2 views

Uploaded by india

Happy

- Yr 10 Yearly Science Notes
- Tectonics, Fracturing of Rock, And Erosion
- Earthquake Seismology - Hiroo Kanamori - Elsevier (2009)
- Fundamentals of Structural Geology [Pollard D.D., Fletcher R.C.]
- Ruthless Earthquake and It’s Act of Preventing
- A3TL HR Rules n Policies
- Link Planner in field
- NEW 2014-15 TG G1 U1 ReadyGEN.pdf
- The Key to Successful Euro Marketing
- File
- Cloud Time & Labor_ag.pdf
- Naturally Occurring Earthquakes
- Exemplar
- unit 7 - lo2
- Lesson 3 - Creation Day 3 RO.pdf
- Recomendaciones Para Mejorar El Codigo Sismico de Haiti
- CPM
- Monthly Calendar Excel Template
- EARTHQUAKE.docx
- pushover

You are on page 1of 11

RESTRICTIONS

been made available for use in research, teaching, and private study, but

may not be used for any commercial purpose. Users may not otherwise

copy, reproduce, retransmit, distribute, publish, commercially exploit or

otherwise transfer any material.

The copyright law of the United States (Title 17, United States Code)

governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of copyrighted

material.

Under certain conditions specified in the law, libraries and archives are

authorized to furnish a photocopy or other reproduction. One of these

specific conditions is that the photocopy or reproduction is not to be "used

for any purpose other than private study, scholarship, or research." If a

user makes a request for, or later uses, a photocopy or reproduction for

purposes in excess of "fair use," that user may be liable for copyright

infringement.

This institution reserves the right to refuse to accept a copying order if, in

its judgment, fulfillment of the order would involve violation of copyright

law.

1905(=

UNITED STATES

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

by an Earthquake

Tor

:.74-'

2 . QJJg:ZE f.

'9. --•:...,"#•:,/<'•.".,).'.I-

0

6 1 .27 4

C .54 -

*Ir., l, 23•+•

.MJ

1985

1 ' 0./.

1 6 (1

1 97;..7 .....I .

14 18 MAR 1985

1I 1..'t 3_.__...._ .__...

036,.._..i

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

:

Simple models of frictional heating by an earthquake

by

Arthur H. Lachenbruch

This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity

with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards and stratigraphic nomenclature .

1985

1

against a frictional ( or other dissipative ) resistance T, work is converted to

1/ heat in the amount 2Iu per unit area of fault. This results in a local

coseismic temperature rise (e) that will subsequently dissipate, presumably by

conduction. This effect has been discussed in terms of analytical results for

an infinitesimally thin fault by Sibson ( 1975 ) and McKenzie and Brune ( 1972).

Cardwell et al. ( 1978 ) considered the problem in terms of a numerical result

for the fault of finite width illustrated in figure 1. A simple form of the

solution for the fault of figure 1 has been applied by Lachenbruch ( 1980 ) to a

related problem and here we adapt it to a convenient general scheme for

estimating the magnitude of the coseismic temperature rise and its post-seismic

dissipation. For intuitive convenience, graphical results are presented in a

general dimensional form.

and 2v = 2u/t* be the slip velocity ( see fig. 1 ). We assume heat is

transferred exclusively by conduction, deformation is homogeneous, and slip

velocity and fault width are constant during the event. The simplest case

occurs when the fault-width 2a is so large that little heat escapes by

conduction from the fault zone during the short time t* of the event. ( This

condition is a > 44at* where the right side is the effective distance heat can

diffuse in time tm in a medium of thermal diffusivity a which we assume to be

0.01 cm2/sec ). Denoting density by p and heat capacity by c and assigning

them reasonable values ( p = 2.65 g/cm3, c = 0.95 J/g ° C whence

pc =2.5 J/cm3 =0.60 cal/cm ) ° C 425 bars/°C ),we can write the temperature

rise 8 in terms of stress (T) and strain ( u/a).

I vt_I u

e= (la)

pc a pc a

a

a

Thus for fault strains greater than unity ( u/a t 1 ) coseismic heating can be

I large.

If the fault is narrower than the distance heat can diffuse during the

I event ( i.e., if a < 44-at*) or equivalently if the event lasts longer than the

time constant ( A = a2/401 ) for the fault, then the temperature rise on the axial

plane of the shear zone depends explicitly on the duration of slip t*, and

( la ) is replaced by the more general expression ( Lachenbruch, 1980, equation

45a )

I pc a 4=

I pc a

I V./t

/ + 2- -1-_

pc 1-

4 irck

, a/44at; o (2c)

-2-

1

..... j It .....

....:Il- .11 It

1 ..-- la-r#.Mi

t1

I

I 1 1•131 11< i 11

tio« t=o

I

f

1 •11 1 1' 1•,1,j

. .".....=tnt

. .Ill.-

I she dr , 1)•1

Wall..: 1 1 1...

i 2one ' 1 2 wall

Figure 1. The simple fault model. Dashed line (t=0) is deformed into

dash-dot line ( t=t*) during slip of amount 2u across shear zone of width 22

in an event of duration t*.

-3-

1

This is iUustrated in figure 2 which gives the rise in axial plane temperature

as a function of time during faulting for a range of event durations ( up to

100 sec ) and fault widths (0 to 40 m ) that probably brackets most

earthquakes. The temperature scale, based on a slip velocity 2v of 25 cm/sec

and friction T of 100b, can be adjusted proportiona•y for any other choice,

e.g., for 2v = 50 cm/sec and T = 1000 b multiply the temperature scale by

20.

1: 15

pass to narrow-fault behavior ( 0 a t , equation 2c ) as the event proceeds .

With uncertainties of an order of magnitude in friction r, and at least that

much in fault-width 2a, an enormous range of temperatures is possible even if

slip velocity 2v and duration t* are known. If friction, fault width, and the

slip 2u were known, but duration and velocity were not, a range of

temperature is stiU possible on narrow faults. For example, slip of 50 cm

may have resulted from a 1-second event slipping at 50 cm/sec or a 10-second

event at 5 cm/sec. For I = 100b, a 4-mm-wide fault would warm by 500 ° C in

the first case and by 260° C in the second according to figure 2. ( In the

first case, the ordinate scale is multiplied by 2, and in the second, it is

divided by 5 to accommodate the two different velocities.) It is seen that the

curve labeled "4 cm" remains linear to t 4100 sec, probably longer than the

duration of local slip in most earthquakes . Hence equation (1) should be

useful for predicting coseismic temperature rise on the axis of faults

whenever shear zones are at least a few cm wide. In the Parkfield

earthquake, if the slip (2u) were 50 cm and fault width (2a) were 5 cm, then

according to (1) or (2) e would be 40 ° C for 100 bars friction, 400 ° C for

100Ob. Narrower faults attain much higher temperatures, but as we shall

see, they decay very rapidly after the event and are soon indistinguishable

from effects of wider faults with the same slip.

tive decay of temperatures in the fault zone depends upon two time constants:

the duration of local seismic slip t*, and the time A required for heat to

diffuse across the half width of the heated shear zone ( A = a2/4ot ). The

complete expression for temnerature decay ( t>t*) within a uniform fault zone

C |x• <a ) and beyond it ( • x1>a ) is ( after minor modifications of Carslaw and

Jaeger, 1959, equations 9 and 10, p. 80 )

pc a 4#3t

44£vt

(3a)

a-x a+x

-(t-t*)[1 - 2i2 erfc - 2i2 erfc ]} x<a

44£Y ( t-t*) 44a ( t- t*)

I v x-a x+a

= - - {t[i2 erfc - - iz erfc -1

pc a 44£YE 443-t

(3b)

X- a x+a

-(t-t*) [i2 erfc - i2 erfc ]} x>a

440(t-t*) 440(t-t*)

-4-

1•i-- - - CH00

C 0].0 · (D N

04-1

9-15g.Q >3

' • 4-3 0 01

0421-01 ] 0

1a) Ei1 al 4410•.

.•8 1160 •0 .N@' Ee.

t1

,

I ejo M-

0• 03.h>,-1

b 8a LA.•

0 -1 01

8

CHO Ou] 0,R1 41r-|0 4-3aj042H

11 \di LOES

88>ooT

4 :1310 • &1 -

431(29 5>«031

1-

M 0 CO >hO (1)

-0C 9..0

0 . 6000 00 4

WU %09'-IS

0]r-1> 1 042r-1

. 4- Ce .8 9 9 3

li i

t

*O:

'41 Z .i 111 r-IrCIr-1

Arnt9 •11'

.r-451

Cd

042rl>3

rnif&1

Ul r-1

.li K .11 33. 2m.ir CO83

4' 1.- 0-1-)0

C.C 0LnA·A

r ZI *55511 0 X \\ 3 0#\4 r (0 5 S 1 0U

F. 1 0... . . 11 0 .H.=44>fl

g-1 40 0 0.1 4-3

. 00

0 -4 0 0000

4 HA -1 - Q)'NPLE

0UC Eidy =28.

4.JOE

L I-E4'. cd4 >(D ·A4 0-042

00, 060 0042r-160042

l • 0, • olt 0 A 4

42 • F-, U•••

/1 //-. m

.• 5-0 SESSSes 0

.....

0400

E!

630=g-

12.1 1 4(11

E'83>3%

0 E

5I. 03*0

-3

LL

60*** S ,», T .C A 0

8 E °18 k

" .i • 254 2

1 T Zol 40

L 6--' ' ' Ar-· · ·

tr)

/

1, 042 1.r,

t0 i #-i.: •

M •4 r,4 r..1 9#11 •2•

04! N d 51 @"III .p

2,«W' SZ=AZ '9001-1-'°3 (J,) e 2-In+Di,dulg-L Duold ID!xv 4-1d000

E-·i u) EH

-5-

( The general expression for the coseismic ( t<t*) temperature rise is obtained

by deleting the second lines in equations (3a) and ( 3b), e.g., by formally

setting t E t*.)

The slip duration t* win generally be only a few seconds and can

therefore be neglected for computing the temperature hours, days or weeks

after faulting. Neglecting slip duration t* relative to post-seismic observation

time ( t-t*), we can treat the faulting as an -instantaneous source of strength

ru/pca distributed throughout the shear zone (| x| < a) and (3) is replaced

by ( Carslaw and Jaeger, equation 3, p. 54 )

2pca

44aE •SE

the shear zone ( for a 4-cm wide shear zone A is %100 seconds, but for a 4-m

shear zone, it is a10 days, see inset, fig. 1 ) the fault can be treated as an

instantaneous plane (zero-width) source of strength 2Tu/pc. This leads to

the further simplification ( Carslaw and Jaeger, i959, equation 4, p. 259 ):

x2

u -4£YE

8(x,t ) = I- e all x, t>> t*, t>> A (5)

pc i-

Vnat

Temperature rise computed from (5) is shown in figure 3 for a fault slip 2u

of 50 cm opposed by frictional resistance T of 100b. The figure shows that

the high axial plane temperatures in the previous numerical examples are

short-lived. If the slip were 100 cm, the temperatures of figure 3 would be

multiplied by 2, if the friction were 1kb, they would be multiplied by 10.

The one-day curve is valid only for faults for which the time constant

( A E a2/40 ) is much less than a day, e.g., for 28 <40 cm in which case A J3

hrs ( see inset, fig. 1 ). Temperatures earlier in the postseismic period can

be obtained for a fault of any width from the more complete expressions (4)

or ( 3). As the area under curves of the type shown in figure 3 is the

source strength 2'cu/pc, it is conserved. Hence a post-seismic temperature

profile across the fault combined with an estimate of slip u provides an

opportunity to recover the friction I.

1I

i

1:

-6-

e (t) for 7=100 b, lu= 50 cm

A

2.00-

\.io-

I day

1/00- '

I

0.50- I week

l

3 months

1 1 l l J

5 4 32101234 5

Distance from fault axis, ixl Cme+ers)

shown for friction T of 100 bars and slip 2u of 50 cm; they can be scaled

proportionally for any other values. Curves are good approximations as

long as the post-seismic time they represent is large relative to the

fault's time constant X(a): see inset, figure 2.

-7-

F

"

I

References

1978, Frictional heating on a fault zone with finite thickness: Geophysical

Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, v. 52, p. 525-530.

I •

Carslaw, H. S., and Jaeger,

Oxford University Press, 510 p.

J. C., 1959, Conduction of Heat in Solids:

I Lachenbruch, A. H.,

resistance to fault motion:

1980, Frictional heating, fluid pressure, and the

Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 85, p. 6097-

6112.

I McKenzie, D., and Brune , J. N., 1972 , Melting on fault planes during

large earthquakes: Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society,

v. 29, p. 65-78.

faulting: Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society , v. 43,

p. 775-794.

I

I

l

I

/

"

I

11

I

M

lEI

8-

I

r

1.

t

-,

'1

t. •

1.

L 1

( 1

LJ

l.- 1

•_i

1.

Li

Lt

- Yr 10 Yearly Science NotesUploaded byMarisa Alves
- Tectonics, Fracturing of Rock, And ErosionUploaded byLubomira Macheva
- Earthquake Seismology - Hiroo Kanamori - Elsevier (2009)Uploaded byalbertmunoz
- Fundamentals of Structural Geology [Pollard D.D., Fletcher R.C.]Uploaded byJuancho BN ROnqui Mota
- Ruthless Earthquake and It’s Act of PreventingUploaded byIOSRjournal
- A3TL HR Rules n PoliciesUploaded byrajashekarpula
- Link Planner in fieldUploaded byJOHN
- NEW 2014-15 TG G1 U1 ReadyGEN.pdfUploaded bySydney Plummer
- The Key to Successful Euro MarketingUploaded byozelot6
- FileUploaded byBarsha Bhattacharjee
- Cloud Time & Labor_ag.pdfUploaded byIshrat Ishrat
- Naturally Occurring EarthquakesUploaded byAppoorv Dua
- ExemplarUploaded bystatuhominis
- unit 7 - lo2Uploaded byapi-247822766
- Lesson 3 - Creation Day 3 RO.pdfUploaded byAlina Boboc
- Recomendaciones Para Mejorar El Codigo Sismico de HaitiUploaded bycontrerasc_sebastian988
- CPMUploaded bysujadilip
- Monthly Calendar Excel TemplateUploaded byshafeeq87cfd
- EARTHQUAKE.docxUploaded bydev
- pushoverUploaded byStructure department
- 23. Cementtruckoverturns.ellyUploaded byTrevor Denasa
- Three-dimensional Pore-network Cracks Transient Hydrofacturing-liquefaction in Tight Sandstone Under Seismic Wave & Electro-magneto-Thermo-elastic FieldsUploaded byivy_publisher
- 09 Roosters Sore ThroatUploaded byfatih
- Tary2011BSSAUploaded byJeanPos
- The Geometry of the North Anatolian Transform Fault in the Sea of Marmar...Uploaded byAegrine
- 2 Mirabella Et Al 2007Uploaded byandrealupattelli
- GEOL 158; Week 2 Study GuideUploaded byBernard Pratt
- Status Report on Castastrophic Earthquake Response Planning for the New Madrid Seismic Zone RegionUploaded byAnonymous 9ZDpDZwqrr
- Who is in Your FamilyUploaded byZegarra Liz
- Up-up AwayUploaded byPaula Jean Garcia

- PDF1Uploaded byDragan
- Cofimco B Series I O Manual 7 2011Uploaded byPodeh Aspriyanto
- Gann's Square of Nine (1).docUploaded byindia
- GannDecennialPackage.pdfUploaded byindia
- Douglass NarrativeUploaded byNatalie Hong
- Jaguar Land Rover Acquisition Part 2Uploaded byManish Ingale
- Common Mechanisms Leading to Failures Steam GenUploaded bylanrodcm
- Vibration Shaft vs MotorUploaded byalexmontell
- EagleBurgmann_K-SWME_E2_PDF2_Sealing Competence for Efficient Seal Water Management_18.05.2016Uploaded byEbaduel SC
- Result 27-04-2019Uploaded byindia
- Result 22-04-2019Uploaded byindia
- Nifty Gravity PointUploaded byindia
- NR7 postUploaded byindia
- ONLY_W.D.GANNUploaded byindia
- bs 30Uploaded byindia
- HydraulicsUploaded byindia
- Training Basic HydraulicsUploaded bysalicurri
- 1001238Uploaded byindia
- 55085 JLR SustReport Full Report Tcm76-371229Uploaded byindia
- Jaguar Case Study Dec 09Uploaded byindia
- q 4 Fy 17 Investor Presentation FinalUploaded byindia
- S08 USC TurbineUploaded byindia
- 47968Uploaded byindia
- moduleZerodha-FuturesTradingUploaded byrajeshksm
- Eeoc Self Print PosterUploaded byNilabh Ranjan
- Industrial_Fanno_Flow_Analysis_by_Table.pdfUploaded byindia
- Swami VivekanandUploaded byindia
- Cvsrtyui.pdfUploaded byDipak Gharpure
- Pipes Presentation GRP [Compatibility Mode]Uploaded byindia

- Torch of LibertyUploaded byAnonymous uW8fMmbb
- AlignmentUploaded byakamalapuri388
- SD - Periodic Declarations Foreign TradeUploaded bySirish Reddy
- IEEE_C37.119_2016 Guide Breaker FailureUploaded byJhon Castro
- Manual Mototrbo Xir p8668 Xir p8660 Gp338d Colour Display (Apac)Uploaded byirwan
- Lawsuit Over Container Store iPhone ChargerUploaded byRobert Wilonsky
- ASTM A1002 2010.pdfUploaded byjoao carlos protz
- 2010_scca_solo_rulesUploaded bybsc7080sdc
- IDT_674-01_DST_20100517Uploaded byfaheinz
- The Saboteur - Manual - PCUploaded byll_jj_ll
- Shadow Weave TocUploaded byInterweave
- Wind Turbine - FinalUploaded byzabith
- Sheldon P. Rothenberg v. Dean Kamen and Evelyn Kamen, 735 F.2d 753, 2d Cir. (1984)Uploaded byScribd Government Docs
- ss_passivateUploaded bydakka951
- C 629 - 03 _QZYYOQ__Uploaded bymercab15
- A793-96(2014) Standard Specification for Rolled Floor Plate, Stainless SteelUploaded bytjt4779
- Spectra DG711/DG511Uploaded bybbutros_317684077
- Copyright Law 1Uploaded byAnkit Sharma
- DocumentoUploaded byFernando Barrios
- Acidpro70 ManualUploaded byRafael Ramos
- Distribucion en Planta Procesadora FrutasUploaded byEdwin Chila Choque
- Branding, Logos and Business CardsUploaded bydphotoportsmouth
- Gonzalez v. FarecompareUploaded byPriorSmart
- Aspen_Plus_PC_ModelUploaded bychen5735
- Wikipedia and its blue ocean strategies.Uploaded byReaz Ahmed Emon
- Solved No Item Category Assigned to AccountUploaded byAnkit Garg
- BS ISO 5455 Scale PDFUploaded byAhmed Abo Rashed
- Blincoe_AngevinSocietyUploaded byzamindar
- NeroControlCenter_en-US.pdfUploaded byGuillermo Ceos
- DCGENandDYNAMO.pptxUploaded byCris Diane G. Datingginoo