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Blood physiology Assignment

What are the functions of blood?

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What does blood transport?

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What does blood regulate?

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What does blood protect against?

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What is Aplastic Anemia?

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Where is blood produced in the fetus?

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Where is blood formed in the child?

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Where is blood formed in the adult?

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How is adult blood cell production checked?
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What is the term for the production of blood?

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What can be found in Plasma?

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What types of protein are found in Plasma?

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What is the function of Albumin?

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What are the functions of Globulins?

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What is the function of Fibrinogen?

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What is the composition of Plasma?

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What are the formed elements in the blood?

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What percentage of the extracellular fluid is
made up of the interstitial space?

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What is the composition of the interstitial space?

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What percentage of the extracellular fluid is
plasma?
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What is blood composed of?

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What are stem cells?

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What are Hemocytoblasts?

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Where should hemocytoblasts be found? Hemocytoblasts should be found in the bone
marrow.

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Why would you not want to find hemocytoblastsFinding hemocytoblasts in the blood shows an
in the blood? uncontrolled mitotic process, which may be
indicative of a tumor or cancer.

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List qualities of red blood cells. Red blood cells have no nucleus, a shorter life
span than white blood cells, they are unable to
self repair, and they are present in blood in a rate
of 500 red blood cells to 1 white blood cell.

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What does the amount of red blood cells in the The amount of red blood cells in the blood
blood determine? determines blood viscocity and the oxygen
carrying capacity.

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What is the normal red blood cell count? The normal red blood cell count varies by sex.
For males the normal rbcs count is ~5.4 million
rbcs per microliter with a range of 4.6-6.2. For
females the normal red blood cell count is 4.8
million rbcs per microliter, with a range of 4.6-
6.2.

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Define Hemolysis. Hemolysis is the rupture of a red blood cell.
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What is the structure of a red blood cell? A red blood cell in its normal form is a biconcave
disk with no nucleus.

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Define Hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a heme pigment with Fe + globulin
protein.

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How is carbon dioxide transported throughoutCarbon dioxide is transported throughout the
the body? body primarily by plasma, however some
transportation is performed by hemoglobin. The
majority of carbon dioxide is broken down into a
biocarbonate ion for the trip to the lungs.

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Define Anemia. Anemia is when there is a decreased amount of
hemoglobin either due to a decreased amount of
red blood cells or an abundance of improperly
formed red blood cells.

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Name two inherited abnormal hemoglobin Sickle cell anemia (change in the shape of the cell)
conditions. and Thalassemia. Sickle cell is found
predominately in the black African gene pool,
and Thalassemia is found predominantly in the
Mediterranean gene pool.

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What are the benefits of EPO Erythropoietin increases RBC count by
(Erythropoietin)? stimulating hemopoiesis. It is released when a
lack of O2 is detected in the kidneys, this in turn
stimulates an increase in rbc production in
marrow and in increase in O2 carrying capacity.

Because of EPOs ability to increase O2 carrying


capacity a bioengineered form has been injected
by athletes, this is referred to as "blood doping".

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Which nutrients are instrumental in the Iron and Vitamin B complex (B-12 & folic acid)
formation and production of blood? are both instrumental in proper blood
production.

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Define Pernicious Anemia. Pernicious Anemia is anemia from the lack of B-
12 absorption.

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Define Iron Deficiency Anemia. Iron Deficiency Anemia is anemia brought on by
a lack of iron. This shows up as fatigue,
irritability, hair loss, and a change in pallor.

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What is the lifespan of a normal red blood cell?

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How would early release of red blood cells The early release of red blood cells would be
present in a blood smear? distinguished by nucleated red blood cells present
in the blood draw.

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How do Microphages help break down red blood
Microphages help break down red blood cells by
cells? breaking off the Globin into amino acids for
reuse, transporting the iron and storing it in the
liver and bown marrow, and converting the non
iron remainder to bilirubin which is then
converted by the liver cells into bile and expelled
through the digestive system.

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How can the recycling route of blood be Blood recycling routes can be bypassed by blood
bypassed? loss. Too much blood loss may result in anemia.

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What is a Leukocyte? A Leukocyte is a white blood cell.

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What is the normal white blood cell count for the
The normal white blood cell count for the body is
body? 5,000 - 10,000 cells per microliter.

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Define Leukocytosis. Leukocystosis is an elevated white blood cell
count.

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Define Leukemia. Leukemia is cancer of a population of white blood
cells. Leukemia is named after the cell system that
it is attacking (i.e. monocytic leukemia or
lymphocytic leukemia.)

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Define Leukopenia. Leukopenia is too few white blood cells as a result
of drugs or anti-cancer therapy.

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How are white blood cells transported to the site
White blood cells use ameboid movement to leave
of need? circulation. White blood cells utilize chemotaxis
and they also appear in pus.

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Define ameboid movement. Ameboid movement is a crawling type movement
accomplished by pushing the cytoplasm of the cell
into a pseudopod.

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Define Chemotaxi. Chemotaxi is s the phenomenon in which bodily
cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or
multicellular organisms direct their movements
according to certain chemicals in their
environment.

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What does pus consist of? Pus consists of a group of white blood cells, dead
cells and bacteria. It is inherently used to mean
"white blood cells".

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Name the different types of white blood cells.
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What percentage of white blood cells are madeNeutrophils


up make up 40-70% of white blood cells.
of Neutrophils?

Define Eosinophil.
Define Basophils.

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What are the two types of Agranulocytes? Agranulocytes are made up of Lymphocytes and
Monocytes.

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What percentage of white blood cells are Lymphocytes compose 20-45% of white blood
composed of Lymphocytes? cells.

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What is the appearance of a Lymphocyte? Lymphocytes are small with a large nucleus and
little cytoplasm.

What are the two types of cells found


within Lymphocytes and what are their
functions?

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What are platelets used in? Platelets are used in clotting.

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Define Thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia is too few platelets in the
blood, is the first thing that is noticed in blood
draws due to the short life span of platelets.

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Define Hemostasis. Hemostasis is how the body stops bleeding.

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How does hemostasis occur?

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What steps are involved in a platelet plug forming
in a hole?
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What is necessary for clot formation? Platelets, fibrinogen, vitamin K, calcium, and
clotting factors.

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Define Anticoagulant. An anticoagulant is a medication that prevents
clot formation.

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Name three medications that act as anti- Three medications that act as anticoagulants are
coagulants. heparin, coumadin, and low doses of aspirin.

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How is Heparin given? Heparin is given via injection to stop clots from
forming at the IV site.

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What is Coumadin used in? Coumadin is an oral anticoagulant used in former
stroke or heart attack victims to prevent blood
clotting.

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What happens to blood specimens drawn intoBlood specimens drawn into tubes that have an
tubes? added EDTA do not clot in the tube, they
separate into plasma and rbcs.
If no anticoagulant is added blood will clot in the
tube, leaving a liquid portion called serum.

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What is the difference between serum and
plasma?

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Name four clotting disorders.

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Define Hemophilia.

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Name three ways to collect blood for
analysis.

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Define Venipuncture. Venipuncture is a puncture of the surface veins
which are easily located, thin walled, and have
low blood pressure.
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What is considered to be anemic for a patient?
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What is Polycythemia?