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Maths Assignment

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Autumn Semester 2015

Assignment − CA 2

1. Using x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ and the chain rule prove that the C-R equation is equivalent to

1 1

ur = vθ , vr = − uθ . (1)

r r

Equations in (1) are the C-R equations in polar form.

2. Verify that the Cauchy-Riemann equations are satisfied for the functions z n , ez , cos z, Log z

and prove that

d n d z d 1 d d

z = nz n−1 , e = ez , Log z = , cos z = − sin z, sin z = cos z.

dz dz dz z dz dz

4. Prove that the function f (z) = zRe z is differentiable only at the point z = 0. Find f 0 (0).

5. Let u and v be two harmonic functions. Prove that a linear combination αu + βv, α, β ∈ R,

is also a harmonic function.

6. Is u2 a harmonic function if u is a non-constant harmonic function? Give reason for your

answer.

7. Let u be a harmonic function. For what functions f is the function f (u) also harmonic ?

Ans: Au + B

8. Are |f (z)| harmonic functions if f (z) is an analytic function?

Ans: No

9. Explain whether harmonic functions of the given form (different from a constant) exist and

if they exist find them.

(a) u = φ(x) Ans: u = Ax + B

(b) u = φ(ax + by), (a, b are real numbers) Ans: u = A(ax + by) + B

(c) u = φ(xy) Ans: u = Axy + B

2 2

(d) u = φ(x + y ) Ans: u = A log(x2 + y 2 ) + B

10. Consider the function f (z) = |z|2 = x2 + y 2 , z = x + iy. The function f can also be

thought of as a function from R2 to R mapping (x, y) to x2 + y 2 . Moreover, since the partial

derivatives of f are continuous throughout R2 , it follows that f is differentiable everywhere

on R2 . Show that f (z) is not complex differentiable at any non-zero point z0 .

11. Suppose f is analytic in a domain D such that |f | is constant in D. Then show that f is a

constant in D.

12. Let f = u + iv be a non-constant function such that f = u − iv be analytic in a domain D.

Show that f cannot be analytic in D.

2

the equations u(x, y) = α and v(x, y) = β, α and β are constants, define two families of

curves in the complex plane. Show that the two families are mutually orthogonal to each

other.

14. Find which of the following functions can he real or imaginary part of a complex function f

which is differentiable in the region |z| < 1.

(a) x2 − axy + y 2 No

x

(b) e cos y + xy Yes

15. Let f (z) = z 3 . For z1 = 1 and z2 = i, show that there do not exist any point c on the line

y = 1 − x joining z1 and z2 such that

f (z1 ) − f (z2 )

= f 0 (c)

z1 − z2

16. If f (z) = u + iv is an analytic function of z = x + iy, and u − v = ex (cos y − sin y), find f (z)

in terms of z.

Ans: f (z) = ez + c.

17. Consider the function f = u + iv defined on the set D := {x + iy ∈ C : x = y}, where

u(x, y) = x2 , v(x, y) = y 2 . Note that u, v satisfies the C-R equations in D, and ux , uy , vx , vy

are also continuous in D. Prove that f is not analytic on D. Does this fact contradict

Theorem 3.5? If not, explain why.

18. Suppose f1 (z) is analytic at z0 , while f2 (z) is non-analytic at z0 . Then show that f1 (z)+f2 (z)

is not analytic at z0 . Give an example to show that sum of two non-analytic function can

be analytic.

19. Suppose f is analytic in a domain D. If f 0 (z) = 0 for all z ∈ D, then f is constant on D.

Will the result hold if we take D to be any set instead of domain?

20. Prove that sin z = 0 iff z = kπ, and cos z = 0 iff z = kπ + π2 , where k ∈ Z.

21. Solve (i) ez = −1 (ii) ez = 1

Ans: (i) z = i(2k + 1)π, k ∈ Z.

22. Consider the function f (x + iy) = y 3 − ix3 . Find the subsets of C, where the function f is

• continuous;

• differentiable;

• analytic.

Further determine f 0 (z) on the set where f is differentiable. Justify your answers.

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