You are on page 1of 44

INSTRUCTIONS ON CORE DRILLING

AND THE LOGGING OF CORES

FOR ENGINEERING PURPOSES

AT PT KALTIM PRIMA COAL MINESITES

REPORT A-344

THIS INTERNAL REPORT IS PREPARED FOR KPC COMPANY USE ONLY

JANUARY 2004

378952174.doc
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
INSTRUCTIONS ON CORE DRILLING
AND THE LOGGING OF CORES FOR ENGINEERING PURPOSES
AT PT KALTIM PRIMA COAL MINESITES

Table of Contents
1.0 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................... 1
1.1 General......................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Purpose......................................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Background................................................................................................................... 1
1.4 Acknowledgments.........................................................................................................2
2.0 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CORE DRILLING AND LOGGING............................3
2.1 Planning of Investigation Drilling...................................................................................3
2.2 Scope of Logging of Coreholes.....................................................................................3
2.3 Core Logging Equipment..............................................................................................4
2.4 Location and Timing of Logging Activities.....................................................................4
2.5 Types of Log..................................................................................................................4
3.0 HANDLING, LABELLING AND PRESERVATION OF ROCK CORES..............................6
3.1 Core Drilling and Recovery...........................................................................................6
3.2 Core Extraction.............................................................................................................6
3.2.1 Initial Core Measurement with Logger Present......................................................7
3.2.2 Initial Core Measurement Without Logger Present................................................7
3.3 Core Logging and Sampling Activity..............................................................................7
3.4 Core Boxing and Labelling............................................................................................8
3.5 Field Storage.................................................................................................................9
3.6 Transportation............................................................................................................... 9
3.7 Sample Preservation...................................................................................................10
4.0 INFORMATION TO BE RECORDED ON THE COREHOLE LOG...................................11
4.1 General Header Information........................................................................................11
4.1.1 Drillhole Number...................................................................................................12
4.1.2 Location............................................................................................................... 12
4.1.3 Drilling Technique.................................................................................................13
4.1.4 Date and Time Information...................................................................................13
4.1.5 Total Depth Drilled................................................................................................13
4.1.6 Name of Core Logger..........................................................................................13
4.1.7 Additional Information..........................................................................................13
4.2 Records of Drilling Progress........................................................................................13
4.2.1 Daily Record Information......................................................................................14
4.2.2 Training................................................................................................................ 14
4.2.3 Non-Recoverable Information..............................................................................14
4.2.4 Water and Groundwater.......................................................................................15
4.3 Logging of Core Recovery..........................................................................................15
4.3.1 Core Recovery Measurements.............................................................................15
4.4 Logging of Lithology....................................................................................................18
4.4.1 Lithotype Information...........................................................................................18
4.4.2 Colour Information................................................................................................18
4.4.3 Grainsize Information...........................................................................................19
4.5 Logging of Mechanical State and Material Strength...................................................20
4.5.1 Mechanical State..................................................................................................20
4.5.2 Material Strength..................................................................................................22
4.6 Logging of Material Texture Features..........................................................................23
4.7 Logging of Groundwater Conditions...........................................................................24
4.8 Logging of Weathering................................................................................................25
4.9 Logging of Structure and Defects...............................................................................26

378952174.doc
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
4.9.1 Bedding Structure.............................................................................................26
4.9.2 Sedimentary Structure......................................................................................28
4.9.3 Defects (Tectonic Structure).............................................................................28
4.10 Logging of Fossil or Mineral Inclusions....................................................................31
4.11 Logging of Samples and Test Data or References..................................................32
5.0 DATA PRESENTATION...................................................................................................33
6.0 REFERENCES............................................................................................................... 34

List of Appendices

APPENDIX A
CURRENT PRE-PRINTED
CORED BOREHOLE LOGGING SHEET
AND CORING RECORD SHEET

APPENDIX B
CORE LOGGING PROCEDURE : FLOW SHEETS
APPENDIX C
EXAMPLES OF CORE PHOTOGRAPHS

378952174.doc
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
INSTRUCTIONS ON CORE DRILLING
AND THE LOGGING OF CORES FOR ENGINEERING PURPOSES
AT PT KALTIM PRIMA COAL MINESITES

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL

Core drilling is carried out to obtain information that cannot be obtained by any other method.
While chip logging and geophysical logging of open hole drilling is faster, it does not provide
physical details of rock material, or samples that can be tested for engineering data.

Core drilling is slow and expensive. There is a very high additional because of the time taken to
record and interpret the information from coring. Core also deteriorates rapidly, so there is only
one opportunity to gain the best information. Logging must therefore be undertaken quickly and
accurately so that KPC can get the greatest benefit from the cost of coring.

The cost of core logging is small by comparison with the cost of drilling and core recovery. The
core log is also more durable than the core itself. Information which is not recorded the first
time, may never be available later, because the core deteriorates with time.

The corelog records, core photographs, and geophysical logs will be the only reliable
information left from the core drilling operation. If core is retained, it may still have some value
for geological reference purposes but no significance for engineering purposes.

1.2 PURPOSE

The purpose of this instruction manual is to describe methods to be used by KPC Geology and
Geotechnical personnel for the drilling and logging of fully- or partly-cored drillholes for
geotechnical purposes. This includes the methods necessary for recognising and testing key
geotechnical properties.

This instruction manual also describes the meanings associated with the GEODAS codes that
are used for core logging, particularly for describing engineering properties.

1.3 BACKGROUND

The KPC geological database and modelling system (MINEX) uses the GEODAS coding system
for data recording. Even if the highest quality of drilling and logging work is performed, the
resultant logs are not valuable unless GEODAS codes are used accurately.

From about 1995 to mid-2001, KPC used the DATCOL software package for recording and
presentation of geotechnical logs. This package generated codes that were not completely
compatible with the GEODAS codes used in MINEX. Currently the DATCOL package is
obsolete and unsupported, but a replacement has not yet been implemented. The replacement
package will be fully compatible with the GEODAS codes and the MINEX database. Currently it
is possible to export data from DATCOL to GEODAS format.

DATCOL can be used for report presentation of geotechnical information for the following types
of geotechnical investigation activity:

(1) Open (chip) and cored (fully or partly) drillholes

378952174.doc Page 1
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
(2) SPT testing in drillholes
(3) CPT probing using the KPC equipment
(4) Test Pits
(5) Inclinometer casing installation
(6) Standpipe or sensor-type piezometer installation.

DATCOL will still need to be used for access to existing geotechnical records for type (1) work,
until such time as a replacement is able to fulfil this function. DATCOL will also still need to be
used for geotechnical reporting of activity types (2) to (6), again until such time as a
replacement is able to fulfil these functions.

These instructions are based on by-passing the use of DATCOL for routine geotechnical
corelogging work for activity type (1) only, by directly generating GEODAS coding that is fully
usable within MINEX.

When the replacement for DATCOL is implemented, these instructions should be revised to
reflect current practices.

1.4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This document is based upon an earlier KPC geotechnical document, Report A-202, and upon
the earlier version of Report A-344 that was prepared in August 2001. These former documents
are now superseded and shall not be used as a reference at KPC for core drilling or core
logging for geotechnical engineering purposes.

Acknowledgement is also due to the many wise and experienced engineering geologists and
geotechnical engineers who have contributed to modern practices in so many ways.

378952174.doc Page 2
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
2.0 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CORE DRILLING AND LOGGING

2.1 PLANNING OF INVESTIGATION DRILLING

The intention of core drilling for geotechnical purposes is to provide specific engineering
information, and at the same time giving adequate reference information about geological
conditions.

Investigation sites are selected to gather geotechnical information for specific engineering or
purposes such as mining layouts and designs for infrastructure.

Conditions such as rock weathering and the character of fault zones and jointed zones can vary
rapidly and irregularly over short distances. Locations for core drilling should be chosen
carefully with such conditions in mind.

The overall scope of an investigation that involves core drilling is not discussed in these
instructions. However, when a site has been selected and drilling work commences, the
geologist or geotechnical engineer that supervises the work must have a clear understanding of
the intention of each corehole and the information that is to be obtained.

Only persons with site-specific training and supervised experience shall undertake core logging
at KPC.

2.2 SCOPE OF LOGGING OF COREHOLES

A Corelog is a factual description of the coring process and the recovered core. Additional
interpretation or assessments on the part of the core logger shall be clearly distinguished from
factual information.

Corelogs must include information that may influence the condition of the core such as:

 The tools and materials used to form it;


 The casing installed for sidewall support;
 The location and nature of groundwater occurrences and drillhole tests

This is essential for geotechnical interpretation of corelogs for rock or soil mass properties. This
information is obtained from driller’s records and is an integral part of the corelog.

Corelogs should provide an accurate and adequate record of the geological features and
conditions encountered. Any occurrences of sulphides or obviously potentially acid-forming
(PAF) materials should be logged. For sedimentary rocks, basic information on sedimentary
and tectonic features is essential because it provides insights into geological conditions away
from the drillhole location.

Geotechnical information in corelogs must include engineering assessment of the rock material
and also the rock defects. The term "defect" applies to any sedimentary or tectonic
discontinuity feature that is likely to influence the engineering behaviour of the rock mass.

For mining-related purposes at KPC, key geotechnical information on corelogs will include the
following:

(1) Material strength of rock, expressed as a strength grade that is referenced to a


measurable property such as Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS);
(2) Degree of Weathering, expressed in terms of a scale that refers to the degree of alteration
378952174.doc Page 3
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
between the limits of fresh rock and residual soil (ie non-transported soil) that has lost all
rock textural features;
(3) Reaction of the rock material to slaking (immersion in water), expressed as a Slaking
Grade;
(4) Location and orientation of defects, together with description of the characteristics of the
defects such as surface shape, texture, and infilling;
(5) Assessment of groundwater inflows, as these may guide drillhole testing and/or
installation of monitoring equipment;
(6) Careful assessment of the location and occurrence of core losses, as these may be vital
to engineering interpretation.

2.3 CORE LOGGING EQUIPMENT

Essential equipment for the logging of cores includes the driller’s log, blank pre-printed logging
sheets, pencil, metric tape, protractor, clinorule, water, brush or cloth, knife, geological pick and
magnifying glass. A field assistant is helpful for the moving or layout of core boxes and
handling and labelling.

Useful optional equipment includes: clipboard, geological compass, clinometer, annular


protractor to fit core, orientator box, hand-spray for wetting cores, table or stand for core box,
camera and accessories, colour chart, and reference materials.

2.4 LOCATION AND T IMING OF LOGGING ACTIVITIES

Core should be logged at the drilling site to avoid unnecessary handling and disturbance.
Logging should be undertaken as soon as possible after the core is removed from the core
barrel, to minimise deterioration of cores as a result of stress relief and drying.

The driller should be present when logging is done, to comment on drilling and rock conditions
and to provide specific drilling information required on the corelog.

2.5 T YPES OF LOG

The simplest log consists of a statement of the rocks encountered, with information on the
levels at which changes of strata occurred. Such a log is of little value for geotechnical
interpretation. The driller should record this information in addition to the details of drilling
conditions, equipment used, and core runs.

KPC logging systems are based on international best practice. The current blank pre-printed
core log sheets were prepared using DATCOL and contain separate columns for recording the
type of drilling, core run details, core recovery, RQD, water level and any changes in water level
during drilling, elevation and depth, graphic log, rock substance description, estimated and
laboratory strengths, water pressure test results, defect spacing and descriptions of individual
defects. An example pre-printed core log sheet for field logging is shown in Appendix A.

Field logging sheets should be depth-corrected and coded directly onto GEODAS coding sheets
for data entry into the MINEX system. The replacement for DATCOL should allow direct data
entry from field logging sheets, and must generate GEODAS code for MINEX automatically.

2.6 SUMMARY OF CORE LOGGING PROCEDURE

A simple checklist is provided in Appendix B. This sets out the steps involved in logging each
run of core, boxing of core, and summary records for each corehole. Details of these
procedures are set out in Sections 3, 4, and 5 below.
378952174.doc Page 4
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
378952174.doc Page 5
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
3.0 HANDLING, LABELLING AND PRESERVATION OF ROCK CORES

3.1 CORE DRILLING AND RECOVERY

There are two types of coring equipment in use at KPC:

(1) Triple-tube HMLC conventional barrel, which is recovered by tripping the full rod string for
each coring run. This is generally used for all coring to depths of less than 100m.
(2) Wireline HQ3 coring equipment, where the core from each run is recovered through the
rod string without tripping. This is generally used for coring at depths greater than 100m.

In normal fresh rock conditions at KPC, experienced drilling operators can obtain good core
recovery. In weathered, fault-affected, or very low strength friable rocks, even the best drilling
operators can have difficulty with core recovery.

Each core run is obtained in a split steel inner tube, referred to as “splits”. Some core material
may get stuck or broken off in the coring bit, and a stub of unbroken cored material can
sometimes be left at the bottom of the hole at the end of a run. Experienced and careful drillers
can usually tell whether natural cavities are encountered, or if core breaks or jamming problems
occur during a run. It is best practice to stop a run and retrieve core as soon as any coring
difficulty or drilling fluid circulation loss is experienced.

KPC has experienced problems with the quality of core recovered using the HQ3 wireline
equipment. These problems have being addressed, but the quality of core was often so low
that meaningful logging of geotechnical information was difficult or impossible. Logging
personnel should be aware of drilling factors that affect quality of core recovery, and discuss
with drilling operators and supervisors how to obtain the best quality core under the
circumstances that apply at each drillhole.

3.2 CORE EXTRACTION

It is highly desirable for the geologist to be in attendance during drilling, particularly if an


important section of core is to be recovered, so that he/she may inspect the core as it is
extracted from the core barrel.

After being brought to the surface, the core in the splits must be removed from the barrel or
wireline sleeve by methods designed to produce minimal additional disturbance. When the run
is extruded using water pressure, it is best practice to place a hand over the emerging end so
that initial movement can be felt. Field assistants should support the run so that the splits can
be transferred to a rack or table as gently as possible.

If there is no initial movement when pressure is applied, then the reasons for sticking should be
checked. If pressure is increased in an uncontrolled manner, sudden release of a stuck run
may cause violent ejection and result in badly damaged core. Drilling assistants should inspect,
clean, and lubricate the splits, bit, catcher assembly, and barrel carefully before coring resumes.

The core is exposed by aligning the steel splits with the seams horizontal, and then carefully
removing the upper split to leave all the contained material in the lower split. At this stage the
actual position of the recovered material in the splits can be measured. The positions of all core
breaks and any separations should be recorded on the driller’s log.

Two procedures are currently in use at KPC for initial core measurement, depending on whether
or not the logger is present at the time that the core in the splits is extracted and placed on the
378952174.doc Page 6
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
racks. Unless there are two sets of splits, the core has to be transferred to pvc splits as quickly
as possible so that coring can continue.

3.2.1 Initial Core Measurement with Logger Present

All existing breaks are recorded on the drill run sheets before the core is transferred to pvc
splits. The logger notes on the drill run sheets which of the existing breaks are judged to be
natural defects as distinct from features caused by the coring and recovery processes.

A pvc split is then placed on top of the core. The field assistant and logger ensure that the splits
are firmly held in place against the core, then lift the run and turn it over so that the pvc split is
underneath, keeping the run as close to horizontal as possible at all times. The steel split is
then carefully removed. At this stage the logger can start detailed logging.

3.2.2 Initial Core Measurement Without Logger Present

The driller or a field assistant records all existing breaks on driller’s logs. A pvc split is then
placed on top of the core. The field assistant and logger ensure that the splits are firmly held in
place against the core, then lift the run and turn it over so that the pvc split is underneath,
keeping the run as close to horizontal as possible at all times. The steel split is then carefully
removed.

A field assistant then places small paper markers at all existing breaks. Another pvc split is
placed on top of the core. The seams between the pvc splits are sealed with packing tape.
Packing tape is also used to strap the two splits together. The run is then marked with the
driller’s run number, start and finish depths, and top and bottom of run are also clearly identified.
Once the run is secure and marked, it is carefully placed in a suitable location until the logger is
able to start logging.

When the logger is able to start, the runs are carefully opened by cutting the tape. The top and
bottom ends and the locations of all small paper markers are then verified. The original existing
breaks are then recorded on drill run sheets, and any additional breaks are measured and
recorded as drill breaks.

Note that it is not acceptable practice to transfer the core from steel splits either to pvc splits or
to core trays by sliding the core along the lower metal split, because this procedure is likely to
generate an unacceptable number of extra ‘drilling induced’ breaks which can be confusing for
the logger.

3.3 CORE LOGGING AND SAMPLING ACTIVITY

Core logging should be carried out as soon as possible following extraction of the core. Unless
there are unexpected workplace health or safety concerns, logging must be carried out before
each core run is transferred to core boxes.

For details of core logging procedures see Section 4.

The weakest and most deformable strata are usually of greatest interest for geotechnical
investigations. These materials are the most difficult to recover during drilling, and also the
most likely to deteriorate quickly after extraction from the core barrel and before logging. KPC
practice is to obtain a representative sample for laboratory testing from each lithological interval.
The logger should make sure that the field assistant clearly understands the sampling
requirement. If in doubt, extra samples should be taken so that the opportunity for testing is not
lost through a lack of sampling or loss of a sample because of handling or preparation
problems.

378952174.doc Page 7
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
Samples for laboratory testing should be identified at the time that core logging is undertaken.
The depths of test samples should be recorded on the drill run sheets. Each sample should
then be removed from the split and immediately wrapped as described below. Test samples are
identified by the drillhole number and a sequence number that increments with depth.

Test samples should be prepared as follows:

(1) Wrapped with several layers of plastic film;


(2) Then wrapped with a layer of aluminium foil;
(3) The wrapped sample should then be completely taped, labelled with the drillhole and
sample number depth range, and marked to show the top and bottom ends;
(4) Stored securely in a suitable location prior to transportation to the laboratory.

Where test samples are removed, they should be replaced in the core run by wooden or
styrofoam blocks or pvc spacers cut to size. Each block or spacer should be labelled with the
sample number and the length of the sample taken.

3.4 CORE BOXING AND LABELLING

The core box into which the core is transferred must be of sound, robust construction to
withstand the weight of the core it contains as well as the weight of any full boxes that may
subsequently be placed upon it. The core box must also be sufficiently watertight to protect the
core from rain or ponded water on site and in transit.

When the core is transferred from the pvc splits, it should be laid in the core box in the same
way as a book is read. That means, an observer should be able to view the core in the box as
follows:

(1) Shallowest core depth at the observer’s top left;


(2) Getting deeper toward the observer’s right in the top row;
(3) Continuing from the observer’s left to right in the next lower row;
(4) Finishing with the deepest core depth towards the observer’s lower right.

Zones of core loss should be identified in the core box by using PVC pipe that is cut to the
appropriate length and suitably identified. The core loss marker is inserted in the section where
the loss is known to have occurred, or else at the base of the particular core run.

Sometimes it is necessary to break core so that it can be fitted into the compartments of the
core box. Such breaks should be made carefully using a cold chisel to create as little core
damage as possible. The possibility of having to introduce extra breaks is yet another reason
why logging should be completed in splits before transfer to boxes.

Core boxes are always numbered in sequence with the shallowest core in box 1 and the
deepest core in the last box. All other boxes are numbered as if they were successive
‘chapters’ in a book.

Each core box shall be identified by the site name, drillhole number, core box number, and the
drillhole depths of top and bottom of the core. This information is provided in the most
permanent fashion by painting on the side or end of the box. The drillhole depths of the top
and bottom of the total core contained in each core box should be recorded on the box itself.

More than one run can normally be fitted into each core box. The tops and bottoms of each
run should be marked using durable labels such as the yellow plastic tags presently used at
KPC.
378952174.doc Page 8
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
As quickly as possible after labelling and tagging, core boxes should be covered and taped
with plastic sheeting to reduce the drying rate of the core.

Appendix C shows examples of boxed core from KPC investigations.

3.5 FIELD STORAGE

If core in pvc splits is temporarily stored at the drillsite until it can be logged, the storage site
should be as follows:

(1) Shaded from direct sunlight and protected from rain;


(2) Well away from sources of vibration such as the drilling rig, roads or parking areas for
vehicles that come and go at the drillsite;
(3) Unlikely to be disturbed or tripped over by drillsite personnel.

Test samples should be stored in the same manner as core in pvc splits awaiting logging. It is
particularly important to maintain constant temperature and moisture conditions in the test
samples. For this reason it is preferable to store test samples in shaded areas that are not air-
conditioned.

After logging is completed, covered core boxes should also be stored in shaded and non-air-
conditioned areas, in order to reduce deterioration before transportation and final photography.

3.6 T RANSPORTATION

All core recovered at KPC is transported from the drilling site to the core shed for additional
examination, logging, photography, and final storage or disposal.

At all stages of transportation, core boxes must be securely fastened and handled gently to
minimise damage by shaking, jolting, or dropping. Handlers must also take care to avoid injury
to hand and fingers, and take proper precautions to avoid back or leg injuries from unsafe lifting
procedures. When transported, core boxes should be cushioned by materials such as sacking
or plywood sheeting, prevented from sliding around by secure strapping or bracing, and the
vehicle driven carefully to minimise shaking and jolting.

Test samples should be securely packed in containers, surrounded by soft padding material,
and transported carefully to the laboratory to minimise the risk of disturbance from shaking and
jolting.

378952174.doc Page 9
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
3.7 SAMPLE PRESERVATION

Colour photographs of all core are an essential part of permanent records from drilling. Ideally
photographs should be taken in the splits during detailed logging. However conditions in the
field are not generally suitable for good core photographs, core in the field may be covered with
mud, and the priority is always to determine material properties and record natural defects.

The following core photography procedures are currently used at KPC:

(1) The sealed plastic core box cover is not removed until just before photographs are taken.
(2) Cut lengths of white pvc pipe spacers are placed in the core box to mark where test samples
were removed. Each spacer is marked with the sample number, drillhole number, depth
interval, and material type.
(3) Cut lengths of green PVC pipe spacers are placed in the core box to mark locations of core
losses. Each spacer is marked with the core loss, reason, and starting and finishing
depths.
(4) A frame is useful to support the camera vertically above the core box or to support the core
box in a tilted (say 600) position so that its surface is normal to the direction of view of the
camera.
(5) The best results are achieved if photography is carried out under a roof and with floodlights
that remove shadows.
(6) One core box is photographed at a time.
(7) A label with the name of the site and borehole number, core box number, is attached to the
core box.
(8) All lettering on the label must be well spaced and have a minimum size of 20 mm.
(9) A colour chart should be attached to the core box.

Examples of core photographs are included in Appendix C.

378952174.doc Page 10
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
4.0 INFORMATION TO BE RECORDED ON THE COREHOLE LOG

NOTE:

In the following section, reference is made to terminology and codes that have been used for
many years by the geotechnical group with the DATCOL log presentation package. In some
cases these codes are compatible with the GEODAS codes as implemented in the MINEX
geological database package.

This version of the instructions was written at a time when use of DATCOL had not been
phased-out. DATCOL has also been used for data entry and presentation for openhole drilling,
SPT tests, CPT probing, and test pits. For these purposes, DATCOL use will have to continue
for some time until a replacement is fully implemented.

For the purposes of logging cored drillholes, these instructions are based on descriptions that
reflect current best geotechnical practice, and which are compatible with GEODAS codes
recognised by MINEX. Where necessary for reference purposes and backwards-compatibility,
other DATCOL-specific descriptions and codes are also mentioned.

The GEODAS coding system is based on concise alphanumeric codes representing a wide
range of attributes. It relies upon assigning common attributes to drill run intervals. These
intervals may be of zero length. For modelling purposes each coded attribute is assumed to be
constant over the nominated interval. Comments may be added at any depth interval if
required.

For geotechnical purposes, coding of logs can become very complex if attributes vary greatly
over small depth intervals. Complexity may be physically realistic, but may not be necessary for
purposes of interpreting engineering behaviour of a rock mass. This version of the instructions
is based on the premise that attributes related to material are assigned to intervals, attributes
related to defects may be assigned to depth intervals or as comments, and attributes relating to
core runs or groundwater measurements are assigned as comments. It may be necessary to
revise this premise in future versions of the instructions, particularly when a replacement for
DATCOL is full implemented.

A full dictionary listing of the GEODAS codes is available separately.

4.1 GENERAL HEADER INFORMATION

Essential information that must be recorded is:

(1) Drillhole Number


(2) Location
(3) Drilling Technique details
(4) Date & time started, and date & time finished
(5) Total depth drilled;
(6) Name of core logger;
(7) Additional information.

Following are detailed comments that apply to header information.

378952174.doc Page 11
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
4.1.1 Drillhole Number

This is used only once on any minesite or project. It is kept as simple as possible. In current
KPC practice, routine geotechnical drillholes are automatically designated as part of the
geological exploration program. No matter whether a routine hole or a special-purpose
geotechnical drillhole, a unique drillhole number has to be obtained from the geotechnical
database. It is the responsibility of the supervisor of the coring work to make sure that the next
available, unique drillhole number is reserved and recorded in the database.

In DATCOL, all geotechnical drillhole numbers were prefixed by the letters ‘GT’. Starting in
August 2001, for compatibility with GEODAS coding for MINEX, the prefix for geotechnical
drillholes is now the single letter ‘G’.

In DATCOL, all geotechnical drillhole numbers were suffixed with 1- or 2-digit codes. For
compatibility with GEODAS coding for MINEX, the suffix should now be a single-digit code as
follows (any previous 2-digit DATCOL code is indicated in parentheses):

F Fully cored investigation drillhole;


C Partly Cored investigation drillhole;
R Rotary open hole with no cored investigation intervals; this code could also
include drillholes with soil investigations such as CPT or SPT;
S Drillhole of any type drilled specifically to construct a Standpipe type piezometer
(previous DATCOL code SP)
Z Drillhole of any type drilled specifically to construct an instrumented type of
PieZometer, eg vibrating wire or pneumatic (previous DATCOL code PZ);
I Drillhole of any type drilled specifically to construct an Inclinometer casing
(previous DATCOL code IN);
N Drillhole of any type that is Not geophysically logged. (not used in DATCOL).

4.1.2 Location

Provided that the drillhole number is correctly obtained and always used, the additional
information on location may be obtained later from driller’s notes and reports. The following
information is required:

(a) Location Name. This is represented in the MINEX database using the STATE code;
(b) Mine Grid reference (Easting & Northing) of the drillhole, preferably as provided by
accurate survey, but if survey is not available, then estimated as accurately as possible
with reference to any local features;
(c) Collar Elevation of the drillhole with reference to Mine Datum, preferably as provided by
accurate survey. This is represented in the MINEX database as GELEV. It must be clear
that the survey is of the ground surface level adjacent to the hole (collar elevation). This
can also be obtained from an elevation survey of the top of any casing pipe left in the
hole. In this case the casing pipe stick-up must also be measured so that collar elevation
can be calculated and reported;
(d) Total Depth of drillhole. This is represented in the MINEX database as DEPTH.
(e) Hole orientation. The GEODAS coding system for MINEX assumes vertical drillholes, so
information on non-vertical drillholes is included as a Comment only. Almost all drillholes
are vertical, the only exception being rare special-purpose investigations of defects for a
pit wall or a dam foundation. If the borehole is non-vertical the orientation of the borehole
is recorded as a plunge angle from the horizontal (negative upwards, positive downwards)

378952174.doc Page 12
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
and direction from Grid azimuth (00 to 3600 clockwise from Grid North).

4.1.3 Drilling Technique

The logging geologist and geotechnicians should observe drilling operations, or discuss them
with the drilling crew, so that the following features of drilling technique are understood:

(1) Method of drilling penetration (eg hammer, rotary, coring, auger), and the flushing system
(eg air only, air with water added to lift cuttings or for dust suppression, air with water and
additives [what are they?], drilling mud [what type, and what additives?] etc);
(2) The make of drill and its KPC number; if a drill other than from KPC is being used, then
record the make of machine with the model number and feed type if it is other than
hydraulic;
(3) The type of core barrel (double tube, triple tube), drilling method (wireline or conventional),
and the type and diameter of the drilling bit (blade, tricone roller, button, tungsten faced,
diamond [impregnated or face set?] etc).

4.1.4 Date and Time Information

The drilling crew will maintain a detailed record of drilling times and drilling conditions. The
geologist should obtain a copy of all relevant dates and times, particularly if there are
interruptions due to breakdown, weather etc.

Even if this information makes its way to the geological database by other means, the geologist
must keep such records with the other header information as a matter of good practice.

4.1.5 Total Depth Drilled

The drill crew’s job is to make sure that drilling depths are accurately measured and recorded.
However, the logging geologist and field assistants should satisfy themselves that the depths
are correct, and independently check that the drilling crew is recording depths information
diligently. The total drilled depth has to match the depth intervals as recorded in all logs.

4.1.6 Name of Core Logger

The MINEX GEODAS database records the logger using a 3-digit code.

4.1.7 Additional Information

Additional information on the purpose or interest in the drillhole may then be recorded (eg
particular dam, highwall, or dump). Other additional information might include the project for
which the drillhole was drilled (eg routine data gathering, bedding-plane shear investigation,
dam foundation), which geophysical logging unit was used; what geophysical probes were run
and to what depths; and the reason for final termination of the hole. This can be recorded as
comments or data entry fields in the GEODAS coding sheets for MINEX.

4.2 RECORDS OF DRILLING PROGRESS

The value of information from a drillhole is lost if information is not recorded, or if the wrong
drilling work is undertaken either by mistake or because instructions were not clear. The
geologist responsible for the core logging should make sure that the correct information is
obtained, and must not assume that other people will do this. Following is a checklist of
progress information that should be noted:

(1) Daily record information


378952174.doc Page 13
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
(2) Instructions and investigation requirements;
(3) One-time, non-recoverable information;
(4) Water and Groundwater

4.2.1 Daily Record Information

The driller’s daily record sheet should record the following technical information:

(1) Depth of hole at start and end of each working day, or shift as relevant;
(2) Depth of start and finish of each core run;
(3) Depth and size of casing at start and end of each core run;
(4) Core diameter and changes in core size;
(5) Condition of the bit;
(6) Time to drill each core run;
(7) Gain or loss of water, mud or air flush; type of cuttings produced;
(8) Standing water level at start and finish of each working period;
(9) Total core recovery with information as to possible reasons and locations of core losses;
(10) Details of delays and breakdowns;
(11) Backfilling or grouting.

4.2.2 Training

Accurate core logging requires care and vigilance by the driller in the recording of data,
particularly information that the driller has to collect and only has one chance to measure and
record correctly. Competency in drilling techniques and information recording is a vital part of
training for drilling crews.

The driller must always be given precise written instructions regarding the particular problems
and requirements of the drilling work. This means that the core logging geologist must have
training and competency in all of the tasks to be undertaken at the drillsite, and must also have
competency in communicating requirements from the drilling

4.2.3 Non-Recoverable Information

All the items on the driller’s daily record sheet may be relevant to an accurate final drillhole log.

Some items are essential because they cannot be determined from measurement or later
inspection of the cores. Therefore,

(1) Depth and size of casing at beginning and end of each core run;
(2) Condition of the bit;
(3) Time to drill each core run
(4) Gain or loss of water, mud, or air flush
(5) Type of cuttings produced;
(6) Standing water level at the start and finish of each working period;
(7) Details of delays or breakdowns;
(8) Backfilling or grouting;

378952174.doc Page 14
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
are matters that must be checked and recorded. The geologist and field assistant have an
equal responsibility with the drilling crew to making sure that this happens and is accurate.

4.2.4 Water and Groundwater

All drilling techniques rely upon a flushing process to remove cuttings provide lubrication and
cooling to the drilling bit. When any form of drillhole intersects water-bearing ground,
interactions occur between the drill flushing medium and the groundwater. The pressure of the
flushing medium has to be greater than the static fluid pressure in the drillhole, but may be
greater than or less than the pressure of the groundwater in the ground.

An open drillhole may intersect a number of water-bearing horizons. The pre-existing


groundwater regime may be complex where there are multiple coal seams and dissected
topography. This regime is disturbed by the introduction of a drillhole with a simple pressure
regime. Over a period of time, slow or fast compared with drilling fluid circulation, there can be
groundwater inflows or outflows. Inflows result in circulation loss, interruption to cutting
circulation, and possible bit clogging or damage. Outflows result in unpredictable changes in
circulation rate. Severe outflow can cause drillstem blowouts, which are rare but dangerous.

A competent driller will notice all significant water interaction effects. Loss of circulation
pressure or fluid return is a useful measure of permeable conditions. Water ‘make’ during air- or
mist-flush drilling is also a useful measure of permeable conditions and significant groundwater
pressure.

The facility in DATCOL for groundwater recording used the Water Data database with the
‘Water outflow’ or ‘Water inflow’ or ‘Water struck at - and rose to - ’ fields. Without DATCOL, the
GEODAS coding is restricted to groundwater descriptors, and the Comment field has to be used
to record additional details. Logging details for groundwater are discussed in Section 4.7.

4.3 LOGGING OF CORE RECOVERY

4.3.1 Core Recovery Measurements

The fundamental unit of core drilling is a core run. This is the distance drilled from one removal
of core from the barrel to the next. Normally a run will proceed for the full length of the core
barrel. The full length will not be run if a coring problem is encountered (for example, if the
driller feels that a core break or core jamming has occurred) or if a coring termination depth has
been reached (for example, target depth of drillhole, or target depth for coring in a partly cored
drillhole).

During the drilling process, the bit cuttings are removed in the flush system. The materials that
have been sampled generally pass up into the core barrel, and may be divided into five parts:

(1) Solid core pieces of 100mm or greater length, called sticks;


(2) Solid core pieces (ie cylindrical sides) of less than 100mm length;
(3) Fragmented core pieces (ie not full cylindrical sides) and other fragmental material;
(4) Additional materials that may have been lost from previous core runs. This may include
the core stub left when the barrel was pulled at the end of the previous run. It may also
include material dropped from the core barrel during its withdrawal from the hole, and/or
cuttings that settled when circulation of drilling fluid was stopped;
(5) Core material may also have been lost by erosion of soft, friable, or intensely fractured
zones, resulting in a reduction in diameter or length of the core, or both. The eroded
material may be entirely removed by the flushing system as chips.

378952174.doc Page 15
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
The drilling crew prepares Daily Coring Record sheets that should contain full measurement of
each run. However, the core logger or assistants should prepare a separate coring record
sheet. An example coring record sheet is provided in Appendix A.

The core logger should examine the core to check that the technicians have accurately marked
the run on the core box and on the yellow marker blocks. A minor difficulty may occasionally be
that the length of core is 10mm or so shorter than the length drilled, due to a ‘stub’ of core not
separating from the rock mass at the bottom of the drillhole. This ‘stub’ material may be
recovered in the next run, but must be treated as a loss for the current run.

Good core measurement practice is to draw, with marker pen, chalk, or by scoring with a sharp
steel point, a reference line along the core when it is first examined in the splits. All core sticks
and pieces are measured along this reference line.

All the material in the splits that is logged and placed in the core box consists of items (1), (2),
(3) and (4) above and is defined as the total core recovery or TCR. The material that is
recovered as solid core pieces at full diameter, items (1) and (2) above, is defined as the solid
core recovery or SCR.

TCR is measured and recorded on the Coring Record sheet as a length. The positions of all
existing fractures along the recovered length are measured and recorded on the Coring Record
sheet. The reasons for any core losses should be checked with the drill, who may have noted
the depth range for which the barrel dropped or a broken zone was intersected. It may also be
possible to determine the depth range of losses by reference to geophysical log traces. If the
depth or a likely core loss can be identified, it should be recorded. Otherwise, core loss should
be logged at the base of the run. Any significant reduction in core diameter should also be
noted.

Rock Quality Designation (RQD)

RQD was introduced by Deere (1967) as a way of correlating natural fracturing intensity with
engineering performance of a rock mass. RQD at KPC is measured per core run. RQD is
defined as the total of the lengths of individual core sticks (100mm or greater length) divided by
the core run length and expressed as a percentage, as shown in Figure 4.3.1.

Note that RQD can also be measured over intervals of uniform fracturing, but that is not KPC
practice.

378952174.doc Page 16
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
Figure 4.3.1 Definition of RQD (Rock Quality Designation)

The following core run information is recorded on the GEODAS coding sheet as a Comment
inserted at the base of the coded interval corresponding to the base of the core run:

(1) Run Number


(2) Start Depth and Finish Depth of run
(3) TCR expressed as a number and/or a percent
(4) RQD expressed as a percent
(5) Sum of all core lengths (sticks) of 100mm or greater
(6) Depths of all Existing Fractures
(7) Any Depths where there is a Significant Reduction in Core Diameter.

TCR and SCR are only be the same if there is no fragmental material recovered, and this
means that the rock is solid or core loss is due only to fragmental material being removed by
flushing. If no material falls into class (5), then the total core recovery is 100% because there is
no loss of sample.

4.4 LOGGING OF LITHOLOGY

378952174.doc Page 17
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
The recovered core material is considered as intervals of drillhole depth (Top and Base of
interval are the GEODAS fields).

The determination of intervals may be done with or without the assistance of geophysical log
traces. Log Basis is a 1-digit GEODAS code where the basis for interval determination can be
recorded.

The type of drill bit (and by association, the type of core barrel) can have a significant effect on
the quality and form of the material recovered. Bit Type is a 1-digit GEODAS code where the
bit type can be recorded. Note that a Comment is necessary to record the size and operation of
the core barrel, eg HMLC Triple Tube or HQ3 Wireline.

4.4.1 Lithotype Information

Each interval of rock material is described in terms of component lithotypes using the fields
%Lithotype and Lithotype. For example, an interval may be composed of 15% Cobble
Conglomerate and 85% Conglomerate, or 40% Bright Lustrous Coal and 60% Dull Lustrous
Coal. Some of the basic lithotype codes to be aware of are:

CG Conglomerate C1 Coal, bright lustrous


SS Sandstone C2 Coal, mid lustrous
SL Siltstone C3 Coal, dull lustrous
CY Claystone CB Coal, bright
MS Mudstone CD Coal, dull
XM Carbonaceous Mudstone CW Coal, weathered
and
CL Clay FL Fill
SA Sand SI Silt
GV Gravel BM Burnt Mudstone
as well as
KL Core Loss CS Core Loss
LC Lost Core, probable Coal NL Not logged

A full list of GEODAS lithotype codes is available separately.

There is also space for up to three additional Lithotype Qualifiers codes to be included in each
line of coding. These range from material qualifiers such as lithic carbonaceous sandstone, to
position codes such as at middle of interval or near base of unit. The qualifier codes are placed
immediately after codes on lithotype colour.

4.4.2 Colour Information

Colour is one of the most obvious characteristics of a rock stratum and one of the most basic
and useful in the description of a rock. It often provides an excellent guide for rock strata
correlation and may be used to identify various “marker” horizons. Colour variation is a primary
indication of weathering.

However, colour is one of the most variable of rock characteristics and a single rock type may
exhibit a range of colours. When carefully used, colour may be an indication of the probable
nature and composition of the rock. In KPC mudrocks, colour may also assist with the
identification of potentially acid forming material.

Colour varies with moisture state, so it is important that all colours be described at a standard
moisture condition. Core should be surface wet when described. Where descriptions are made
of core at other moisture contents, this should be noted as a comment as dry, slightly moist,

378952174.doc Page 18
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
moist, wet, or very wet.

To be sure that surfaces are representative of the rock material, only relatively recent surfaces
should be used for the description. Surfaces altered by weathering, contaminants or surface
abrasion should be avoided. It may be necessary to wash the core to be sure of colour
description.

Colour descriptions should be kept as simple as possible and the terms used should correspond
with those on accepted colour charts. The Munsell Colour Chart is used at KPC, and copies of
Rock Colour Charts are available for use by all KPC geologists.

Colour is described by using three GEODAS fields: Shade, Hue, and Colour in that order. The
primary term is Colour, for which the following may be used:

B brown C cream
E green F buff
G grey H off-white
K black L blue
O orange P pink
R red U purple
W white Y yellow

Shade is a modifying term for which the following may be used:

B medium to dark C light to dark


D dark L light
M mottled (irregular patches of colour) P pale
S speckled (very small, less than 10mm diameter, patches of colour)
V variegated (larger than 10mm diameter patches of colour)

Hue is also a modifying term, which uses the same values as Colour but in a modifying way.
For example, DRB means dark reddish brown, whereas DBR means dark brownish red.

The colour of inclusions such as lenses, veins, vesicles, amygdales or discrete and large
crystals should also be described if they are considered to be significant features eg. dark grey
brown, mottled white with pink veins, and a comment line is required for this purpose.

In DATCOL, colour is described by the use of two shade and two colour fields, and the
meanings of these fields are different in several respects from the GEODAS fields. In DATCOL,
it is quite possible to have descriptions such as light red mottled green, or striped light red white
by using the two shade and two colour fields within the Geotech Sedimentary Lithology Log.
Should even more colour descriptions be desired, they are available from within the seven
Qualifier fields.

4.4.3 Grainsize Information

The most obvious lithological feature is Grainsize. The majority of sedimentary rock names
imply a grain size distribution and therefore a formal grain size classification is not always
necessary. Sandstones are lithologies where a grain size qualification is considered to be
valuable. For reference purposes the full grain size classification used for soil engineering is
set out below, including the usages applicable to sand sizes and common sedimentary rocks.

Description Size (mm) Recognition Equivalent Soil Type


(Claystone) <0.002 Plasticity properties, reaction Clay-sized
to water, non-stratified texture

378952174.doc Page 19
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
(Siltstone) 0.002 – 0.06 Non-plastic properties, Silt-sized
stratified texture
(Mudstone) <0.06 Undifferentiated or mix of Mud
clays and silts, non-visible (term not used)
grains
Fine grained 0.06 - 0.2 Just visible as individual grains Fine sand
under a hand lens
Medium grained 0.2 - 0.6 Grains clearly visible under Medium sand
hand lens, just visible to the
naked eye
Coarse grained 0.6 - 2.0 Grains clearly visible to the Coarse sand
naked eye
(Conglomerate) 2.0 – 60 Obvious particle size Gravel-sized
(Cobble 60 - 200 Obvious particle size Cobble-sized
conglomerate)

Within the range of grainsize terms are options for ranges of grain sizes, including terms like
pebble (fine to medium gravel) and terms applicable to volcanics (lapilli, ash, block and bomb).
Within the Lithotype Qualifier field, there are also a wide range of terms that relate to size
distribution, particle mineralogy, and distribution of grains.

4.5 LOGGING OF MECHANICAL STATE AND MATERIAL STRENGTH

Meaningful description of the mechanical state and material strength is a critical part of core
logging particularly for geotechnical purposes. GEODAS coding includes two fields for this
purpose:

Mech.State This provides a description of the likely geomechanical behaviour of the


material either by association with the descriptive term (eg expanding
clay, friable, sheared, brittle) or through description of the behaviour (eg
slaking ranging over 8 gradations G0 to G7, or core breakage in terms of
size ranges of broken pieces).

Strength This is a classification of the rock material strength in terms of


internationally recognised classes of Uniaxial Compressive Strength
(UCS) as measured by either field or laboratory techniques.

4.5.1 Mechanical State

The GEODAS dictionary terms for Mech.State (MECHST) are available separately. There is
space on the coding sheet for only one term. In cases where there is value in including
additional terms for engineering interpretation, it is necessary to include the additional
information in Comment lines. A trade-off may be necessary in how this information is coded.

For rocks where slaking behaviour is likely to be significant for mining (eg trafficability of pit
floors, haul roads, dumps; or surface erosion of cut faces), it is recommended that slaking
behaviour be given priority coding for the logged interval. The Godfrey Slaking Grade can be
evaluated during logging by adding small lumps (5mm to 20mm) to a container of clear water
and observing the reaction over a period of 5 minutes.

Following is the meaning of the slaking grade terms implemented in GEODAS:

378952174.doc Page 20
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
Code Description Interpretation
G0 No slaking No visible action. Water remains clear
G1 Edge fall off only Water remains clear. No further action after
initial spall-off around knock points and edges
G2 Slow surface slaking Water remains clear. Slight to mild surface
and edge slake-off within 3min. Surface
appears slightly softened and swollen
sometimes. No further action
G3 Medium Slaking, No Colloid Spall-off and slake to a fissile flake pile,
tabular and sheet-like. Little or no visible
swelling. No colloidal cloud. Core of original
specimen often preserved as a series of
upstanding flakes.
G4 Rapid Slaking, No Colloid Immediate slake-down to a shapeless pile of
smallish flakes with some swelling and
moderate flocculation to some areas. No
colloidal cloud.
G5 Rapid Slaking, Some Colloid Fast slake-down to a shapeless pile of small
crusts and flakes. Often gel-like, colloidal,
puffy flocculations. Thin, weak colloidal cloud.
Moderate effervescence.
G6 Rapid Slaking, Swelling, Rapid and violent slake-down and swelling
Thick Colloid with much effervescence. Marked swelling and
gel-like flocculations with quite a thick colloidal
cloud.
G7 Extremely Rapid Slaking, Extremely rapid and often violent break-up to
Gelled, Thick Colloid a swollen amorphous pile of jelly-like
consistency with rapid colloidal cloud spread.

Where effects of mechanical breakdown is likely to be significant (eg running surfaces for
ramps, haulroads; toe buttress and floor contact zones of dumps), and after slaking behaviour
has been checked and found to be insignificant, it is recommended that core breakage terms be
given priority coding for the logged interval.

Following is the meaning of the core breakage terms implemented in GEODAS:

Code Description Interpretation


S1 Solid core One stick
S2 Solid core sticks Most sticks >200mm long
S3 Broken core Most pieces 60mm – 200mm long
S4 Very broken core Most pieces 20mm – 60mm long
S5 Fragmented core Most pieces <20mm long
S6 Disced core Core broken into short flat discs

4.5.2 Material Strength

Rock material strength ranges from extremely low, where it becomes equivalent to soil material
strength, to extremely high, where it becomes very difficult to break. Rock material strength can
be measured in many different ways. The simplest and most meaningful index of material
strength is Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS). UCS is measured in the laboratory on a
prepared cylinder of rock trimmed from rock core, with the ends parallel and perpendicular to
the core axis, and a length at least 2.5 times the mean diameter.

378952174.doc Page 21
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
Another alternative testing technique measures Point Load Strength using calibrated conical
jaws to crack irregular or cylindrical rock specimens. This is best performed in the field during
core logging. The Point Load Strength Index (Is50) is correlated to UCS, but the correlation
varies greatly with rock lithology and texture, and is not reliable for typically lower strength rocks
that form most of the materials at KPC.

Not all cored rock material can be tested under such conditions. An alternative, field-based
hardness testing procedure can be used to grade rock material into strength classes.
Rock hardness is the resistance to indentation, scratching or striking. At KPC, most rock
materials are in the range of very low to medium strength. Hardness is easily and consistently
assessed from visual inspection and simple mechanical tests such as scratching with a knife
and striking with a geological hammer. It has been shown by Jennings et al (1969) that there is
a correlation between hardness derived from these tests and the minimum uniaxial rock material
strength.

Hardness that is measured in the field during core logging is coded using the Strength field.
This was implemented several years ago in DATCOL using correlations between hardness
grade and Is50, and then a calibration between Is50 and laboratory UCS. The laboratory
calibration between Is50 and UCS is now regarded as incorrect and should not be used.

Following is the recommended relationship between the hardness grading, as coded in


GEODAS, the estimated range of equivalent laboratory UCS, and the field procedure for
obtaining hardness grade.

Code Strength UCS Hardness Criteria


Range (MPa)
R0 Extremely low 0.2 - 0.6 Difficult to indent by thumbnail, easily remoulded
strength, EL by hand to a material with soil properties
R1 Very low 0.6 - 2.0 Scratched by thumbnail, crumbles under sharp
strength, VL Gpick, peels with knife, <3cm piece can be broken
with fingers
R2 Low strength, 2.0 - 6.0 Easily scored with knife, Gpick indents 1 – 3mm,
L dull sound, 50mm core x 150mm long breaks by
hand
R3 Medium 6.0 - 20 Scored with knife, 50mm core x 150mm long
strength, M difficult to break
R4 High strength, 20 - 60 Cannot be scraped or peeled with a knife. Ringing
H sound, and 50mm core x 150mm long breaks with
single firm blow of Gpick
R5 Very high 60 - 200 Bright ringing sound, hand specimen breaks with
strength, VH >1 blow of Gpick, 50 mm core x 150mm breaks
against solid object with single blow
R6 Extremely high >200 Sharp ringing sound, hand specimen requires
strength, EH many Gpick blows to break through intact material,
difficult to break against solid object

Most of the rocks in the KPC minesite fall within the strength ranges up to and including medium
strength. Some ironstone, and occasional sandstones and siltstones have been tested in the
high strength category.

When laboratory tests are made on core samples, it is important to check the logged hardness
code against the laboratory test result. When making such checks it is also necessary to check
that the UCS test did not fail prematurely due to a defect feature or testing error. If there is a
coding discrepancy after making appropriate checks, the code should be corrected.

378952174.doc Page 22
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
When material is cored that is interpreted to be soil rather than rock based on the above
hardness test, then soil strength codes should be used instead. The codes depend on whether
the soil material is cohesive (clayey or silty) or cohesionless (sandy). When a soil material is a
mix of cohesionless and cohesive components (eg sandy clay) its engineering behaviour will be
governed by cohesive (clayey) response when the cohesive component exceeds about 25%.
Following are the GEODAS codes used for strength of cohesive and cohesionless soils:

Code Description Strength Interpretation


Measure
C1 Very soft clay, Su <25kPa Extrudes between finders when squeezed in
VS hand (use Pocket Penetrometer, PP)
C2 Soft clay, Su Can be moulded by light finger pressure (use PP)
S 25-50kPa
C3 Firm clay, Su Can be moulded by strong finger pressure
50-100kPa (use PP)
C4 Stiff clay, Su Cannot be moulded by fingers, can be indented
St 100-200kPa with thumb (use PP)
C5 Very stiff clay, Su Can be indented only by thumb-nail (PP use
VSt 200-400kPa becomes marginal)
C6 Hard soil, Su >400kPa Can only be indented with difficulty by thumb-nail,
HS peels readily with knife (use UCS)
S1 Very loose ID Awkward to walk, feet slip. SPT 0 – 4, Scala
sand, VL 0 – 15% penetrometer <= 3bl/100mm
S2 Loose sand, ID Uncomfortable to walk quickly as feet slip,
L 15 – 35% SPT 4 – 10, Scala penetrometer 3 – 5bl/100mm
S3 Medium ID Comfortable walking, footprint <15mm deep,
Dense Sand, 35 – 65% SPT 10 – 30, Scala penetrometer 5 – 8bl/100mm
MD
S4 Dense sand, ID Firm walking, footprint <5mm deep,
D 65 – 85% SPT 30 – 50, Scala penetrometer >8bl/100mm
S5 Very dense ID Hard surface, footprint indentation minimal
sand, VD 85 – 100% SPT >50, Scala penetrometer not recommended

4.6 LOGGING OF MATERIAL T EXTURE FEATURES

Rock material texture is of primary interest for geological correlation and analysis purposes, but
may also be helpful in making engineering interpretations of material behaviour. This
particularly applies to factors that may affect groundwater movement or the way in which the
rock responds to stress changes.

Rock texture description fields in GEODAS relate to grains or framework, matrix, porosity,
cementation. A field for groundwater observations is also included.

Roundness GEODAS codes range from A (angular) to W (well rounded). Details are
available separately.
Sorting Codes range from B (bimodally sorted) to P and W (poorly and well sorted
respectively). Note that the equivalent engineering descriptive terms for P and
W are well-graded and poorly-graded respectively. Details of GEODAS codes
are provided separately.
Matrix Codes range from AG (argillaceous) to SL (siliceous) and cover the range of
matrix mineralogy likely to be encountered at KPC. The matrix material may
be important in determining how the material responds to exposure in a pit wall

378952174.doc Page 23
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
over a period of time.
Porosity Porosity is the ratio of void volume to total volume. Codes available in
GEODAS are High, Medium, and Low. Porosity assessment is thus a relative
term, best assessed by observing the rate of absorption of water droplets on
saturated surface-dry core.
Cementation This descriptor has been added within the GEODAS field Permab to describe
whether the rock material is Poorly cemented or Well cemented.

4.7 LOGGING OF GROUNDWATER CONDITIONS

Standing water levels should be carefully related to the ground conditions and location of the
casing. It is important to record whether the levels are rising, falling or static (ie stabilised).

In all drillholes, groundwater conditions should be recorded on completion of drilling. In


DATCOL, this was recorded in the Water Data database as a ‘Point measurement of water
level’ with the date and time of recording noted. Similarly, any records of water levels from
before and after shifts during the drilling operations are also recorded in this database.
Information of this nature should be recorded as a Comment in GEODAS coding.

In situations where there is no water level recorded, it is equally important to note whether no
groundwater was encountered (ie. a dry hole during drilling) or if in fact no observations were
made to see if there was any water during the investigations (ie. no-one looked to see the water
level and there are no drilling records of water). These details should also be recorded as
Comment in GEODAS coding.

During the drilling operation, the driller will note circulation loss or water make. If it is possible to
relate this to a particular interval, such groundwater conditions should be recorded using the
Groundwater field in GEODAS. If there is a water make, it can be measured using a simple V-
notch weir. The following GEODAS codes are available for coding groundwater conditions:

NM no observations made NW no water encountered


TW traces of water encountered RW water level rising
FW water level falling
L1 circulation loss minor (<30%) M1 water make minor (<0.2 l/s)
L2 circulation loss major (30%-80%) M2 water make significant (0.2-2 l/s)
L3 circulation loss complete (>80%) M3 water make major (>2 l/s)

4.8 LOGGING OF WEATHERING

Weathering of rocks is a process of alteration by means of mechanical, chemical and biological


action, which changes the engineering behaviour of both the rock and the rock mass. The more
important effects of weathering on rock are decreases in strength, density, and stiffness.
Weathering normally progresses downward from the ground surface but its development and
extent depend on many factors including rock material, rock fabric, climate, moisture
environment. Zones of weathering may be irregular over small distances. Weathering condition
is an important parameter at KPC because of its close relationship to mineable coal, and must
be described in a manner which is meaningful for both geological and geotechnical purposes.

The Weathering field is a qualitative description of the degree of alteration, from fresh rock
material to residual soil that has completely lost all indications of rock texture or fabric.
Weathering includes the following GEODAS codes:

378952174.doc Page 24
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
Code Description Interpretation
W Weathered Degree of weathering not assessed
WE Weathered, Degree of weathering not assessed
undifferentiated
RS Residual Soil Soil developed on extremely weathered rock, with
texture and fabric no longer evident. Large reduction
in density. Only used when a reasonable geological
inference that the soil is derived in-situ from the
weathering of rock, and has not been transported or
reworked in any manner.
XW Extremely Weathered Original rock texture and structure evident but
decomposed to a friable or plastic condition. Can be
remoulded and classified as a soil
DW Distinctly Weathered Original rock material strength changed by
weathering. Highly discoloured, usually iron staining.
Porosity may be increased or decreased
SW Slightly Weathered Original rock slightly discoloured but little or no
strength change from fresh rock. Usually penetrative
weathering along defect surfaces
FR Fresh Rock Rock shows no sign of decomposition and staining.
No change from original condition

In some situations, it may be helpful to use extra classifications that sub-divide the Distinctly
Weathered class DW into:

HW Highly Weathered Distinct weathering extends throughout the rock mass


and the rock material is partly friable or may locally be
plastic. HW material is usually rippable with a D10-
class
MW Moderately Distinct weathering extends throughout the rock mass
Weathered but the rock material is not plastic or friable. MW
material cannot easily be ripped with a D10-class
single-tyned dozer.

Note that the boundary between soil and rock is defined in terms of strength or hardness, not in
terms of weathering.

When there is reasonable geological inference that soil has been transported, the soil
component of the weathering profile should not be coded as RS in the weathering code.
Instead, the Lithotype codes AL (alluvial soil) or CV (colluvial soil) should be used, depending
on geological interpretation. In the case of AL of CV lithotypes, the weathering code should be
left blank. Note that this is an important difference from the previous usage of DATCOL codes
AL and CO.

4.9 LOGGING OF STRUCTURE AND DEFECTS

The structure of the coal measure sedimentary rock is made up of bedding surfaces and
features, sedimentary structures, and a range of tectonic features such as joints, shear
surfaces, and faults. All surfaces that interrupt the continuity of rock material are called defects,
because their presence creates a rock mass with engineering behaviour that may be different
from that of the rock material.

For logging purposes, and in order to utilise the GEODAS coding system, description of

378952174.doc Page 25
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
structure and discontinuities is made in groups comprising bedding, sedimentary structure, and
tectonic structure. All of these may be considered as defects for engineering interpretation
purposes.

It is important that all existing breaks that are observed when the core is first extracted are
logged. It is usually not possible to handle the core during logging without introducing further
breaks. When it comes to assessment of RQD, then all existing fractures, but none of the
subsequent fractures, should be considered. Drilling-induced fractures should be logged as
such, with no additional description, because this information may be helpful for engineering
interpretation. Natural defects must be logged in detail, as these are representative of the
undisturbed state of the rock mass.

Note that there are several differences between the recording of defects using DATCOL, and
these instructions for core logging directly into GEODAS coding. DATCOL procedures for core
logging are not covered by these instructions. The previous version of these instructions,
Report A-202, describes DATCOL procedures.

4.9.1 Bedding Structure

Most rocks have a definite structure that is characteristic of their origin. For example, bedding
surfaces in sedimentary rocks, foliation in metamorphic rocks and flow banding in igneous
rocks. Features with preferred orientation may give the rock material anisotropic physical
properties. It is therefore necessary to include their description in the core log.

The scale of many of these features varies from very small (and can therefore be evaluated as
affecting rock material properties in the laboratory) to very large (affecting rock mass behaviour
which cannot be measured by laboratory testing). The smaller scale features are therefore
considered to be part of the fabric of the rock material while the larger scale features form part
of the defect pattern of the rock mass. The boundary between material fabric and defect
spacing is defined here as a feature spacing of 10mm.

When logging at KPC using the GEODAS codes, there are three aspects of bedding structure
that are described for a depth interval:

(1) Bedding surface spacing


(2) Bedding surface separation form
(3) Bedding surface dip

Bedding Surface Spacing

For the sedimentary rocks at KPC, where bedding is the dominant structural feature, bedding
spacing can be logged from drillhole cores. The classification of bedding spacing (ISRM, 1978)
used at KPC is described below using the GEODAS code Bedding Spacing:

Code Description Bedding Surface Spacing


1 very thickly bedded >2m
2 thickly bedded 600mm to 2m
3 medium bedded 200mm to 600mm
4 thinly bedded 60mm to 200mm
5 very thinly bedded 20mm to 60mm
6 laminated 6mm to 20mm
7 thinly laminated <6 mm

378952174.doc Page 26
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
If no bedding structure is visible in a core interval, then the Spacing code should not be used.
Note that the terms unbedded and very thickly bedded have different geological meanings and
must not be used interchangeably.

Bedding Separation Type

Bedding Separation Type is a single-digit qualifier code for the type of bedding separation that
is observed. Available codes range from 1 (planar open) to 6 (irregular adheres) with other
code for faulted, gradational, erosional, and wavy base. For a full list of available codes, see
the separate dictionary list.

Bedding Surface Dip

Bedding Surface Dip is the dip angle of the surfaces forming the boundaries of the bedding
unit. To assess this may require knowledge of the local geology as well as an understanding of
the depositional history of the unit based on observation of the core above and below the
interval.

As examples consider a mudstone formed when fine-grained flood sediments infilled an


abandoned meander loop, and a bedded sandstone unit formed as a point-bar deposit. The
mudstone would have almost parallel upper and lower bedding surfaces and very little internal
structure, except near the margins of the deposit. The sandstone may not have parallel upper
and lower bedding surfaces, and would have internal sedimentary structure that was not
necessarily parallel to either the upper or lower bedding surface.

In the mudstone example, the characteristic bedding surface dip for the logged interval would
be the overall dip of the unit as determined from it supper and lower bedding surfaces, to the
degree that this can be determined from the core.

In the cross-bedded sandstone, the characteristic bedding surface dip would have to be based
on the logging geologist’s best judgement of the overall bedding orientation of the unit. The
cross-bedding dip that gives the rock material its small-scale sedimentary structure would be
described using the sedimentary structure fields.

If the top and bottom bedding surfaces of a bedded unit have properties that are important to
the likely engineering behaviour of the rock mass, they should also be logged as bedding
surface defects in the same manner as joints or fissures, as described below.

Bedding surface dip is logged as an angle from the horizontal plane in the original rock mass,
assuming that the drillhole is vertical. This means that bedding surface dip is measured as the
angle between the bedding surface and a diametral core plane (perpendicular to the core axis).

In a non-vertical drillhole, where the core axis is not perpendicular to the horizontal plane, the
core logger should log bedding dip by assuming that the core axis is a vertical line. This
protocol should always be used in core logging. Such orientation data is then post-processed
to determine true dip.

Core orientation measurements are not usually made at KPC, and therefore the core log cannot
record information on the dip direction of bedding structure. In the event that oriented core is
logged, then dip direction should be measured and recorded as a comment.

4.9.2 Sedimentary Structure

The core logging geologist will recognise sedimentary structure from one or more relationships
between the lithology characteristics, small-scale depositional features and bedding structure.

378952174.doc Page 27
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
The GEODAS coding system allows for two characteristics of sedimentary structure to be
logged:

Sedimentary Structure Description See the separate lists for available 2-digit codes for
structures such as scour and fill, cross bedding etc.
Sedimentary Structure Dip Dip measurement of the characteristic structure may or
may not be relevant. For cross-bedding, a dip or
average dip may be measured. Dip is measured and
recorded from a plane perpendicular to the core axis.

4.9.3 Defects (Tectonic Structure)

Observation and recording of defect information is a critical task, equivalent to accurately


assessing rock material strength, because the engineering behaviour of the rock is often
controlled by the defects more than the rock material.

Drilling usually causes some disturbance of defect surfaces or filling. Also, there is only a
limited extent of any defect surface exposed in a core interval. Core drilling gives no
information at all on the extent of a defect surface, whether its orientation changes with
distance, and what happens when defects intersect outside of the core.

For these reasons the accuracy or validity of defect surface descriptions from core is often
limited. However it is the only information that can be used by an engineer to distinguish rock
material behaviour and rock mass behaviour, and must therefore be carefully described.

The effect of a defect on the engineering behaviour of the rock mass is governed by:

(1) The type of defect


(2) Frequency of occurrence in an interval of rock
(3) Interface properties of the defect, mainly frictional strength and water transmission
(4) Orientation

Note: For loggers familiar with the DATCOL coding system, the description facilities available
with GEODAS are more limited. While this may seem like a loss of detail, the GEODAS system
does provide enough flexibility to enable an engineering assessment to be made, as well as
allowing geological data of engineering significance to be modelled with the MINEX system.

Defect Type

This is described using the Tectonic Structure Type field. It will not always be easy to decide on
the defect type, but there is a rigorous description process that must be used. Following is a
discussion of the Type codes available with GEODAS:

Code Description Interpretation


Microfaulting can only be used to describe a
A Microfaulting defect where very small-scale relative
displacements are observed.
A bedding plane parting is a separation
B Bedding plane parting between bedding units, and is a critical surface
observation when making an assessment of
bedding structure.
Cleat is a small-scale fracture within coal, often
378952174.doc Page 28
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
C Cleat with infilling, that has very limited surface
extent. When discrete fracture surfaces in coal
are larger than about 30mm they should be
described as joints rather than cleats.
A fault surface, by definition, can only be
F Fault described if the relative slip displacement is
actually measurable. A surface that has
obviously undergone relative displacement
(shearing) of unmeasurable extent is described
as a shear.
This can only be interpreted if the geologist can
I Intrusive contact establish from observation that an intrusion
occurred. Sedimentary dykes form intrusive
contacts.
Joints in rock are defined as fractures where
J Joint there is no measurable slip displacement.
Different styles of joint can form due to different
deformational events. The common cause is
extensional straining beyond a material limit.
Any surface that shows the characteristic signs
S Shear of shearing but no measure of the amount of
shear slip must be described as a shear.
A shear may be a discrete local surface formed
by differential compaction, a subsidiary slip
surface within a fault zone, or a principal
displacement surface with an actual (but not
measurable) displacement of tens of metres
Is a defect formed by separation and infilling.
V Vein Often, it is not possible to tell if the infilling was
immediate, or followed some time after the
original separation. Pressure solution effects
may produce veins that are difficult to interpret.
Bedding surface shears occur in sedimentary
Z Bedding surface shear rock sequences for many reasons. They are
extremely important in geotechnical terms, since
the often control the stability of excavations.
Bedding surface shears formed by flexural slip
are generally more extensive and weaker than
bedding surface shears formed by differential
compaction.

Note that within DATCOL, three terms that were widely used for logging defects are not used at
all in GEODAS. These terms have proven to be over-used at KPC and their use has bee
discontinued because they can be misleading for engineering interpretations. The following
descriptions of these terms are provided for reference only.

A shear zone is a zone with roughly parallel boundaries of rock material that is intersected by
closely spaced (generally <5cm) joints and /or microscopic fracture (cleavage) planes. The
included joint surfaces are commonly at small angles to the zone boundaries, and are usually
slightly curved. They act to divide the zone into unit blocks of lenticular or wedge shape, and
may have smooth or slickensided surfaces. Where clear evidence for movement sub-parallel to
the zone is evident then the zone is termed a fault zone. The discontinuity surfaces can be
either (a) tightly closed and cemented but the cements are generally weaker than the rock
substance, or (b) not cemented, but coated with soil substances or are open and filled with air
and/or water.

378952174.doc Page 29
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
A crushed zone is defined as being a zone with roughly parallel planar boundaries composed of
disoriented, usually angular fragments of the host rock substance. The fragments may be of
clay, silt, sand or gravel sizes, or mixtures of any of these. Some minerals may be altered or
decomposed but this is not necessarily so. The boundaries are commonly slickensided. Where
clear evidence for visible movement sub-parallel to the zone is evident then the zone is termed
a fault zone.

A broken zone is defined as being a zone of mechanically broken rock. The processes of
formation are therefore not natural, and the zone may be irregular in shape. The component
particles will generally be angular, with mostly rough surfaces and the only likely infill will be
from drilling products.

Frequency of Occurrence

In the determination of defect surface spacing, only natural defects are to be considered.
Where a set of defect surfaces are parallel or sub-parallel, spacing is taken in the direction
normal to the surface orientation. When core is being logged, it should be subdivided into
intervals with relatively uniform fracture spacing.

At KPC, the following GEODAS codes are used in the Tectonic Structure Spacing field to
describe the fracture spacing of natural defects within drillhole core:

Code Definition Tectonic Structure Spacing


1 Continuous spaced <6mm
2 Extremely closely spaced 6mm – 20mm
3 Closely spaced 20mm - 60mm
4 Moderately spaced 60mm - 200mm
5 Widely spaced 200mm – 600mm
6 Very widely spaced 600mm – 2m
7 Extremely widely spaced >2m

Interface Properties of Defects

For engineering interpretation purposes, two levels of detail are generally useful. For most
assessments, it is only necessary to know how to rank defect interfaces on a scale from ‘worst
possible’ to ‘best possible’. This is done using the GEODAS codes for the Tectonic Structure
Description field. A greater level of detail is provided in GEODAS using the Comment field.

Defect surfaces can be simplified into a set of properties based on the three factors that
influence interface friction and water flow. These are:

(1) Planar versus irregular profile;


(2) Slickensided or smooth versus rough
(3) Clay coated versus coated with other-than-clay mineral, or no coating.

There are eight possible combinations of these three factors. The following coding system uses
a simple numeric ranking of these combinations:

Cod Description Abbreviation


e
1 Planar / Slickensided-smooth / Clay coated (worst possible) PSC
2 Irregular-undulose / Slickensided-smooth / Clay coated ISC
3 Planar / Slickensided-smooth / Other mineral or absent PSO
378952174.doc Page 30
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
4 Irregular-undulose / Slickensided-smooth / Other mineral or absent ISO
5 Planar / Rough / Clay coated PRC
6 Irregular-undulose / Rough / Clay coated IRC
7 Planar / Rough / Other mineral or absent PRO
8 Irregular-undulose / Rough / Other mineral or absent IRO

Other codes are also available, that included open or tight surfaces, soil infilling, and other
mineralisation. These may be more specific for some purposes, but are generally less useful
for engineering interpretation than the above scheme. Details are available separately.

Defect Orientation

Tectonic Structure Dip is the dip angle of the defect surface. For a curved surface, the average
dip should be recorded but extra detail can be provided using the Comment field.

4.10 LOGGING OF FOSSIL OR MINERAL INCLUSIONS

There are many inclusions or features that are of geological and possibly also geotechnical
significance. These are coded using the following GEODAS fields:

Abundance GEODAS field FOSABD may take values ranging from A (abundant) to R or S
(rare or sparse). Details are available separately.
Type GEODAS field FOSTYP may take a wide range of values from AM (amphibole)
to ZE (zeolite) including fossils, minerals, and rootlets. Details are available
separately.
Association GEODAS field FOSASS may take a wide range of values including important
fabric forms (lenses, in cleats, bedding planes) or relative locations (at top or
base, replacement). Details are available separately.

4.11 LOGGING OF SAMPLES AND T EST DATA OR REFERENCES

The label of any sample removed from the core should be included in the Sample Number field.
For geotechnical purposes, this is normally the drillhole number followed by a sequence
number. Details of the sampling depth range and any other sampling information may be
recorded as a Comment.

Any geotechnical or groundwater testing conducted in the drillhole should be indicated using a
Comment line. At KPC such tests may include standard penetration test (SPT), borehole vane
shear, and permeability tests. Note that DATCOL may provide much more support for logging
such testing, and it may be necessary to continue using DATCOL for such purposes until a
replacement is fully implemented.

378952174.doc Page 31
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
5.0 DATA PRESENTATION

Drillhole logs should be presented at a suitable scale such as 1:50, which gives 10m of core to
an A4 sheet of paper. The scale selected should be suitable for the amount of data collected,
and the project for which the data is being presented.

Using DATCOL, summary logs can be prepared showing measured and calculated parameters
such as RQD, estimated rock strength, fracture spacing, core recovery and Rock Mass Rating
alongside the graphic log, measured fractures and the interpreted coal seam names. Summary
logs at a scale such as 1:250 or 1:125 can give a useful feel to the overall rock mass conditions
encountered, and are beyond the scope of information presentation using the GEODAS coding
system within MINEX.

Most geotechnical drillholes at KPC form part of a program to investigate a specific problem, or
to provide data on some particular geological or structural feature. As such, the drilling data
should be compiled into a permanent record format (a data report) that not only preserves the
data (and the work done to derive it) but also provides the factual support to the geotechnical
analysis or design work that will follow.

Typically, a data package should include the borehole logs; any summary logs; installation logs
showing any instrumentation which was installed as part of the investigation; photographs of all
cored intervals; a location plan showing surface contours and the relationship of the drillhole to
other holes in the program and to the item being investigated (if possible); geological cross
sections indicating how the interpreted geology in the borehole fits with the local stratigraphy.

In addition, it is common practice at KPC to undertake some laboratory test work, particularly
unconfined compressive strength testing to calibrate the estimated strength assessments and to
add to the understanding of site-wide rock conditions. The data from the laboratory testing
(data sheets, photographs as applicable) should be included as part of the drilling data report,
but have sometimes been compiled as independent data reports.

As part of geotechnical data interpretation and analysis, the MINEX or DATCOL digital data
should be analysed statistically to examine how the data obtained from particular drillhole(s) fits
in with previously derived understanding of rock conditions within the KPC minesites.

378952174.doc Page 32
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
6.0 REFERENCES

Jennings, J.E., Brink, A.B.A., Williams, A.A.B.; "Soil Profiling for Civil Engineering Purposes in
South Africa". Trans of the SAICE, Jan 1973, pp 3 - 11.

Commission on Terminology, Symbols and Graphic Representation; "Terminology". International


Society Of Rock Mechanics. Final draft July 1975.

Commission on Recommendations on Site Investigation Techniques; "Recommendations on


Site Investigation Techniques". International Society Of Rock Mechanics. Final Report July
1975.

Miller, E.P.; "Engineering Classification and index properties for Intact Rock". PhD Thesis Univ.
Illinois 1965.

Working party report of the Geological Society Engineering Group of Great Britain; "The logging
of rock core for engineering purposes". Quart. J. Eng. Geol. 1970, Vol. 3, No. 1.

Ingram, R.L.; "Terminology for Thickness of Stratification and Parting Limits in Sedimentary-
Rocks". Geol. Soc. American Bull. PP 937 - 988.

Bieniawski, Z.T.; "Engineering Classification of Jointed Rock Masses". Trans. Of The SAICE
Vol. 15, No. 12, 1973.

Price, N.J.; "Fault and joint development in brittle and semi-brittle rock". Pergamon Press,
Oxford 1966. 176p.

Piteau, D.P.; "Geological factors significant to the stability of slopes in rock". Planning Open Pit
Mines. Ed. P.W.J. Van Rensburg. A.A. Balkema, Cape Town 1970. pp 33 - 53.

Deere, D.U.; "Technical Description of rock cores". Rock Mech. Eng. Geol. 1967. Vol. 1,
pp 16-22.

378952174.doc Page 33
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
APPENDIX A

CURRENT PRE-PRINTED
CORING RECORD SHEET

378952174.doc
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
378952174.doc
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
APPENDIX B

CORE LOGGING PROCEDURE: FLOW SHEETS

378952174.doc
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
378952174.doc
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
CORE LOGGING PROCEDURE – FLOW SHEET

378952174.doc
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
For each core run

Measure total core recovery and solid core recovery lengths in run
Calculate and record total core recovery %

Examine core to establish where core was lost and why


Check drillers log, or talk to driller for information
If location of losses know, allocate loss interval to correct location
If location of losses unknown, allocate loss interval to base of run
If reason for loss known, then record as a comment

Measure cumulative length of core sticks >100mm long in run


Calculate RQD based on total core recovery length

Visually subdivide recovered core into intervals of roughly equal natural defect spacing
Classify defect spacing for each interval

Select locations of any samples but do not remove

Assess material hardness and strength classes for full length of run

Examine stratigraphy of recovered core


Subdivide into lithological intervals,
Add additional intervals for defect spacing and strength class as necessary

Log each interval for lithotype, colour, grainsize, qualifiers


Log each interval for mechanical state and material strength
Log each interval for material texture, groundwater, and weathering

Examine all defects and breaks


Determine which of the existing defects are natural, and which are drill-induced

Log each interval for structure and natural defects

Log each interval for inclusions, record


Identify samples, record numbering and depth intervals
Remove samples, wrap, label, and store in preparation for transport

Place core in core box, breaking sticks only if needed to fit boxes
Label core boxes and fit markers and spacers with labels as necessary

For each core box

Cover with plastic sheeting, seal, and store in preparation for transport

For final drillhole

Double-check all log records against drillers report sheets


Check for any final groundwater information after drilling
Enter and check all log data

378952174.doc
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
APPENDIX C

EXAMPLES OF CORE PHOTOGRAPHS

378952174.doc
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04
Figure C1 Core Photo Example 1

Figure C2 Core Photo Example 2

378952174.doc
Last saved: 7/03/14 18:04