Title Self Explanatory

© All Rights Reserved

0 views

Title Self Explanatory

© All Rights Reserved

- A cohesive finite element formulation for modelling fracture and delamination in solids
- Assignment ASTM
- Thermodynamics of Fracture Growth
- ECA
- Crack width prediction in RC members in bending: a fracture mechanics approach
- Ch9notes PDF
- Analyses and Use of Software Ansys and Franc2d for Fracture Mechanics
- Chapter 8. Failure
- 07 Seleccion de Materiales Aeronauticos
- 13 Liechti Biaxial Loading Experiments for Determining Interfacial Fracture Toughness
- Technical Report on the Master Curve
- Homogeneous and Structured PCD-WC-Co Materials for Drilling
- aggwe da
- Revised_USFD_Manual_2012_final_incorporated_A&C_no.9_26.06.2012.pdf
- CN 30-7
- Ebenezer Barisua-POST VIVA PHD THESIS_Redacted
- Energy Concepts for Fracture
- Strengthening of Concrete Prisms Using the Plate-bonding Technique
- Fatigue
- 12_references.pdf

You are on page 1of 12

round bar specimen using the local approach method

K. Hojo a,*, I. Muroya a, A. Brückner-Foit b

a

Takasago Research and De6elopment Center, Mitsubishi Hea6y Industries Limited, 2 -1 -1 Shinhama, Arai-cho,

Takasago 676, Japan

b

IMF-II, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany

Received 4 March 1996; received in revised form 11 October 1996; accepted 30 April 1997

Abstract

The local approach method for the brittle or transition region describes the fracture probability of specimens or

structures using Weibull statistics. Many papers have discussed the characteristics of the Weibull parameter using

notched tensile specimens and the applicability to fracture toughness scatter evaluation using CT specimens. However

few papers have made clear whether the Weibull parameter of the Weibull stress is a material property or not. In this

paper the distribution of Weibull stress in the brittle fracture region using notched round bar specimens and CT

specimens were investigated and it was confirmed that both distributions agreed well. Furthermore the estimation

method for the fracture toughness transition curve including its scatter from notched round bar tensile tests was

proposed based on the relation between the Weibull stress and the Wallin’s fracture toughness transition curve. As

a result, the estimated fracture toughness curve in the brittle and lower transition region from the notched round bar

specimens coincided with the measured fracture toughness curve from CT specimens. This method will be applicable

to fracture toughness curve estimation under plane strain conditions even if there is no possibility of obtaining thick

enough CT specimens from a structure because of geometry or some other restrictions. © 1997 Elsevier Science S.A.

and this may cause difficulty in obtaining a test

Recent structural integrity assessment uses frac- specimen with the required thickness from a struc-

ture mechanics parameters based on continuum ture depending on the fracture toughness level.

mechanics. For example, the stress intensity factor Furthermore it is well known that the fracture

K is used for brittle fracture and the experimental toughness scatters from the lower shelf to the

method to obtain the fracture toughness KIC has transition region of the fracture toughness transi-

been standardized by ASTM. However the con- tion curve in ferritic steel. This requires many

ventional fracture toughness tests specify the min- specimens to evaluate ferritic steel’s fracture be-

havior.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: + 81 794 456716; fax: + 81 The local approach to fracture has been intro-

794 456795. duced in order to quantitatively evaluate the scat-

PII S 0 0 2 9 - 5 4 9 3 ( 9 7 ) 0 0 1 2 5 - 8

248 K. Hojo et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 174 (1997) 247–258

ter behavior of fracture toughness in the lower the Weibull statistics analysis flow chart with a

shelf region. In this method the Weibull stress was CT specimen as an example. The procedure is as

introduced as a parameter of Weibull statistics by follows.

Pineau (1981), Beremin (1983) and Mudry (1987) (1) KICs scatter is obtained from the fracture

and the applicability has been investigated mainly toughness test using CT specimens.

using notched tensile specimens. Also recently the (2) After sorting and numbering the KIC values

relation between conventional fracture mechanics in ascending order, the failure probability Pf is

parameter K and the Weibull parameter of the estimated by (i− 0.5)/N where i is the rank num-

local approach was studied by Minami et al. ber and N is the sample size.

(1992) and Tagawa et al. (1991, 1993). However (3) The finite element model with fine mesh

there is no paper that confirms that the Weibull division in the vicinity of the crack tip is prepared.

parameters from CT specimens and notched ten- (4) and (5) The relation between KIC and stress

sile specimens are the same values or describes the distribution is found after the finite element elastic

temperature dependency of the Weibull parameter plastic analysis using the model in (3).

in the lower transition region. (6) m0 and su0 are given as the initial Weibull

This paper discusses the applicability to the parameters for the iterative calculation.

fracture evaluation of CT specimens and notched (7) From (4) and (5) the stress distribution at

tensile specimens and proposes an estimation fracture is estimated and the Weibull stress shown

method for the fracture transition curve from in the equation in Fig. 1 is calculated.

notched tensile specimens using the local ap- (8) From the relation between KIC and fracture

proach. probability in (2) and the result of (7), the relation

between Weibull stress and failure probability can

be plotted on a Weibull statistics graph. Weibull

2. Evaluation method shape parameter m1 and scale parameter su1 are

obtained from this graph.

2.1. Local approach (9) and (10) If m1 is not equal to m0, input

values are changed to m1 and su1, and goes back

When the weakest link model can be applied to to (7).

cleavage fracture of steel, failure probability P tot

f

(9) and (11) If m1 is equal to m0, the iteration

of a structure is expressed by Eq. (2) using the has converged.

Weibull stress sW defined by Eq. (1).

sW $

&

1

sm

1 dVpl

1/m

(1)

2.2. Fracture toughness transition cur6e of the

lower shelf-transition temperature region

V0

n

V pl

P tot

f =1− exp − (2) of ferritic steel, fracture toughness KIC increases

su

as temperature rises.

where s1 is the maximum principal stress, V0 is Wallin (1993) proposed the temperature transi-

the reference volume (1 mm3 was chosen for tion curve of ferritic steel including the KIC scat-

normalization), Vpl is the plastic zone volume, and tering curve after investigation of several kinds of

m and su are the Weibull parameters. The Weibull ferritic steel. According to Wallin (1993) if the

parameters are considered as material constants. shift temperature T0 can be defined, it is possible

In order to obtain the Weibull stress and to describe the temperature dependency of the

Weibull parameters, the detailed stress informa- steels’ fracture toughness with a single curve. The

tion of the plastic zone of the analyzed structure expression is given by the following equation:

or specimen at fracture is required. Therefore the

local approach needs numerical simulation using Pf = 1−exp −

B KIC − Kmin n

4

(3)

the finite element method (FEM). Fig. 1 shows B0 K0 − Kmin

K. Hojo et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 174 (1997) 247–258 249

where K0 is the temperature dependent scale lower limiting KI value below which cleavage frac-

parameter corresponding to 63.2% fracture proba- ture is impossible and 20 MPa

m is assumed.

bility, B is the thickness of the tested specimen, KIC For ferritic steel, the temperature dependency of

is fracture toughness from the specimen with thick- fracture toughness is described by Eq. (4) introduc-

ness B, and B0 is the reference thickness. Kmin is a ing shift temperature T0 (K).

250 K. Hojo et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 174 (1997) 247–258

K0(MPa

m) = 31 + 77 exp[0.019(T −T0)] (4) It can also be deduced from Eq. (11),

According to the local approach, in the case of V0s mu

1/4

K0 = (12)

cleavage fracture, the failure probability is ex- BCus m

y

−4

Therefore, if su, m and sy are found from the

Eq. (3) in the case of the fracture toughness test,

tensile tests, from Eq. (12) K0 is obtained. Conse-

therefore the following relation should exist:

sW m

=

KIC −Kmin 4

(5)

quently the shift temperature T0 can be defined by

Eq. (4), finally from Eq. (3) the fracture toughness

su K0 −Kmin transition curve and its scatter from the lower

shelf-transition region can be estimated.

Under small scale yielding conditions, the stress

field in the vicinity of the crack tip is approxi-

mated by Eq. (6) 3. Material test and numerical analysis

K

s1 g(u) (6) In this section, for investigation of applicability

2pr

of the local approach and Wallin’s fracture tough-

where r is the distance from the crack tip and g(u) ness transition curve to ferritic steel’s fracture

is the function with the angle from the crack behavior, the material tests and numerical simula-

surface. tion analysis using FEM were carried out.

In order to normalize the coordinate system,

using u= rs 2y/K 2, Eq. (6) is rewritten as follows, 3.1. Test conditions

g(u)

s1 = sy (7) 3.1.1. Round bar tensile test

2pu

Using the round bar tensile specimen shown in

Similarly, normalizing small plastic zone area Fig. 2, the stress–strain curve was measured. The

dApl with K and sy, dApl is equal to K 4/s 4y · dupl material is A533B reactor pressure vessel steel.

where dupl is dimensionless small plastic zone The chemical composition is shown in Table 1.

area. Assuming that the stress distribution is uni- The number of test temperature points was 6

form in the thickness direction, Eq. (1) can be from − 150°C to 200°C.

written as

&

The speed of testing at room temperature and

sW =

1 g(u)

sy

K 4IC

m

du

n

1/m

(8)

below was 9.81–29.4 MPa and that over room

temperature was 0.1–0.5% min − 1.

V0 u pl

2pu s 4y pl

From Eq. (8) and Eq. (5),

3.1.2. Fracture toughness test

su =

K (K0 −K ) s

4

IC BCu min

4

m−4

y

4

n 1/m

(9)

Fracture toughness was obtained using 1/

2TCT, 1TCT and 2TCT specimens with side-

(KIC −K ) V min 0

grooves as shown in Fig. 2b. The material is the

where

&&

same as that for the round bar tensile specimen.

g(u) m The test temperatures were − 150°C and −

Cu = u du duu (10) 100°C. KIC was determined by ASTM E399-90. If

u pl

2pu KIC was not valid, JIC based on ASTM E813-89

For simplification, neglecting Kmin,

was converted to the KIC value.

su =

K 40s m

y

−4

BCu

n 1/m

(11) 3.1.3. Notched tensile bar test

V0

Tensile tests were conducted using the notched

Hence the relation between Weibull parameters tensile bar specimen shown in Fig. 2c. The mate-

su, m and fracture toughness parameter K0 can be rial is the same as mentioned above, and twelve

expressed by Eq. (11). specimens were used at − 150°C. To compare the

K. Hojo et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 174 (1997) 247–258 251

The test results at − 150°C and − 100°C are

shown in Tables 2 and 3, respectively. In this Table,

to increase the test number for Weibull statistics,

other test results using the same material are added.

Fracture toughness from 1/2TCT and 2TCT spec-

imens were converted to that from the 1TCT

specimen by thickness correction. The equations of

thickness correction were as follows:

Fig. 2. (a) Round tensile bar specimen; (b) CT specimen; (c) B1 1/4

notched tensile bar specimen. K(1TCT)= K1 (13)

25

where K(1TCT) is the corrected KI value for the

result of FE analysis, four strain gauges were pasted 1TCT specimen; K1 is the experimental KI value of

at a distance of 20 mm from the notched section the specimen used (MPa); and B1 is the nominal

of each specimen. thickness of the specimen used (mm)

From Table 2 all test results at −150°C show

3.2. Test results no ductile crack growth and relatively small scatter

of KIC. On the other hand as shown in Table 3, at

3.2.1. Round bar tensile test −100°C very small ductile crack growth can be

An example of the stress strain curves is shown seen from many specimen’s fracture surfaces and

in Fig. 3. Fig. 4 shows the temperature dependency the scatter of KIC increases in comparison with

of the yield stress by exponential type curve fitting. − 150°C.

Table 1

Chemical composition of A533B

C Si Mn P S Ni Cr Mo Cu N

0.21 0.22 1.48 0.007 0.008 0.62 0.09 0.48 0.06 0.01

Weight %.

252 K. Hojo et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 174 (1997) 247–258

3.3. Analysis

3.3.1. FE analysis

simulation FE code ABAQUS 4.9-1 was used.

The element type was an eight node plane

strain element(CPE8H) for CT specimens and an

eight node axial symmetric element (CAX8) for

notched tensile bar specimens.

Since cleavage fracture is assumed for the local

approach the analysis temperature of the CT

Fig. 4. Temperature dependency of yield stress. specimen was chosen to be − 150°C. The average

value of the stress–strain curve in Fig. 3 was used

for FE analysis and the material constants are as

follows: Young’s modulus E=2.19× 105 MPa;

3.2.3. Notched tensile bar test Poisson’s ratio n= 0.3; and yield stress sy =

Table 4 shows the fracture load of each speci- 7.11× 102 MPa.

men. As the result of fracture surface observation, Fig. 5a and b show FE mesh divisions and

it is confirmed that the river patterns flow from boundary conditions of the specimens. In order to

the center of the fracture surface to the outer calculate the detailed stress distribution at the

surface and there is no ductile crack growth. This stress concentration zone, the minimum element

means the onset of cleavage fracture in the center size is 0.05 mm for the CT specimen and 0.1 mm

of the fracture surface. for the notched tensile bar specimen.

Table 2

Result of fracture toughness tests (temperature −150°C)

Specimen No. Specimen type Initial crack length Maximum load Stable crack growth Da KIC (MPa ·

m) Note

(mm) (kN) (mm)

CT02 ITCT 28.2 22.7 0.00 54.1 A

CT03 ITCT 28.6 19.0 0.00 46.6 A

CT04 ITCT 28.4 20.7 0.00 50.1 A

CT05 ITCT 28.6 20.5 0.00 50.2 A

CT06 ITCT 28.6 16.0 0.00 39.2 A

CT07 ITCT 28.6 18.5 0.00 45.1 A

CT08 ITCT 28.6 20.9 0.00 51.2 A

CT09 ITCT 28.5 18.4 0.00 44.9 A

CT10 ITCT 28.0 14.5 0.00 36.5 A

CT11 ITCT 28.3 18.1 0.00 44.1 A

CT12 2TCT 55.6 38.2 0.00 44.1 A

CT13 2TCT 55.0 67.6 0.00 66.5 B

CT14 1/2TCT 14.4 7.7 0.00 45.1 B

CT15 1/2TCT 14.2 4.4 0.00 25.1 A

CT16 1/2TCT 14.2 5.0 0.00 25.1 A

K. Hojo et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 174 (1997) 247–258 253

Table 3

Result of fracture toughness tests (temperature −100°C)

Specimen No. Specimen type Initial crack length Maximum load Stable crack growth Da KIC (MPa ·

m) Note

(mm) (kN) (mm)

CT22 ITCT 28.6 42.2 0.00 119.6 A

CT23 ITCT 28.6 37.9 0.00 103.8 A

CT24 ITCT 28.6 22.5 0.00 58.9 A

CT25 ITCT 28.6 40.8 0.00 114.1 A

CT26 ITCT 28.6 44.0 0.00 130.5 A

CT27 ITCT 28.4 28.4 0.00 71.0 A

CT28 ITCT 28.6 45.0 0.00 133.8 A

CT29 ITCT 28.5 43.9 0.00 125.1 A

CT30 ITCT 28.5 43.6 0.00 65.2 A

CT31 ITCT 28.4 24.4 0.00 55.8 A

CT32 2TCT 55.8 38.2 0.00 56.1 A

CT33 2TCT 55.2 147.7 0.00 128.1 B

CT34 1/2TCT 14.2 10.5 0.00 56.1 B

CT35 1/2TCT 14.1 9.3 0.00 128.1 B

analysis result it is shown that the maximum

3.3.2.1. CT specimen. As an example of the stress principal stress is large around the central axis,

distribution, von Mises’s equivalent stress and the and it is estimated that the onset of fracture is the

principal stress contours are shown in Fig. 6a and model center. This agrees well with the observa-

b respectively. Fig. 7 shows the stress distribution tion of the fracture surface as mentioned in Sec-

vertical to the crack surface near the crack tip of tion 3.2. Fig. 8 shows the comparison of the

the CT specimen. From these figures, the stress fracture strain at a smoothed cross section of

distribution is very smooth and the precise stress analysis and experimental results. Both coincide

results seem to be obtained. well and the FE analysis of the notched tensile

bar specimen also gives a good result.

Table 4

Result of notched tensile bar tests (temperature −150°C) 3.3.3. Weibull parameter analysis

The Weibull stress and Weibull parameters

Specimen No. Maximum load (kN)

were calculated using the post files of the FE

N1BIM-1 98.5 code. The average value and 90% confidence in-

N1BIM-2 97.6 terval of the Weibull parameters of the CT and

N1BIM-3 96.6 those of the notched tensile bar specimens are

N1BIM-4 99.1

shown in Table 5. From this Table the Weibull

N1BIM-5 97.1

N1BIM-6 88.8 parameters of both specimens agree fairly well.

N1BIM-7 90.6 Fig. 9 shows fracture probability for two kinds of

N1BIM-8 93.6 specimens. As a result there is no remarkable

N1BIM-9 98.4 difference between the parameters of both speci-

N1BIM-10 93.9

N1BIM-11 97.0

mens, and these results give one of the proofs that

N1BIM-12 101.6 the Weibull parameters su and m are material

constants independent of the specimen geometry.

254 K. Hojo et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 174 (1997) 247–258

Fig. 5. (a) Mesh division of the CT specimen; (b) mesh division of the notched tensile bar specimen.

the average value of fracture toughness.

4.1. Applicability of Wallin’s fracture toughness The factor 1.1 of the relation of K0 and Kave can

transition cur6e be derived from Eq. (3). If the variable x obeys

the Weibull distribution, the failure probability

In order to show the applicability of Wallin’s F(x) is expressed by the following equation:

fracture toughness transition curve, the parameter

T0 of Eq. (4) is determined based on the experi-

F(x)= 1− exp −

x m

(14)

mental data in Table 2. T0 can be derived from b

K. Hojo et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 174 (1997) 247–258 255

Fig. 6. (a) von Mises equivalent stress contour (CT specimen, temperature −150°C); (b) principal stress contour (CT specimen,

temperature − 150°C).

256 K. Hojo et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 174 (1997) 247–258

Table 5

Weibull parameters

bar specimen

confidence interval) 24.11) 26.25)

Shape factor su 1954.3 (1904.7, 1891.1 (1837.1,

(MPa) (90% confi- 2006.1) 1948.2)

dence interval)

Fig. 7. Stress distribution near the crack tip vertical to the

data. From this figure, although there are only

crack surface (CT specimen, temperature −150°C).

two kinds of data at −150°C and − 100°C, most

data are within the 90% confidence interval of

where b is the scale factor and m is the shape

Wallin’s prediction curve. This suggests Eqs. (3)

factor. In this case, the expectation value, that is

and (4) are applicable to estimate the fracture

the average value E(x) is expressed by the follow-

behavior at the lower shelf-transition temperature

ing equation:

region.

1 1

E(x)= b != bG +1 (15)

m m

4.2. Temperature dependence of the Weibull

Comaring Eq. (3) with Eq. (14) and using m= 4 parameter su

in Eq. (15), the following equation is obtained.

1

Kave =Kmin + (K0 −Kmin)G +1

(16)

According to Tagawa et al. (1991), the Weibull

parameter su has been considered temperature

m independent. However there has been no data

logically explained. This will be discussed here.

Here if Kmin is neglected, K0 =1.1 Kave can be According to Eq. (11), su is a function of K0

derived. and sy. When the relations between parameters

Fig. 10 shows the estimated fracture toughness K0, sy and temperature are obtained, the tempera-

transition curve using resolved T0 value and upper ture dependency of su can be estimated. Since

and lower bounds defined by the 90% confidence

Fig. 8. Comparison of the measured strain and FE results for Fig. 9. Comparison of fracture probability of the CT speci-

the notched tensile bar specimens on fracture. mens and the notched tensile bar specimens.

K. Hojo et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 174 (1997) 247–258 257

Fig. 10. Wallin’s fracture transition curve and experimental Fig. 12. Comparison of the fracture toughness transition curve

results. of the CT specimens and the notched tensile bar specimens.

both relations have been obtained from the CT 4.3. Correlation of fracture beha6ior of the CT

specimens and the round bar tensile specimens specimens and the notched tensile bar specimens

in the above sections, it is possible to estimate

the variation of su with temperature using Eq. Fig. 12 shows the fracture toughness curve

(11) (Fig. 11). In this figure, su directly defined from the CT specimen using Eqs. (3) and (4)

from the experimental results obtained with the and that from the notched tensile bar specimen

notched tensile bars is also plotted for compari- using Eqs. (12), (3) and (4). Both curves agree

son. This figure shows su is almost constant well and there is a possibility that the fracture

from −150°C to − 100°C. Therefore it seems toughness curve from the lower shelf-transition

justified to assume that the Weibull parameters region can be estimated from the notched tensile

are independent of temperature in the lower bar test at one temperature condition.

shelf region. However, the behavior in the tran-

sition region is not clear, because ductile crack

growth may introduce additional fracture me- 5. Conclusion

chanics.

In this paper it has been shown that for

cleavage fracture the Weibull parameters are

material constants independent of the specimen

shape. Furthermore by relating the Weibull

parameters and conventional fracture mechanics

parameter K, the procedure that estimates the

fracture toughness transition curve from the

notched tensile bar test was proposed and its

applicability was shown by fracture toughness

tests and tensile tests.

References

Minami, F., Brückner-Foit et al, A., 1992. Estimation proce-

Fig. 11. Temperature dependency curve for Weibull parameter dure for the Weibull parameters used in the local ap-

of su. proach. Int. J. Fract. 54, 197 – 210.

258 K. Hojo et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 174 (1997) 247–258

Mudry, F., 1987. A local approach to cleavage fracture. Nucl. Tagawa, T., Miyata, T., Aihara, S., Okamoto, K., 1993. Analysis

Eng. Des. 105, 65–76. of embrittlement in weld heat-affected zone due to formation

Pineau, A., 1981. In: Francois, D. et al., (Eds), Proc. 5th Int. of martensitic islands by local criterion approach. Iron Steel

Conf. on Fracture, Cannes, vol. 2, Pergamon, Oxford, pp. 79 (10) 55-61 (in Japanese).

533-577. Wallin, K., 1993. Irradiation damage effects on the fracture

T.Tagawaetal.,1991.PredictionofCleavageFractureToughness toughness transition curve shape for reactor pressure

by Statistical Local Approach, CAMP-ISIJ, Vol.4, p. 1887 vessel steels. Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping 55, 61–

(in Japanese). 79.

. .

- A cohesive finite element formulation for modelling fracture and delamination in solidsUploaded byarkan1976
- Assignment ASTMUploaded byRajiv Kumar M
- Thermodynamics of Fracture GrowthUploaded byMugume Rodgers Bangi
- ECAUploaded bydavidmn19
- Crack width prediction in RC members in bending: a fracture mechanics approachUploaded bytumballisto
- Ch9notes PDFUploaded bymukasa1971
- Analyses and Use of Software Ansys and Franc2d for Fracture MechanicsUploaded byPradeep Kundu
- Chapter 8. FailureUploaded byyshokeen
- 07 Seleccion de Materiales AeronauticosUploaded bymatfl
- 13 Liechti Biaxial Loading Experiments for Determining Interfacial Fracture ToughnessUploaded bySanjib Rai
- Technical Report on the Master CurveUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- Homogeneous and Structured PCD-WC-Co Materials for DrillingUploaded bydan_cunningham_15
- aggwe daUploaded bylhz
- Revised_USFD_Manual_2012_final_incorporated_A&C_no.9_26.06.2012.pdfUploaded byMahendra Raikwar
- CN 30-7Uploaded by18847
- Ebenezer Barisua-POST VIVA PHD THESIS_RedactedUploaded byনীল জোছনা
- Energy Concepts for FractureUploaded byDaniel Guz
- Strengthening of Concrete Prisms Using the Plate-bonding TechniqueUploaded byMohammed
- FatigueUploaded byavenasha
- 12_references.pdfUploaded byஅன்புடன் அஸ்வின்
- Final Fracture Mech PptUploaded byPrachi Agarwal
- Bh Attach Aryy a 2018Uploaded byVishnu V
- IJETR022691.pdfUploaded byerpublication
- 02_15217_bobylevUploaded byasikmal
- Com Moulding ThermoplasticsUploaded byAngel Lagraña
- syllabus (1).pdfUploaded byAaron Immanuel
- Steel ColdUploaded byabel
- COHESIVE ZONE MODEL.pptxUploaded byabishay
- IPC2012-90088Uploaded byMarcelo Varejão Casarin
- 3. Mech - Ijmperd - Experimental and Theoretical Study - Mohsin Abdullah a. Al-shammariUploaded byTJPRC Publications

- Writing Succesful Science Proposals 2nd EdUploaded byNit_su
- YY Wu - 2013 - Transition of Ductile and Brittle Fracture During DWTT by FEMUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- IIT-Madras0Convocation Address by C v RamanUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- Brittle FractureUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- Yoshinori Ohsumi of Japan Wins Nobel PrizeUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- [48]Efects of Notch Position of the Charpy Impact Specimen on the Failure Behavior in Heat Affected Zone(2008)Uploaded byShankhaPathak
- 1-s2.0-S2452321616302104-mainUploaded byDaay Vlix
- The Effect of Temperature and Specimen Geometry on the Parameters of the Local Approach to Cleavage FractureUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- Method of Threshold Stress Determination for a Local Approach to Cleavage FractureUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- 120000 h Exposed 2.25Cr 1Mo Steel-Ageing EffectUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- Zhe-short-term Creep of p91 Heat-resistant Steels at Low Stresses and AnUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- Texture and Evoltion during recrystallisationUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- APPLICATIONS_OF_LASER.pdfUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- Basile G.M. - The Algebra of Happiness_ Yevgeny Zamyatin’s WeUploaded byFelix Woelflin
- (Life and mind) Bruce H. Weber, David J. Depew - Evolution and Learning_ The Baldwin Effect Reconsidered-The MIT Press (2003).pdfUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- Rsta.2014.0128Uploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- Www.scientific.net_AMR.189-193.1753Uploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- Rsta.2014.0126-Brittle Fracture in Structural Steels- Perspectives at Different Size-scalesUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- Introduction to Scilab for Engineers and Scientists [2017] (Nagar)Uploaded by4gfoytt9yv37bp89
- Wind EnergyUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- Kendall Haven - Writing Workouts to Develop Common Core Writing Skills_ Step-By-Step Exercises, Activities, And Tips for Student Success, Grades 2-6 (2014, Libraries Unlimited)Uploaded byRohitKrishna
- Estimation of QS J–R Curves From Charpy Energy and Adaptation to ASTM E 1921T0 Estimation of Ferritic SteelsUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- Fundamental Fracture Mechanics Equation of MaterialUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- Segregation at Grain Boundaries of MetalsUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- (Springer Texts in Business and Economics) Martin Kolmar,Magnus Hoffmann (Auth.)- Workbook for Principles of Microeconomics -Springer International Publishing (2018)Uploaded byJulio
- Churchill's War; Attlee's PeaceUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- Understanding Thermally Induced Embrittlement in Low Copper RPV Steels Utilising Atom Probe TomographyUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- Evaluation of Statistical Fracture Toughness Parameters on the Basis of Crack Arrest ExperimentUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- Multi Component CrystalsUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN

- Saavedra Poli Rev Notes on Police PowerUploaded byEunice Saavedra
- Get Rid of ANTs (Automatic Negative Thoughts)Uploaded byGameli Ashiadey
- fireguide_shopping0601.pdfUploaded bykris
- Javellana vs LedesmaUploaded byIcon Montius
- A Social Representation is Not a Quiet ThingUploaded byRicardo Costa Costa
- 310 Discussion on Pile StiffnessUploaded bymagdyamdb
- reflective essayUploaded byapi-303518523
- ZA IsiZulu Language LessonsUploaded byPaulo Silva
- LEARN KOREANUploaded byKp Fabile
- 2. M.sc. ChemistryUploaded byGopal Varma
- Textbook-Analysis-and-Evaluation-of-7th-8th-Grade-in-Pakistani-Context.pdfUploaded bytilayeyideg
- Ignou Mba Solved Assignments for January 2018Uploaded byDharmendra Singh Sikarwar
- Design for Structural and Energy Performance of Long Span Buildings Using Geometric Multi Objective Optimization_2016Uploaded byJohn Chiv
- Euromedlab 2013 abstracts 211 and 219Uploaded byJagannadha Rao Peela
- Adam SmithUploaded byJulian Tirtadjaja
- EQ PresentationUploaded by.Vedantam Krishnan
- Gopi Candana Tilaka_0Uploaded byGaneshkumar Sanur Gopalakrishnan
- Motivation Write-up RachelUploaded byRachelJosef
- aUploaded byArgie Florendo
- 01082019-AM-Judge-CyUploaded byRonald Caringal Cusi
- LEM Evaluation GuideUploaded byDodi Putra Yani
- ubd-in-a-nutshellUploaded byapi-304509886
- ACC4308_RobinsonUploaded byFeel Good Drag
- Electromagnetic PropulsionUploaded bypras_scribd
- Chapter 2 - Literature FinalUploaded bySolomon Sango
- Typing Test ChallengeUploaded byIan Bernales Orig
- Electricty Revision Exam QsUploaded byMax Hudgenes
- INTRODUCTION TO REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GEOINFORMATICS) By D.M SiddiqueUploaded byRazi Baig
- A.W. Chesterton v. Chesterton, 1st Cir. (1997)Uploaded byScribd Government Docs
- Grievance SystemUploaded byAbhishek Misra