014.
87. www.jutarnji.hr/komentar-t--zidaka--raspusteno-i-bahato-drustvo---prava-seljacka-
radna-zadruga-/1130476/, May 15, 2014.
88. /www.kastela.org/novosti/aktualnosti/18753-u-kastelima-djeluje-energetska-zadruga,
May 15, 2014.
89. http://kulturistra.hr/lang/hr/2013/05/zadruga-praksa-napokon-u-svojem-prostoru/, May
15, 2014.
90. www.kulturpunkt.hr/content/medijsko-zadrugarstvo, May 15, 2014.
91. http://liderpress.hr/biznis-i-politika/hrvatska/hrvatsko-zadrugarstvo-cekaju-promjene/,
May 15, 2014.
92. http://liderpress.hr/biznis-i-politika/hrvatska/--na-jesen-se-osniva-energetska-zadruga-/,
May 15, 2014.
93. http://liderpress.hr/konferencijske-vijesti/nn/?display=mobile, May 15, 2014.
94. www.makarska-post.com/index.php/okrugli-stol-matice-hrvatske-u-splitu-
zadrugarstvo-je-neiskoristeni-pokretac-gospodarstva-dalmacije/, May 15, 2014.
95. www.mnovine.hr/vijesti/me%C4%91imurje/poljoprivreda/vocari-najavili-osnivanje-
vocarske-zadruge, May 15, 2014.
96. www.mojzumberak.com/vijest.php?id=1265, May 15, 2014.
97. www.mojzumberak.com/vijest.php?id=1258, May 15, 2014.
98. http://muralist.hr/novosti/gospodarstvo/146-da-li-ce-se-u-murskom-srediscu-osnovati-
energetska-zajednica#, May 15, 2014.
99. www.nasice.com/vijesti/101-nasice2013/udruge2013/udruge2013a/pcelari2013/4289-
na%C5%A1ice-otvoren-mini-pogon-p%C4%8Delarske-zadruge.html, May 15, 2014.
100. www.nezavisni.hr/index.php/alternativa/aktivizam/item/1211, May 15, 2014.
101. http://novine.novilist.hr/Default.asp?WCI=Rubrike&WCU=285A285D2863285D2863
285A28582859285B286328982897288F286328782877286F287C287C2863285E285E285C2
85A2860285F2863286328632863C, May 15, 2014.
102. www.novilist.hr/Vijesti/Hrvatska/Medijske-zadruge-moguce-rjesenje-za-nezaposlene-
hrvatske-novinare, May 15, 2014.
103. www.novilist.hr/Vijesti/Gospodarstvo/Ljerka-Puljic-Bez-rasta-potrosnje-ne-moze-biti-
ni-investicija, May 15, 2014.
104. www.novossti.com/2012/06/novine-novinarima-i-citateljima/, May 15, 2014.
105. www.novossti.com/2012/03/velika-pljacka-zadrugara/, May 15, 2014.
106. /www.novossti.com/2013/05/zadruga-republika/, May 15, 2014.
107. www.novossti.com/2014/01/zadrugari-ne-priznaju-poraz/, May 15, 2014.
108. www.obnovljivi.com/aktualno/2143-energetske-zadruge-prema-buducnosti-
zajednickih-dobara, May 15, 2014.
109. www.panorama-vukovar.com/index.php/2012-11-11-08-58-16/gradske-
vijesti/item/485-pokrenuto-osnivanje-energetske-zadruge-vukovar, May 15, 2014.
110. www.politikaplus.com/novost/87359/zadrugarstvo-je-neiskoriste.. , May 15, 2014.
111. www.poslovni.hr/startup-i-vase-price/otkud-zadruga-zasto-niste-otvorili-tvrtku-
215254, May 15, 2014.
112. www.poslovni.hr/mobile/vijesti/odrzana-meunarodna-konferencija-o-radnickom-i-
socijalnom-zadrugarstvu-203580, May 15, 2014.
113. www.poslovni.hr/domace-kompanije/uspjesno-poslovanje-zadruge-na-zahtjevnom-
trzistu-201115, May 15, 2014.
114. www.poslovni.hr/hrvatska/varazdinski-zadrugari-investirali-u-otkupni-centar-247975,
May 15, 2014.
115. www.privredni.hr/vijesti/26-profili/379-poljoprivredna-braniteljska-zadruga-lintar-
kastel-sucurac-u-rudniku-podizu-maslinik, May 15, 2014.
116. www.privredni.hr/vijesti/prilike/57-zadrugama-do-posla, May 15, 2014.
117. www.profitiraj.hr/novosti/maras-hrvatsko-zadrugarstvo-ima-neiskoristene-potencijale/,
May 15, 2014.
118. http://slavonski.hr/braniteljska-zadruga-zadrugar-u-caglinu-zadruga-pokazala-zelju-za-
radom-i-osim-pohvala-se-nema-sto-dodati/, May 15, 2014.
119. www.slobodnadalmacija.hr/Split-
%C5%BEupanija/tabid/76/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/201410/Default.aspx, May 15,
2014.
120. http://www.slobodnadalmacija.hr/Dubrovnik/tabid/75/articleType/ArticleView/articleI
d/161346/Default.aspx, May 15, 2014.
121. http://slobodnadalmacija.hr/%C5%A0ibenik/tabid/74/articleType/ArticleView/articleI
d/227438/Default.aspx, May 15, 2014.
122. www.slobodnadalmacija.hr/Dalmacija/Zadar/tabid/73/articleType/ArticleView/articleI
d/237496/Default.aspx, May 15, 2014.
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