TRANSMITTER SELECTION This section presents a number of considerations that should be viewed in selecting a transmitter.

They include functional specifications, performance specifications, material selection and desirable features. Also included are the definitions of these specifications and the relationship to functional and performance requirements. Functional Specifications

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Temperatures Pressure Environment Hazardous Locations Damping Zero Elevation or Suppression Power Supply and Load Limits

Temperatures

^UP

Both the maximum process and ambient temperatures need to be considered. Often the process temperature will exceed the limits of the sensing element. The sensing element of most electronic pressure transmitters will not operate properly above 225° F(107° C). This will require the use of good impulse piping practices to get the transmitter temperature back within operating limits. High ambient temperatures on solid state electronics adversely affect component life. Most electronics are not rated for service above 200° F (90°C) and there are many components with a 185°F (85°C) rating. High temperatures tend to cause more electronic failures. Again, it is good engineering practice to keep the electronics package as cool as possible. Winterizing, either by steam tracing, electrical heaters, or heater controlled enclosures may also be a consideration.

Pressure

^UP

Both the operating pressure range and the maximum pressure should be considered. Gauge pressure transmitters should have an overpressure rating of at least 150 percent of the maximum rating operating pressure with no other ill effect than having to recalibrate. The minimum pressure should be also be considered. As part of the normal operation, a vacuum may be applied. Many transmitters have to be ordered special to obtain this capability.

On differential pressure transmitters, overpressure may be accidentally applied to either the high or low side of the unit when a three-value manifold is not sequenced properly. High overpressure capability eliminates a possible shut-down while the unit is being recalibrated or repaired. The static line pressure for differential transmitters should also be called out. Units are available on the market with standard line pressure capability from 500 to 6,000 psi. Environment ^UP

The transmitter should be capable of operating in environments with 0 to 100% relative humidity.The working fluid and the ambient environment should be considered for corrosiveness. For instance, transmitters used on offshore oil rigs are subject to corrosion from salt water. Another example is a transmitter in a steam or cooling water system in the vicinity of acids or bases that tend to get into the atmosphere. The above applications have a non-corrosive working fluid, and a very corrosive ambient environment. Hazardous Locations ^UP

Use of Instruments in Hazardous Locations: The Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA), Subpart S, Electrical Considerations, has been in effect since 15 February, 1972. The purpose of OSHA is to accelerate the adoption of national standards for occupational safety. The Act given the Secretary of Labor two years to promulgate the adoption of such standards. All electrical instruments or electrical equipment used in hazardous locations must now be approved. Equipment or an installation is acceptable to the Assistant Secretary of Labor, and approved within the meaning of Subpart S if it is accepted, or certified, or listed, or labeled, or otherwise determined to be safe by a nationally recognized testing laboratory, such as, but not limited to, Underwriters Laboratories Inc. and Factory Mutual Engineering Corp. Definition of Hazardous Locations: Class I, Division I Locations in which hazardous concentrations of flammable gases or vapors exist continuously, intermittently, or periodically under normal operating conditions. Class I, Division II Locations in which volatile flammable gases are hazardous liquids, vapors or gases will normally be confined within closed containers or closed systems from which they can escape only in case of accidental rupture or breakdown of such systems or containers, or in case of abnormal operation of equipment. Class II Locations

Locations which are hazardous because of the pressure of combustible dust. Class III Locations Location in which easily ignitable fibers or materials producing combustible flyings are present. Group A Atmosphere containing acetylene. Group B Atmospheres containing hydrogen or gases or vapors of equivalent hazards such as manufactured gas. Group C Atmospheres containing ethyl ether vapors, ethylene, or cyclopropane. Group D Atmospheres containing gasoline, hexane, naptha, benzine, butane, alcohol, benzol, lacquer solvent vapors, or natural gases. Group E Atmospheres containing metal dust, including aluminum, magnesium, and their commercial alloys, and other metals of similar hazardous characteristics. Group F Atmospheres containing carbon black coal or coke dust. Group G Atmospheres containing flour, starch, or grain dusts. Explosion- Proof Enclosure Explosion-proof enclosure means an enclosure for electrical apparatus which is capable of withstanding, without damage, an explosion which may occur within it, of specified gas or vapor, and capable of preventing ignition of specified gas or vapor surrounding the enclosure from sparks or flames from explosion of specified gas or vapor within the enclosure. To make a system explosion-proof, the enclosure must be capable of withstanding an explosion, and the system must be installed per national electrical code for hazardous locations. Intrinsically Safe Equipment Intrinsically safe equipment and wiring are incapable of releasing sufficient electrical energy under normal or abnormal conditions to cause ignition of specific hazardous atmospheric mixture. Abnormal condition will include accidental damage to any part of the equipment or wiring, insulation, or other failure of electrical components, application of overvoltage, adjustment and maintenance operations, and other similar

conditions. Equipment built for this requirement is designed with low energy storage components as outlined in ISA procedure RP12-2 Several advantages to the intrinsic safety approach are listed below. These advantages have to be weighed against the initial higher purchase price. Today it is estimated that 60 percent of these types of installations are classified as intrinsically safe. · Lower installation cost. · Less operator-dependent to maintain a safe system. · Easier to maintain and repair. · Accessible to repair without special precautions before opening the unit.

Damping

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In some applications, pump or other process noise pulses must be dumped out to get good control or indication. The more unit is damped , as specified by the corner frequency, the slower the response time. In other cases where the system dynamics require fast transmittrer reponse for best performance. A review of the specific application is necessary to determine the requirements for adequate performance. However, in most cases this is not a serious problem.

( Figure 7) Damping is defined in terms of corner frequency or "time constant." Corner frequency is the junction of two confluent straight line segments of a plotted curve (see Figure

7). In a first-order system, the frequency at which the magnitude ratio is down 3db Db = 20 log Eo / Ein For the output of a first order system forced by a step or an impulse, the time constant is the time required to complete 63.2 percent of the total rise or decay. In a Bode diagram, the breakpoint or corner frequency occurs where: Fc = 1 / 2p T Where T = Time constant, Fc = Corner Frequency.

(figure 8)

Output

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The standard output for two-wire transmitters is 4 - 20 mA dc or 10 - 50 mA dc. There are also four-wire transmitters that can provide zero-based voltage signals. The most common is 0 - 5 V dc.Three-wire transmitters are also available, which can provide a 4 - 20 mA dc, 10 -50 mA dc, or zero-based signal. The two-wire device, as the name implies, only has two wires to the transmitters. These wires are used for both power and signal (see figure 8).The two-wire unit requires an external dc voltage power supply. The three-wire device also requires an external dc voltage power supply with one lead

or in percent of span (see Table 1).. or it may be a compound range (i. Gage pressure ranges are usually expressed in pounds per square inch gage (i. It may be expressed either in units of the measured variable.e..e. Zero Suppression-for a suppressed zero range. the amount the measured variable zero is below the lower range value.e. rectifier. (Table 1) Zero Elevation or Suppression ^UP Zero Elevation-for an elevated zero range.. 20 inHg vacuum to 50 psig). 50 to 100 psig). and the unit has built-in transformer. 28 to 32 in HgA). .e.e. Absolute ranges are usually expressed in inches of mercury absolute or psia (i. It may be expressed either in units of measured variables or in percent of span(see Table 1). The four-wire device has two wires for signal and two for power.as common for both signal and power.. and regulator.The power required is usually 115V ac. 0-30 HgA or 0-100 psia). The range may have a suppressed zero (i.. the amount the measure variable zero is above the lower range value. The most common range with a suppressed zero is the barometric range (i. 0100 psig).

The integration time to average out this noise is only 13. 18-gauge is usually sufficient.As an example. especially where sampling times are short. inverters. Wiring should consist of twisted pairs. Most transmitters are capable of operating over a wide range of load limits (see Figure 9).(Figure 9). and assume some 50 kHz frequency noise on the line. The resistance of the wire adds to the total load. This does not allow enough time to completely integrate a high level noise. Power Supply and Load Limits ^UP The choice of a power supply for two-wire transmitters will depend on the load.4 cycles. Most transmitters do not require shielding. Special considerations should be given when using computers. Electronic transmitters often have internally generates driving frequencies. which may show up as high frequency noise on the output. or other noise generating electrical equipment in the area getting into the receiver. which would have an equivalent period of approximately 6. and in most cases simply requires a power supply of sufficient voltage to handle the entire voltage drop across the system. The size of the wire is usually not critical. a filter should be considered . If it is significantly high. but it is recommended to eliminate noise pickup from electric motors. assume the sample time in 85 microseconds.4 microseconds.

Types of Level Sensors • • • • • • • • • Conductivity/Capacitive-Level Sensors Float Type Sensor Heat Transfer Level Sensor Inductive Level Transducer Photoelectric Pressure Type Ultrasonic sensors Vibrating Element Weighing Conductivity/Capacitive-Level Sensors ^ Conductivity and capacitive level sensors serve as a continuous and point-level sensors by measuring th impedance between two electrodes immersed in the liquid or between one electrode and the electroconductive tank's wall. .

Float Type Sensor ^ In a float-type level sensor the buoyancy force holds the float on the surface of the liquid. . that is mounted on the outside wall of the tank and can be actuated by the proximity of the floa In some designs. 5 = magnetic armature. L = level. 2 = liquid. 6 = contacts.Capacitive level sensors with two (a) or one (b) electrodes. Heat Transfer Level Sensor ^ Heat-transfer level sensors are built from a heated (usually self-heated) wire. 1 = tank. This change causes the change in the element's resistance or electromotive force. the float mechanically links the switching mechanism through the sealing in the wall (e bellows). 7 = bellows. thermistor. 3 = float. Float-type sensors with magnetic coupling (a) or mechanical link (b). The float carri a member having a magnetic coupling with a transduction element (coil. 8 = lever. or thermocoup whose heat transfer undergoes a step change when the transition from gas to liquid takes place. L = level. Z = impedance. The switching system can respond to the restraining force developed by a spring element connected to the float or by an actuator of a force-balance servo system. or Hall-effect switch). 4 = magnet. 1 = tank. 2 = liqu 3 and 4 = electrodes. magnetic reed.

responds to the interruption or the attenuation of the light beam when the liquid breaks the beam path from the source to the detector. 3 = resistive heated element. 2 = liquid. 3 = coil. including a light beam source and a photodetector. R = resistance. 1 = tank. L = level. Photoelectric ^ Photoelectric level sensors operate in transmittance or reflection modes. 4 = core. . L = level. 2 = liquid. In reflection mode. and transformer-type level transducer (b). th transducer is introduced by a transformer with a primary coil wound on one limb of a twin-limbed iron co The other limb is enclosed by a tube containing the liquid and forming one turn of the secondary winding The effective resistance of this turn is inversely proportional to the height of the liquid column in the tub The change in the height can be sensed by measuring the power consumption at the primary coil. an optical prism mounted inside a tank changes the reflectance of the light when it is immersed in the liquid. In another design. a coil is wound around a tube containing the liquid. Variable-inductance level transducer (a). Z = impedance. 1 = tank. In the transmittance mode. Inductive Level Transducer ^ An inductive-level transducer finds its application in the measurement of the level of liquid metals and o electroconductive liquids. a sensing system.Heat-transfer level sensor. In one of the designs. The construction of the transducer is arranged so that a light source and photodetector for sensing the change in the light's intensity are mounted on the outside wall of the tank The light beam passes through and is reflected from the faces of the prism. The inductance of this coil changes rapidly as the liquid moves and approaches the coil.

3 = pressure transducer. In reflection mode. The construction of the transducer is arranged so that a light source and photodetector for sensing the change in the light's intensity are mounted on the outside wall of the tank The light beam passes through and is reflected from the faces of the prism. 3 = light source. . Point-level or continuous-level sensing is provided by measuring the time lapse between the transmission and reception of the ultrasound pulses generated by ceramic crystals at the bottom the tank. responds to the interruption or the attenuation of the light beam when the liquid breaks the beam path from the source to the detector. Ultrasonic sensors ^ Several sensing techniques are used in ultrasound-level sensors. 2 = liquid. Some constructions con separate elements for generating and receiving the pulses.Transmittance-mode (a) and reflectance-mode (b) photoelectric level sensors. Pressure Type ^ A pressure-type level sensing system contains a pressure transducer mounted at the bottom of a liquidfilled tank. a sensing system. 5 = prism. 5 = prism. Wetting the elements causes a decrease in the amplitude. including: • • Oscillations of quartz. 1 = tank. 4 = photodetector. In the transmittance mode. This pressure is directly proportional to the measured height. The transducer responds to the pressure developed by the weight of the liquid's column. Usually one crystal acts. 2 = liquid. ceramic or magnetostrictive elements at an ultrasound frequency have a greater amplitude in gas than in liquid. an optical prism mounted inside a tank changes the reflectance of the light when it is immersed in the liquid. alternately transmitting and receiving pulses that pass along th liquid height and are reflected from the surface back to the tank bottom. Pressure-type level sensing system. Photoelectric level sensors operate in transmittance or reflection modes. 2 = liquid. 1 = tank. Transmittance-mode (a) and reflectance-mode (b) photoelectric level sensors. providing the detection of the liquid level. including a light beam source and a photodetector. 1 = tank. L = level. 4 = photodetector. 3 = light source. L = level. L = level.

The attenuation of oscillations indicates that the liquid has reached the measured level. 4 = pulse generator. . L = level. 2 = liquid. the level is readily calculated using data obtained with the cells. L = level. the oscillations of a member (paddle) are damped when it is immers in the liquid. a. Vibrating-element level sensor. 2 = liquid. 1 = tank. and c = level-sensing systems with one crystal at side (a). 1 = tank. The oscillations are stimulated and sensed by electronic means. 1 = tank. 3 = piezoelectric crystal. b. 3 = vibrating paddle. Weighing sensing system for measuring level. L = level. Weighing ^ A weighing sensing system for measuring level determines the level with load cells placed underneath th bottom of the tank or connected to the tank by a mechanical link. Ultrasound-level sensors. bottom (b). The transmission is intensified when the liquid wets the crystals. 3 = load cell. If the tank's weight and liquid's densit are known. 5 = pulse receiver. One of the crystals transmits ultrasonic waves and the other one receives them. Vibrating Element ^ In a vibrating-element level sensor. 2 = liquid. an two crystals at side (c) of tank. The increase in t output voltage of the receiving crystal indicates that the level has reached the specific point. 4 = excitation coil.• A point-level detection is also performed by two piezoceramic crystals oriented toward each other across the inside of a tank.

L = level. magnetic reed. Capacitive level sensors with two (a) or one (b) electrodes. 1 = tank. Z = impedance. that is mounted on the outside wall of the tank and can be actuated by the proximity of the floa In some designs.TECHNICAL UTILITIES Types of Level Sensors • • • • • • • • • Conductivity/Capacitive-Level Sensors Float Type Sensor Heat Transfer Level Sensor Inductive Level Transducer Photoelectric Pressure Type Ultrasonic sensors Vibrating Element Weighing Conductivity/Capacitive-Level Sensors ^ Conductivity and capacitive level sensors serve as a continuous and point-level sensors by measuring th impedance between two electrodes immersed in the liquid or between one electrode and the electroconductive tank's wall. 2 = liqu 3 and 4 = electrodes. Float Type Sensor ^ In a float-type level sensor the buoyancy force holds the float on the surface of the liquid. or Hall-effect switch). the float mechanically links the switching mechanism through the sealing in the wall (e . The float carri a member having a magnetic coupling with a transduction element (coil.

2 = liquid. 2 = liquid. L = level. Inductive Level Transducer ^ An inductive-level transducer finds its application in the measurement of the level of liquid metals and o electroconductive liquids. 3 = float. 7 = bellows. The switching system can respond to the restraining force developed by a spring element connected to the float or by an actuator of a force-balance servo system. 8 = lever. th transducer is introduced by a transformer with a primary coil wound on one limb of a twin-limbed iron co The other limb is enclosed by a tube containing the liquid and forming one turn of the secondary winding The effective resistance of this turn is inversely proportional to the height of the liquid column in the tub . 1 = tank. Heat-transfer level sensor. a coil is wound around a tube containing the liquid. or thermocoup whose heat transfer undergoes a step change when the transition from gas to liquid takes place. In another design. The inductance of this coil changes rapidly as the liquid moves and approaches the coil. Heat Transfer Level Sensor ^ Heat-transfer level sensors are built from a heated (usually self-heated) wire. Float-type sensors with magnetic coupling (a) or mechanical link (b). 1 = tank. In one of the designs. 6 = contacts. This change causes the change in the element's resistance or electromotive force. 5 = magnetic armature. thermistor. L = level. R = resistance.bellows). 3 = resistive heated element. 4 = magnet.

Photoelectric ^ Photoelectric level sensors operate in transmittance or reflection modes. an optical prism mounted inside a tank changes the reflectance of the light when it is immersed in the liquid. a sensing system. The construction of the transducer is arranged so that a light source and photodetector for sensing the change in the light's intensity are mounted on the outside wall of the tank The light beam passes through and is reflected from the faces of the prism. Transmittance-mode (a) and reflectance-mode (b) photoelectric level sensors.The change in the height can be sensed by measuring the power consumption at the primary coil. Z = impedance. 4 = core. 3 = coil. responds to the interruption or the attenuation of the light beam when the liquid breaks the beam path from the source to the detector. Variable-inductance level transducer (a). 1 = tank. 4 = photodetector. In reflection mode. In the transmittance mode. Transmittance-mode (a) and reflectance-mode (b) photoelectric level sensors. a sensing system. 1 = tank. including a light beam source and a photodetector. L = level. L = level. 2 = liquid. an optical prism mounted inside a tank changes the reflectance of the light when it is immersed in the liquid. 5 = prism. In the transmittance mode. Photoelectric level sensors operate in transmittance or reflection modes. responds to the interruption or the attenuation of the light beam when the liquid breaks the beam path from the source to the detector. 3 = light source. In reflection mode. 2 = . and transformer-type level transducer (b). including a light beam source and a photodetector. L = level. The construction of the transducer is arranged so that a light source and photodetector for sensing the change in the light's intensity are mounted on the outside wall of the tank The light beam passes through and is reflected from the faces of the prism. 2 = liquid. 1 = tank.

L = level. 3 = pressure transducer. b. 5 = pulse receiver. Vibrating Element ^ In a vibrating-element level sensor. The attenuation of oscillations indicates that the liquid has reached the measured level. bottom (b).liquid. an two crystals at side (c) of tank. L = level. Point-level or continuous-level sensing is provided by measuring the time lapse between the transmission and reception of the ultrasound pulses generated by ceramic crystals at the bottom the tank. ceramic or magnetostrictive elements at an ultrasound frequency have a greater amplitude in gas than in liquid. The transducer responds to the pressure developed by the weight of the liquid's column. Pressure Type ^ A pressure-type level sensing system contains a pressure transducer mounted at the bottom of a liquidfilled tank. 2 = liquid. Usually one crystal acts. 4 = photodetector. 1 = tank. 4 = pulse generator. This pressure is directly proportional to the measured height. Pressure-type level sensing system. Some constructions con separate elements for generating and receiving the pulses. the oscillations of a member (paddle) are damped when it is immers in the liquid. One of the crystals transmits ultrasonic waves and the other one receives them. 3 = light source. The . 1 = tank. The increase in t output voltage of the receiving crystal indicates that the level has reached the specific point. 3 = piezoelectric crystal. The transmission is intensified when the liquid wets the crystals. A point-level detection is also performed by two piezoceramic crystals oriented toward each other across the inside of a tank. and c = level-sensing systems with one crystal at side (a). Wetting the elements causes a decrease in the amplitude. Ultrasound-level sensors. alternately transmitting and receiving pulses that pass along th liquid height and are reflected from the surface back to the tank bottom. a. including: • • • Oscillations of quartz. 5 = prism. Ultrasonic sensors ^ Several sensing techniques are used in ultrasound-level sensors. 2 = liquid. providing the detection of the liquid level.

oscillations are stimulated and sensed by electronic means. because that might mislead the user to believe that existing intelligent transmitters can do the same thing. alarm. Interoperable multivendor. Fieldbus is characterized by three criteria: • • • • Completely digital replacement of 4-20 mA. trend and other functions distributed to devices in the field. The Reason for Fieldbus Fieldbus is not only a new intelligent/smart transmitter protocol. Weighing sensing system for measuring level. L = level. Back Introduction If you think Fieldbus is merely a digital replacement for the 4-20 mA signals that nowadays link field devices to the control room equipment. 4 = excitation coil. 1 = tank. 1 = tank. That is only a fraction of the beauty of Fieldbus. If the tank's weight and liquid's densit are known. Weighing ^ A weighing sensing system for measuring level determines the level with load cells placed underneath th bottom of the tank or connected to the tank by a mechanical link. 2 = liquid. Open system. Control. may it be a single station controller or DCS. specification available without licensing agreement Fieldbus devices should not even be called smart devices. 3 = vibrating paddle. . 3 = load cell. Vibrating-element level sensor. you are in for a shock. the level is readily calculated using data obtained with the cells. L = level. 2 = liquid. since it brings so much more.

but none of them meet the four criteria above.The control partially distributed to a few control cards. Figure 1. It replaces the traditional 4-20 mA and the classic DCS where the control function was centralized to one or more 'control cards. each having several loops. still in the control room.1 Direct Digital Control (DDC) system -. while still allowing operation and tuning from the control room using the digital communication.2 Distributed Control System (DCS) -.' Some manufacturers argue that their DCS has had Fieldbus for many years. .The first computerized system where control is centralized to a single computer in the control room.Fieldbus is a complete system. Figure 1. with the control function distributed to equipment in the field.

This means old transmitters. that a pressure transmitter is not limited to a single output for pressure. Some advantages of bi-directional digital communications. which started as standardization work by ISA.. It is therefore possible to determine if the information is reliable or not. Calibration can be done in operation without having to apply any input or measure the output. All major instrument manufacturers have pledged their commitment to a single Fieldbus standard.g. meaning. e. Another example is access to setpoint and manipulated variable of a controller in the same device. the Instrumentation Society of America. Reduction in wiring and simplification is achieved through devices on a single pair of wires -. but also informs process temperature. Status is passed along with measurement and control data.multidropping. Similarly. just like the 4-20 mA standard. of which there may be many in a closed loop. The digital communication allows the complete configuration to be changed remotely. e..3 Fieldbus system -.g. over 4-20 mA. since minimum. it looks as if that will not be the way. or multiple channel inputs for a temperature transmitter. and other good features are known from existing smart transmitter protocols: • • • • • Higher accuracy and data reliability Multi-variable access Remote configuration and diagnostics Reduction of wiring Use existing 'analog wiring' Higher accuracy can be attributed to digital communication. as with most standards.Figure 1. The approach was to establish the standard before commercial products were in place. Multi-variable access. a transmitter and a controller may talk directly. the status of the selfdiagnostics may be interrogated.Control totally distributed to field with loops in individual devices. rather than going through D/A and A/D conversions. since the microprocessors in. Fieldbus is an interoperable multivendor protocol. Fieldbus is expected to get worldwide recognition. All data are checked and guaranteed free from distortion due to noise or an impedance mismatch that may affect analog undetected signals. . Connection everything is in parallel and terminal number matching is at a low cost and easy replacement of connection of several is a simple task.

Devices must be polled for status Not interdevice different type and The slowest option for Fieldbus is 25 times faster.individual variables involved in closed loop control have a physical 4-20 mA connection. have also been seen: • • • • Communication speed too low for closed loop control Poor or no Interoperability between devices of manufacturer. Figure 1.5 With intelligent/smart hybrid of analog and digital signal -. being able to easily replace them. transmitters must be connected in parallel. However. than the most common smart transmitter protocol. in comparison to 4-20 mA technology. Figure 1. . The low speed version of Fieldbus was designed to use the same type of wiring as analog and smart transmitters.4 With analog signals -. Superimposed on it is a digital signal for configuration and diagnostics.Some problems and disadvantages of existing protocols. it should be noted that in order to use the multidrop feature. ensuring tight closed loop control.each individual variable has a physical 4-20 mA connection. and far more efficient.

just as they could with the 4-20 mA. Fieldbus offers the same capability. and can interface to another brand 'Z' device. They may mix and match the best of each type.6 With Fieldbus pure digital communication -. A brand 'Y' transmitter can be replaced by a brand 'X' transmitter of the same type any time. This is rare in most applications since communication is normally done only at calibration. quality and delivery time. The lack of standard means that smart features of existing intelligent field devices are largely unused. If that manufacturer cannot provide an urgent replacement. The user depends on a single vendor that cannot provide the latest technology and features. They do not have to choose a device manufactured by a certain company just to match other devices of the same brand already installed (without Fieldbus. which are complying with this standard and it is also available to all manufacturers and users without licensing agreements.a single physical wire is the medium for multiple variables having logical connections. Many smart transmitter protocols are proprietary and unique to a single manufacturer. For the user this lack of standard means he is locked to a single manufacturer.shelf standards enabling multiple vendors to provide interoperable hardware and software. there are no 'secrets'. For example. The ideal opposite to a proprietary system is an 'open' system. users would have been forced to develop special communication drivers in this case). performance. The vendor is in a position where he can set any price. there are very few existing systems that have managed to make use of the multidrop capability of existing smart transmitters. if he selects their system. Though smart devices have self diagnostics. The user or a third party can make their own configurations and software. Another benefit of interoperability is that system software does not have to be upgraded when new products are introduced.Figure 1. Users may now select a device based on price. it is fully disclosed. . the user's only option is to return to 4-20 mA. The ability of 4-20 mA devices to replace any other device of the same type is called 'interoperability' roughly meaning compatible. or does not have a particular type of transmitter. It is 'open'. Fieldbus forces interoperability between the devices. status is only informed when device is polled. Communication is only used for calibration. Open systems are based on off-the. One must suspect and query for a failure before one finds out about it. without loss of functionality.

HART(TM) is a smart transmitter protocol that has reached almost worldwide acceptance.The Fieldbus advantages for users are so apparent that if they were the ones to decide. These can be written by software companies that are specialists on that field. thereby requiring four wires. but they are not intrinsically safe and the bus cannot provide power for the devices. as it emerges. One does not feel confident to buy something if one does not understand how it works. also want Fieldbus to be ready. in fear of buying the 'wrong' system. or another. 4-20 mA devices may be operated using only a screwdriver and tested with the most basic current meter. They do not have to venture into system design. Field device manufacturers are relieved from man-machine interfaces such as configuration and supervisory softwares. Manufacturers want Fieldbus ready because they know that many users hold back purchase of new systems awaiting Fieldbus. enabling maintenance personnel to pinpoint errors instantly or even before they can cause any harm. Field devices may report failures and problems immediately. Turning to Fieldbus The impact on the user. Mass of information. developing a complete DCS. and is strengthening its position each year that Fieldbus is delayed. totalization and other signal processing in the field. but only a good transmitter or a good valve. The main points are: • • • • • Even higher reliability operation Virtually unlimited flexibility Reduction in equipment cost. Reduction in installation cost. on their end. The manufacturers that really can benefit from Fieldbus are those that do have complete control system packages. Though it meets the requirement of intrinsic safety and reaches a fair amount of interoperability. The user's fear is to choose the 'wrong' protocol in the same fashion some chose the 'wrong' video technology. That is the main reason people feel so comfortable with it. Such a situation is very similar to the decision users were forced to make some years ago about which video recording technology they would buy for their homes. (more than most believe) its speed is a major limitation. Almost anybody could configure and troubleshoot such devices. PROFIBUS and FIP are other standardized open and fast protocols. It appears that they are facing the problem of having to choose between one technology made available by a group of manufacturers. The multivariable capability of Fieldbus allows control. The latter are also relived from the never-ending development of communication drivers for every new protocol they come across. when turning to Fieldbus will be great. a separate controller or other signal conditioning . Therefore. The simplicity of analog technology makes it easy to be understood. The speed by which Fieldbus will capture the market depends largely on how fast the users are trained. End users have had very little information and opportunity to affect the development of the standard. Fieldbus would probably have already been chosen as the international standard. Many manufacturers.

In many factories. Fieldbus has. More advanced devices may execute a virtually unlimited number of function blocks. Though prices of Fieldbus devices may initially be high.equipment is not necessary. cannot be justified for a small system. as well as acting in a larger control system. just by letting existing devices execute more blocks. Once physically connected. will yield a less expensive system. which will eventually reduce prices. This provides tremendous flexibility since the control strategy may be edited without having to rewire or change any hardware. the need for additional hardware is minimized. on top of this. By optimization of network use. a device can be a kilometer or even further away from the control room. Fieldbus requirements The main requirements for Fieldbus were to overcome the problems of smart transmitter protocols while maintaining the advantages of 4-20 mA standards (the main advantage of 4-20mA is tight closed loop control). but far from the operator console. Such information may be used for statistical process control and other process management. Fieldbus devices must also be capable of doing so. The multivariable access will virtually flood the control room with information. Classic recorders will not be able to handle the job. function blocks can be added and removed. In all. Fieldbus devices must therefore be able to operate by themselves with a simple user interface in order to be economical in small systems. with associated cable trays and marshaling boxes. and the painstaking job . and certainly a DCS. the other for the actuator) a refinery can have several hundreds of such loops. Fieldbus will bring open competition. Transmitters and actuators are often located next to each other. If a system has to be expanded or improved. even though costs are going down. software function blocks which replace many functions today performed by hardware. By providing various options for communication speed and device powering. tight closed loop control can also be achieved where intrinsic safety is required. Fieldbus must be multipurpose and as versatile as 4-20 mA. There would also be a logistics problem for both users and manufacturers if they were forced to keep using analog technology in small systems. logical connections between function blocks may be changed. The possible complexity of a system where so many devices can be connected together (and where each device can perform the function of several conventional devices) requires a friendly user interface. as seen in smart transmitter protocols. the reduction in number of devices and wiring. The cost of a host computer with dedicated software. The user must be freed from manual address assignment. Paperless recorders and computer storage will take over. the cabling saving for a medium or large factory is immense. the requirements for both intrinsic safety and minimum communication delay can be met. an ideal situation for multidropping. a controller and an actuator. Multidropping of several devices on a single wire may drastically reduce the amount of needed cable. Since every loop needs at least two pairs of wires (one for the transmitter. With 4-20 mA technology it is possible to build a control loop containing only a transmitter. Manufacturers can no longer rely on proprietary technology to keep prices high. The host may be a simple off-the-shelf PC with MMI software.

just like blocks in ISA and SAMA control diagrams.' links between blocks. In short. devices communicating with it must know that. Though technically different. There must be room for manufacturer differentiation. Fieldbus provides a mechanism that ensures that interoperability is maintained for the manufacturer specific features as well. THE BASICS OF FIELDBUS FIELDBUS BASICS MORE THAN ONE FIELDBUS STANDARD FOUNDATION FIELDBUS TECHNOLOGY ACHIEVING INTEROPERABILITY FIELDBUS BENEFITS FIELDBUS BASICS ^UP Fieldbus is a digital. Some systems. Fieldbus must not hinder development and improvement of products. and the manufacturer may use them as marketing tools. already implement a similar philosophy. If the standard forces compliance to every conceivable detail. if newer models are different from their predecessors. but if it is too rigid it may have adverse effects for the user. These features benefit the user. whereby his competitors would learn about it. or forced to go through a process to have it included in the standard. as it is done in PLCs. and users shall feel comfortable with it. bytes. The user can easily relate to it since the device is now represented by blocks.of tracking bits. Physical wiring will now be logical connections or 'soft wiring. Likewise. he would not be able to implement it. The cost of shutting down a system can be very high in terms of production loss. To be able to configure the system while in operation is therefore a requirement met by Fieldbus. multi-drop communication link among intelligent . Device address and parameter indexes are automatically assigned. Fieldbus specifies the basic functionality requirements. two-way. If one manufacturer came up with a great idea. it appears very familiar. words and memory addressees. Standardization ensures interoperability. The function block model is the choice of all Fieldbus proposals. but must allow a manufacturer to add unique features to their device. the user would actually have nothing to choose from. because the devices from all manufactures would be exactly alike. including Smar's CD600 controller.

most end devices (e. a separate cable needs to be run between the end device and the control system because only a single analog signal can be represented on the circuit.control devices that will replace the 4-20 mA standard. The ultimate solution. Let's break this definition down to give a little clearer idea about why this is such a drastic departure from today's technology. etc. Finally. is to be able to connect a reasonable number of sensors all located in the same area to the same cable. pressure transducers.g. Modern distributed systems partially solve this problem by locating remote multiplexing devices out in the field. (FIGURE 1) First of all. fieldbus is digital. however. With discrete devices. switches. The multi-drop capability of a fieldbus will perhaps result in the most immediate cost saving benefit for users. Interoperate). programmable logic controllers (PLCs). which does in fact have some advantages. an analog value of 4 mA might correspond to a pressure of no flow while a value of 20 mA might correspond to a 1000 GPM flow value. fieldbus will replace the 4-20 mA standard. More about this later. the calibration constants associated with a particular sensor can now be stored directly in the device itself and changed as needed. although this will not happen overnight. . and remote terminal units (RTUs) communicate with each other digitally. It is simple and well understood. This is exactly what fieldbus allows. For example.) still use analog signals to communicate. With analog devices. valves. the presence of a signal might represent a "closed" or "alarm" condition while the absence of a signal might represent "open" or "normal". Two-way communications means that a value can not only be read from the end device but it is now possible to write to the device. Devices from different suppliers using the 4-20mA standard can easily operate together (ie. Although computers. For example. There are millions of instruments in the world using this standard right now.

such as HARTâ . Unfortunately. security. Sensorbuses : Sensorbuses are currently used primarily in manufacturing applications or other areas such as building heating. Fieldbuses : Fieldbuses are designed to meet the stringent requirements of the process industries. and critical process control are not a major concern. the protocol provides a large suits of functions at the user layer that facilitate distributing control from the central control system . and error detection. intrinsic safety. Some hybrid protocols. a digital standard is necessary to realize the benefits of fieldbus. however. ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) control where such issues as security. the analog signal is still used to transmit the process value while a digital value is superimposed on top of the analog value for exchanging additional information with the device. Using the HART protocol. there are variety of fieldbuses in use or evolving today. In addition to the more stringent requirements for connection to the fieldbus itself as mandated by the IEC 1158-2 standard. Sensorbuses often work with PLCs and provide a cost effective solution where a large amount of discrete or simple analog data acquisition and control is taking place. fieldbuses are designed to include more features in their protocol to address issues of performance. Depending on the fieldbus used. Major sensorbuses today include DeviceNetä and LONWorksä . These buses fall into two general areas: 1>Sensorbuses 2>Fieldbuses. are now being used to bridge this gap between analog and digital technology. (Figure 2) MORE THAN ONE FIELDBUS STANDARD ^UP The term "fieldbus" is in fact a generic term.Ultimately.

(Figure 3) ACHIEVING INTEROPERABILITY ^UP One of the primary goals of FOUNDATION fieldbus technology is interoperability among different manufacturers. Initially. Fieldbus is designed to allow for both low-speed and high-speed communications. . Ultimately. Other technologies are similar. FOUNDATION FIELDBUS TECHNOLOGY ^UP The rest of this description discusses FOUNDATIONä fieldbus technology. One end of this interface device connects to the fieldbus and the other end to the sensor electronics or the host computer system. FOUNDATION fieldbus takes a rigorous approach to the area of interoperability using Function Block and Device Description Language (DDL) Technology. these fieldbus interface devices are small printed circuits that fit into the device or the host computer system. but not as comprehensive. as FOUNDATION fieldbus.out to the field devices themselves. or H1 fieldbus. Linking devices will be developed for bridging between low-speed and high-speed fieldbus segments. Low-speed. These linking devices will also be used to which handle high-speed contact I/O. Communications over a fieldbus is achieved by installing a fieldbus interface device in all of the devices communicating over the fieldbus. is currently in use in the industry. these devices will be little more than a single integrated circuit that can be included in the device. High-speed fieldbus is currently under development and will use high-speed Ethernet at a speed of 100 Mbits/s.

Finally. without using any special programming. the benefits of moving control functions from the central control room out to the fieldbus devices are resulting in better.. The host system can then read this special data from this device. by using a program called device description services (DDS) to read and interpret the DD. These companies can simply refer to one of these standard device profiles rather than having to having to define all the individual parameters for their device. These function blocks were developed by a team of different manufacturers working together so they do not merely represent the requirements of a single control system supplier. Some companies may have special features in their devices that make them unique. PID control. more reliable control as well as a . digital output. thus saving a costly trip to the field. Both function blocks and device descriptions would be of limited use if there was no method of enforcement. valves. analog output. The myriad of configuration and diagnostic information available in fieldbus devices is greatly reducing device commissioning time. Wiring cost savings of 80 to 90% over conventional installations are being realized. This additional diagnostic information often makes it possible to remotely diagnose a field device problem. Conformance and interoperability test tools are available to allow third party testing of both communication stacks and actual devices themselves to assure that they meet all the requirements for interoperability. that can be included in the field devices. Any company that develops a device cab be assured other manufacturers as long as they simply configure their application using these standard function blocks. These function blocks provide standard functions such as analog input. To simplify the process for smaller companies.Function blocks are provided through the use of a standard function block shell included in the user layer of the stack. there are over 30 standard function blocks supporting most functions ever encountered in the process industries. a set of standard device profiles have been defined for common devices such as flow meters. etc. The Fieldbus Foundation will provide a service of registering and verifying both communication stacks and devices to assure that they meet all the requirements for interoperability. temperature transmitters. Manufacturers can make this unique data available to the system by defining a device description (DD) for the device using the device description language (DDL). Currently. digital input. etc. FIELDBUS BENEFITS ^UP Fieldbus is already proving that it can have dramatic benefits for end users.

less complex centralized control system. OSI model The OSI reference model is an internationally recognized standard for network architecture on which open networks are based. error checking and encoding/decoding) of a network have been grouped into logical sets called layers. The standard is developed as a model for telecommunications on all levels. The part of the whole application performed by the system that is performed in a device is called the application process (AP). which is the functionality. . operator console or a configurator. and downwards to the transmission media. such as measurement or control (function blocks). The layers are piled on top of each other and are together called the protocol stack. How Fieldbus Works There are two major parts to the Fieldbus system architecture: interconnection and application. A layer only interfaces with layers immediately above and below in the stack. In Fieldbus the user portion is the actual device function. The AP consists of two parts. Overview The Fieldbus application architecture supports distribution of automation tasks to the devices in the field which are interconnected by a network. models are based on Object Oriented Programming (OOP) concepts. All the functions (facilities such as addressing. The most basic functions performed by a device are modeled as blocks. or the user interface. and likewise the Fieldbus application architecture. Interconnection refers to the passing of data from one device to another. and one communication portion. altogether seven. may it be a field device. The application is the automation function the system performs. Both OSI and OOP use models to simplify understanding of functionality. This is the communication protocol part of Fieldbus. Fieldbus has gone further than any other communication standard. ensuring interoperability between conforming products. By standardizing part of the application. and the operator. one user portion. The blocks cooperate and are interconnected with each other. The OSI application and system management. The stack interfaces upwards to the application. supporting the propagation parameters between devices. The Fieldbus interconnection architecture is based on a three-layer subset of the architecture from the OSI (open systems interconnect) reference model developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). Both are also briefly introduced in this tutorial to achieve a better understanding of Fieldbus.

Figure 2.1 OSI Protocol Stack .

It is divided into system management functional areas. It is modeled as a managing system (playing the manager role). This simplification makes Fieldbus faster and easier to implement in devices with limited processor power. and deactivation of physical links that transparently pass the bit stream for communication. it only recognizes individual bits. when receiving. which has a Management Information Base (MIB). 2. The standard defines type of media access control. When transmitting data from one application to another.interconnection between the APs and the user. being processed by each layer obtaining the physical layer frame. *Note: Addressing is actually part of the Network layer. The set of facilities a layer provides to the above layer is called services. activation. maintenance. System management monitors and controls operation of network resources. which is not defined in Fieldbus. frame formats. maintenance and deactivation of data link connections. through which it obtains the original application data. the data is passed from the bottom to the top of the stack. error control. reaching over all the layers. Layers 3 through 6 are not used because Fieldbus.Each layer provides services for the layer above it. media access control and flow control (allowing several devices to share the network). The processing performed by the layers in the transmitting end is reversed by the respective layer on the receiving end. where it instead is done in the Data Link Layer. and provided functional and procedural characteristics are: 1. the most important functional area is network configuration. implemented in the application layer. The standard defines types of media and signals. character and frame synchronization. called peer-to-peer communication. System management is accessed from one station to another. Some of the functionality of layers 3 through 6 are within the Fieldbus protocol. Data Link Layer (DLL): transfers data between network entities. the data is passed from the top to the bottom of the stack. The frame is passed over the media. not characters or multicharacter frames. grouping of bits into characters and message frames. Physical Layer (PhL): media independent activation. (and most other LANs) has no interconnection between networks. error checking and station addressing*. and communicates with the corresponding layer in the stack of the other station -. such as field instruments.its peer. a managed system ) that plays the agent role). The OSI network management is an extension to the OSI layers. which is the purpose of these layers. and device power (only in Fieldbus). MIB is the logical store for information and resources used to support network management . Application Layer (APP): gives access to a set of local and communication services for serving the distributed system -. For Fieldbus. On the other end. Standard defines message formats and services available to the AP. The three remaining layers. transmission speed and topology including number of nodes. 7.

and a falling edge represents logic 1 (one) data. using Manchester (a. catering to all applications. Biphase L) encoding.5 Mbit/s Common Media Characteristics The data are interchanged as a synchronous serial half-duplex signal.Fieldbus Physical Layer Closed loop control with performance like a 4-20 mA system. it then clashes with the need for intrinsic safety in some applications. The system was designed to have a minimum of communication overhead to meet control requirements even with the low speed option. In Manchester coding clock and data are combined so that a rising edge represents logic 0 (zero) data. Therefore one moderately high communication speed was selected. . There are several combinations for the physical layer. and variable speed drives require high data transmission speed. All devices on a bus must use the same options for media. bus or non-bus powered devices may be mixed. Since higher speed means higher power consumption. Physical media options: • • • Wire Fiber optics (pending) Radio (pending) Transmission rate options: • • • 31. The signal is self-clocking. but not simultaneously.k. Since the transmission is synchronous.a. A device transmits and receives on the same media. However. each with their relative merits. connection and transmission rate. and other faster non-intrinsically safe options where also made available. no start and stop-bits are required. as well as intrinsically safe or nonintrinsically safe ones.25 kbit/s 1 Mbit/s 2.

and N(nondata negative). are stripped off by the physical layer of the receiving device. and can therefore be uniquely identified. only data is. is first transmitted to synchronize the receivers of other devices. equivalent to a phone's 'ring' signal.2 Manchester encoding When transmitting. The non-encoded bits in the delimiters are called N+ (nondata positive). The preamble and the delimiters added by the physical layer in the transmitting device. The delimiters are not Manchester encoded. a preamble. The beginning and end of the message are indicated by start and end delimiters respectively. .Figure 2.

Figure 2.3 Fieldbus physical layer frame. .

depending on the length. Media Attachment Unit (MAU). Figure Bus 2. Active couplers may be used to extend spur length.25 kbit/s: 1. Tree topology is only supported by the low speed version. The devices are connected to the trunk via spurs.5) and point-to-point topologies are supported. Voting (based on timeout and validity) controls which of the two media a device is using. Active repeaters may be used to extend the trunk length. Wire Media Characteristics The wire media uses electrical signals on a normal twisted pair wire. The maximum distance allowed between two devices on wire media depends on the transmission rate selected.900 m 1 Mbit/s (voltage mode): 750m 1 Mbit/s (current mode): 750m 2. and is already approved as an IEC/ISA standard since 1992.4 Topology . Bus topology (Figure 2. tree topology (Figure 2. • • • • 31. A spur may connect more than one device. The bus has a trunk cable with two terminators. from ground to avoid electrical ground loops when devices are multidropped.4). The spurs may be integrated in the device giving zero spur length.5 Mbit/s: 500m The device must isolate the communication hardware.Redundancy may be achieved by duplication of physical layer and media.

A device transmits by modulating current in the network according to the Manchester encoded signal.5 The terminators are designed to have an impedance of 100 each around the transmission frequency. with a receiver sensitivity of 150 mV.6 Wire media signal modulation . The modulated current is 15 to 20 mA pk-to-pk for the low speed version.Figure Tree Topology 2. Figure 2. Receiving devices sense the voltage drop generated over the two terminators as the current is modulated.

25 kbit/s.1. • • Intrinsically safe / nonintrisically safe Bus powered / Separately powered The typical number of devices is indicated in table 2.1 number of network nodes In intrinsically safe systems.FDL . common to all devices. 31. is connected to the network at either end of the trunk. is the most versatile and expected to be the most widely used type. A single power supply. the safety barrier should be placed between the power supply and the power supply end terminator. The DC power consumption (power drawn) of a device is therefore constant. It offers versions for intrinsic safety and device powering by bus.31. The impedance of the power supply must be a minimum of 3 k around the transmission frequency in order not to short circuit the communication signal.25 kbit/s wire media characteristics The lowest speed wire media option. Fieldbus Data Link Layer -. The number of devices is limited by this choice. only requiring two wires for supply and communication. A Manchester coded signal has a duty-cycle of exactly 50% and can be seen as a AC signal. the actual number varies from device type to device type. Devices may be powered by the bus. Table Maximum 2. The voltage may be in the range 9-32 VDC.

Background traffic is data transferred between a device and the operator interface. Fieldbus Media Access Control The Fieldbus medium access is a fusion of the Token.g.The Fieldbus Data Link Layer consists of two sublayers: the lower portion is the Fieldbus Media Access Control (FMAC) and the upper portion is the Fieldbus Data Link Control (FDLC). e. Slaves only have the right to respond to a request from a master. A device on the Fieldbus network is either one of two station types: • • Master station Siave station A master station has the right to access the media (initiate communication). A two-byte Frame Check Sequence (FCS) is calculated on all frame data using a polynomial in the transmitting device. There are two message types that can be identified in a Fieldbus system: • • Operational Background Operational traffic is data transferred between devices as part of the control strategy. The receiving device performs the same calculation and compares the result with the FCS. The devices are given individual station addresses. configuration and diagnostics data. It is characterized as low volume. Several devices on a network may be master stations. slave responds) the slave devices while it has the token. Fieldbus Data Link Control The FDLC provides various possibilities for the application layer to send data to other stations. and low. The FDL transmits the high priority messages first. There are two priorities: high. All frames contain the destination address (DA) and the source address (SA) for the message. The Fieldbus has services that free the user from the responsibility of assigning and keeping track of addresses. e. and added to the frame. thereby detecting any error.g. configuration and diagnostics. Only the station that has the token is permitted to initiate communication. alarms. It has the opposite characteristics of . The FCS is equivalent to the parity-bits and Cyclic Redundancy Checks of asynchronous protocols. A requirement for reliable control is reliable data. e.passing and Polling principles. e. the message priority is passed along with it.g.. time critical and cyclic. When the above layer requests the FDL to pass a message. The token is passed to the next master in a special frame. process variables. The master may poll (master requests.g.

not time critical and is acyclic (sporadic).operational traffic: high volume. Object Oriented Design .

Objects often represent entities in the real world. OOD yields smaller systems through this reuse of common mechanisms. Simple variables are used on their own but also as parts of data structures such as the function block l/O parameters and function block links. which is a kind of pressure transmitter which is a kind of transmitter. Models are used extensively in Fieldbus and in all engineering because they make abstraction. A class defines various 'kinds of' objects. Function blocks are part of the function block application process. which is a kind of field equipment. For example: In a large control system one can find management system. software is based on objects that do things or change when one sends them messages or operates upon them. Aggregation is object hierarchies: objects are built from subobjects. OOD is not based on algorithms (execution steps). OOD in Fieldbus The Fieldbus control system has been decomposed down to the so called simple variables which is a suitable level of abstraction.When dealing with a complex system such as a Fieldbus application. called Object Oriented Design (OOD). Inheritance is class hierarchy -. an operator familiar with pressure transmitters can operate the LD302 in a matter of minutes. However. Objects are entities with a well defined behavior.g. supervisory system and field equipment. In OOD. a file. . aggregation and inheritance. Object and Class are sufficient. for Fieldbus study. Therefore. integer and string. By decomposing it to parts. all parts of the control system. was used to design the application layer and the function block application process. That is achieved since one only needs to comprehend a few simple parts. Systems are broken down to objects which can be said to be 'parts of' the system. The LD302 inherits the properties and behavior of the pressure transmitter class. There are many 'keywords' in OOD. and common. Therefore. the whole may appear unfathomable. electronics and casing. One being built on top of the other. Multiple inheritance is possible. Again these data structures are parts of the function block data type which is also a data structure. which is part the field device which finally is part of the system. decomposition and hierarchical ordering easier. complex interacting parts are brought to order and the system becomes easier to grasp. e. to a suitable level of abstraction (recognizing essential characteristics). Examples of those are float. only having to learn the unique properties of the LD302. A technique. To order or rank abstractions.a subclass (lower class) shares structure and behavior of a superclass (higher class). Unique properties of an object defines an instance of the class. and even more primitive elements in a hierarchic nature. In a system there may be a LD302. both objects and classes are organized in a hierarchy (levels of abstraction or complexity). each level is understandable on their own. Objects may be classified according to their function and other properties they have in common. A field device may have subparts such as sensor.

they are called Application Process Objects (APO).Variables may be classified in many ways: • • • • float. static or dynamic read or write etc. integer or string. defined in Fieldbus. Variables is only one of many types of objects. but the most important. Fieldbus Application Layer . Since they exist in the AP.

if the operator console wants to read a tuning parameter in a controller in the field. This network view is called the Virtual Field Device (VFD). Note: The publisher-subscriber model is derived from the more common producerconsumer model. Before a device can access communication objects (e. a subscriber is consuming that (subscribing to) that data. For example. From a communication point of view a client is an AP which is using a remote AP's functionality. The FBAP may contain several VFDs to device a device's application into individual loops to make it easier for the operator to overview. variables) in another device. For example. but a network node containing parameters. This would be done in the Function Block Application Process (FBAP). From a Fieldbus point of view. The Fieldbus provides logical communication paths (channels) between the application processes. The remote AP is called the server. such as getting the value of a variable or otherwise manipulate the object. The VFD is the Interface between protocol stack and function block AP. The publisher-subscriber model is used to describe cyclic data transfer. From a communication point of view a subscriber is an AP which is using a remote AP's functionality. The Fieldbus connections are modeled in two ways: • • Client-server model Publisher-subscriber model The client-server server model is used to describe acyclic data transfer. a pressure transmitter is not an assembly of pressure sensor. enabling multivariable access. Transmission is controlled by a third party. and the AP in the controller is the server. ladder logic or structured text. The publisher is actually producing (publishing) data. a Fieldbus system is broken down into variables. a device is not its hardware parts as they are to humans. e. The VFD is the part of the real application that is visible and accessible through the network. though no such definition has been made yet. and their structure. However. the AP in the console is the client. Several connections may exist simultaneously. The primary intention of Fieldbus is to build the application using function blocks. a transmitter is publishing a process variable which is consumed by a controller. the requestor. it must first know which objects are available. A device (station) contains only one FBAP. The controller is publishing an output which is consumed by an actuator. which issues a request to the publisher to publish its data.g. the communication objects such as variables and blocks etc. within a Fieldbus device it is possible to have other types of APs.g. There is a set of services that lets an AP use the functionality of an AP in another device.The distributed application processes in the system need to communicate. The remote AP is called the publisher. For example. electronics and a housing. As mentioned in the OOD introduction. Various types of connections with various combinations of characteristics are available to meet the various communication needs. Knowing the structure is important because there is no point in asking for a variable if you .

System and Network Management .

Such delays are pure dead time which make control difficult. typically in accordance with normal instrumentation practices. This function is used when resolving links between block outputs to inputs (identified by the block's tag. Function block binding The network automatically finds the device (station address) for a given function block. and the parameter name) to the short address and index reference. e. It checks for multiple tags.The purpose of network management is to provide services for central configuration and control of the network protocol stack. it is done off-line). It coordinates functions in all layers. it must cooperate with the system management in other stations on the network. the network management manages the connections.e. each of the above functions can only be managed by one device (though one device may handle many of them). Clock synchronization For the Fieldbus system to perform scheduling and other time related functions such as time stamping of alarms and events. A temporary device such as a hand held configurator selects its own address if there is no traffic on the network. such as maintenance and start-up of the Fieldbus system. In case a manager fails. there is a distributed time base (clock) in each device.' System management provides a mechanism for synchronization of the time in each device. PT-10270. A simple device may implement only a part of the system management functions. The purpose with system management kernel is to provide functions for: • • • • • Device Tag assignment Station address assignment Clock synchronization Scheduling of distributed APs Function block binding In a system. Scheduling also insures that variables are sampled and function blocks are executed on a precisely period basis. bringing the device to the 'standby' state. Physical Device Tag assignment Before a device is put on the network.g. the user must first assign a physical device tag to the device (i. Scheduling The purpose of scheduling is to minimize delays due to communication. Configuration devices detect new devices and will assign a station address. An 'uninitiated' device has a default address. and a part that provides optimization of operation and diagnostics of problems. The system management is split into two parts: a kernel which provides the basic functionality that a control application can be built upon. For the system management to perform its task. Station address assignment Automatically assigns and ensures that each device on the network has a unique address. This is done from a 'master clock' which provides the correct time. . controls overall device operation and startup. providing a common sense of time among all devices -'system time. the others act as agents. The tag may be up to 16 characters. one of the agents will assume the manager role. after check for duplicate tags. For example.

For example. x = -3 results in 125 ms Function Block Application Process . No interdevice connection is necessary for the process variable. where x is a signed integer: -128 to 127. Function blocks are scheduled in the individual device.1 Execution period/time.7 Scheduling In the example in figure 2. with the Al and PID in the same physical device.Figure 2. control (PID) and output (AO). Communication is scheduled in the master device which controls traffic and requests communication.7 a simple control loop consisting of input (Al). In this example. the execution period for the AO block is shorter in order to illustrate that block execution time depends on block. Equation 2.

The functionality of a Fieldbus device is modeled as objects. • Block object Function block object Input function block Output function block Control function block Calculate function block Transducer block object Input transducer block Output transducer block Display transducer block Physical block object Alarm object Event object Trend object Display list • • • • .The Function Block AP (FBAP) is where the user configures their measurement and control application. The block object has three classes which again have sub-classes under which the various blocks are grouped. Parts of it is distributed to the various devices in the field. It is not executed in a single control card as it is done in a DCS.

8 FBAP architecture .Figure 2.

Function Block The blocks model the user configurable part of the entire application. This also prevents input data to change during block execution. the manufacturer may use this parameter as gain or proportional band. For each block there is a set of parameters that. This tag must be unique in the Fieldbus system. automatic/manual output. It also optionally applies calibration. Together in a Fieldbus system the different types of function blocks provide all the functionality necessary for most control systems. Again. its outputs are updated and broadcasted on the network and read by inputs of blocks using this information. linking them and adjusting the contained may be done by a simple hand held configurator or through the use of a computer with a graphical user interface.1. in the PID control block there must be a GAIN parameter and therefore. the block is just an abstraction of software and data. which may have appeared strange at first. All parameters in the system are uniquely defined by the block tag plus parameter name. The function block concept was designed around the PID block since it is the most complex block. cascade (remote setpoint) and the algorithm has been carried on to other blocks. even if it is connected to many inputs. Now. several are included in form of software blocks in a single device. The execution time for the block is expressed just like the execution period in equation 2. However. The algorithm does not refer to the PID algorithm in the PID block alone. The user can build control strategies suitable for their application by linking these function blocks. the block algorithms are not standardized. output parameters. is called the function block shell. which allows users to draw the configuration as a control diagram. Typically. This way. damping.The part of the FPAP. Each block is identified in the system by a tag assigned by the user. It makes the measurement performed by a device available to the Fieldbus system. For example. and producing as results. A particular selection of setpoint and output is called the block mode. defines what minimum functionality a block will have. Each parameter in a block has a name that cannot be changed. these functionalities were previously available in individual physical devices. to a certain extent. Analog input block Provides the functionality of what is known as a transmitter. When a block is executed a 'snap shot' of the inputs is therefore taken. After executing the block algorithm. Configuration is basically assignment of tags and building of the control strategy by selecting blocks (installation). Inputs from other blocks arrive asynchronously. In general. the manufacturer may implement such block in their own way. Configuration may be done in advance or during operation. the output has to be communicated only once. and a transfer function such as a square root of a measured differential pressure. enabling inferred . but in general to the processing function of all blocks. function blocks can be said to use an algorithm and contained parameters in order to process input parameters. There are no blocks inside the device to be seen. The concept of local/remote setpoint. which is standardized by Fieldbus. For example.

The analog scaling information may also be used in operator interfaces to provide a bar-graph readout. An output value is always accompanied by a status informing if. When such a link is made the input 'pulls' the value from the output.. thereby obtaining its value. Links are uniquely defined by the name of the output parameter and the tag of the function block it comes from.10).g.Figure 2. Digital values are passed as Boolean. e.g. Analog values are passed as floating point in engineering unit. in the PID control block) to enable dimensionless tuning parameters. control strategies can be built. System management resolves the block tag+parameter name construct into the short reference address+index to make communication faster.. Links may also be pre-configured directly using address and index. the output does not move the final control element. the receiving function block can take an appropriate action. Links can be made between function blocks in the same device or in different devices (see figure 2. The link management automatically establishes the connections upon power on. but are scaled to percentage (e. It is therefore very easy for a user to identify links.9 Analog input function block Function block links By linking function block outputs to inputs of other function blocks.g. . Note that the pull system is used for backward paths as well. This way. The status is determined by the source. These links are purely software. Links cannot be made with contained variables. and there is basically no limitation to how many links can travel along a physical wire. 0 or 255. a value received from a sensor (forward path) is suitable for control or as the feedback (backward path) informing if.. An output may be connected to many inputs. e.

Nor are the transducer blocks scheduled. all their parameters are contained within. There is one transducer block for each hardware point. The corresponding function block specifies the hardware channel.g. They interface to the function blocks through enumerated hardware channels. The function blocks are defined to take action if communication is lost (e.11 Analog input transducer block (pressure) . often faster than function block execution. Transducer blocks The transducer blocks are responsible for the interface between the function blocks and the device l/O hardware. and only with blocks in the same physical device. e. Figure 2.. the manufacturer may therefore control execution of the transducer block to. The standard itself does not specify any parameters for the transducer blocks. The interface to the function blocks (input or output class) is made device independent by the transducer blocks. publishing manager failure).10 control application All function block links represent publisher/subscriber connections. suit his sensing technique. such as sensor.Figure Simple 2. I/O terminal or display.. Transducer blocks cannot be linked using function block links.g. but the user group has identified parameter for various device types.

The block is also a type of data structure. a single set of linearization data may be used by several analog input blocks. the mode data structure is a collection of the target. For . For example. The function block is not scheduled. Physical block There is only one physical block in a device. The advantage of data structures is that parameters needed together can be accessed in a single request. The physical block cannot be linked using function block links. It also contains device information such as final assembly number and materials. The manufacturer may control execution to suit device needs. and a parameter may be part of more than one classification: • • • • Use Storage Hierarchy Access There are three classifications depending on use of the parameter in a block: • Input -. Simple variables may be used on their own or as elements of data structures. The physical block may also contain parameters that are 'global' which may be used by any block in the device.may be linked to a function block output to receive that value. causing value and time stamp. It is responsible for monitoring the operation of the whole device. There are many classifications of the parameters used in the blocks. For variables there are two meta types: • • Simple variable Record (data structure) For each meta type. An alarm data structure is a collection of status/priority. Output transducer block: Responsible for processing of the actuator and the feedback signal such as trim. Display transducer block: Responsible for the local display and keyboard or equivalent. cause. integer. etc. there are many subtypes. Block parameters As mentioned in the OOD section. the architecture is decomposed down to simple variables. Data structures are logical groupings of related simple variable parameters. For example. For example. or a string. such as self diagnostics. rather than having to repeatedly having to request for each element. a simple variable may be a float.Input transducer block: Responsible for the processing of the sensor signal such as temperature characterization and trim. actual and normal modes. all its parameters are contained within.

12 Parameter hierarchy .Figure 2.

priority.. present status (the alarm may already have disappeared). if the alarm has already been acknowledged. Examples of events are: • • • • Mode is being forced for some reason Block tag has been changed Locked output/fail-safe conditions Feedback does not match desired output For the alarms. This reduces communication and network overhead. This way. For each block there is also an alarm summary of up to 16 alerts. reason. and may be accessed in a single communication rather than several individual ones. The physical and transducer blocks detect failures in hardware and overall operation status. The user is also informed when an alarm condition disappears. and the trip value.The inheritance of parameters plays an important role for interoperability. the alert notification is repeated. • Dynamic operation data -. periodic time critical communication is not necessary. alert key for sorting by plant division and a type code identifying enumerated messages to the operator. or if it is disabled. depending on usage. summarizing: present status. the operator interface does not have to perform periodic polling to determine if there is an alarm condition. These variables have been grouped into four groups. The alert object alleviates the blocks from the alert handling so that its execution remains unaffected. When alarms and other critical events occur an alert object automatically notifies the user.e. Thus. Display list object Remote operator interfaces provide monitoring and actuation of variables. A conforming device will as a minimum have the parameters and associated functionality defined as Device parameters.g. Trend object Trending may be done by the device itself using the trend object. Data is collected from 20 samples and are accessed in a single communication. All alerts will also inform which device and block is the source of alarm. such as process variable and setpoint. Such interfaces need access for configuration and diagnostics. the network overhead. An acknowledgment mechanism is also provided for by the alert object to know that the operator has been informed. All operator interface data are scheduled as background traffic. configuration revision level. The message may be among standard messages or others specified by the manufacturer. This reduces the number of accesses and thereby. the user may configure the trip level and. process variable . priority level and deadband. If a reply is not received within a specified time. The alert notification to the console includes: time stamp. leaving more time for time-critical transfers. Alert Object Many of the function blocks have a built-in alarm function to detect high and low process variable and deviation alarms. changed parameter and time stamp will be issued. if not successfully reported to the operator. If a change is made to the configuration an alert notification containing priority.

1 Generic Block To Output generalize the meaning of the operating modes: selection: Automatic: The block algorithm calculates the output using its inputs. Modes The mode has two functions: setpoint selection and output selection. Figure 3. and to be able to make a bumpless transfer when the operator returns control of the valve. A control loop.1 also illustrates that input blocks have no setpoint selection and that output blocks have no output selection.10. Manual: The output is set by the operator. The fact that these may be in three separate devices puts many requirements on the interoperation between these blocks. typically contains at least an Al block (transmitter). . if the operator takes over control of the valve. The generic block in figure 3. For example. a PID block (controller) and an AO block (valve). There are also modes for 'Out of service' and 'local override' (safety). This is the only mode in the output selection grouping where a setpoint is used. for example fig.Using Fieldbus For the average user an understanding of the behavior of the function blocks is the most important knowledge. You may compare this to the classic control modes: Local/Remote and Automatic/Manual respectively. 2. the controller must be informed in order not to windup. Likewise the controller must stop integration if the measurement from the transmitter is bad or non existent. The number of modes implemented in a device varies from block to block.

Only the modes allowed by the Permitted mode may be selected.e. bad or out of service bad may be due to no communication. This mode is only set by a special block input. Actual mode: The prevailing mode of the block. the initial mode will be out of service. In a block there are several different mode parameters. and to provide a mechanism for blocks to shed to safety modes. When a block is instantiated. the mode is first determined from the status bits of the various setpoint. It is configured by the process engineer before operation. initialize request: Force upstream block to initialize to provide bumpless transfer. output and feedback sources. by limiter in downstream block Statuses received with inputs from other blocks indicating discontinuities in control may cause the block to change its mode automatically. Remote Setpoint output: The block output is calculated and provided by a host computer. Once in operation the last mode will remain through a power cycle. The setpoint is following the process variable. hardware failure. following a feedback value provided by a downstream block. When a block is executed. Status bits Microprocessor-based equipment are able to detect errors in their hardware. dubious. Setpoint tracking: This is only valid with Manual output selection. Remote cascade: The setpoint is calculated and provided by a host computer. The output is calculated by the block itself. Permitted: defines the modes made available to the operator. Limited high. selection: Local: The block calculates the output using its inputs and the setpoint from the operator..Local Override: The output follows a tracking parameter provided by another block. etc. This information is used to inform the quality of the variables passed in order to prevent integral windup in control blocks. All function block inputs and outputs are accompanied by statuses. brought into operation. for example a safety value. The block will try to achieve this mode and may or may not succeed depending on various block and device conditions. Cascade: The block calculates the output using its inputs and the setpoint from a remote block. by limiter in downstream block Limited low. and the overall device status. each with a particular function: Target mode: The mode requested by the operator. It may change not only on the user's request. Such action is called 'shedding.' When the condition causing the shedding . Initialization: The block is balancing its output. i. Depending on current conditions it may or may not be the same as the target mode. For example: • • • • quality: Good. but due to other events.

in a wider sense. while the receiving block manipulates its output accordingly. cross limit etc. not necessarily a PID block. Cascade structure The cascade structure is an important concept in the building of control strategies. it may think it is actuating though it is not. Applications Many function blocks have been defined. In a wider sense. For example. The PID block may also use the feedback value to balance its output. cascade. The status in the feedback value allows the downstream block to inform the up stream block what is going on. the cascade setpoint is. The block providing the output is said to be 'upstream' in the signal path and the block receiving the cascade setpoint is said to be 'downstream. Figure Measurement 3. cascade structure is now taken to mean that the output of one block.' Therefore. The user may configure to which mode the block is allowed to shed..4.3 Loop . or beyond the limits set for it in the block or if the block is not able to move the actuator.disappears. A failure in one block may therefore lead to a chain reaction of mode shedding ensuring that all blocks are in an appropriate mode. typically a PID block. is linked to the cascade setpoint of another block. if the cascade setpoint is not used because of the blocks mode. but typically an output block. or in the case of other blocks. or even more complex schemes of which some are shown in figures 3. and to build classic control strategies like single loop. A feedback path is also provided in a cascade structure. If the upstream block is not informed that it may not move its output further. ratio.2 through 3. The downstream block in the cascade structure may not always be able to accept the cascade setpoint from the upstream block. They may be combined to make the most simple measurement using only a single analog input block.2 Figure Single 3. The status of the output variables of a block depends on the block mode. the integrating action of the PID controller may windup. the mode will typically revert back to the previous mode. coming from an upstream block.

Figure Cascade The IN: OUT: CAS_IN: most basic input process primary input for remote output setpoint and output 3. value identical to BKCAL_OUT. RCAS_IN: input for setpoint from a host. balancing. SP (contained): setpoint set by operator in local mode.4 Control parameters variable of from another the block are explained input block cascaded setpoint. but with status based on ROUT_IN communication. below: BKCAL_IN: Feedback input from downstream block. or setpoint after limitation of setpoint received from other block or a host. ROUT_OUT: copy of the selected output. OUT. selected in Remote cascade mode. selected in Remote output mode. ROUT_IN: input for remote output from host. Value used for initialization. RCAS_OUT: copy of the selected setpoint. BKCAL_OUT: copy of selected setpoint to be used by upstream block for initialization of its output. TECHNICAL UTILITIES . of block output to ensure bumpless setpoint transfer in downstream block when it returns to Local mode. but status is based on RCAS_IN communication.

FIELDBUS COMPARISON CHART BACKGROUND INFORMATION Technology Developer PROFIBUS DP/PA INTERBUS-S DeviceNet ARCNET AS-I Fieldbus Foundation PTO Year Introduced DP-1994. Distance 24 Km (fiber) 400 m/segment. ISO11989 Openness Products from over 150 vendors Products from over 400 manufacturers 6 chip vendors. 1992 . WorldFIP Echolon Corp. ring. 12.1996 Fieldbus Seriplex WorldFIP LonWorks SDS APC. fiber. 100+ products Chips.5M 1700m @ 31. tree star. multidrop. and radio IEC/ISA SP50 Star or bus Fieldbus .8 Km total 500m 5 miles 100 meters. of al Two wire cable Multidrop with bus powered devices Twisted-pair Twisted-pair fiber. 1994 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Network Topology PROFIBUS DP/PA INTERBUS-S Line.000 segments IS 3-7 non IS 128 Bus. boards. PA1995 Governing Standard DIN 19245 part 3/4 DIN 19258 ISO 11898 &11519 ANSI 878 Submitted to IEC ISA SP50/IEC TC65 IEC 1158/ANSI 850 Seriplex spec IEC 1158-2 ASHRAE of BACnet Honeywell Specification. star & ring Segmented with "T" drops Trunkline/dropline with branching Bus. ANSI docs AS-II.25K 500M @ 5Mbps DeviceNet ARCNET AS-I Fieldbus Foundation 64 nodes Twisted-pair coax 255 nodes fiber 31 slaves 240/segment. Market item Chips/software from multiple vendors Multiple chip vendors Chips available multiple interfaces Multiple chip vendors Public documentation on protocol 6 chip vendors. Devices (nodes) Twisted-pair or fiber Twisted-pair. and slipring Twisted-pair for signal & power 127 nodes 256 nodes Max. Honeywell 1990 1988 March 1991 Jan. 300 with repeater 1900m @ 31. Inc.25K 500m @ 2. 65..C. Submitted to IEC. star Physical Media Max. 200+ products Phoenix Contact 1984 Allen-Bradley Datapoint/ SMC March 1994 1975 AS-I Consortium Fall 1993 Fieldbus Foundation 1995 IEC/ISA SP50 ISA & Fieldbus F.

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