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M16A2/A4 & M4/M4A1

RIFLE QUALIFICATION PMI

REF: TC 3-22.9 MAY 2016


Change 1 January
2017
Admin Notes
• Smoking Areas
• Parking Lot
• Latrines
• Cell Phones
• Food and Drink
PMI Classroom
Risk Assessment
• LOW:
– Drink Water
– Watch out for tripping hazards
– Watch out for overhead hazards
• Safety Considerations:
– Keep muzzle awareness at all times
– Ensure no live ammunition present
• Environmental Considerations:
– It is the responsibility of all soldiers and DA
civilians to protect the environment from damage.
SAFETY
1. Treat every weapon as Loaded

1. Never point the weapon at anything you do not


intend to destroy

1. Keep finger straight and off the trigger until


ready to fire

1. Ensure Positive Identification of the Target and


its Surroundings
Characteristics
M16A2 / A4 / M4 / M4A1 RIFLE
• 5.56 Caliber
• Lightweight
• Gas Operated
• Air Cooled
• Magazine Fed
• Shoulder Fired
• Fired in either semi-automatic, three round
burst, or full automatic(M4A1 only)
• Weapon provides offensive / defensive capabilities

CHARACTERISTIC M16A2/M16A4 M4/M4A1


RANGE ( METERS )    
Maximum Range 3600 3600
Maximum Effective Range    
Point Target 550 500
Area Target 800 600
Description of M16A4
Removable Rear Sight
Front Sight Post Carrying Handle
Bullet Drop
Compensator Compensator

Bayonet Lug Butt Stock


Selector Compartment
Charging Bolt Catch/Release Switch
Handle

Ejection Port
Forward Assist
Pistol Grip Magazine Release Button
Description of M4/M4A1
UNLOADING AND CLEARING
PROCEDURES
1. Point in SAFE DIRECTION/Clearing Barrel
2. Place selector on SAFE, if weapon will not go on SAFE
continue to step 3
3. Remove Magazine
4. Lock bolt to the rear
5. Return charging handle forward
6. Place/check that selector is on SAFE.
7. Visually (and physically inspect) receiver and chamber for
ammunition.
8. Release bolt forward, close ejection port cover
FUNCTION CHECK
ENSURE WEAPON IS CLEAR

1. Place the selector lever on SAFE.


2. Pull the charging handle to rear and release.
3. Pull the trigger, the hammer should not fall.
4. Place the selector lever on SEMI.
5. Pull the trigger (the hammer should fall) and hold the trigger to the
rear and charge the weapon.
6. Release the trigger with a slow, smooth motion, until the trigger is
fully forward (an audible click should be heard and felt).
7. Pull the trigger, the hammer should fall.
8. Place the selector lever on BURST.
9. Charge the weapon and squeeze the trigger (the hammer should
fall) and hold the trigger to the rear, pull the charging handle to the
rear and release it three times.
10.Release the trigger.
11.Squeeze the trigger, the hammer should fall.
12.Attempt to place on safe, should not work.
13.Charge the weapon and place on safe, close ejection port cover.
Fill a Magazine
“Charge a magazine with X rounds”

• Take rounds off of stripper clip before trying to


insert into magazine and inspect rounds for
deficiencies.

•Pointy end of round towards the enemy, opposite of


the spine on magazine. Push rounds straight down
through top of magazine.

• Do NOT seat rounds in a magazine by banging the


magazine against something hard. There is no need
and it may damage the magazine.
LOADING
1. Insert the magazine into the magazine well until the
magazine catch locks it into place. “Tap”

NOTE: Seating a loaded magazine into a weapon with


the bolt closed requires significantly more force than
loading a magazine with the bolt locked to the rear.

2. Pull down on the magazine to ensure that it is properly


seated. “Tug”

3. Pull charging handle to the rear and release. “Rack”

*Use Slingshot method when loading*


CONDITION CODES
M16/M4 SERIES RIFLES

GREEN: Selector Switch on SAFE, Source of Ammunition


Removed, Open or Bolt Forward, No Round in
Chamber

AMBER: Selector Switch on SAFE, Source of Ammunition


Inserted, Bolt Forward, No Round in Chamber

RED: Selector Switch on SAFE, Source of Ammunition


Inserted, Bolt Forward, Round in Chamber
Ready Positions

– Hang
– Safe Hang
– Collapsed Ready
– Low Ready
– High Ready
– Ready/Ready-Up (“Instant Ready”)
Drills (A-K)

The drill structure is standardized for all individual and crew served weapons
in order to reinforce the most common actions all Soldiers need to routinely
execute with their assigned equipment during training and combat.

A: Weapon Check
B: Sling/Unsling (Draw/Holster). Change location of the weapon on demand. Go from Hang,
Safe Hang, Collapsed Low Ready, Low Ready, High Ready, Ready (ready-up)
C: Equipment Check PCC
D: Load
E: Carry (Five/Three) Move between five methods of carry three times.
F: Fight Down. Start in the standing/offhand position and assume the kneeling, sitting, and
prone (or variations) in order.
G: Fight Up. Start in prone and assume the sitting, kneeling, and standing positions in order.
H: Go-To-Prone. Rapidly drop from standing/crouching or similar ready position into prone.
Do while stationary, walking, or during a tactical rush.
I: Reload. Completely reload the weapon from ammunition stored in load bearing equipment.
J: Clear Malfunction. Reduce the most common malfunctions.
K: Unload/Show Clear
MALFUNCTIONS
CORRECT MALFUNCTIONS
Immediate action – simple, rapid actions to correct basic
disruptions in the cycle of function without observing.


Most common when a “click” occurs instead a fired shot.

Best approach: Tap/Tug – Rack – Assess

Remedial action – Skilled, technique that must be applied to a


specific problem or issue with the weapon that will not be
corrected by taking immediate action.


Trigger press results in a “mush” instead of “click” or fired
shot.

Best approach: Clear the weapon and evaluate.
CORRECT MALFUNCTIONS
IMMEDIATE ACTION
TAP- Tap the bottom of the magazine firmly. Tug
to insure magazine is locked in place

RACK- Rapidly pull the charging handle and release


to extract / eject the previous cartridge and feed,
chamber, and lock a new round.

REASSESS- Reassess by continuing the shot


process.
*If the weapon still fails to fire after Immediate Action,
perform Remedial Action*
REMEDIAL ACTION

Perform the 3 C’s:


Cover, Communicate, and Clear

Then-

1.Look/Identify The Malfunction


2.Reduce The Malfunction
3.Ready
THE SHOT
PROCESS AND
FUNCTIONAL
ELEMENTS OF
EMPLOYMENT
Shot Process


Pre-shot

Postion, NPA, Sight Alignment/Picture, Hold


Shot

Refine Hold, Aim, Control (trigger)


Post-shot

Follow through, recoil management
Call The Shot, evaluate
FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS
OF EMPLOYMENT

SACM
STABILITY
AIM
CONTROL
MOVEMENT
RELATIONSHIPS
SHOT PROCESS APPLYING SACM
SHOT PROCESS ELEMENT FUNCTION
Body position
Stability Support
Natural Point of Aim
Weapon orientation
Pre-shot Aim
Sight alignment/ Sight picture
Muscle relaxation
Control
Determine hold
Move Assume XXXX firing position
Maintain stability
Stability
Reduce wobble zone
Sight picture
Aim Orient on target
Shot Apply appropriate hold
Breathing
Control Trigger
Execution
Move Maintain position
Refine or alter position as needed
Stability
Recover from Recoil
Aim Maintain sight picture
Post-shot
Assess target/ determine need for reengagement
Control
Trigger reset
Move Maintain posture or move tactically
STABILITY
The Soldier stabilizes the weapon to provide a consistent base to fire
from and maintain through the shot process until the recoil pulse has
ceased. This process includes how the Soldier holds the weapon, uses
structures or objects to provide stability, and the Soldier’s posture on the
ground during an engagement.

COMPONENTS
Support Stock weld Muscle relaxation
Body Position Field of view Natural point of aim
Gun-shooter angle Center of gravity Recoil management

CONSIDERATIONS
Available cover/concealment Use of sling for support Time to establish position
Use of support or Available fields of fire Movement during
unsupported engagement
STABILITY- PRONE SUPPORTED
The prone supported position allows for the use of support, such as
sandbags. Soldiers must build a stable, consistent position that focuses
on the following key areas:

•Firing hand. The firer should have a firm handshake grip on the pistol
grip and place their finger on the trigger where it naturally falls.
•Nonfiring Hand. The nonfiring hand is placed to maximize control the
weapon and where it is comfortable on the artificial support.
•Leg Position. The firer’s legs may be either spread with heels as flat as
possible on ground or the firing side leg may be bent at the knee to
relieve pressure on the stomach.
•Artificial Support. The artificial support should be at a height that allows
for stability without interfering with the other elements of the position.
STABILITY- PRONE SUPPORTED
STABILITY- PRONE UNSUPPORTED
The prone unsupported position is not as stable as the prone
supported position. Soldiers must build a stable, consistent
position that focuses on the following key areas:

•Firing Hand. The firer should have a firm handshake grip on the
pistol grip and place their finger on the trigger where it naturally
falls.
•Nonfiring Hand. The nonfiring hand is placed to control the
weapon and is comfortable.
•Leg Position. The firer’s legs may be either spread with heels as
flat as possible on ground or the firing side leg may be bent at the
knee to relieve pressure on the stomach

*The magazine can be rested on the ground while using the prone
unsupported position. Firing with the magazine on the ground will
NOT induce a malfunction.*
STABILITY- PRONE UNSUPPORTED
STABILITY- KNEELING
UNSUPPORTED
The kneeling unsupported position does not use artificial support. The
firer should be leaning slightly forward into the position to allow for recoil
management and quicker follow-up shots. The primary goal of this firing
position is to establish the smallest wobble area possible. Key focus
areas for kneeling, unsupported are:
•Nonfiring elbow. Place the non-firing elbow directly underneath the rifle
as much as possible. The elbow should be placed either in front of or
behind the kneecap. Placing the elbow directly on the kneecap will cause
it to roll and increases the wobble area.
•Leg position. The non-firing leg should be bent approximately 90 degrees
at the knee and be directly under the rifle. The firing-side leg should be
perpendicular to the nonfiring leg. The firer may rest their body weight on
the heel. Some firers lack the flexibility to do this and may have a gap
between their buttocks and the heel.
• Aggressive (stretch) kneeling. All weight on non-firing foot, thigh to calf,
upper body leaning forward, nonfiring triceps on non-firing knee, firing
leg stretched behind for support. Highly effective for rapid fire and
STABILITY- KNEELING
UNSUPPORTED
STABILITY- NATURAL POINT OF
AIM
In every position, when you are relaxed your body has a
Natural Point Of Aim, where the weapon is oriented a specific
direction with little to no muscle input. Ideally you want your
NPOA to be oriented at the target. To check NPOA:

1.Get into good steady position with sights aligned to target


2.Close eyes
3.Take a breath in and let it out
4.Open eyes

If you are still on target, you have a good NPOA.

If you are not on target, re-adjust body by moving your hips


and repeat steps 1-4 until you have a good NPOA.
AIM
The aim element of employment is the continuous process of orienting
the weapon correctly, aligning the sights, aligning on the target, and the
application of the appropriate lead and elevation (hold-off or aim-off)
during a target engagement. Aiming is a continuous process conducted
through pre-shot, shot, and post-shot, to effectively apply lethal fires in a
responsible manner with accuracy and precision.

COMPONENTS
Sight alignment Sight picture

CONSIDERATIONS
Sighting system employed Shooter movement Target movement
Angles (elevation) Distance Wind
Precision vs. quick fire Center of visible mass Visibility
Target exposure Canted sights Evasive targets
AIM
• Dominant Eye Exercise
AIM
AIM- Sight Alignment ( Irons )

Top center of the front sight post centered


horizontally and vertically in the rear sight aperture.
ALWAYS!
THIS WILL NEVER CHANGE !
AIM- SIGHT PICTURE
CORRECT SIGHT PICTURE INCORRECT SIGHT PICTURE
WITH FOCUS ON THE TOP WITH FOCUS ON THE TARGET.
CENTER OF THE FRONT WHICH CAUSES LARGE
SIGHT POST AND OR VERTICAL GROUPS.
CONTROL
The control element of employment considers all the conscious actions
of the Soldier before, during, and after the shot process that the Soldier
specifically in control of. This includes breathing, whether to shoot, when
to shoot, and how to shoot. It incorporates the Soldier as a function of
safety, as well as the ultimate responsibility of firing the weapon.
COMPONENTS
Target detection Target identification Prioritization of fires
Safety (SDZ) Breathing control Wobble zone
Workspace management Weapon manipulations Called shots
Method of fire Trigger control Follow through

CONSIDERATIONS
Stoppages Transition to secondary Reloads (emergency or
weapon tactical)
Supplemental engagements Sector check Cookoff
CONTROL

When firing individual weapons, the Soldier is the weapon’s fire


control system, ballistic computer, stabilization system, and means
of mobility. Control refers to the Soldier’s ability to regulate these
functions and maintain the discipline to execute the shot process at
the appropriate time.
CONTROL
ARC OF MOVEMENT (wobble area)

•The arc of movement (AM) may be observed as the sights moving in


a W shape, vertical (up and down) pulses, circular, or horizontal
arcs depending on the individual Soldier.

•The arc of movement is the extent of lateral horizontal and front-to-


back variance in the movement that occurs in the sight picture
CONTROL
CONTROL
Contol consists of several supporting Soldier functions, and include
all the actions to minimize the Soldier’s induced arc of movement.

Trigger control (critical for firing control) **

• Work space. (important for handling control)

• Follow-through. **

• Calling the shot (firing or shot execution). **


(critical for improving firing control)

• Breathing control (not important)


CONTROL

Trigger control.

•A smooth, consistent trigger squeeze, regardless of speed, allows the


shot to fire at the Soldier’s moment of choosing.

•Smooth trigger control is facilitated by placing the finger where it


naturally lays on the trigger.
CONTROL
• Trigger finger placement – the trigger finger will lay naturally
across the trigger after achieving proper grip. There is no
specified point on the trigger finger that must be used. It will not
be the same for all Soldiers due to different size hands. This allows
the Soldier to engage the trigger in the most effective manner

• Trigger press – The Soldier pulls the trigger in a smooth


consistent manner adding pressure until the weapon fires.
Regardless of the speed at which the Soldier is firing the trigger
control will always be smooth.

• Trigger reset – It is important the Soldier retains focus on the


sights while resetting the trigger.
CONTROL

Natural trigger finger placement


CONTROL
BREATHING CONTROL
•Breathing induces unavoidable body movement that contribute to
wobble or the arc of movement (AM) during the shot process.
Soldiers cannot completely eliminate all motion during the shot
process, but they can significantly reduce its effects through practice
and technique.

** Vertical dispersion during grouping


is almost NEVER caused by breathing. **
Improper aiming and trigger control is the typical cause.
CONTROL

WORKSPACE MANAGEMENT

•Work space is a spherical area, 12 to 18 inches in diameter centered


on the Soldier’s chin and approximately 12 inches in front of their
chin.

•Location of the work space will change slightly in different firing


positions. There are various techniques to use the work space. Some
examples are leaving the butt stock in the shoulder, tucking the butt
stock under the armpit for added control of the weapon, or placing
the butt stock in the crook of the elbow.
CONTROL
CONTROL
CALLING THE SHOT

•Calling a shot refers to a firer stating exactly where he thinks a


single shot strikes by recalling the sights relationship to the target
when the weapon fired. This is normally expressed in clock direction
and inches from the desired point of aim.

•Knowing precisely where the sights are when the weapon


discharges is critical for shot analysis. Errors such as flinching or
jerking of the trigger can be seen in the sights before discharge.

•The shooter is responsible for the point of impact of every round


fired from their weapon.
CONTROL
FOLLOW-THROUGH

Follow-through is the continued mental and physical application of


the functional elements of the shot process after the shot has been
fired. The firer’s head stays in contact with the stock, the firing eye
remains open, the trigger finger holds the trigger back through
recoil and then lets off enough to reset the trigger, and the body
position and breathing remain steady.
Follow-through consists of all actions controlled by the shooter after
the bullet leaves the muzzle. It is required to complete the shot
process. These actions are executed in a general sequence:
•Recoil management.
•Recoil recovery.
•Trigger/Sear reset.
•Sight picture adjustment.
•Engagement assessment
MOVEMENT
The movement element of employment is the process of the Soldier
moving tactically during the engagement process. It includes the
Soldier’s ability to move laterally, forward, diagonally, and in a retrograde
manner while maintaining stabilization, appropriate aim, and control of
the weapon.

COMPONENTS
Forward movement Rearward movement Lateral movement
Oblique movement Vertical movement Turns
Glide step Exaggerated bend in Upper body "turret"
knee

CONSIDERATIONS
Obstacles Cover and concealment Balance
Trigger Control
1. Apply a controlled continuous amount of pressure
on the trigger straight to the rear and hold

1. Once the weapon has settled after recoil slowly


release the trigger to reset the sear

1. Determined by feeling and or hearing the metallic


click

1. Once the sear has reset, STOP the movement of the


trigger finger

1. Realign the sights and repeat the above steps for


follow on shots
GROUPING AND ZEROING
PREPARATION
Iron Sight Set-Up

1. Front sight post 5. Elevation Index Line


2. Front sight post housing 6. Rear Sight Aperture
3. Elevation knob 7. Windage Knob

4. Rear
On M16A2 thesight
BDCassembly
MUST BE SET8. TO
Windage
8/3+1Index
clickLine
SETTING
FOR 25M ZERO
THE FRONT SIGHT POST MUST BE
STRAIGHT AND BLACKENED.
BACK UP IRON SIGHT (BUIS)
Elevation
Knob (BDC
200-600m) Windage Knob

25M ZERO PROCEDURES: Set the range


selector to the line between the 200 & 300
mark.
To confirm or qualify at true distance set
range selector to 300 mark.
SIGHT ADJUSTMENT

Use a Round or Front sight adjustment tool to make


adjustments to front sight.
ZEROING TIPS
• How to zero is printed on the target.
Don’t overthink it and trust the math.
• A weapon is NOT zeroed until
confirmed at actual distance. Close
range procedures are a “nearo”
• Zeros are not transferred from one rifle
to another.
• Combat gear (or lack thereof) will not
affect your zero.
ZERO TARGETS
ZERO TARGETS
Qualification Standards
Primary Course(Pop-Ups)

-Record Fire Standards- Expert 36-40, Sharpshooter 30-35,


Marksman 23-29
-Recorded on DA 3595

Alternate Courses:

-Known Distance Record Fire Standards- Expert 38-40,


Sharpshooter 33-37, Marksman 26-32
-Recorded on DA 5789

-25m Scaled Alternate Course Standards- Expert 38-40,


Sharpshooter 33-37, Marksman 26-32
-Recorded on DA 5790
Summary
• Safety
• Characteristics
• Clearing/Function Check
• Loading
• Malfunctions
• SACM
• Zeroing
• Qualifying Standards
What are your questions?