25 views

Uploaded by Juan Antonio Monaco Nuñes

Windowing Project

- waveforms.ppt
- 3rdyearIT
- advanced digital communication
- Impact of Pipe and Filter Style on Medical Process Re-engineering
- Mini-project-2--Digital oscillator design - Oct 15, 2012_2.pdf
- FIR Filter Design using Particle Swarm Optimization with Constriction Factor and Inertia Weight Approach
- Headway Review From BGM15
- DSPP Comprehensice Question Bank
- dsp unit 5
- Semester 6
- Notes_11222010.pdf
- Case Study
- timelag_crosscorrelation -
- speeding-arduino
- Novel Approach for Symbol Timing Estimation Based on the Extended Zero-crossing
- EE-201
- Introduction
- Digital Media
- AC 2001Paper214muffler
- AC-4

You are on page 1of 5

Dr. Ratliﬀ, Fall 2017

Due Wednesday, December 13th, 2017 at 12:20PM

Name:

1 Problem Description:

In this final exam project we are going to design and construct a digital 5-channel equalizer for

processing audio files. Equalizers are used for adjusting the gain of an audio signal in diﬀerent frequency

bands.

2 Project Definition:

The equalizer design will have 5 FIR bandpass filters in parallel, each multiplied by a gain constant

(i.e., the band weight). The overall equalizer system can be drawn in block diagram form as follows:

So, unlike the cascaded notch filter project, here we have a parallel group of bandpass filters. In this

case, notice that the equivalent system impulse response h[n] can simply be written as a weighted sum

of the individual filters, i.e.,

We are going to design our FIR bandpass filters using the windowing method. To begin, we start with

an ideal frequency response for a bandpass filter with lower and upper cutoﬀ frequencies, ωl and ωu ,

respectively. Thus, for a bandpass filter,

!

1, if − ωu ≤ n ≤ −ωl , ωl ≤ n ≤ ωu

|H(ejω )| =

0, otherwise.

1

We next apply the inverse DTFT to compute the impulse response:

" π

1

hi [n] = H(ejω )e−jω dω

2π −π

" −ωl " ωu

1 1

= e−jωn dω + e−jωn dω

2π −ωu 2π ωl

1 # jωu n $

= e − ejωl n + e−jωl n − e−jωu n

2πjn

1

= [sin(ωu n) − sin(ωl n)]

πn

ωu ωl

= sinc(ωu n) − sinc(ωl n).

π π

Clearly, our impulse response exists from (−∞, ∞) and we thus must window and shift hi [n] to make

it a causal FIR filter for implementation. For each filter stage we thus have

where k ∈ (1, 5) and w[n] is the windowing function of length M , where M is odd. Once these

filters are combined to produce the overall impulse response h[n], we can process our audio file via

convolution, i.e.,

y[n] = x[n] ∗ h[n].

3 Design Tasks:

We will assume the input audio files are sampled at a rate of 44.1kHz, which is the rate used on audio

CDs. With our sampling rate fs = 44.1kHz (T = 1/44100 seconds), the eﬀective continuous frequency

responses of the five filters should have a combined bandwidth ranging from 0 to 22.5kHz. I suggest

you divide the combined bandwidth up into five equal bands on a logarithmic scale. The reason for

such a selection is due to the logarithmic way in which humans perceive frequency.

I have provided a MATLAB function, bpw, that implements a causal FIR bandpass filter using the

windowing method (you can find this function on the class website under the Final Exam folder). To

use it, all you need to specify are the lower and upper digital cutoﬀ frequencies (in radians per sample),

the length of the filter M , and the type of windowing function to apply (i.e., I’ve done the hard part).

For additional help with the function open the .m file and read the help section at the beginning of

the file.

Your task is to design and create the 5 bandpass filters, which simply involves determining the cutoﬀ

frequency for each filter and choosing a window type. For each filter use a length of M = 501. Also,

note that h1 [n] and h5 [n] will be lowpass and highpass filters, respectively. This is easily accounted

for by setting ωl = 0 for h1 [n] and ωu = π for h5 [n]. Once you have created each filter in MATLAB,

you simply need to multiply each filter by its respective gain factor (which are tuning parameters)

and sum the scaled impulse responses together. Then, apply the filter via convolution, i.e., using the

MATLAB command conv(x, h). Once processed, the reconstruction process is to be done using the

sound() command in MATLAB so that you can listen to the results of applying your filter.

1. Determine the upper and lower analog cutoﬀ frequencies for each bandpass filter in radians

per second. I suggest using a logarithmic scale and dividing the frequency axis into five nearly

2

equal segments from the range of 22.5Hz to 22.05kHz; however, you can choose a diﬀerent scheme

if you desire. Once you determine these analog frequencies, map each one to their corresponding

digital frequency in radians per sample.

2. For h3 [n] use a rectangular filter. Also, generate h3 [n] using a Blackman filter. For the other

four filters select a window of your choosing (other than rectangular). Then, create the five filters

in MATLAB using the bpw function. Create the five gain factors as configurable parameters.

Now, multiply each impulse response by its respective filter gain and sum them all together to

obtain the total impulse response.

3. Now, read in an audio file using the audioread command (there are several music clips on the

class website that have been sampled at 44.1kHz). Convolve the audio file with the total impulse

response. Listen to the result using the sound command. Now, tune the gain parameters until

you find a set of values that you like.

4 Exam Questions:

1. Fill in the table below with your designed analog cutoﬀ frequencies in radians per second:

h1 [n]

h2 [n]

h3 [n]

h4 [n]

h5 [n]

2. Fill in the table below with the digital cutoﬀ frequencies in radians per sample corresponding to

the analog cutoﬀ frequencies specified above.

h1 [n]

h2 [n]

h3 [n]

h4 [n]

h5 [n]

3. Plot the middle bandpass filter impulse response, h3 [n], using both the rectangular and Blackman

windows. Use the stem command and plot them on two separate subplots. Include this plot as

Figure 1. What diﬀerences do you see when comparing the impulse responses? Explain.

3

4. Next, plot the magnitude of the frequency response |H3 (ejω )| for the middle bandpass filter

using the rectangular and Blackman windows on the same plot. Use N = 4096 points in the

fft. I would also suggest you zoom your plot to best see the details of the filters using the axis

command, e.g., axis([−.5 .5 0 1.2]) or whatever range best displays your filters. Include this

plot as Figure 2. Compare the plots. What diﬀerences do you observe between the two filters?

How do they each compare to an ideal bandpass filter? Explain.

5. Specify the filter gain factors you selected for your equalizer. Also provide the values in dB (i.e.,

âk = 20 log10 (ak ) dB).

h1 [n]

h2 [n]

h3 [n]

h4 [n]

h5 [n]

6. Using these gain values, plot the magnitude frequency response for each individual filter, i.e.,

|Hk (ejω )| for k = 1, 2, . . . , 5 (again use N = 4096 points in the fft). You should plot all five

filter responses

% ω & on the same plot. Plot these as a function of hertz rather than digital frequency

(f = fs 2π ) and use a logarithmic scale for the x-axis. To do this, instead of using the plot

command, use the semilogx command. Include this plot as Figure 3. What do you notice

about the individual filters? Does each filter passband appear to be nearly the same width on a

logarithmic scale per our design guidelines? Explain.

4

7. Now, repeat the previous step for the total system magnitude frequency response |H(ejω )| and

include this result as Figure 4. Discuss the plot as compared with the individual frequency

responses.

8. Plot 2000 samples of the input and output audio sequence, x[n] and y[n], on the same plot.

Include this plot as Figure 5. Explain any diﬀerences that you observe.

9. Plot the frequency spectrum of the input and output audio signals, X(ejω ) and Y (ejω ), on two

separate subplots again using a logarithmic scale for the x-axis. In this case, do not specify N

for the fft so that it will set N equal to the length of the sequence. Include these plots as Figure

6. Based upon your chosen band gains, does the output signal indicate that these gains have

been properly applied? Explain.

- waveforms.pptUploaded bysujith
- 3rdyearITUploaded byibs305
- advanced digital communicationUploaded byAasif Dar
- Impact of Pipe and Filter Style on Medical Process Re-engineeringUploaded byResearch Cell: An International Journal of Engineering Sciences
- Mini-project-2--Digital oscillator design - Oct 15, 2012_2.pdfUploaded byNagendra Kumar
- FIR Filter Design using Particle Swarm Optimization with Constriction Factor and Inertia Weight ApproachUploaded byIDES
- Headway Review From BGM15Uploaded byMarco Bojorquez
- DSPP Comprehensice Question BankUploaded byAbhishek Pandey
- dsp unit 5Uploaded byCharles Thomas
- Semester 6Uploaded bynaveen kumar
- Notes_11222010.pdfUploaded byGunjan Bhamboo
- Case StudyUploaded bySuraj Kamath
- timelag_crosscorrelation -Uploaded byMinh Ta
- speeding-arduinoUploaded byRb Eyewear
- Novel Approach for Symbol Timing Estimation Based on the Extended Zero-crossingUploaded byNguyen Anh Duc
- EE-201Uploaded byRuby Viswanathan
- IntroductionUploaded byfranklinreypacquiao
- Digital MediaUploaded byespyter
- AC 2001Paper214mufflerUploaded byOmar Eladel Mahmoud
- AC-4Uploaded bymasterslave2005
- 153877769-07-GSM-BSS-Network-KPI-Call-Setup-Success-Rate-Optimization-Manual-2.pdfUploaded byfahmi1987
- PBIL Project Description 8th July 2014Uploaded byOmar Harris
- Self-Interference Cancellation in Full-Duplex Radio Transceivers with Oscillator Phase NoiseUploaded byVilleSyrjälä
- 1 Acoustics DSPUploaded bynr2006
- aiqbenUploaded byik1xpv
- Lecture 4Uploaded byapi-3702538
- Aspectos teoricosUploaded byIngenieros Civiles Patriotas Xela
- BME 2211 S#03 SamplingUploaded byMuhammad Muinul Islam
- AN578_aUploaded bySajjad Hussain
- OS2 drum bank aUploaded byBob Harley

- UC XLPE CatalogueUploaded byZafar Bakhsh
- Ramdon document 1Uploaded byJuan Antonio Monaco Nuñes
- em-brochure-the-power-to-make-power-happen.pdfUploaded byJuan Antonio Monaco Nuñes
- ReviewofYanofsky14Uploaded byJuan Antonio Monaco Nuñes
- Edison, R-rated Medium Voltage FusesUploaded byJuan Antonio Monaco Nuñes
- APN-001 Protection DevicesUploaded byJuan Antonio Monaco Nuñes
- APN-003 Arc Flash ProtectionUploaded byIvo
- Quick Introduction to the New ABAP EditorUploaded byJuan Antonio Monaco Nuñes
- WhatsNew_2017_en.pdfUploaded byVictor Macedo Achancaray
- Increasing Availability of LV Electrical NetworksUploaded byverde24
- VC Scholarship Application Form 2017 2018Uploaded byJuan Antonio Monaco Nuñes
- Paper 55Uploaded byJuan Antonio Monaco Nuñes
- Paper 47Uploaded byJuan Antonio Monaco Nuñes
- DS Gridon GenericUploaded byJuan Antonio Monaco Nuñes
- Cl@Venet Personal - Cliente Gregoria Josefina Nunez TenorioUploaded byJuan Antonio Monaco Nuñes
- lec12_spr09Uploaded byJuan Antonio Monaco Nuñes
- li-slidesUploaded byKhal Zeratul
- Convexity of Energy-Like Functions Theoretical Results and Applications to Power System Operations - Krishnamurthy Dvijotham - Paper - 2015.pdfUploaded byJuan Antonio Monaco Nuñes
- Transient analysis in electrical circuits using Z-transformation - Branislav Dobrucký; Pavol Štefanec; Roman Koňarik; Oleg V. Chernoyarov - Paper - 2016.pdfUploaded byJuan Antonio Monaco Nuñes
- Mcc 4Uploaded byMakarand Khare
- Toshiba-HCV-5HA-Manual.pdfUploaded byJuan Antonio Monaco Nuñes
- 1884964068 FusesUploaded byOrlando Romani
- A240R[1] fusible (2)Uploaded bySamuel Ramos Mondragón
- Eaton 15kV current limiting fusesUploaded bypwmvsi
- ABB High Voltage Current Limiting Fuses ABB CEF HV FusesUploaded byrocketvt
- Datos - Oilless Magne-Blast Circuit Breaker With CO-15 Second-co Duty CycleUploaded byJuan Antonio Monaco Nuñes
- Time Over Current Relays Type IAC51, IAC52 - Instructions - GEK-34053GUploaded byJuan Antonio Monaco Nuñes

- RC Feedback Oscillators - Phase Shift Oscillator, Wein Bridge OscillatorUploaded byEnrik Villa
- Example a Small Signal Analysis of a BJT AmpUploaded byFilipe da Silveira
- ZLZ Product Manual-1Uploaded bymohammedalathwary
- 4 Wire PWM SpecUploaded bygbistyak
- dell latitude e5420 Inventec KRUG14_DIS_0503.pdfUploaded byAbubakar Siddiq Holm
- Hitachi Plasma 32pd3000eUploaded byVictor Eric
- Electronic Devices and CircuitsUploaded byKing Ashok
- manual jvc YA589Uploaded byLuis Celis
- CCR Load Calculator 2014-03-13.xlsUploaded byDanielle Fowler
- Audiotestcd Cover 588be9742928bUploaded bySav Leclerc Challans
- NGMN CRAN Suggestions on Potential Solutions to CRANUploaded byfarrukhmohammed
- Diesel Rotary UPS Configurations V1_00_jan2008Uploaded byKarim Senhaji
- the 32 Bit EISA ArchitectureUploaded byatorresh090675
- V2I10-IJERTV2IS100063.pdfUploaded byAyyappa Javangula
- TI_ESDUploaded byzombie138
- Lg Plasma Tv Full Training ManualUploaded byTahir Ali
- Consultation Paper on Broadband 24Sep2014Uploaded byTech2
- Airotronics-mc363Uploaded byOscar Femenías
- SS3_261Uploaded byrakesh
- Semiconductor Optical AmplifierUploaded byapi-26832469
- errataUploaded byRalph Eugene Fabon
- DELL 7460 Service ManualUploaded byAprilyn Celestial
- NI WSN 3202Uploaded byKarlos Molina
- C8051F33xUploaded byJan Turza
- HP Elitebook 8540w DatasheetUploaded byAchraf Moujahid
- A deep sub-V, single power-supply SRAM cell with multi-VT, boosted storage node and dynamic loadUploaded byapi-19668941
- 8G-ESP8266 Interface Infrared Remote Control en v0.3 (1)Uploaded byzaleks
- Controlling Home Appliances by using Universal Remote Control System (IoT and Bluetooth)Uploaded byAnonymous kw8Yrp0R5r
- Construction and calibration of a Lock-in amplifierUploaded byG Gurunadha Reddy
- Add a Thermometer to Your Digital Multimeter _Embedded LabUploaded byGourmand Oishii