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An Assessment of the Inventory Management of Roloi Merchandising - #143 Sta. Cruz,

Magalang, Pampanga in Terms of Soft Drink Products

An Accountancy Research

Presented to the Faculty of the School of Business and Accountancy

Holy Angel University

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the

Degree of Bachelor of Science in Accountancy

Carl Angelo Cabrera

Anitamina Joy Cunanan

Crysler Aeron David

Elsie Joy David

Josephine Lansangan

Michael Morales

Jasmin Ocampo


Cover Page 1

Table of Contents 2

Chapter I: Introduction

Background of the Study 4

Rationale of the Study 5

Statement of the Problem 5

Objectives of the Study 6

Significance of the Study 7

Scope and Limitations of the Study 7

Review of Related Literature 8

Research Frameworks

Conceptual Framework 13

Theoretical Framework 14

Chapter II: Methods

Research Design 14

Unit of Analysis/Respondents 15

Point of Focus 15

Research Instrument 15

Data Gathering Methods 15

Ethical Considerations 16

Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation 17


Chapter III: Result, Discussion, Conclusion & Recommendation

Results 18

Conclusion 19

Recommendation 19


Appendix A – List of References 20

Appendix B – Operational Definition of Terms 21

Appendix C – Interview Questions 23

Appendix D – Inventory Record 24

Appendix E – PlagScan Certificate 25


Inventory Management supervises the stock items from warehouses to the point of sale. It

is a very important function in an organization or businesses. It helps to determine the stocks

accurately, leads to a more organized warehouse, save time and money, increases efficiency and

productivity as well as the customer’s satisfaction. In this case, the responsibility of the inventory

management focuses in the entire organization.

Inventory in a manufacturing business is generally using raw materials to make a finished

product, while on a merchandising business the inventory is a purchase of finished goods and

resell it to the consumers. The basic activities of inventory management involves are sales

forecasting or demand management, sales and operations planning, production planning, material

requirements planning, inventory reduction. There are departments coordinating with each other

such as sales, purchasing, production, logistics, and accounting in order to achieve effective

inventory management and control.

This study will examine problems associated with management and control of inventory

of a soft drinks distributor warehouse. Monitoring of stocks in the warehouse needs to do

forecast, set targets and objectives, the management sets instructions and yet the inventory can be

overlooked or given less that its level of inventory consideration. The management depends on

its inventory level to determine the effect of its instructions, if it is reliable or not. This research

attempts to provide recommendations to improve the services, faster transaction and fewer

errors. The need for faster and accurate management is needed to stay competitive in their

business environment.

This study aims to gather information and analyze data from an actual inventory

technique currently in use. Specifically, the purposes of this research are to make an assessment

of ROLOI STORE, a soft drink distribution business, in Magalang, Pampanga on how it carries

out its inventory and know the factors affecting its current inventory management. The study

also aims to come up with an ideal inventory management technique for the business to operate

more efficiently and less costly as possible. The study will be considered done when the

significant factors of inventory management of the business are all been attend to.

Soft drinks are nonalcoholic beverages that contain carbonated water, and flavorings. A

small soft drink industry business can use inventory turnover ratio to measure how well the

business manage it inventory. Generally, poor inventory management practices are overstocking,

under stocking bad issuing system and absence of stock taking are the main causes. Over

stocking is storing goods over the needed quantity. And it may result in damage of goods

because of limited place to keep it. Under stocking on the contrary is maintaining small number

of material below the demand of the business it has negative impact on the over work of the

commerce to achieve its objectives goal. Bad issuing sometimes also sending the materials from

store without keeping the requisition of user department. If the materials at certain area cannot be

controlled, it is difficult to properly record incoming and outgoing materials.

This study will assess the overall inventory activity of ROLOI's Store and also the research will


1.) How often does the business do physical inventory count?

2.) Is the supply of inventory from the supplier sufficient to satisfy customers demand?

3.) How does the company decide on how sufficient is the inventory on their warehouses?

4.) Is the current inventory management plan is efficiently implemented?

5.) How does the business entity maintain their inventories to meet daily sales quota?

The following are the objectives of the research:

1.) To know the business’ inventory management technique

2.) To know how the business maintain its inventory management policy

3.) To know how the business determine the sufficiency of their stocks

4.) To know how the practical application of inventory management theory works

5.) To know if the theories of inventory management are applied on the business

This section will provide brief description on the various significances of the study.

To students - The proposed study serves the students as their reference or guide in creating their

own research. It will also help students to observe the practical application of various inventory

management related terms.

To researchers – The study will help the researchers to further understand the essence of

inventory management.

To teachers - The proposed study will help teachers to have a deeper understanding in inventory

management. By this study they will come up with easier and powerful program.

To future researcher - The proposed study will benefit and help the future researcher as their

guide. It will also serve as a tool to sharpen their knowledge and ability in developing an

inventory management system. The study can also open in development of this study.

Business owners - This proposed study will suggest solutions for the problem related to

inventory management. It will help to improve its techniques on how to manage business, and

will lessen the time, enhance the level of work, help its processes more reliably and efficient, and

provide accuracy of data. It will contribute to the development of the business and add to its


The scope of this study will cover techniques used for inventory management of a merchandising

store. This research will focus on how do Roloi’s, a retailing store, control its inventory in terms

of their products to achieve their monthly quantity of sales quota.

The researchers will be conducting an interview with Mrs. Luisa N. Lansangan, the owner of

Roloi’s Store on how do they manage their inventory and what techniques do they usually do to

meet their sales quota. In addition, questions about spoiled goods treatment will also be asked in

the interview.

Reviews of Related Literature

Inventory management is considered to be a major expense in a business and the goal of

the management is to minimize it. Service businesses still keep some amount of inventory, and

retailers also find inventory management as an important process for effective retail operations

management. In spite of the fact that sales and marketing personnel often wants to maintain a

high amount of inventory to service customers quickly. “Anzalone, A., Ph.D. (2010)”

Inventory is all the good and materials the organization owns in which an entity aims to

increase the value before the selling transactions.

Inventory held ties up working capital (costs money and less costs is better) but it is

needed in order to ensure product availability. “Relph, G., Milner, C. (2015)”

Inventory control focuses on accounting for retailer's inventory, while inventory

management relates to a retailer's overall business strategy. The emphasis on inventory control

has led to an over-reliance on technology at the expense of traditional decision making, making

many retailers fail to reap the full benefits of electronic data interchange and quick response

systems resulting to not having an improvement in their inventory situation. Systems can help

improve inventory management, other factors called levers (includes distribution, management

of assortments, and promotional strategy) helps in improving inventory turnover. Retailers must

have someone in charge of inventory who can deal with the whole problem and have several

systems designed to deal with different products and situations instead of having single

comprehensive inventory system. “Cooper, Dan; Andrews, Frank, 2007”

Inventory management is having enough inventory to meet the organization's demand

and is primarily about specifying the size and placement of stocked goods. Inventory

management is needed at any locations of facilities so that the regular and planned course of

production won't be disrupted against unexpected problem of running out of materials or goods.

An inventory system controls and monitors the amount of inventory in order to determine what

level should be maintained, how orders should be made, and when shall stocks be replenished.

The scope of inventory management are replenishment lead time, carrying costs of inventory,

asset management, inventory forecasting, and etc. “Ghosh and Kumar, 2009”

Inventory management is keeping adequate supplies available and low costs of over or under

stocks by developing and managing inventory levels from raw materials, semi-finished materials

(work-in-progress), to finished goods. “Kotler P., 2012”

Generally, management is maximizing one kind of asset in order to make an increase in

total value of all assets in the organization. “Surabhi Dwivedi, 2012”

First-in, First-out method assumes that the first good purchased should be the first one to

be used or sold, a method most closely tied to actual physical flow of goods in inventory. Last-in,

First-out method assumes that the most recent good purchased should be the first one to be used

or sold, a method that greatly matches current costs with current revenues. “Max Mullert, 2002”

Specific Cost Method states that the business keeps track of actual cost which allows the

organization to charge the cost of a given unit to production or sales. It is commonly used by

companies with complex computer systems. Standard Cost Method is often used by

manufacturing companies wherein they give a uniform value for an item. The bases are the costs

and expenses like historical costs and any expected changes in the future. The cost method is not

used in calculating actual net profit or for income tax purposes. Average Cost Method identifies

value of inventory and cost of goods sold by calculating average unit cost for all goods available

for sale in a given duration and assumes that ending inventory consists of all goods available for

sale. “Max Muller, 2002”

In distribution, the organization should be precise and relevant by having the right item,

in the right quantity. Increasing safety stock-on-hand is a way to solve problem but not a good

solution since it only leads to wasted money and space. In manufacturing, the organization

should be precise, relevant, and timely by having the right item, in the right quantity, at the right

time, in the right place. Independent demand is influenced by market environment out of the

control of the organization's operations. The organization's products are independent of one

another. While dependent demand is connected to another item. The materials needed depends

on the demand for the final product. You would not need one item if it's not required for another,

both would go into assembly or finished product. “Max Muller, 2002”

Inventory recording technique

Inventory recording is under taken to reduce the error relating to inventory accountability

and accuracy in a firm’s investment in inventories. Wood Frank (1996) indicates the stock

accounting is important in any firm as it registers the changes in the level of stock held to realize

maximum value and avoid typing up funds. Inventory recording may take forms stock taking and

sport checks which are process of physically counting, weighing or otherwise measuring

the quality of each item in stock and recording system should reduce the discrepancies between

stock in record and the physical stock.

Inventory storage and issues

Stock is vital tool to achieve an efficient inventory management system. Since there is

storage and issue of inventory, the cost of obsolescence and fraud, management should ensure

performance of all storage and issue functions.

Ronald, H (1999), Purchasing or production solutions may also permit order quantities to

be reduced, the other factor that has an immediate and direct effort on average stock level.

Both purchasing and production can concentrate efforts on acquiring or making batches of assma

ller size, without increasing the unit price or cost (Note that this is reversal of the Western belief

in the efficacy of large batch sizes in order to reap the apparent advantages of economies of

scales). “The Impact of Inventory Management and Performance of Private Organizations in

Uganda. A Case Study of Coca- Cola Mbarara Plant in Mbarara Municipality by Mugarura


Zeng and Hayya (1999) described the major functions of inventory as: (1) to support and

provide necessary inputs for manufacturing; and (2) to protect companies against uncertainties

that arise from such cases as discrepancy between demand and production, machine

deterioration, and human errors, among others. They further argue that regardless of the type of a

firm, the management effectiveness of inventory decisions centers on three areas: cost, service

level, and turnover ratio. This implies that inventory cost (Bhagwath & Sharma, 2007)

Maria and Jones (2003) argue that implementation of proper IM practice involves providing high

quality products at relatively less cost. They further pointed out that it is essential to establish a

daily ordering and frequent calculation of inventory turns.

On the other hand Ballou (2000) argues that inventory cost should be considered while

taking inventory decisions. He found that inventory carrying costs typically range from 20% to

40% of inventory value. Palmer and Dean (2000) are of the opinion that selection of right IM

practice is a must for a company’s IM performance. “Pillai, R. N. (2014).”

The review of the inventory management literature published in top logistics journals, indicates

that logistics researchers have made a significant contribution to the expansive body of inventory

management literature. The literature has primarily followed two major themes:

(1) Integrating traditional logistics activities into models of inventory control; and

(2) Collaborative inventory management.

The first theme focuses on evaluating the trade-offs between transportation, warehousing

and inventory management, primarily through analytical and simulation models. To model these

trade-offs, researchers must first make an assumption regarding the inventory control policy in

place. A large number of inventory management models assume the use of an (Q, r) approach,

and relatively little attention has been given to periodic review (S, T) inventory control models in

the logistics literature. Table II shows that only seven consider periodic review as an inventory

control policy. The second theme focuses on how collaborative inventory programs can make

inventory commitment more efficient and improve customer service. In a recent examination of

the future of the discipline of logistics and logistics research, Davis-Sramek and Fugate (2007)

uncovered that leading discipline visionaries feel that one area in which logistics researchers

must focus is coordination and collaboration, and subsequently, the inventory management

literature published in logistics journals has evolved in recent years in that direction.

Collaborative programs, such as CRP, ECR, QR and VMI, have become popular research topics

in the logistics literature. “A Review of Inventory Management Research in Major Logistics


Sales and Inventory System

A sales and inventory system is a software-based business solution used to

simultaneously track sales activity and inventory. Manufacturers and trade resellers can both

benefit from a thorough solution, where single transaction entry records necessary details on the

customer, products purchased, price and date while also updating inventory levels.

Using computerized sales and inventory systems allows for much greater accuracy in stocking

and product management. They encourage ease of interaction between employees and shoppers

as transactions are processed and items move from the business to the consumer. Computerized

sales help provide better insight into which products are most popular. It also allows for

enhanced marketing, stocking and oversight of critical sales objectives. “Sales and Inventory

System by Kim Ivory Santiago”

Theoretical Framework

Conceptual Framework


The researchers of this study will be using descriptive research design. This research

design aims at generating information after the incident has occurred. The research design

looked at the reasons why the situation behaves the way it was. In this study, the manager will

be involved in collecting useful information. In this study, both primary and secondary data

gathering strategy will be used.

The researchers will also use qualitative approach by conducting an interview with the

manager of ROLOI Store concerning inventory management, such as the use of First-in First-out

method, the maintenance of the inventories, and the inventory control.

Units of Analysis/Respondents

The main participant of this research is the ROLOI Store’s store manager, Mrs. Luisa N.

Lansangan. Information from another manager directly in charge in handling inventories in the

warehouse will also be used.

Point of Focus

The point of focus of this study is the inventory management technique used by ROLOI Store in

Sta. Cruz, Magalang Pampanga. The researchers will observe on how the management

implement the First-In, First-Out method. In addition, the researchers need to gather records

from the store with regards of its beginning and ending inventory. The researchers need to

identify the technique used in order to assess the difference of the inventory terms in practical


Research Instruments

In this study, interview questionnaire is used. The researchers will ask the store manager some

interview questions related to the application of theoretical terms related to inventory

management. The interview questions were approved by certain managerial accounting

professors of Holy Angel University.

Data Gathering Methods

This section describes in great detail the data-collection procedures. The primary sources of

information are records provided by store manager which include the quantity of sales per day,

number of delivery received, beginning inventory, and the ending inventory. The manager, as the

main respondent, provided the researchers useful information needed.

The secondary sources of information came from other academic researches with same line or

related study. The academic researches included information, discussions, and interpretation that

can be used as a basis for this research; in line with it, the researchers used the citation as a

respect to the authors of the related study.

The analysis of the primary and secondary sources and the result of the interview determined

whether the technique used by the management on its inventory is appropriate and effective. The

researchers also provided recommendation concerning the appropriate inventory management

technique to be used by the management after the analysis and evaluation of results.

Ethical considerations

Before the researchers started their study, consent was given to the participant to be fully

informed about the research that was conducted. The researchers conducted an interview with

relevant people, such as the manager and the manager that handles the business’s inventory. The

questions did not ask for any personal or private information from the respondent, but rather the

questions were directly related to the study. The participants were debriefed about the purpose,

objective, the scope and limitations, and as well as how it will be used by the researchers during

the time frames. The researchers did not force the participants in gathering the information

because the researchers want it free from coercion. Given on any time the participant is free to

withdraw their participation in the study to avoid negative impact in their company. The research

will do no harm to the company by any means. Gathered information will also be confidential for

the sake of the company. Confidential information will be ensured that it will not be known by

anyone but the research coordinator and the researchers.

The conclusions made by the researchers are derived from the information that was

gathered during the interview. Steps were followed carefully while collecting data to ensure the

precision and to avoid confusion and misleading information.

Authors, professors and participants that are part of the research were given acknowledgement as

an appreciation for the help in carrying out the research.

Data Presentation, Analysis and interpretation of Data

The data that were gathered from the respondents either qualitative or quantitative was presented,

analyzed, and interpreted. The researchers used techniques and questionnaires to begin the

research study. The researchers will analyze the qualitative information that was gathered from

the respondents and this will be used to know if the company uses techniques that are the same

with the techniques written in books, or if the company implemented different inventory

management technique. Whether if the company uses First-In-First-Out technique, which means

that your oldest stock (first-in) gets sold first (first-out), not your newest stock, in order to

manage a FIFO system, you’ll need an organized warehouse. This typically means adding new

products from the back, or otherwise making sure old product stays at the front (Campbell,

2017). The quantitative information that was gathered will then be used to know how the

company handles its inventory, whether if it can supply the sufficient number of units needed by

its customer daily. With this, the researchers can now interpret the data by making conclusions

and by giving useful recommendations.


Roloi Merchandising, a retailing store of soft drink products in Magalang, Pampanga

practices its own inventory management techniques for its products. They conduct an inventory

count twice a day, before they start the operation of the business and after closing the store.

Roloi's policy is “order now, deliver today”. The volume of inventory may vary depending on

customers demand. Roloi store orders at Pepsi-Cola Products Inc. as their main supplier by

booking, and they usually deliver it 3 times in a week at 5:00pm. Inventories are kept in their

own warehouse. The basis of the store’s orders is the quantity of inventory that they counted at

the end of the day. The management uses reorder point to determine the store’s order quantity.

The spoiled goods are considered as back order which are to be returned and replaced

with new goods by the supplier on their next delivery. The store uses First-In, First-Out method

technique of inventory management. The old stocks are separated from new delivered goods

which are considered as the store’s new stocks, the old stocks are sold first and must be

exhausted before they put the new delivered stocks on their for sale inventories stocks for it to be

sold. The business main problem is that their inventory is sometimes insufficient to meet the

customers demand, the reason for such problem is that the store cannot predict how many goods

will be sold for the day. Another reason is that the production and delivery of the Pepsi-Cola

products to the store is always late due to the delay of production at their main plant.


In evaluating the data gathered, the researchers concluded that Roloi Merchandising

Store’s inventory management technique is not effective. The replenishment of stocks are

delayed due to the suppliers fault to deliver inventories, due to that it affects the delivery of

products of Roloi’s to its customers. The business First-In, First-Out Method is effective in

eliminating the chance of having expired product. Their 2-time checking of inventory is effective

for eliminating the chance of miscalculation of inventory. The technique of Roloi Store is not

effective in the industry due to the lack of order in the management of their inventories.


The researchers recommend the management of ROLOI's Store to order stock that is

more than the normal quantity. Being timely is one thing and this will lead to a smoother

operation, having sufficient stock that meets the demand of customers will make the business

transactions go smoothly. The researchers would also like to suggest that the store should

establish a daily quantity of orders quota to know if they are selling more or less of what they

have, it would also help them know if they should order more or order less to their suppliers. We

recommend that the management should try increasing their reorder point to avoid having

insufficient stock to satisfy the customers’ demand.


Appendix A – List of References

Pillai, R. N. (2014). Factors discriminating inventory management performance: An

exploratory study of indian machine tool SMEs. Journal of Industrial Engineering

and Management, 7(3), 605-621. doi:

Kotler P. (2002) Marketing Management. Edn 2. The Millennium Edition. New Delhi:

Prentice Hill of India

Morris C. (2004) Quantitative Approach in Business Studies: London: Pitman Publisher. Nigeria

Bottling Company. Annual Report.

Dwivedi, S., kumar, A., & Kothiyal, P. (2012). Inventory management: A tool of identifying

items that need greater attention for control. The Pharma Innovation, 1(7), 125-129.

Retrieved from

Essentials of Inventory Management, AMACOM, 2002. ProQuest Ebook Central,

Created from haulib-ebooks


Anzalone, A., Ph.D. (2010) Inventory Management. Retrieved from

Relph, G., Milner, C. (2015) Advanced Methods for Managing Inventory within Business

Systems. Retrieved from


The Impact of Effective Inventory Control Management on Organizational Performance: A

Study of 7up Bottling Company Nile Mile Enugu, Nigeria (PDF Download

Available). Available from:



Appendix B – Operational Definition of Terms

Inventory Management – is the supervision of inventories and stock items. Inventory

management supervises the flow of goods from manufacturers to warehouses and from these

facilities to point of sale.

Inventory Control – is the area of inventory management that is concerned in minimizing the

total cost of inventory while maximizing the ability to provide customer with product in a timely


Inventory Recording – is the manual or computer-based record of quantity and kind of inventory

at hand. It often also includes history of the recent transactions in each inventory items. Is also

known as stock record.

Stock/Inventory – are the goods and materials that a business holds for the ultimate goals to have

a purpose of resale.

Safety Stock – term used by logisticians to describe a level of extra stock that is maintained to

mitigate risk of stock-outs due to uncertainties in supply and demand.

First-in, First-out Method – is a cost flow assumption that the first good purchased are also the

first goods sold.

Average Cost Method – it is assumed that the cost of inventory is based on the average cost of

the goods available for sale during the period. It is computed by dividing the total cost of goods

sold available for sale by the total units available for sale.

Specific Identification – is a method of finding out inventory cost. It requires a detailed physical

count, so that the company knows exactly how many of each goods brought on specific dates

remained at year-end inventory. When this information is found, the amount of goods are

multiplied by their purchase cost at their purchase date, to get a number for the ending inventory

cost. In theory, this method is the best method, since it relates the ending inventory goods

directly to the specific price they were bought for.

Standard Cost Method – is the practice of substituting an expected cost for an actual cost in the

accounting records, and then periodically recording variances showing the difference between

the expected and actual costs.

Perpetual Inventory System – updates inventory accounts after each purchase or sale.

Periodic Inventory System – is a system of inventory in which updates are made on a periodic


Appendix C – Interview Questions

The interview that will be conducted by the researchers is related about the researchers study

about the assessment of Roloi’s Merchandising Store, Located at #143 Sta. Cruz, Magalang

Pampanga in terms of Soft Drink Products. The researchers will assure the respondents that all

the information that will be gathered will remain confidential and will be used for the sole

purpose of the researchers study. Foremost, the researchers would like to express their greatest

gratitude of appreciation for your cooperation to entrust your business records to us for the

completion of this study. The researchers will rely on your positive response to be able to answer

the questions listed below:

1.) On what quantity of inventories for the month ended July 31, 2017 are the business’:

a.) Average Sales

b.) Beginning Inventory


c.) Ending Inventory

d.) Stock Deliveries

2.) What is the process followed by the business in performing inventory counts?

3.) How does the business determine the frequency for ordering of new stocks?

4.) At what level of inventory would trigger the ordering of new stocks?

5.) What is the treatment of the business on spoiled inventories?

6.) Is the business’s current inventory management technique effectively applied?

7.) How often does the business do physical count?

Appendix D – Inventory Records

Inventory at the End of June

Inventory for the month of July


Appendix E – PlagScan Certificate